1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 20/Table of contributors

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INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XX. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTORS,[1] WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE
ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.


A. C. Se. Albert Charles Seward, M.A., F.R.S.
Professor of Botany in the University of Cambridge. College, Cambridge. President of the Yorkshire Naturalists’ Union, 1910.
Palaeobotany: Mesozoic.
A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893. 1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.
Parker, Matthew.
A. G. D. Arthur George Doughty, M.A., Litt. D., C.M.G.
Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada, Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint-editor of Documents relating to the Constitutional History of Canada.
Papineau.
A. G. H. Albert George Hadcock.
Late R.A. Manager. Gun Department, Elswick Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Lieut.-Col. commanding 1st Northumbrian Brigade, R.F.A. (Territorial Forces). Joint-author of Artillery: its Progress and Present Position; &c.
Ordnance: History and Construction.
A. Ha. Adolf Harnack.
See the biographical article: Harnack, Adolf.
Origen.
A. J. L. Andrew Jackson Lamoureux.
Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Formerly Editor of the Rio News, Rio de Janeiro.
Pará.
A. Lu. Achille Luchaire.
See the biographical article: Luchaire, Denis J. Achille.
Papacy: 1087–1305.
A. Ma. Alexander Macalister, M.A., M.D., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.S.A.
Professor of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of St John’s College. Author of Text-Book of Human Anatomy; &c.
Palmistry.
A. M. Cl. Agnes Muriel Clay (Mrs Wilde).
Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-author of Sources of Roman History, 133-70 B.C.
Patron and Client (in part).
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred.
Oriole; Ornithology (in part); Orthonyx; Ortolan; Osprey; Ostrich; Ousel; Owl; Oyster-catcher; Parrot; Partridge.
A. P. H. Alfred Peter Hillier, M.D., M.P.
Author of South African Studies; The Commonweal; &c. Served in Kaffir War, 1878–1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical practice in South Africa till 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and Political Prisoner at Pretoria, 1895–1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 1910.
Orange Free State: History (in part).
A. S.-P. Anthyme St Paul.
Author of Histoire Monumentale de la France.
Paris: History (in part).
A. S. Wo. Arthur Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S.
Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary of the Geological Society, London.
Ostracoderms; Owen, Sir Richard; Palaeospondylus.
A. Wa. Arthur Waugh, M.A.
New College Oxford. Newdigate Prize, 1888. Author of Gordon in Africa; Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Editor of Johnson’s Lives of the Poets; and of editions of Dickens, Tennyson, Arnold, Lamb; &c.
Pater, Walter; Patmore, Coventry.
A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland.
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray’s Inn, 1900.
Paston Letters.
A. W. R. Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B.
Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England.
Patents (in part).
A. W. W. Adolphus William Ward, Litt.D., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Ward, A. W.
Pantomime.
B. R. Sir Boverton Redwood, D.Sc, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.I.C., Assoc.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E.
Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, Home Office, India Office, Corporation of London, and Port of London Authority. President of the Society of Chemical Industry. Member of the Council of the Chemical Society. Member of Council of Institute of Chemistry. Author of “Cantor” Lectures on Petroleum; Petroleum and its Products; Chemical Technology; &c.
Ozokerite; Paraffin.
C. E.* Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S.
Formerly Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford.
Opium: Chemistry of the Opium Alkaloids.
C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
Orleans: Campaign of 1870.
C. H. Ha. Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member of the American Historical Association.
Ozanam; Paschal II.; Paul I., II. (popes).
C. L. K. Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A.
Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor of Chronicles of London; and Stow’s Survey of London.
Oldcastle, Sir John; Oxford, 13th Earl of.
C. R. Clement Reid, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S.
District Geologist on H.M. Geological Survey of England and Wales. Author of Origin of the British Flora; &c. Joint-author of Pre-Glacial Flora of Britain; Fossil Flora of Tegelen.
Palaeobotany: Tertiary.
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
Odoric (in part); Oelschläger; Ortelius.
C. We. Cecil Weatherly.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law.
Pageant.
De B. Henri de Blowitz.
See the biographical article: Blowitz, H. G. S. A. de.
