1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Wittgenstein, Ludwig Adolf Peter, Count
WITTGENSTEIN, LUDWIG ADOLF PETER, Count, prince of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg (1769-1843), Russian soldier, was descended from a family of formerly independent counts in Westphalia. His father had settled in Russia, and he entered the army, distinguishing himself in the Polish War of 1794-95, and then serving in the Caucasus. In 1805 he fought at Austerlitz, in 1806 against the Turks and in 1807 against Napoleon at Friedland and against the Swedes in Finland. In the war of 1812 he commanded the right wing army of the Russians. In the campaign of 1813 in January he took over the command of the Russian army after Kutuzov's death. But after the defeats of the Spring campaign he laid down this command and led an army corps during the Dresden and Leipzig campaigns, and at Bar-sur-Aube in the 1814 campaign he was severely wounded. In 1823 he was promoted field-marshal, and in 1828 he was appointed to command the Russian army in the war against Turkey But ill health soon obliged him to retire. In 1834 the king of Prussia gave him the title of prince. He died on the nth of June 1843.