A Dictionary of All Religions and Religious Denominations/dump
ABYSSINIAN CHURCH, that established in the empire of Abyssinia. They maintain that the two natures are united in Christ, without either confusion or mixture; so that though the nature of our Saviour be really once yet it is at the same time two-fold and compound.
The Abyssinian church embraced these tenets in the seventh century. They disown the pope's supremacy, and transubstantiation, though they believe the real presence of Christ in the sacrament, and administer the communion in both kinds. Like the Roman catholics, they offer their devotions and prayers to the saints, and believe in a state of purgatory. They use confession, and receive penance and absolutum from the priests*! Their divine service consists in reading the Scriptures, administering the Eucharist, and reading some Homilies of the Fathe|«^ They use different forms of baptism ; and keep both Saturday and Sunday as sabbaths. They are circumcised, and abstain from swine's flesh ; not out of regard to the Mosaic law, but purely as an ancient custom of their country. They read the whole four evangelists regularly every year in their church- es ; and when they speak of an event, they say, " It happened in the days of Matthew,** i. e. while Matthew was reading in
t Mosheim, vol. ii. p. 172. vol. iii. p. 493. ^Mod, Univ. Hist vol. zv. p. 174 '*->177. Ludolph's Hist, of Etliiopuu
their churches. They are a branch of the Cophts.
^ACADEMICS, an ancient PhilosopDical sect, which taught in a grove near Athens, sacred to Acadenius, who was one of their heroes. They were orig- inally the disciples of Socrates and Plato ; but in after times neglected the plain and useful truths which they had taught^ and devoted themselves to the most abstruse and incompre- hensible studies : they have been confounded, by Mr. Hume and others, with the Sceptics.:!^
ACEPHALI, [headless,] a branch of the Eutychians, who had been deserted by their chief.
ADAMITES, a denomina- tion in the second century, who asserted, that since their i*e- demption by the death of Christ they were as innocent as Adam before the fall, and are accused of praying naked in their as- semblies. It was renewed in the fifteenth century by one Pi- card, a native of Flanders.§
ADESSENARIANS, [from JldessCf to be present,] a branch of the Sacramentarians, believ-
ed the literal presepce of Christ's body in the elements of the eucharist, though in a different manner from the Ro- manists.
ADIAPHORISTS, those moderate Lutherans who fol- lowed Melancthon, and sub- scribed the interim. See Z.u- therans.
ADOPTIANI, a sect, who in the eighth century taught that Jesus Christ was not the natural, but adopted Son of God.l|
AERIANS, a denomination which arose about the year 342. They were so called from one Aerius, a monk, and Semi- Ari- an. He opposed episcopacy, prayers for the dead, stated fasts and feasts, &c.^
AETIANS, a branch of An- ans in the fourth century, who are said to have maintained that faith without works was suffi- cient to salvation ; and that no sin, however grievous, would be impnted to the faithful ; and they pretended to immediate revelations.**
AFGHANS, a people in In- dia, inhabiting a province of Cabul, or Cabulistan, who boast of being descended from Saul, the first king of Israel. They say that their great an- cestor was raised from the rank of a shepherd, not for any
• Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, voL i« p. 10. f Eocj. Brit.
t Ency. Perthens.
§ Mosheim, vol. i. p. 418. Broughton's HistLibrary, voL i. p. 49. n Diet, of Arts smd Sclcn. vol, i. p. 49. ^ Mosheim, vol. i, p. 314.
•• Broughton, vol i. p. 24*
princely qualities which he pos- sessedy but because his stature was exactly equal to the length of a rod given by the angel Ga- briel to the prophet Samuel, as the meaisure of royal stature.
This story is supposed to be one of the fictions which Ma- homet borrowed from the latter rabbins. Sir ^yilliam Jonesy however, though he gave no credit to this fable, seems to have had no doubt but that the A%hans are descendants of Is- rael carried off in the captivity of the ten tribes.
This great man strongly re- commended ah inquiry into the language, literature, and histo- ly of the Afghans. " We learn," said he, << from Esdras, that the ten tribes, after a wan- dering journey, came to a coun- try, called Arsareth, where we may suppose they settled. Now the best Persian historians af- firm, that the Afghans are de- scended from the Jews; and they have among themselves tra- ditions of the same import. It is even asserted that their fam- ilies are distinguished by the names of Jewish tribes, though since their conversion to Is- lamism they have studiously concealed their origin. The language they use has a mani- fest resemblance to the Chal- daic, and a considerable dis- trict under their dominions is called Hazareth, which might
easily have been changed from Arsareth."*
AGNOETJE, [unknowing,] a denomination of the fourtti century, followers of Theophro- niuSfl^e Cappadocian,who call- ed in question the omniscience of God ; alleging that he knew things past ordy by memory^ and future only by an uncertain prescience. Another sect of the same name arose about the year 535f who followed the sen- timents of Themistius, deacon of Alexandria, who, from Mark xiii. 32, denied that Christ, in any sense, knew the day of judgment.!
jAGONISTICI, aname giv- en to certain followers of Do- natus, who used to attend the public markets, fairs, &c. to contend in favour of his princi- ples. They were properly itin- erant Foltinics; and are some- times called Circuitores, Cir- celliones,:^ &c.
AGYNIANS, a small sect about the end of the seventh cen- tury. They condemned the use of certain meats, and Tnar- riagCf whence their name.
ALBANENSES, and AL- BANOIS were petty sects of the eighth century, th6 proba- ble remains of the Gnostics and Mancheans, which see.
ALBIGENSES, so called from their first residence in Al- bi and Albigeois. A denomina- tion remarkable for their oppo-
- Asiatic Besearches, vol. ii. p. 76, and Works of Sir William Jones, vol. i.
p, 336. t Broughton, p. 26. ± Ency. Brit.
sition to the discipline and cer- emonies of the church of Rome. Their opinions wei-e similar to the Waidensesj which see.