Paris: History (in part).
D. C. Dugald Clerk, M.Inst.C.E., F.R.S.
Director of the National Gas Engine Co., Ltd. Inventor of the Clerk Cycle Gas Engine.
Oil Engine.
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.
Opera; Oratorio; Overture; Palestrina (in part).
D. G. H David George Hogarth, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899. and 1903; Ephesus, 1904–1905; Assiut, 1906–1907; Director, British School at Athens, 1897–1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
Orontes; Pamphylia.
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal Navy; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c.
Orford, Earl of (Edward Russell); Orleanists.
D. H. S. Dukinfield Henry Scott, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S.
President of the Linnean Society. Author of Structural Botany; Studies in Fosill Botany; &c.
Palaeobotany: Palaeozoic.
D. J. H. David James Hamilton, M.D., F.R.S. (Edin.) (1849–1909).
Professor of Pathology, Aberdeen University, 1882–1907. Author of Text-Book of Pathology; &c.
Pathology (in part).
E. A. F. Edward Augustus Freeman, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Freeman, E. A.
Palermo (in part).
E. B. T. Edward Burnett Tylor, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Tylor, Edward Burnett.
Ordeal.
E. C. B. Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, M.A., O.S.B., D.Litt.
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of “The Lausiac History of Palladius” in Cambridge Texts and Studies.
Olivetans; Pachomius, St.
E. C. Q. Edmund Crosby Quiggin, M.A.
Fellow, Lecturer in Modern Languages, and Monro Lecturer in Celtic, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
Patrick, St.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund.
Ode; Ohlenschläger; Ottava Rima; Overbury; Paludan-Müller; Pastoral.
E. Gr. Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
Olympia (in part); Parthenon.
E. H. M. Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A.
University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College.
Olbia (Euxine).
Ed. M Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt. (Oxon.), LL.D.
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums: Geschichte des alten Aegyptiens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme.
Orodes; Osroene; Osroes; Pacorus; Parthia; Parysatis; Pasargadae.
E. M. H. Edward Morell Holmes.
Curator of the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society, London.
Opium.
E. M. T. Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, G.C.B., I.S.O., D.C.L, Litt.D., LL.D.
Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum, 1898-1909. Sandars Reader in Bibliography, Cambridge, 1895-1896. Hon. Fellow of University College, Oxford. Correspondent of the Institute of France and of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography. Editor of Chronicon Angliae.. Joint-editor of publications of the Palaeographical Society, the New Palaeographical Society, and of the Facsimile of the Laurentian Sophocles.
Palaeography; Palimpsest; Paper: History; Papyrus; Parchment.
E. M. W. Rev. Edward Mewburn Walker, M.A.
Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen’s College, Oxford.
Olynthus.
E. O.* Edmund Owen, LL.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital, London, and to the Children’s Hospital, Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
Ovariotomy.
E. Pr. Edgar Prestage.
Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society; &c. Editor of Letters of a Portuguese Nun; Azurara’s Chronicle of Guinea; &c.
Oliveira Martins; Osorio.
F. C. C. Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen).
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford.. Editor of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle. Author of Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
Paul of Samosata; Paulicians.
F. G. P. Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst.
Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas’s Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, London. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.
Olfactory System; Pancreas.
F. K.* Fernand Khnopff.
See the biographical article: Khnopff, F. E. J. M.
Painting: Modem Belgian.
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
Orange Free State (in part).
F. Wa. Francis Watt, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Author of Law’s Lumber Room.
Paterson, William.
F. W. Mo. Frederick Walker Mott, F.R.S., M.D.
Physician to Charing Cross Hospital. Pathologist to the London County Asylums. Fullerian Professor of Physiology at the Royal Institution.
Paralysis.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. President of the Geologists’ Association, 1887-1889.
Onyx; Opal.
F. X. K. Franz Xaver Kraus (1840-1901).
Professor of Church History, University of Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1878-1901. Author of Geschichte der christlichen Kunst; &c.
Papacy: 1870-1900.
G. A. Gr. George Abraham Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., D.Litt.
Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1891-1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages of India; &c.
Pahari.
