A Critical Exposition of the Popular 'Jihád'/Chapter 3/23

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[Sidenote: 23. The Abwa, Bowat, & Osheira expeditions.]

The alleged expeditions of Abwa, Bowat, and Osheira, said to have been led by Mohammad himself to intercept the Mecca caravans, but in vain, are altogether without foundation. He might have gone, if he had gone at all, to Abwa, and Osheira to negotiate friendly terms with Bani Dhumra[1] and Bani Mudlij, as his biographers say, he did.


  1. "K. Wackidi, 98-1/2. The provisions are noted only generally, "that neither party would levy war against the other, nor help their enemies." The version quoted by Weil binding the Bani Dhumra to fight for the faith, &c., is evidently anticipatory and apocryphal. It is not given by the Secretary of Wackidi in his chapter of treaties."—Muir's Life of Mahomet, III, p. 67, note.