ALLENITES, the disciples of Henry AIlen» of Nova Sco- tia, who began to propagate his doctrines in that country about the year 1778, and died in 1783, during which time he made many proselytes, and at his death left a corisMerable party behind him, though now much declined. He published several treatises and sermons, in which he declares, that the souls of all the human race ai'e emanations, or rather parts of the one great Spirit ; that they were aU present in Eden, and were actually in the first tiuns- gression. He supposes that our first parents in innocency were pui*e spirits, and that the mate- rial world was not then made ; but that in conserjuence of the fall, that mankind might not sink into utter destruction, the world was produced, and men clothed with material bodies ; and that all the human race will, in their turn, be invested witli such bodies, and in them enjoy a state of probation for immortal happiness."*^
ALMARICIANS, the fol- lowers of Almaric, professor of logic and theology at Paris, in the thirteenth century. He oppos- ed the worship of saints and ima- ges ; and his enemies charged him with maintaining that in
his time the reign of the Holy Spirit commenced, in which the sacraments and all exter- nal worship were to be abol- ished.f
ALOGIANS, a denomina- tion in Asia Minor in the second century ; so called beciruse they denied the divine xiyq^ or wor^ and the writings of St. John| attributing them to Cerinthus. But Dr. Lardner denies the existence of such a sect, as not being mentioned by any con- temporary writer.:!^
§AMEIIICAN SECT, New> a congregation lately arisen in Pennsylvania, amongtheWelsl& emigrants to that country nnf der the auspices of the late Rev. M. J. Rees, who died. at Somerset, in that state, in 18041 Their tenets are comprised ii the following articles of thcSr religious constitution. The convention shall be called the Christian Church, and never by any other name. Jesus Christ is the only head : believers in him, the only members : and the New Testament, the anig rule of the fraternity. In meit- tal matters, each member shall enjoy his own sentiments, and fireely discuss every subject: but in discipline, a strict con- formity with the precepts of Christ is required. Every dis- tant society shall have the same power of admitting members, electing officers, &c. Dele- gates from the different congre-
- Manuscript from a clergyman in Nova Scotia, 1783. f Mosheim, toL
iii. 120, &c. t Broug^hton, voL L p. 33. § Lardner's Heretics, p. 44&
gations shall meet from time to time, to consult the general in- terest. At every meeting for religious worship, collections shall he made for the poor, and the promulgation of the gospel among tlis Heathen**
AMMONIANS, so called from Ammonius Saccas, who taught with the highest applause in the Alexandrian school,about the conclusion of the second cen- tury. This learned man at- tempted a general reconciliation of aU sects, whether philosoph- ical or. religious ; his creed was therefore a mixture of Christianity and oriental Phi- losophy, in which he was deep- ly skilled.
With regard to moral disci- jline, Atqmonius permitted the mople to live according to the Ukw of their counti*y, and the dktates of nature : hul a more sublime rule was laid down for the wise. They were to raise dK>Ye all terrestrial things, by the towering efforts of holy contemplation, those soulsf whose origin was celestial and divine. They were ordered to extenuate, by hunger, thirst, and other mortifications, the sluggish body, which res1a*ains the liberty of the immortal spir- it, that in this life they might eiyoy communion with the su- preme Being, and ascend after ueathy active and unincumber- ed to the universal Parent, to live m his presence forever.f
• Evans' Sketch of aU Religions, t Diet Art. Scien. vol. i. p. 131.
AMSDOKFIANS, the fol- lowers of Amsdorf, a kind of Antinomians in the sixteenth century, who are said to have maintained that good works were not only unprofitable, but even opposite and pernicious to
tANAB APTISTS, (re-bap- tizers,) a sect which arose in the time of Luther's Reforma- tion in Germany, and excited various insurrections, under pretence of erecting the king- dom of Clirist on earth.$ See Fifth Monardiy Meru It is but justice to remark, that this sect agi'ced scarcely in any thing with the modern Baptists^ ex- cept in the circumstances of re- jecting infant baptism, and practising immersion. See Baptists.
jANCHORITES, (or An^ choretSf) Hermits : certain pri- jspudive monks who chose the adRtude of caves and deserts to avoid the temptations of the world.
ANGELITES, a denomina- tion which sprung up about the year 494 ; so called from An- gelium, in Alexandria, where they held their first meetings. They were called likewise from different leaders, Serverites, Damianists and Theodosians. They denied that either of the persons of the Trinity were self-existent; but taught there is a common Deity existing in them all ; and that each is God
f Mosheim* vol i. p. 13^^ — 144. 4 Scotch Theolog". D:ct
by a participation of this Dei- ty.*
ANOMOBANS, a name by which the pure Arians were distinguished in the foui*th century, from the Semi- Arians. The word is taken from 'Av«At- ofg, different, dissimilar, f See Brians.
ANTHROrOMORPHITES, a sect in the tenth century; so denominated from Av^p^vrtq man, and Mop^n shape: be- cause they maintained that the Deity was clothed with a human form, and seated like an earth- ly monarch upon a throne of state; and that his angelic ministers were beings arrayed in white garments, and fur- nished with natural wings. They take every thing spoken of Gt)d in scripture in a literal sense, particularly when it Ls said that God made man after his awn image.j^
♦ANTIBURGHERS, dis- senters from the Church of Scotland, chiefly in matters of church government; and from the Burgher Seceders, in refusing the Burgess oath. See Burghers and Seceders.^
ANTINOMIANS. They derive their name from t^^rt a- gainst, and fofto^ law, as being against the moral law ; not merely as a covenant of life, but also as a rule of conduct to believers.
In the sixteenth century.
while Luther was eagerly em- ployed in censuring and refut- ing the popish doctors, who mixed the law and gospel to- gether, and represented eternal happiness as the fruit of legal obedience, a new teacher arose, whose name was John Agrico- la, a native of Isleben, and an eminent doctor in the Lutheran church. His fame began to spread in the year 1538, when from the doctrine of Luther now mentioned, he took occasion to advance sentiments which drew upon him the animadversion of that reformer.
The doctrine of Agricola is said to be in itself obscure, and is thought to have been misrep- resented by Luther, who wrote against him with acrimony, and first styled him and his follow- ers Antinomians. Agricola de- fended himself, and complained that opinions were imputed to him, which he did not hold.
The writings of Dr. Crisp, in the seventeenth century, have been generally considered as favourable to Antinomianism, though he acknowledges, that ^^ in respect to the rule of righ- teousness, or the matter of obe- dience, we are under the' Iav^ still ; or else (sus he adds) w^ are lawless, to live every mass, as seems good in his own eye»9 which no true Christian dar&s so much as to think.** Tli.^ following sentiments, howeve^cTf
• Bpoughton, vol.i. p. 49. f Ibid. p. 51.
^ BroughtOTi, vol. i. p. 55, Mosheixn^ vol. ii. p. 227.
§ Scotch Tbeolog-.Dict. | Mosheim, voL iv.p. 321.
jUnong others appear to be taught in his sermons. <^ The law is cruel and tyrannical, re- quiring what is naturally im- possible. The sins of the elect were so imputed to Christ, as Ifaat though he did not commit ihem, yet they became actually his transgressions, and ceased to be theirs. Christ's righ- teousness is so imputed to the elect, that they, ceasing to be sinners, are as righteous as he was."*
^< An elect person is not in a condemned state while an unbeliever, and should he hap- pen to die before God call him to bdieye, he would not be lost. All signs and marks of grace are doubtful evidences of heav- en ; it is the voice of the Spir- it of God to a man's own spir- it, speaking particularly in the h^art of a person, Son^ be of good cheer, thy sins are forgiven fhttf that is the great and only evidence which can determine the question. The whole es- sence of faith is nothing else but the echo of the heart, an- swering the foregoing voice of ' the Spirit, and word of grace ; flie former declaring. Thy sins art forgiven thee ; the latter an- swering. My sins are forgiven me. God sees no sin in be- fievers, nor does he afflict them
on this account. Repentance and confession of sin are not necessary to forgiveness. A be- liever may certainly conclude before, confession, yea, as soon as he hath committed sin, the interest he hath in Christ, and the love of Christ embracing him.