G. A. C.* Rev. George Albert Cooke, D.D.
Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture, and Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary’s Cathedral, Edinburgh.
Palmyra.
G. B. B. Gerard Baldwin Brown, M.A.
Professor of Fine Art, University of Edinburgh. Formerly Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. Author of The Fine Arts; The Arts in Early England; &c.
Painting.
G. B. G. George Brown Goode (1851-1896).
Assistant Sefetary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 1887-1896. Author of American Fishes.
Oyster (in part).
G. Ch. George Chrystal, M.A., LL.D.
Professor of Mathematics and Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Edinburgh University. Hon. Fellow and formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
Pascal (in part).
G. C. W. George Charles Williamson, Litt.D.
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of the New Edition of Bryan’s Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.
Oliver, Isaac; Oliver, Peter.
G. E. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford’s Lecturer, 1909. Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Association of Literature.
Oldenbarneveldt; Orange, House of; Ostend Company.
G. E. C. George Earl Church.
See the biographical article: Church, G. E.
Orinoco.
G. H. C. George Herbert Carpenter, B.Sc.
Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: their Structure and Life.
Orthoptera.
G. Sa George Saintsbury, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Saintsbury, George E. B.
Orleans, Charles, Duke of; Pascal (in part).
G. S. W German Sims Woodhead, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. (Edin.).
Professor of Pathology, Cambridge University. Fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. Member of Royal Commission on Tuberculosis, 1902.
Parasitic Diseases.
H. A. B. Henry Arthur Bethell.
Lieut.-Col. Commanding 49th Brigade R.F.A. Associate Member of R.A. Committee. Awarded Lefroy Medal for Contributions to Artillery Science. Author of Modern Guns and Gunnery; The Employment of Artillery; &c.
Ordnance: Field Artillery Equipments.
H. Br. Henry Bradley, M.A., Ph.D.
Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c.
Orm.
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th editim of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Co-editor of the 10th edition.
Parliament (in part).
H. Cl. Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, K.C.M.G.
Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formerly Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 1903-1907. Author of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India, &c. Joint-author of A Dictionary of the Malay Language.
Pantun.
H. E. Karl Hermann Ethé, M.A., Ph.D.
Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Aberystwyth (University of Wales). Author of Catalogue of Persian Manuscripts in the India Office Library, London (Clarendon Press); &c.
Omar Khayyām (in part).
H. E. R. Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Roscoe, Sir Henry Enfield.
Pasteur.
H. F. B. Horatio Robert Forbes Brown, LL.D.
Editor of the Calendar of Venetian Slate Papers, for the Public Record Office, London. Author of Life on the Lagoons; Venetian Studies; John Addingon Symonds, a Biography; &c.
Padua.
H. F. G. Hans Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D.
Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author of “Amphibia and Reptiles,” in the Cambridge Natural History.
Odontornithes.
H. F. O. Henry Fairfield Osborn, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. (Edin.).
Da Costa Professor of Geology, Columbia University, New York. President, American Museum of Natural History, New York. Curator of Department of Vertebrate Palaeontology. Palaeontologist U.S. Geological Survey. Author of From the Greeks to Darwin; &c.
Palaeontology.
H. F. P. Henry Francis Pelham, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Pelham, Henry Francis.
Otho, Marcus S.
H. Ja. Henry Jackson, Litt.D., LL.D., O.M.
Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Trinity College. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Texts to illustrate the History of Greek Philosophy from Thales to Aristotle.
Parmenides of Elea.
H. L. H. Harriet L. Hennessy, M.D. (Brux.), L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I.
 
Olfactory System: Diseases.
H. M. C. Hector Munro Chadwick, M.A.
Librarian and Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge. Reader in Scandinavian, Cambridge University. Author of Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions.
Odin.
H. N. D. Henry Newton Dickson, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.R.G.S.,
Professor of Geography at University College, Reading. Formerly Vice-President, Royal Meteorological Society. Lecturer in Physical Geography, Oxford. Author of Meteorology; Elements of Weather and Climate; &c.
Pacific Ocean (in part).
H. R. T. Henry Richard Tedder, F.S.A.
Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London.
Pamphlets.
H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls’ College, Oxford. 1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne.
