A Dictionary of All Religions and Religious Denominations/dumpH

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HENRICIANS, the fidlow- ers of one Henry, a pious and zealous monk of Uie twelfth centory. He rejected the bap- tism of infants, censured with severity the licentious manners of the clergy, whom he in vain attempted to reform^ and treat- ed the festivals and ceremonies of the church with great con- tempt. He died in prison.^

HERACLEONITES, the followers of Heradeon, from whom they were named.** Sea Valentittians^

HERMOGEI^IANS, a de- nomination which arose to«  wards the close of the second century ; so denominated from Hermogenest a painter by pro- fession. He regarded matter as the turbid fountain of all e- vil, and could notpersuade him- self that God had created it, be- cause he was willing to attrib- ute to him nothing but good ; he believed however, that from this eternal mass of evil andcor- ruption^ the Deity formed this beautiful world, and its inhab- itants, both cdestial and tcrres-

trial.tt n£B:NHUTTERS, Mor^-

' *' PuUiurst'B Greek Lex. in '£C^»?,$.

t I.Ardner's Heretics, p. 424, &c ^ Doddridge in loc.

' S Wolfius in loc. Parkhurst'8 Greek Lex. in '£AA«»(^€.

t Sooteh Theol. Diet, t Modi. vol. ii. p. 448. ** Brou|rh. vol i. ^ 484 tt Mosheim, voL i. p. 190. LArdner*s Tleretic*, p. S74, fee.


me 106 uiK

\iAnfi, or united brclliron, bo saiil to Lavo exduded iCroiB ttiA

called from their settlement at kingdom of heaven clMld)i;qfb

Hemhutli. See United Brethren, who died before Uiey .ni^juv

H£RODlA?ilS, those Jews livedto tbeuBO of reasouj^UlA

nho adhered to Herod and the that iipon the suppoaitt^q i

Rom^Q governjncnt> and in mar Gad was bound to adn' ,*

ny instances symbolized with rewai'da to those tudij wl^ J

tlifihcathent in opposition to ^e fairly liitished their victor)

patriotic party, which adhered con^ct with the body affiTj

closdy to the Mosaic hiw, and iusts : he maintained alao 1

groaned undci' this foreign Melghisedec was the ,^QD

ydce. They lit'ere chiefly Sad- Ghost Bis disciples t^wt£

ducees^andiiersonsofliceiitious that the Word, or Son of^jl^f^

inanners.* See JUark viii. 15. is contained in the FalhetyiU

HE'TEROUSIANSjaiiamc a little vessel in a great lu^

given to one of tlic Ariau divi- whence tlicy had the, Qfur~ '

siona, which taught tMt the na- J^MallgisnumiUSfiBom the Q ^

tureofthe Soi] was not even vfori /urityyirfLmt. Heau^u

aiinilai- to that of the Father, nied the doctrine of the i'

See HomoiousiaKi. redion.| ~ HIKBACITES^ a denomi- HINDOOS, orHixcus, otl^-

nation in the thii-d century; so erwise called Gcttbws, the ol^

calledfromtheirleaderHieras, ginal inhabitants of Hind<^0^

a philosopher and magician of tan or Indostiin and the hr^^

Egypt, M^omaintainedthatthe mins are theii- prie^Ls. Tli^

principal ot^jectofCLriat'smin- pretend that llieir legisla^^,

istry, was the promulgation of Brama, bequeathed to theoi^^

a new law, more severe and book, called the xedus, tjon-

perfect than Uiat of Moses, taining his doctiincs and. lO,-

Hence he concluded that the structions. The sliaiiscrit^ )an-

uae of flesh, wine, wedlock, and guage, in whitli the vedas§ are

of other things agreeable to the written, was, for many oentn-

outward senses, wiiicfahadbeen ries, concealed in the hand»|of

permitted under the Mosaic thcbramins; but has at lenj^

dispensalion, was absolutely been brought to light, hjr. n^

protubited by Christ. He is indefatigable iudustFy tit' tfaa

■ SUcklieuM'a Bittof the Bible, vol. v. p. 128. f Motheim, vol- Lp*346.

^ The«lunicritUn^uge T(B till l&tcly little loiown even in Arik. r^fiji deemed ucred by the brammi, uid confined loteiy to Uie office*of nKJia^ Tlie import of iti nune it, kccordLnf!' to the caateni itylc, Itt langnagm -^pmi* fieUon Fjic^cIo podia, vol. xir- p. J30. i-H

^Tlwanttqiiity of the ve6aa hui been much questioned by £urDpe*m adnlk art. There ia a very able treatue w the auhject, by H. T. CokTidKt, E*qi;ita theei^hthTol of the Asiatic KneRTchea. UetbiukainteTpolationivillbeiiHtBd in then- aacred writin|{a or vedu, and tays that luch hue been found By Bk ytio. Jonea and Mr, Blaqutere ; but adda, that the greateat part of the boeki, jc* cL-ived by the learned lliQdaf.wJIacsuteilly be found genuiM. -. - - .-H -

ftbi lor HIN

Unlearnt arid jngenions Sir and temples, tin at length the

1f^ iRtneB aiid btbers. descendants o( Ham Invaded

'TH(!' Rtv. Mr. Maurice, a and conquered India, and cor-

'"hKitt '*rit«r of the present nipteil their ancient i-elirion. ', ttais, in kn elaborate -work, According to tiic HlndoD the-