Some of the principal passa^ ges of scripture, fvpm whence these sentiments were defended, are the following: lU was made sinfor us, who knew no nn. ^■^Who shall lav any thing to the charge ofGod^s dectP^-^Their sins and their iniquities will I re- member no mare.'-JtU things work together for good to them that lave Godi 2. Cor. v. 21. Rom. viii. 33. Heb. viii. 12. Rom. viii. 28.t '
Many of those, who in the present day adopt these princi- ples, reject the moral law as a rule of conduct to believers, disown personal and progres- sive sanctification, and hold it inconsistent for a believer to pray for the forgiveness of his sins. These are properly An- tinomians.
There are others who reject these notions, and many of those advanced by Dr. Crisp, who yet have been denominat- ed, by their opponents, Anti- nomians.
- Most of those who are styled Antinomians, believe that the justification of
•loners is an eternal act of God, not only preceding all acts of sin, but the ex- tttence of the sinner himself; though some suppose with Dr. Crisp, that the elect were justified at the time of Christ's death. For a particular account of the shades of difference among this denomination, the reader is referred to the others mentioned in the following page.
t Crisp's Sermons, vol. iv.p.94, 116, 119, 269, 270, 276, 298, 363, 466. 493, &c.
Some of the chief of those, whose writings have been con- siderd as faTouring Antinomi- anism^are. Crisp, Eaton, Rich- ardson, SaJtmarsh, Town, Hus- sey, &c. These have been an- swered by Gataker, Sedgwick, Boll, Williams, Beart, &c. to which may be added, Fletch- er's Four Checks to Antinom- ianism ; and Bellamy's Essay on the nature and glory of the GrospeL
Mr.Evans asserts, that " there are many Antinomians, indeed, of a singular cast in Germany, and other parts of the conti- nent ; they condemn the mor- al law as a rule of life, and yet profess a strict regard to the interests of practical religion.*'
♦ANTIP^DOBAPTISTS, those who reject infant bap- tism. See Baptists.
those who reject the observa- tion of the Sabbath, under the idea that it was obligator)' on the Jews only; and maintain that no one day is now more holy than another.*
ANTITACTiE, a branch of the Gnostics, who held that God, the Creator of the uni- verse, was good and just ; but that one of his creatures had created evil, and engaged man- kind to follow it in opposition to God ; and that it is the duty of mankind to oppose the au- thor of evil, in order to avenge
God of his enemy. See Chios- iicSm
ANTITRINITARIANS, a general name given to all those who deny the doctrine of the Trinity, and particularly to the Arians and Socinians.
APELLIEANS, followers of Apelles in the second centurjy who believed in a supreme God» and in an inferiour one formed by him. He denied the resurrection.
APHTHARTODOCITES, a sect in the sixth century, who h^]d> that the body of Jesus Christ was tncorruptiftlf, and not subject to death. They were a branch of the Eutychians.
APOCARITjES, a sect in the third century sprung from the Manicheans, who held that the soul of man was of the es- sence of God.
APOLLINARIANS, a de- nomination in the fourth century, who asserted that Christ* a person was composed of a un« ion of the true divinity and a human body, endowed with a sensitive soul; but without the reasonable one, the divinity supplying its place; the huroah body united to the divine spirit making one nature only.
APOSTOLICS, a denomi nation in the twelfth century, who professed to exhibit in their lives and manners the piety and virtues of the holy aposties. They held it unlawful to take
• 6c<)tch Theol. Diet.
§ Broughton, vol. L p. 58.
1 Formey*B Eccles. Hist vol. i. p. 79.
i I^rdner's Heretics^ 315> &c. I lb. p. 60.
an oath^ renounced the tilings of this world, and preferred cdibacy to wedlock."^
AQUARIANS, a denomina- tipn in the second century, who, under pretence of abstinence, made use of water instead of wine in the euchariBt. See En- cf:atites.
^ABABACL They sprung up in the year 207, denied the immortality of the soul, and be- lieved that it perishes witli the body ; but maintained, at the same time, that it was to be again recalled to life with the body, by the power of Grod^f
ARCHONTICS, a denomi- nation which appeared about the year 175 ; who held that archangels created the world, denied the resurrection of the body, and maintained that the Ged of sabaoth exercised a cru- el tyranny in heaven. They defended their doctrines by books of their own compos- ing, styled ^< The Revelation of the Prophets," and the Harmo- ny.
ARIANS,. a denomination, which arose about the year 315, and owed its origin to Arius, presbyter of Alexandria, a man of a subtle turn, and remarkable for his eloquence. Hemaintain- Mthat the Son was totally and essentially distinct from the Fathei: ; that he was the first and noblest of all those beings whom God the Father had cre- ated out of nothing, the instru- ment by whose subordinate op-
- Moftheim, toI. ii. p. 457.
eration the Almighty Father formed the universe, and there- fore inferiour to the Fatheirf>oth in nature and dignity. He ad- ded, that the holy Spirit was of a different nature from that of the Father and of the Son, and that he had been created by the Son. However, during the life of Arius, the disputes turned principally on the divinity of Christ.
The •original Arians were divided among themselves, and torn into factions, regarding each other with the bitterest aversion, of whom the ancient writers make mention under the names of Semi-Arians, Euse- bians, Aetians, Eunomians, A- cacians, Psatyiians, and others, most of which are described in this work under their respec- tive heads.
The modern Arians, to prove the subordination and inferior- ity of Christ to God the Fa- ther, argue thus : There are various passages of scripture where the Falser is styled the one, or only God. Why caUest thmine good? There is none good but one, that is Ood. (Matt xix. 17.) The Father is styled God with peculiarly high titles and attributes. (See Matt. xxiiL 9. — ^Mark v. 7. jcc.) It is said in Ephesians iv. 6. There is one God and Father of alU who is abcroe alL Our Lord Jesus Clirist express- ly speaks of another Grod dis- tinct from himself. See Matt.
- Eehard't Eccles* Hist vol. ii. p. 542.
f Mosheim^ vol. i. p. 294
xsvii. 46.^-^0110 XX. 17.) He not only owns another than huniself to be Gfod, but also that he is above and over himself. He' declares that Am Father is greater than he, John xiv. 28. Onr Lord also says. He came not in his own hutinMs Fathet^s name and authority; that he sought not his own, but Gk)d's glory ; nor made his own, but Gfod's will his rule. See John vi. S8 ; xii. 49; xiv. 10.