Odo of Bayeux; Orderic Vitalis.
H. Y. Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I.
See the biographical article, Yule, Sir Henry.
Odoric (in part).
J. A. C. Sir Joseph Archer Crowe, K.C.M.G.
See the biographical article: Crowe, Sir Joseph Archer.
Ostade (in part).
J. A. F. John Ambrose Fleming, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.
Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of University Collge, London. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College Cambridge. Vice-President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. Author of The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy; Magnets and Electric Currents; &c.
Ohmmeter; Oscillograph.
J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of Geology of Building Stones.
Oligocene System; Oolite; Ordovician System; Oxfordian; Palaeozoic Era.
J. Bra. Joseph Braun, S.J.
Author of Die Liturgische Gewandung &c.
Pastoral Staff.
J. Bt. James Bartlett.
Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at King’s College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior Engineers.
Painter-work.
J. B. A. Joseph Beavington Atkinson.
Formerly art-critic of the Saturday Review. Author of An Art Tour in the Northern Capitals of Europe; Schools of Modern Art in Germany.
Overbeck.
J. C. van D. John Charles van Dyke.
Professor of the History of Art, Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N.J. Formerly Editor of The Studio and the Art Review. Author of Art for Art’s Sake; History of Painting; Old English Masters; &c.
Painting: United States.
J. E. S.* John Edwin Sandys.
Public Orator of the University of Cambridge. Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of History of Classical Scholarship; &c.
Pausanias: Traveller.
J. Fi. John Fiske, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Fiske, John.
Parkman, Francis.
J. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Noman McCall Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c.
Palacio Valdés, Armando; Pardo Bazán.
J. H. A. H. John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A.
Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John’s College, Cambridge.
Palestine: History (in part).
J. H. F. John Henry Freese, M.A.
Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
Orpheus (in part).
J. H. M. John Henry Middleton, M.A., Litt.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846–1896).
Slade Professor of Fine Arts in the University of Cambridge, 1886–1895. Director, of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889–1892. Art Director of the South Kensington Museum, 1892–1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times; Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Medieval Times.
Orcagna.
J. Hl. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D.
Christ’s College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History of the Cambridge. University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt, &c.
Pasquier.
J. Ja. Joseph Jacobs
Professor of English Literature in the Jewish Theological Seminary, New York. Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid. Author of Jews of Angevin England; Studies in Biblical Archaeology; &c.
Passover.
J. Lh. Julius Lewkowitsch, M.A., Ph.D.
Examiner to the City and Guilds of London Institute. Vice-President of Chemical Society. Member of Council of Chemical Society; Institute of Chemistry; and Society of Public Analysts. Author of Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats, and Waxes; &c.
Oils.
J. L. M. John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S.
Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford and Fellow of Magdalen College. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient Geography University of Liverpool. Lecturer of Classical Archaeology in the University of Oxford.
Paphos.
J. M.* James Muirhead, LL.D. (1831–1889).
Scotch Advcate; Professor of Civil Law in the University of Edinburgh, 1862–1889. Author of Historical Introduction to the Private Law of Rome, and of an edition of the Institutes of Gains and Rules of Ulpian.
Patron and Client (in part).
J. Mn. John Macpherson, M.A., M.D., M.R.C.S. (1817–1890).
Formerly Inspector-General of Hospitals, Bengal. Author of The Baths and Wells of Europe; &c.
Paranoia.
J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell.
Sometime Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote’s History of Greece.
Ostracism; Patricians.
J. P.-B. James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst.
Editor of the Guardian (London).
Pawnbroking.
J. P. E. Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhémar Esmein.
Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours elementaire d’histoire du droit français; &c.
Parlement.
J. R. J. J. Julian Robert John Jocelyn.
Colonel, R.A. Formerly Member of the Ordnance Committee. Commandant, Ordnance College; Member of Ordnance Committee; Commandant, School of Gunnery. Author of Notes on Tactics and Reconnaissances; &c.
Ordnance: Heavy Field and Siege Equipments, Garrison Mountings.
J. R. T. James Richard Thursfield, M.A.
Honorary Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford. Formerly Dean, Fellow, Lecturer and Tutor of Jesus College. Author of Peel, &c.
