1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Valladolid (province)
VALLADOLID, an inland province of Spain, one of the eight into which Old Castile was divided in 1833; bounded on the N. by Leon and Palencia, E. by Burgos, S. by Segovia, Avila and Salamanca, and W. by Zamora. Pop. (1900) 278,561; area, 2922 sq. m. The province belongs entirely to the basin of the Duero (Douro), which traverses it from E. to W., and within its limits receives the Pisuerga (with the Esgueva) on the right, and the Duraton, the Cega, the united Adaja and Eresma, the Zapardiel and the Trabancos on the left. The country watered by these rivers is for the most part flat and exceedingly fertile, the only part that can be called in any sense hilly being in the north-west, where the low Montes de Torozos occur. For the excellence and abundance of its grain crops Valladolid shares with the Tierra de Campos in Palencia the title of granary of the Peninsula.
Besides wheat, maize, barley and oats, the province produces hemp, flax, various fruits, red and white wine, oil and madder. The Montes de Torozos are thinly covered with oaks and other timber, and there are forests in the S.E. The pastures are extensive and large numbers of asses, mules and sheep, as well as some horses and cattle, are reared. Honey, wax and silk are also produced. The woollen fabrics of Valladolid were once highly esteemed, but this industry has now greatly declined, although in the larger towns there are still linen and cloth factories, besides iron foundries, tanneries, saw-mills and flour-mills. But agriculture is by far the foremost industry of the province. Trade is facilitated by the Canal de Castilla, which connects Valladolid, on the Pisuerga, with Alar del Rey, in Palencia, also on that river. See Palencia (province). Valladolid is traversed by the national highways from Madrid to Santander, Leon and Corunna, and by the Calatayud and Salamanca roads. It is also traversed from N. to S. by the northern railway from Madrid to France via Irun, which has branches from Valladolid to Medina del Rioseco, and from Medina del Campo to Salamanca and Zamora. Apart from the capital Valladolid, Nava del Rey (6148), Medina del Campo (5971) and Medina del Rioseco (5007) are the only towns with more than 5000 inhabitants. For an account of the people and history of the province, see Castile.