In the solemn prayer, utter- ed by our Lord just before his crucifixion, he declares, Tidsis life eternal, that they might know mee, the only true God, and Je- sus Christ, whom thou hast sent. John xvii. S. Our Lord ad- dresses one person, calling that person The only true God. That this person addressed was the Father, is evident from the commencement of the prayer. Father, the hour is come, (verse 1.) and from the repetition of the title Father in several of the subsequent verses (verse 5, 11, 21, 24, 25.) It follows therefore, that the Father is the only true God.
Other passages of Scripture, which prove the same doctrine, are those in which Christ as- serts, that the Father alone knew the day of general judg- ment. Matt xxiv. 36. Mark xiii. 32. flut of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the Angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, Imt the Father only. If any one being besides the Father were God, he would have known the day of
judgment ; since therefore ths Father alone knew this day, it is evident that he alone is the omniscient God.
The Apostles also declare,. that our Lord Jesus Christ was not God, but a being distinct from him ; that he was subordi- nate and inferiour to theFather, and derived all his wisdom and power from him. 1 Cor. viii. 6. But to ns there is hut one God^ the Father. Ephes. iv. 6. One God and Father of all. Te are Chrisfs, and Christ is God^s. 1 Cor. iii. 23. that is, as Christ- ians are subject to the domin- ion of Christ, so Christ is sub- ject to the dominion of God. The head of Christ is God. 1 Cor. xi. 3. The one infinite mind is repeatedly called not only the Father of Jesus, but likewise his Gk>d. Ephes. i. 3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. See also Rom. xv. 6. 2 Cor. i. 3. Colossians i. 3. 1 Peter i. S. It is said in 1 Cor. xv. 24, that Christ Tvill deliver up the king" dom to God, even the FaOwr. Therefore he will be subjected to him, and is consequently in- feriour.
There are numerous texts of Scripture, in which it is declar- ed that religious worship is re- ferred to the Father only. See Matt iv. 10. John iv. 23. Acts iv. 24. 1 Cor. 1—4. In all these, and various other passa- ges, prayers were addressed to tlve God and Father of oiir Lord Jesus Christ.
Modern Arians are distin-
guished by the tifles High and Low ; the fonner^ like the Se- nukArians^ raising the charac- ter of Christ as nearly as pos- ableto the divinity; and the htter sinking it very nearly to mere humanity. The term A- rian is BOW indiscriminately ap- j^ied to those who consider Je- sus simply subordinate to the Father. Some of them believe Christ to have been the Crea- tor of the world; but they all maintain that he existed pre- viously to his incarnation^ thou^ in his pre-existent state they assign him different de- grees of dignity. (See Umia- rians rfDr, Friers description. J See also Fre-eocistents.
The opinion of the Arians oonceming Christ, differs from the Gnostics chiefly in two res- pects, — (1.) The Gnostics sup- posed the pre-existent spirit which was in Jesus to have been an emanation from the supreme Being, according to the princi- ples of the philosophy of that age, which made creation out of nothing, to be an impossi- bility. But the Arians suppos- ed the pre-existent spirit to have been properly created, and to have animated the body of Christ instead of the human souL — (fi.) The Gnostics sup- posed that the pre-existent spir- it was not the maker of the
world ; but was sent to rectify the evils which had been intro- duced by the Being who made it. But the Arians supposed that their Logos was the Being, whom God had employed in making the universe, as well as in all his communications with mankind."^
For the difference between Arians and Socinians. See Sodrdans.
ARISTOTELIANS, the dis- ciples of Aristotle, a famous Grecian philosopher, who flour* ished about 485 years before Christ. He taughtthatthe uni- verse existed from eternity, but admitted the existence of a Dei- ty, whom he styled the first Mover; and whose nature hto represented as somewhat sim- ilar to a principle of power, giv- ing motion to a machine. In producing motion, he taught^ that the Deity acts not volun- tarily,but necessarily ; — ^not for the sake of other beings, but for his own pleasure; and that hap- py in the contemplation of him- self, he is entirely regardless of human affairs. Nothing oc- curs in his writings, which de- cisively determines whether he supposed the soul of man mor- tal or immortal.
Respecting ethics, he taught^ that happiness consists in the virtuous exercise of the mind ;
• Mosheim's Eccles. Hist. vol. i. p. 335, 442, 443. Fopmey's Eccles; Hist ▼oL i. p 76. Priestley's Hist, of Early Opinions, vol. iv. p. 168 Clarke's Scrip- ture Doctrine of the Trinity, p. 1, 2, 3, 46. Emlyn's Extracts, p. 9, 10, 11, 21. Yates' Vindication of Unitarianism, p. 69, 70, 79. Theological Reposi- tory, vol. iv. p. 276. Doddridge's Lectures, p. 401, Evans' Sketch, p; 59. See also Ben Mordecai's Apology, written by Mr. Henry Taylor.
and that virtues consists in pre- serving that mean in all things, which reason^and prudence pre- scribe. It is the middle path between two extremes, one of which is vicious through ex- cessy the other through de- fect*
ARMENIANS, a division of Eastern Christians, so called from Armenia in Asia, a coun- try they originally inhabited. Their sentime^jts arc similar to those of the Gi*eek Church. See that article.
In the rites and ceremonies of the Armenian church, there is so great a i*esemblance to those of the Greeks, that a par- ticular detail might be super- fluous. Their liturgies also are either essentially the same, or at least ascribed to the same autlmr. See Syrian Christiatis.
The Armenian was consid- ered as a branch of the Greek Church* professing the same faith, and acknowledging the same subjection to the See of Constantinople, till near the middle of the sixth century. At that time the doctrine of the Monophysites spread far and ^ide tlirous^h the regions of Africa and Asia« comprehend- ing the Armenians also among its votaries. When thev re- ceded from holding communion with the Greeks* they made no change in their ancient Epis- copal form of church govern- ment; but only claimed the
privilege of choosing their own spiritual ruleis.
The Annenians are scatter- ed all over Asia, and have formed settlements, wherever they have found an opening for ti'ade. They have churches at Calcutta, Madras, Bombay^ and in all the. principal trad- ing countries in that part of the globe^ and extend to Je- rusalem, Constantinople, and Russia.f
ARMINIANS, They de- rive their name from James Arminius, who was born in Holland 1560. He was the first pastor of Amsterdam, af- terwards professor of divinity at Lcyden ; and attracted the esteem and applause of his very , enimies by his acknowledged candour, penetration and piety. He had been a pupil of Theo- dore Beza, who adhered to the Calvinistic doctrines in the strictest manner, but Arminius thinking the tenets of Calvin, with regard to^fe-tCTtfl, pre- destiiiation and grace, contrary 'to the mild luid amiable perfec- tions of the Deity, began to ex- press his doubts concerning them in the year 1591 ; and upon further inquiry, adc^ted sentiments more nearly resem- bling those of the LutheranSf than of the Calvinists.
The principal tenets of the Arminians are comprehended in five articles, to which are added a few of the arguments
- FjnMd's Fhilosophr. toL i.
t BroQKhton^s Hist. lib. toL ii. p^ 329. DalUwi^sHist of Coutaiiti-
they make use of in defence of their sentiments.