Parnell, Charles Stewart.
J. S. Co. James Sutherland Cotton, M.A.
Editor of the Imperial Gazetteer of India. Hon. Secretary of the Egyptian Exploration Fund. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Queen’s College, Oxford. Author of India; &c.
Omichund; Orme.
J. T. Be. John T. Bealby.
Joint-author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
Odessa; Onega; Orel (government); Orenburg (government).
J. T. C. Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S.
Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association.
Oyster (in part).
J. V. B. James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D. (St Andrews).
Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic Age; &c.
Papias; Paul, the Apostle.
J. W. W. J. W. Wyatt, A.M.Inst.C.E.
Author of The Art of Making Paper, &c.
Paper: Manufacture.
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Editor of Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra.
Ophicleide (in part); Orchestra; Orchestrion; Organ: Ancient History; Organistrum; Pandura; Parsifal Bell-instrument.
L. Be. Léonce Bénédite.
Keeper of the Musée National du Luxembourg. Professor at the École du Louvre. President of the Société des Peintres Orientalistes français. Author of Histoire des Beaux Arts, &c.
Painting: Modern French.
L. D.* Louis Duchesne.
See the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O.
Papacy: to 1087; Paschal I.
L. v. P. Ludwig von Pastor, Ph.D.
Director of the Austrian Institute of Historical Studies at Rome. Professor of History and Director of the Historical Seminary in the University of Innsbruck. Hofrat of the Austrian Empire. Commander of the Order of Francis Joseph, &c. Author of Geschichte der Papste, &c. Editor of the Acta pontificum Romanorum.
Papacy: 1305-1590.
L. F. D. Lewis Foreman Day, F.S.A. (1845-1909).
Formerly Vice-President of the Society of Arts. Past Master of the Art Workers’ Gild. Author of Windows, a book about Stained Glass; &c.
Ornament.
L. J. B. Lawrence J. Burpee.
Public Librarian of the City of Ottawa. Author of The Search for the Western Sea. Joint author (with Henry J. Morgan) of Canadian Life in Town and Country, &c.
Ottawa (Canada).
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
Oligoclase; Olivenite; Olivine; Orthoclase; Parisite.
L. R. F. Lewis Richard Farnell, M.A., Litt.D.
Fellow and Senior Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Classical Archaeology; Wilde Lecturer in Comparative Religion. Corresponding Member of Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Cults of Greek States; Evolution of Religion; &c.
Oracle.
M. G. D. Rt. Hon Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant Duff, G.C.S.I., F.R.S. (1829-1906).
M.P. for the Elgin Burghs, 1857-1881. Under-Secretary of State for India, 1868-1874. Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, 1880-1881. Governor of Madres, 1881-1886. President of the Royal Geographical Society, 1889-1893. President of the Royal Historical Society, 1892-1899. Author of Studies in European Politics; Notes from a Diary; &c.
Oliphant, Laurence.
M. H. S. Marion H. Spielmann, F.S.A.
Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of International Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome, and the Franco-British Exhibition, London. Author of History of “Punch”; British Portrait Painting to the Opening of the Nineteenth Century; Works of G. F. Watts, R.A.; British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day; Henriette Ronner; &c.
Painting: Recent British; Pastel.
M. Ja. Morris Jastrow, Ph.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c.
Omen.
M. M. Bh. Sir Mancherjee Merwanjee Bhownagree.
Fellow of Bombay University. M.P. for N.E. Bethnal Green, 1895-1906. Author of History of the Constitution of the East India Company; &c.
Patel.
M. N. T. Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College. Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum.
Pausanias: Commander.
M. P.* Leon Jacques Maxime Prinet.
Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). Author of L’Industrie du sel en Franche-Comté; François I. et le comté de Burgogne; &c.
Orleans, Ferdinand, Duke of; Orleans, Gaston, Duke of; Orleans, Philip I. and II., Dukes of.
O. Ba. Oswald Barron, F.S.A.
Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the Honourable Society of the Baronetage.
Paulet: Family.
O. J. R. H. Osbert John Radcliffe Howarth, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1901. Assistant Secretary of the British Association.
