1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Guillaumat, Marie Louis Adolphe
GUILLAUMAT, MARIE LOUIS ADOLPHE (1863–), French general, was born at Bancqneuf (Charente Inférieure) on Jan. 4 1863. He entered the École de St. Cyr on Oct. 31 1882 and was appointed a sub-lieutenant of infantry on Oct. 1 1884. Four years later he was promoted lieutenant. In Nov. 1893 he became a captain and was transferred to the 147th infantry regiment. In 1903 he was appointed professor of military history at St. Cyr, and later became lecturer on infantry tactics at the École de Guerre. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel in 1907 and colonel in 1910. In Jan. 1913 he became director of infantry at the Ministry of War, and on Oct. 8 of the same year was made a general of brigade, continuing to hold his appointment. On June 14 1914 he became chef de cabinet when M. Messimy was War Minister, but on the outbreak of the World War he was placed at the disposal of General Joffre. On Sept. 2 1914 he was given command of the 33rd Division, becoming, in the following Dec., a temporary general of division. On Feb. 25 1915 he took part in the defence of Verdun, in the operations attending the German offensive of Feb. 1916, and in the French (Somme) offensive of the same year. He was confirmed in his rank as a general of division on Dec. 23 1915. In Dec. 1916 he took over command of the II. Army from General Nivelle when that officer was appointed commander-in-chief. Twelve months later (Dec. 14 1917) he succeeded General Sarrail as commander-in-chief in Salonika. In this capacity he had the difficult task of restoring the moral of a heterogeneous force that had become disorganized through inaction, and of reconciling the divergent military interests of the Allies in this theatre. He drew up the offensive plan which Franchet d’Espérey afterwards carried out so brilliantly, but in June 1918 was suddenly brought back to Paris to act as military governor when the German summer offensives threatened to reproduce the conditions of the Marne. When the tide turned he actively supported the proposed Salonika advance by pressing its advantages on the War Council, and it was with his aid that Franchet d’Espérey obtained authority to advance. In Oct. 1918 he was given command of the V. Army. He was awarded the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour on July 10 1918 and the médaille militaire on Oct. 3 1918. On Jan. 30 1920 he was appointed to the Superior War Council.