!• That Grod has not fixed the future state of niankuid by an absolute^ unconditional de- cree ; but determined from all eternity to bestrow salvation on those^ who he foresaw would prfseyere unto the end in their faith in Jesus Christ ; and to inflict everlasting punishments on those, who should continue in their unbelief, and resist un- to the end his diviue succours.
For, as the Deity is just, ho- ly and merciful ; wise in all his counsels, and true in all his declarations to the sons of men, it is inconsistent with his attri- butes, by an antecedent decree, to fix our commission of so many sins in such a manner, that there is no possibility for us to avoid them. And he rep- resents Grod dishonourably, who believes,that by his reveal- ed will he hath declared he would have all men to be sav- ed, and yet by an antecedent secret mil, he would have the greater part of them to perish. That he has imposed a law up- on them, which iie requires them to obey on penalty of his eternal displeaisure, though he knows they cannot do it with- out his irresistible grace ; and yet is absolutely deteimined to withhold this grace from them, and then punish them eternally for what tjiey could not do with- out his divine assistance.
II. That Jesus Christ, by his death and sufierings, made an atonement for the sins of all
mankind in general, and of ev- ery individual in particular; that, however, none but tiiose who believe in him can be partakers of tlicir divine bene- fit
That is, the death of Christ put all men in a capacity of be- ing justified and pardoned, uj)- on condition of their faith, re- pentance, and sincere obedi- ence to the laws of the new cov- enant.
For the scriptures declare, in a vai-iety of places, that Christ died for the whole world. John iii. 16, 17. God so loved the worlds that he gave his only begotten 8&119 that who- soever beUisved an him, might not perish, but have everlasting life, &c. 1 John ii. 2. He is the propitiation, not only for our sins, hit for the sins of the whole world. And the apostle ex- presses the same idea in Heb. ii. 9, when he says, Christ tast- ed death for every mun. Here is no limitation of that com- prehensive phrase.
If Christ died for those who perish, and for those who do not perish, he 4ied for all. That he died for those who do not perish, is confessed by all ; and if he died for any who may or shall perish, there is the same reason to affirm that he died for all who perish. Now that he died for such, the scrip- ture says expressly in 1 Cor. viii. 11. And through thy know- ledge shall the weak brother per- ish, for whom Christ died* Hence it is evident, Christ di-
ed for those who pcrishi and Sh* those who do not perish : therefore he died for all men.
III. That mankind are not totally depraved ; and that the sin of our first parents is not imputed to us^ nor shall we be hereafter punished for any but our own personal transgres- sions.
For, if all men are uttwly unable to do good, and con- tinually inclined to all manner of wickedness, it follows they are not moral a^nts. For how are we capable of perform- ing our duty^or of regulating our actions by a law, commanding good and forbidding evil, if our minds are bent to nothing but what is evil ? Then sin must be natui'al to us ; and if natur- al, then necessary with regard to us; and if necessary, then no sin. For what is natural to us, as hunger, thirst, &c. we can by no means hinder ; and what we can by no means hinder, is not our sin. Therefore man- kind are not totally depraved.
That the sin of our first pa- rents is not imputed to us is evident, because as the evil action they committed was personal, so must their real guilt be personal, and belong only to themselves, and we cannot in the eye of justice and equity be punishable for their transgressions. See Jer. xxxi. 29, 30.
IV. That there is a measure of grace given to every man to profit withal, which is neith- er irresistible nor irrevocable 5
but is the foundation of all ex- hortations to repentance^ faith, &c. For if conversion be wrought only by the overpower- • ing operation of God, and man is purely passive in it, vain are all the commands and ex- hortations to wicked m^n to turn from their ercU woMfs ; to cease to do evUf and learn to do weU; to put off the old man, and put on the new. See Isai. L 16. Deut. X. 16. Eph. iv. 22, and various other passages of scripture to the same purpose. Were an irresistible power necessary to the convei*sion of sinners, no man could be con- veiiied sooner than he is ; be- cause before this irresistible action came ui)on him, he could not be converted, and when it came upon him he could not resist its operation. And therefore no man could reasonably be blamed for hav- ing lived so long in an uncon- verted state, and it could not be praiseworthy in any person who was converted, since no man can resist an overpower- ing operation.
V. That true believers may fall from their faitli, and forfeit finally their state of grace.
For, the doctrine of a possi- bility of the final departure of true believers fiH)m the faith is expressed in Heb. \i. 4> 5, 6. It is impossible for those who were once enlightenedf S^c. if they shaXL fall axvay, to renew them again to repentance. See also 1 Cor. ix. 27. 2 Pet. ii. 1 8—20. And many other pas-
sages of scripture to the same purpose.
All comjnands to persevere and stand fast in the faith, show that there is a possibility that believers may not stand fast and persevere unto the end. AU cautions to Christians not to fall from grace, are eviden- ces and suppositions that they may falL Fur what we have just reason to caution any per- son against, must be something which may come to pass, and be hurtful to him. Now such caution Christ gives his disci- ples, Luke xxi. 34. To those who had like precious faith i*ith the apostles, St. Peter saiQi, Beware, lest, being led a- wojf by the errour of the wicked, foufaUJrom your own stead- futness. 9. Pet. iii. 17. There- fore he did not look upon this M a thing impossible ; and the doctrine of perseverance ren- ders those exhoiiations and mo- tives insignificant, which are 80 often to be found in scrij)- ture.
In these points, which are considered as fundamental ar- ticles in the Arminian system, tl»e doctrine of free-will, as im- plyingaself-determining power \n the mind, is included. See Frerwillers and Pelagians.^
ARNOLDISTS, the follow- 61*8 of Arnold of Brescia, in the twelfth century, who maintained
pyblicly, that the treasurer and i*e venues of po[)es, bbiliops, and monasteries, ought to be sol- emnly ti'ansferred to the ru- lers of each state; and that nothing was to be left to the ministers of the gospel but a spiritual authority, and a sub- sistence draMn from tithes, and fi-om the voluntary oblations of the pcople.f
ARTEMONITES,adenom- ination in the second century, so called from Aitemon, who taught that at the birth of the man Christ, a ceiiiain divine energy, or poilion of the di- vine natui'e, united itself to him.
ARTOTYRITES, a sect in the second century, charged with celebrating the eucharist with bread and cheese : saying that the first oblations of men w^ere of the fruits of the eai-tli and of sheep. They admitted women to the priesthood.:|:
ASCLEPIDOT^^INS, a sect in the third century ; so called from Asclepidotus, who taught, like the modern Socin- ians, that Jesus Christ was a mere man.