Oxford.
O. T. Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., F.Z.S.
Senior Assistant, Natural History Department of the British Museum. Author of Catalogue of Marsupialia in the British Museum.
Pangolin (in part).
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince P. A.
Odessa; Onega; Orel (government); Orenburg (government).
P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D.
Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. Author of Outlines of Biology; &c.
Ornithology (in part); Parasitism.
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c.
P.
P. G. K. Paul George Konody.
Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of The Artist. Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c.
Ostade (in part).
R. A. S. M. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A.
St John’s College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Ophir; Palestine (in part).
R. B. McK. Ronald Brunlees McKerrow, M.A.
Trinity College, Cambridge. Editor of The Works of Thomas Nashe; &c.
Parnassus Plays.
R. C. J. Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhouse.
Olympia (in part).
R. G. Richard Garnett, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Garnett, Richard.
Panizzi.
R. H. M. B. Robert Holford Macdowall Bosanquet, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S, F.C.S
Fellow of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Musical Temperament, &c.
Organ.
R. H. R. Robert Hallowell Richards, LL.D.
Professor of Mining and Metallurgy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston. President American Institute of Mining Engineers, 1886. Author of Ore-dressing; &c.
Ore-dressing.
R. J. G. R. J. Grewing, Captain, Reserve of officers.
 
Officers.
R. J. M. Ronald John Macneill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette, London.
O'Donnell: Family; O'Neill: Family.
R. K. D Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas.
Formerly Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at the British Museum; and Professor of Chinese, King’s College, London. Author of The Language and Literature of China; &c.
Parkes, Sir H. S.
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.
Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of All Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c.
Okapi; Opossum; Otter (in part); Ox; Palaeotherium; Pangolin (in part).
R. Mr. Richard Muther (1860-1909).
Professor of the History of Art, Breslau University, 1895-1909. Author of The History of Modern Painting.
Painting: Recent Dutch, German, Austrian, Italian, Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Russian and Balkan States.
R. Mr. Richard Muir.
Demonstrator of Pathological and Bacteriological Technique, University of Edinburgh.
Pathology (in part).
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia, the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1900; The First Romanovs, 1613-1725; Slavonic Europe, the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; &c.
Oleg; Olgierd; Orduin-Nashchokin; Orlov; Osterman; Oxenstjerna; Panin; Patkul.
R. O. Sir Richard Owen, K.C.B.
See the biographical article: Owen, Sir Richard.
Oken.
R. P. S. R. Phené Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King’s College, London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson’s History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c.
Order; Orientation.
R. S. C. Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. (Cantab.)
Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the liniversity of ilarhester. Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects.
Paeligni; Osca Lingua.
R. Tr. Roland Truslove, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Fellow, Dean and Lecturer in Classics at Worcester College, Oxford.
Paris: Geography and Statistics.
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Law of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
Omri; Palestine: Old Testament History.
S. Fr. Sydney R. Fremantle.
Captain, R.N. Naval Mobilization Department, Admiralty, London.
Ordnance: Naval Guns and Gunnery.
S. G. O. Sidney George Owen, M.A.
Student and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford.
Ovid.
S. N. Simon Newcomb, D.Sc, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon.
Orbit; Parallax.
S. P. Stephen Paget, F.R.C.S.
Surgeon to Throat and Ear Department, Middlesex Hospital. Hon. Secrtary, Research Defence Society. Author of Memoirs and Letters of Sir James Page; &c.
Paget, Sir James.
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt.
Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of first Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topognphy of the Roman Campagna.
Olbia: Sardinia; Orbetello; Oristano; Ortona a Mare; Orvieto; Ostia; Otranto; Paestum; Palermo (in part); Pantelleria; Patavium; Pavia.
T. A. I. Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D.
Trinity College, Dublin.
Patents (in part); Payment; Payment of Members.
T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problem of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
Pacific Blockade.
T. E. M. Rt. Hon. Lord Farnborough.
See the biographical article: Farnborough, Thomas Erskine May, Baron.
Parliament (in part).
T. F. C. Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass.
Orange: France; Paul III., IV., V. (Popes).