ASCODOGRITES, a de- nomination which arose in the year 181. It is said they brought into their churclies, bags, skins, or bottles, filled witli new wine, to represent tilie new wine mentioned by
- Mosheim'd Eccles. Hist. vol. v. p. 3, 7, 8. Whitby on the Five Pints,
p. 106/107, &c Taylor on Original Sin, p. 13— 125. Stackhouse's Body «f Divinity. Ck>rrespondence between Clarke and Leibnitz, and between Priest- Itv and Price. ' -^ Moslieim, vol. ii. p. 450. ± Brougblon, vol. i. p. 85.
Christ; then danced round these botUesy and intoxicate'd themselves with the wine. They are likewise called As- citsd, and both woi'ds are de- rived from the Greek *a-»«59 a 6o«te.*
. ASCODRUTES, a branch of Gnostics in the second cen- tury^ who asserted that divine mysteries^ being the images o^ invisible things^ ought not to be represented by visible things, nor incorporeal things by cor- poi*eal and sensible. There- fore they rejected baptism and the eucharist.|
- ASSIDEANS, a party of
Jews^ which joined Mattathias in fighting for the fi*eedom of their countiy. See 1 Mace. ii. 42 * vii. 13»
ASSURITANS, a branch of the Donatists, who held that the Son was inieriour to the Father, and the Holy Ghost to the Son. -See Bonaiists.
ATHANASIANS, the fol- lowers of Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, who flourished in the fourth century. He was bishop forty six years ; and liis long administration was spent in a pei'petual combat against the Arians, and in defence of the doctrine of the Trinity. — The scheme of Athanasius is thus expressed in the creed which bears his name.:|: « The Catholic faith is this, that we
worship one God in Trinity and Trinity in unity. For there is one pei*son of the Father, anoth- er of the Son, and and another of the Holy Ghost But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, is all one ; the glory eqiial, the ' majesty coeternal." See Triri' itarians.
Tliis system also includes in it, the belief of two natures in Jesus Christ, viz. the divine and human, forming one per- son.
To prove the divinity of Ciirist,and his coequality with the Father, this denomination argue thus :
In John i. 1. it is expressly declared, that In the begimdng was the TVord^ and the Word was with Godf and the Word iva^ God.
Tliat " the Word," in what- ever way we choose to trans — late the original term, which i^ so rendered, whether we retain, this rendering, or give - this preference to wisdom or rea^ son, is here to be understood as a designation of Jesus Christ, appears evident from the whole of the subsequent context. It is said in the fourteenth verse, and the Word was made Jlesh, and ihivelt among us, fand we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, J fiiU of grojce and truth. Sup-
- Broughton, toL i. p. 191. f Ibid. p. 88.
^ It has been supposed that this creed, which bears the name of Athana- jiius» was not drawn up by Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria ; it is comtnonly attributed to Yigfilius, the African, who lived about the end of tt&e fifih century/ See Evans' Sketch, and Adams' Religious World Displayed.
posing it then to be admitted^ that " the Word*' here does not mean an attribute^ or an ab- stract quality personified, but a person ; and that this person is Jesus Christ: — ^it is clear, (hat the verse contains a plain and express declaration of his true and proper Divinity, The WordTcas Qod.
Christ's divinity and coe- quality with the Father, are (lainly taught in Philip. ii» 5, 69 Tf &c. Let this mind be in fm^ which was also in Chiist «fenu, whOf being in the form of Qodj thought it not robbery to be tqud with God, but made him- ^ftf no reputation, and took up^ w Aim the form of a servant^ ^c.
Our divine Saviour £iays of himself, / and my Father are 9Mf John X. 30. He that has
ledged the existence of one su- preme God, perfect in good- ness and wisdom, who pixiduc- cd from' his own substance seven beings, or aians, of a most excellent nature. Two of theso aions, called Dunamis and So- phia, (u e. power and ivisdomf) engendered the angels of the highest order. These angels formed a heaven for their hab- itation, and brought forth oth- ers of a nature somewhat in- feriour to their own, to the amount of three hundred and sixty live, under their mighty chief Ahi'axas.
It may be worthy of remai*k, that by this sect the word aion, from cxpiTSsiag only the dura- tion of beings, was by a meton- ymy employed to sig^iify the beings themselves. Thus the supreme Being was called aion; and the angels were distin- guished by the title of aioiis. All this will lead us to the true meaning of that word among the Gnostics. They had form- ed to themselves the notion of an invisible world, composed of entities, or virtues, proceeding from 'the Supreme Being, and succeeding each other at cer- tain intervals of time, so as to form an eternal chain, of which our world was the terminating link. To the beings which formed this eternal chain, the Gnostics assigned a certain term of duration, and a cer- tain sphere of action. Their terms of duration were at first
called aions; and themsdv^s wek'o afbei-wards metonymic^Jl* ly distinguished by that title, .^i
These beings, advaneeA-to the goverimient of the wwrl^ which they had created^ fell' by degrees li-om their original pi^v rity, and soon manifested tbm fatal marks of depravity and corruption. "1^ See Gnostics* . t
BAXT£RIANS, so caUq4 fi-om the learned and piou9 Mr. Richai'd Baxter, who was born in the year 1615. His design was to reconcile ,Calr vin and Arminius. For thip purpose he foimed a,|niddlD scheme between their systems. He taught that Grod had eiec^* ed some, whom he is determined to save, without any foresight of their good works ; and t^ others to whom the gospel jfi preached have common graqflb which if they improve, thcgr shall obtain saving grace^^Kr coi*ding to the doctrine of Aj^ minius. This denominati< surrounded with a divine light for seven days, and ^fitood in the highest contempla- tion and kingdom of joys!" Af- ter IliiS^ about the year 1600, he "Was kgain surrounded by the divine- light, and replenished
¥ritli the heavenly knowkdge; insomuch that by his inward light he sa;w into the essences^ uses, and properties of things, which were diiscovered to him by their lineamentSf^figui'es, and signatures. Intheyear 1610,. he had a third special illumina- tion, wherein still farther mys- teries were revealed to him; but it was not till the year 1612, that Behmen committed these revdations to writing. His first treatise is entitled, •iurora, which was seized by the senate of Gorlitz before completed. His next produc- tion is called The Three Princi- pUs9 by which he means the dark world, or hell ; the light world, or heaven ; and the ex- ternal or visil)le world, which we inhabit. In this work he more fully illustrates the sub- jects treated^ of in the former, and supplies what is wanting in that work, showing, (1.) How all things came from a work- ing-will of the holy, triune, in- comprehensible God, through an outward, perceptible, work- ing, triune power of fire, light, and spirit, in the kingdom of heaven.— ^2.) How and what angda and men were in their creation ; that they are in and from God, his real offering ; that their life begun in and from this divine fire, which is the Father of light, generating a birth of light in their souls ; from both which proceeds the
- Baxter's Cath. TheoL p. 51.' 53. Baxter's End of Controv* p, 154.
f Mosheim, rol. iii. p. 333, 388, fcc. new edit
boly Spirity or brea0i^of divine love in the triune crefibuxfh as in the triune Cre«tcNr.-rr(3.) How some angek^ and all meiiy are from Godt and what ihey
are in their £EkIIm atate.FrrC'^) How the earthy stara* and eler ments were create^f in conae* quence of the tall of angcla^ ■ ■ (SV) Whence there is good and evil in all this temporal world ; and what is meant by the purse that dwells in it— (6.) Of the kingdom of Cluist^ how it is set in opposition to the king- dom of helL — (70 How man^ through faith in Christ, is able to overcome the kingdom of hell, and thereby obtain eternal salvation. — (8.) How and why sin and misery shall only reign for a time, until God AbU, in a supernatural way, make fiiUen man rise to the ^ory of angels.
The next year 3ehmen pro- duced his Thru-fM JUfe ofMrn, according to the three pri^d^fles. In this work be treats more largely of the state of man in this world :-^Tbat be has— 1. That immortal spark of life wliicb is common to angels and devils: — 2. That divine life which forms the difference .be- tween both ; and 3. Thelife of this external and visible world. The first and last are common to all men ; but the second only to a true Christian.
Bebmen wrote several other treatisea, bat these are the basis of all his otber writings. His
cmceptipns. m^ qfiten dttttml, > under alltgoriDal syn^olai WH&f J in bis latter writings ta Jh^nt: frequently adopted . Qhftoklft phitksea which helKimyw^ frnw ^.'^ conversation with IfNumod mea^na But as to the matter contnino^;n in tihem, he dischuma havii|Bi>i3 borrowed it either from moa mfnU books. lie died in ih^- ^jpeWiio 16£4, and Im Iftft worda )!ieeMtr(> «Now I go heipe inta pwMoq dise!"* .: jr n^(
Bebmen's principles wereif^K(< dopted by the lato ingeniMRix) and pious Mr. I^iw, wfaOjr Jw clothed them in a more ni(Airi>)[q dress, and in a less .ohacumfT style ; tor whose sentinents^ MlHaf
article .Vf xticg.
BENEDICTINES, ltt gyman, was the founder -of this denomination. They first as-
• Behvten's Woiiu« vol. i. p. 6—20 ; vol. ii. |fc 1. Okely's Mexnoh^ of Beh. ncn, p. 1— 8. ' ■ *■
9d as asqwrate society ot tians in the city of Ediii-
9 BereaiiB agree with the &hed cburclies of En^and ■c^and respectiiie the ff predestinatioii and dec- liioogh they allege thiat doctrines are not consist- tauight in either, bnt they '- finom them in varions u. Particularly, they re- lU i^atural religion ^ and fOxBit cmr knowledge of B fhun revelation alone. gr hold faith to be a sim- mence in God's word, eonsider personal assur- as of the essence of Mth. argue, that Ood has ex- f mclared, Hs thai bdiev* 80 he saved ; and there- E" is not only absurd but dSf and in a manner call- M a liar, for a man to ^t believe the Gospel, but itenbts nevertheless of my nivation. They main- hat unbelief is the unpar- Jie sin.
ey^ consider a great part B Old Testament-history, be whole book of Psalms, rpical or prophetic of i^ and do not apply them le erperience of private tifuis. SeeJSitcAinsoninms.
In admitting to communion, this denomination do not re- quire that account of personal experience which many other churches do. When tihey ex- clude unworthy members fcur immoral conduct, they do not think themselves authorized to deliver them over to Batan, ajr the apostles did; that power they consider as restricted to the aposties, and to the inspir- ed testimony alone ; and not to be extended to any church on eiarth, or any number of church- es, or of Gbriistians, whether de- cided by a majority of votes, or by unanimous voices.f
The doctrines of the Bereans have found converts in Eng- land, Scotland, and America.
BERENOARIANS, a de- nomination in the elev^h cen- tury, followers of Berengari- us, who asserted that the bread and wine in the Lord's supper are not really and essentiaUy, but figuratvedyt changed into the hoij and blood of Christ. But his followers were divided in opinion : alt agreed that the elements are not essentially changed, though some allowed them to be changed in effect^
BERYLLIi^S, so called from one Bcryllus, an Arabian bishop in the third century.
Ir. Barclay says, ** By whatever evit^^ce I hold the resurrection of Jesus, •ame precise evidence I must hold, it for a truth thft I am jastifled— for ithfeqoally asserted botb.**— On this M'Lean reiparks— *< The resurreo- a troth independent of my believing, and the subject of direct testimo* it my justification is not declared to be a truth until I believe the fbr- nor is directly asserted, but promised on that provision. If thou thalt , &c. ^m. z. 9»" See M*Lean's Commisaion of the Apostlf 8. Be BarcUy*s Works. Nicols' Essajrs, lie. ict. of Arts and Sciences, rot i. p* 389.
He taught that Christ did not exist befoi*e Mary ; but that a portion of the divine nature was united to him at his birth.*
♦BETHLEHEMITES, a sect, or rather a religious order^ distinguished by a red star on their breast, which they called the Star of Bethlehem. They settled at Cambridge in the thirteenth century.f
♦BEZPOPOFTSCHINS, a class of Russian Dissenters, in- cluding all those who either have no regular priests, or who refuse to acknowledge those of the established church : they are the Duhobortsif PomoryanSf TheodosianSf and ten othei's, which will be found under their places in the alphabet.:^
BIDDELIANS, the foUow- ers of John Biddle, aSocinian, who in the year 1644 erected an independent congregation in London. He taught that Jesus Christ hath no other than a hu- man nature ; and yet» like So- einus, made no scruple of call- ing him God, on account of the divine sovereignty with which he was invested.^ See Sodni-
BIRMANS, inhabitants of the Birman country in India. Their Religion originated from the same source as the Hindoo, but differs in some of its tenets. They are worahippers of Boodh, in which form .they believe Vishnu appeared in his ninth
incamationf and forbade.itedfr priving any being of life. Tfaej; therefore eat no animal foods and believe that, after fanYing undergone a number of tranaf migrationsf they shall at lait be eithjDr received to their Olym? pus, or sent to a place of piut^ ishment. . i ;
The Birmans do not tortvrp their bodies like the Hindoaoi} but think it meritorious to omiv tify them by a voluntary 'ab- stemiousness and self-deninUi
BOGOMILES, a sect in 0M twelfth century, which spnmg from the Massalians. T|m^ derived their name from thf) divine mercy, which its mcaoEh hers are said to have inc^sfUMB^P? ly implored ; for the word .tqp< omUeSf in the Mysian toKiw signifies caUing fin" mercy^fi^ above. .'i. ?-.^
Basilius, a monk at 6Mi stantinople, was thdr foupideiSi and the doctrines he tangl|^-jlt is said, were similar to Hkptif^JIff the Manicheans.^ t. .,)
•BOHEMIAN BRETH- REN, a Society of Clir^ti^ii Reformers, which sprang op jai Bohemia about 1467 ; in \rS5 they united with the Lutheiriii|S and afterwards with the Zijiiii- glians. ~ . .