T. H. Thomas Hodgkin, Litt. D., LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Hodgkin, T.
Odoacer.
T. H. H.* Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc.
Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S., London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King’s Award; India; Tibet.
Oman; Oxus; Pamirs.
T. K. C. Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne, M.A., D.D., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Cheyne, T. K.
Paradise.
Th. N. Theodor Nöldeke.
See the biographical article: Nöldeke, Theodor.
Pahlavī.
T. L. H. Sir Thomas Little Heath, K.C.B., D.Sc.
Assistant Secretary to the Treasury. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
Pappus of Alexandria.
T. O. Thomas Okey.
Examiner in Basket Work for the City and Guilds of London Institute.
Osier.
T. W. R. D Thomas William Rhys Davids, LL.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of tie Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the Buddhists; Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c.
Pali.
V. M. Victor Charles Mahillon.
Principal of the Conservatoire Royal de Musique at Brussels. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour.
Ophicleide (in part).
W. Ar. Sir Walter Armstrong.
Director of National Gallery of Ireland. Author of Art in the British Isles; &c. Joint-editor of Bryan’s Dictionary of Painters; &c.
Orchardson.
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D.
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphiné; The Range of the Tödi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor to The Alpine Journal, 18S0-1881: &c.
Olivier, J. D.; Orta, Lake of; Ortler.
W. A. H. William Alfred Hinds.
President of the Oneida Community, Ltd.; Author of American Communities; &c.
Oneida Community.
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Mcrton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
Papacy: 1900-1910; Paris: History (in part).
W. A. S. William Augustus Simpson.
Colonel and Acting Adjutant-General, U.S. Army.
Officers: United States.
W. B.* William Burton, M.A., F.C.S.
Chairman, Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great Britain. Author of English Stoneware and Earthenware; &c.
Palissy.
W. E. A.* Rev. William E. Addis, M.A.
Professor of Old Testament Criticism, Manchester College, Oxford. Author of Christianity and the Roman Empire; &c.
Order, Holy.
W. E. G. F. William Edward Garrett Fisher, M.A.
Author of The Transvaal and the Boers.
Paper: India Paper.
W. H. F. Sir William Henry Flower, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H.
Otter (in part).
W. L. G. William Lawson Grant, M.A.
Professor at Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council (Colonial Series); Canadian Constitutional Development (in collaboration).
Ontario.
W. M. R. William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel.
Palma, Jacopo; Parmigiano; Paul Veronese.
W. P. A. Lieut.-Colonel William Patrick Anderson, M.Inst. C.E., F.R.G.S.
Chief Engineer, Department of Marine and Fisheries of Canada. Member of the Geographic Board of Canada. Past President of Canadian Society of Civil Engineers.
Ontario, Lake.
W. P. C. William Prideaux Courtney.
See the biographical article: Courtney, L. H., Baron.
Orford, 1st Earl of (Sir Robert Walpole); Oxford, 1st Earl of.
W. S. R. William Smyth Rockstro.
Author of A General History of Music from the Infancy of the Greek Drama to the Present Period; and other works on the history of music.
Palestrina (in part).
W. W. R.* William Walker Rockwell, D.Ph.
Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York.
Papacy: 1590-1870; Paschal III.

PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES

Ohio.
Oklahoma.
Old Age Pensions.
Old Catholics.
Oldenburg.
Olive.
Oporto.
Oran.
Orange.
Orchids.
Oregon.
Original Package.
Orkney Islands.

Orleans.
Orthodox Eastern Church.
Oxfordshire.
Oxygen.
Pacific Ocean: Islands.
Paisley.
Palatinate.
Pallium.
Palm.
Palmerston, Viscount.
Palm Sunday.
Pampas.
Panama (Republic).

Panama Canal.
Pan-American Conferences.
Panathenaea.
Pannonia.
Pansy.
Pantheism.
Pará (State).
Parabola.
Paracelsus.
Parachute.
Paraffin.
Paraguay.

Pardon.
Paris, Treaties of.
Parish.
Park, Mungo.
Parma.
Parsees.
Partnership.
Passionflower.
Patagonia.
Patmos.
Patna.
Pau.

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.