BONOSIANS, a branch and employ a great f their goods in alms and of pie^.*
UBIGNONISTS, a de- bfion in the seventeenth yy which sprang from the d Antoinette Bourignon Ponte, a native of Flan- iirKo pretended to be divine- yiredf and set apart to re- le true spirit of Christian- it had been extinguished tblogical animosities and ii. The leading princi- hich run through her pro- ns are as follow :— 'That 9^ perfectly free to resist i6iVe divine grace. That li'ever unchangeable love ds all his creatures, and 'lOft inflict any arbitral^ iment ; but that the evils bflbr are the natural con- dces of sin. That true )n consists not in any out- forms of worship, nor OS of faith J but in an en- efiignation of the will to
is lady was educated in oman Catholic reli.6:ion; he declaimed equally a-
gainst the corruptions of the church of Rome and those of the reformed churches : hence she was opposed and persecuted by both catholics and protestants. She maintained that there ought to be a toleration of all religions.
Those who are desirous of seeing a particular account of the life and writings of this la- dy, may consult an abridgment of the « Li^t of the World, published in 1786, by the New Jerusalem church.
- BRAMINS,(fi»rmerly call-
ed Brachmans,) the Priests of Brachma, the supreme God of the Hindoos f which see.
♦BRAZILIANS. The na- tives of Brazil were so much terrified by thunder, that it was not only the object of religious i*everence, but the most ex- pressive name in their lan- guage ; for the Deity was call- ed Toupafif the thnnderer.
BRETHREN & SISTERS
OF THE TREE SPIRIT. They,
about the thirteenth century, gained jBrround imperceptibly in Italy, France, and Grermany. They took their denomination from the words of Paul, (Rom. viii. S — 14.) and maintained that the true children of God were invested with the privi- lege of a full and perfect free- dom from the jurisdiction of the law> ITiey were called by the Grermans and Flemish, Bag" hards and BegiiUes, names giv-
Irou^hton, vol. i. p. 170.
'ufresnoyfs Chronnlofi^Ical Tables, toI. li. p. 25S. !^Iosbeiin, vol. T. p. 64.
>f the World, p. 27—430. MaJ. Bourignon's Letters.
en to those who made an es:tra- ordinary profession of piety and devotion.
The sentiments taught by this denomination were as fol- low: — ^That all things flowed by emanation from God, and were finally to return to their divine source : — ^That every man^ by the power of contem- plation, might be united to ih€ Deity in an ineffable manner ; and that they who, by long and assiduous meditation had]^ung- ed themselves, as it were, into tike abyss of the divinity, ac- quired thereby a most glorious and sublime liberty; and were not only delivered from the vi- olence of sinful lusts, but even fi*om the common instincts of nature.
They treated with contempt every external act of religious worship; looking upon prayer, and the sacraments as the ele- ments of piety, adapted to the capacity of children, and as un- necessary to the perfect man, whom long meditation had rais- ed into the bosom and essence of the Deity.*
♦BRETHREN & CLERKS "OF THE COMMON iiTTBy a frater- nity of the order of St Augus- tine, who are commended for promoting the cause of religion and learning* about the time of the reform8Ction.t
BROWNISTS, the name given for s(Hne time to those
who were afterwards knowit' in England and Holland under Urn denomination of) HndipmidmiM^ It arose from a Mr. B o hy t Brown, who about 1690 waa*.« teacher amongst them in Bpff land, and at Middleburgy. im' Zealand. He was a m»n ^ education, zeal, and abililieB. The separatioiTy howevert docs not appear to have ongbi^hrf in him: for by several pubfifl^ tions of those timeSf it is ^jlflV that these sentiments had* IM)^ fore his day, been e uit > »eli«ired in a Mrs, from Chins &nd Siam. Its au-
Ufrof GlMgow, itito gave Hior is Supposed to hare been
f'^eot' to'-be the Woman Budha, whom the Indian bra>
n -it in the 'ApocBlypse, mins conceive to he their god
hnmised to conduct her Vishnn, who, the^'saT', made
^tri'ta heaven without Ay- his fdnth appearance in the
Vat she died soon after, world* under the form of a man,
Wt her the aAct ended.* so named. 9ee Hindoos. 'blfEIANS, a branch of •BURGHERS, a numerotfs
icinians, which appeared and respectable class of sece-
'^ear 1589) and maintain- dera,'tromllie church of Scot-
i Christ was not begotten land, originally connected witb
ly extraordinary act of the Associate Presbytery ; but
I'pnwur; bat that he was some difference arising ahoutthe
ike other men in a natur- lawfulness of the Bui^^ess oath,
ff'and not a properobject a separation took place in 1739*
iM worship.! See Soein- and those who refused the oath, were called Antibm^pra.* See
980, a form of Pagan Becedert, ^ mtroduced into Japan,
JlJ^ALISTS, certain doc- third, which is properly ,tbe
ntong the Jews, \^ho pre- Cabbala, is an art, by which
it derive from tradition they profess to raise mysteri.-
,;Qmatic or secret science, ous expositions of ttie scrip-
ihe ^CahbaliL. Tlits aci- tures upon the letters of the
^jd^yi^edintotlu-eoaorts., sentences, to which they ^ply
Gj^^f: kind* the Jews ex< titeok
— "-■ >:*^ meanings from The cabbalists 8appo» ev-
scripture. The ery letter, point, or accent of
(ind of ma^c, in the law to contain some hidden
E^ig' the , words and let- mystery, which was revealed
- ^9i-!ptiii'<^incei-taincora- to Moses on Mount Sinai, but
M^ whii'Ti (hey .suppose not written, (whence it is called
uwer o^er^.tUo ^od and the oral law^ but handed down
iiui-i^ of ^e infiaible by tradition among these mys>
f^iKarwilh them.' The tic doctors. j:
It is said, that the cabbalistic mysteries are at present despis- ed by the more intelligent part of tilie Jewish nation.
CAINIANS, a denomination which sprang up about the year ISO, so called on account of their great respect for Cain. They pretend that the virtue which had produced Abel was of an order inferiour to that which had produced Cain; and that this was the reason why Cain had the victory over Abel and killed him.
The morals of this denomi- nation were said to be very de- fective.*
CALIXTINS, a branch of the Hussites, in Bohemia and Moravia, in the fifteenth centu- ry. The principal point in which they differed from the church of Rome, was the use of the chal- ice, (calix,) or communicatuig in both kinds. Calixtins was also a name given to those a- mong the Lutherans, who fol- lowed the opinions of George Calixtus, a celebrated divine in the seventeenth century, who -endeavoured to unite the Rom- ish, Lutheran, and Calvinistic churches in the bonds of chari- ty and mutual benevolence, tak- ing the apostle's creed as his foundation of union.!