"*"!, ** A history of the an- ology, Brahme,* the great he-

Sot India," traced the ing> ia the supreme, cternid,

|til (if the Hindoo nation, uncreated God. Brama, the

' "diiTehiped their religious first created being, hj' whom he

tfim.| ' The fnllo^ng imper- made and govetns tiic world, is

i sketch of the religion of theprinccofthebcneficentspir-

i^^tan^Js taken fi-om that its. Ho is assisted by Visli-

Jsorl ■" " no, the grea.t preserver of men,

Hi "^opposes that the first who, nine teveral times, ap-

JiJ(^|hii9on 6f mankind took peared upon earth, and under a

|flt^"^fUre flie confusion of human form, for the most be-

^nffis|i£ Habel, from there- neficent purposes. Yishnu is

npH'tif Ararat, where the ark oEten styled Crishna, the In-

raiSd. 1^7 the time the earth dian Apollo, and in hia cbarac-

"was suITiciently dry fDr so lon^ t«r greatly resembles the Mi-

a joui-riey, either Noah himself, thra of Persia. This prince of

or gome descendant of Shem, the benerolent Deutas has for

^ditally led on the first jour- a coadjutor Mahadeo, or Si-

«eV fo thi-, n estem frontiers of va, the destroying power of

Inai!^ ; that this inci-easing col- God. And this three-fold di>

Brty' flourished for a long sue- vinity, armed with the terrours

cesiio'nof ages in primitive hap- of almighty power, pursue

^itiess and innocence ; practis- through the whole extent of

eS thi' purest rites of the patri- creation the rebellious Deutas,

arbhal religion, witliout imag^ headed by Mahasoor, the great

•'l^'Mcemiiar U> 9ir W. Jone«, the supreme God BnJira^ in ^is triple fbrm, )«ilH leAe to UiatiriiiclieiUted not before, thej call the Delt; Brahme. 'Uriien 6» ritlw him in the lif^t of deitrojcr, or rsther chan){er of fonrls, he U crI- UT Mhidea; Siv*t utd rariou* other nnnea. When they contlder him uth) I Wi WT Ci of created thingw, they give him the name of Vishnu j for iJnce t t t J X re r of pr e t Mv ing creation by a auperintcnding; providence belongs emi- w^to'diefqdkead, they hold that pover to exist tranicaidently in tbs |lwe(?ln(> nMSBber of the triad, nhom they ntppuse to be every «iiere always; W'in MdMtanoe, bat in spirit and enerfy. See Asiatic Rraearches.

fcllowinj the leading ideas of Sir W. Jones, Mr. Maurice asserts, that 'We if a perpotiul recurrence of the sacred triad in the Asiatic mytliolo^iy ( ^Uttliic doctriaeof a trinity was pTOinQlgfated in India, In the i;vets. ISOO years (>*lin«:-tbe birth of PUto; ibrof that remote (Ute are the Elephanta cavern, "td the Tndiln biatory of Mahabharat, in which a triad of Dei^ are alluded to,

  • iti detignrtcd. Home he lupposea that the doctrine of a trinity was delivcr-

^ fimn the ancient patriarchs, and diSthed over the east during the migra- 1 (im and diaperiion of their Hebrew posterity.




malignant spirit who seduced The Hindoos suppose thai

theni; and dart upon their flying there ai'e fourteen bobuns^ or

bands the fiery shafts of divine spheres ; seven below^ and sev-

vengeance. en above the earth. The spheres i

The nine incarnations of above the earth are gradaUllr.

Vishnu, represent the Deity ascending. The highest issthsi

descending in a human shape to accomplish certain awful and important events, as in the in- stuice of the three first ; to con- found blaspheming vice, to sub- vert gigantic tyranny, and to avenge oppressed innocence, as in the five following ; or final- ly, as the ninth to abolish hu- man sacrifices.

The Hindoo system teaches the existence of good and evil

residence of Brahma and Us- particular favourites. After tbo^ soul transmigrates through va^4 rious animal mansions, it mmm\ cends up the great sideral lad«i* der of seven gates, and throii|^ ( the revolving spheres, whicH-^ are called in Indu^ the bobumi^ of purification. . ' >k

It is the invariable belief -^fiT the bramins that man is affdkR

creature. Their doctrine of the* nu, or, in the language of transmigration of the soul- iS* indostan, debtas, dewtas, or built upon this foundation. TThe^

professed design of the metem- psychosis was to restore ^bm fallen soul to its pristine 0t$im\ of perfection and blessednoiaj The Hindoos represent the Jki^

devitas. These are represent- ed as eternally conflicting to- gether ,* and the incessant con- flict which subsisted between them filled creation with up-

roar, and all its subordinate ty as punishing only to rdSlmit

classes with dismay. his creatures. Nature itself

The doctrine of the metem- exhibits onevastfiddof purf^

psychosis, or transmigration of tory for the classes of existengoi^

souls, is universally believed in Their sacred writings rej^^esent

India, from which country it is supposed to have originated many centuries before the birth of Plato, and was first promul- gated in the goeta of Uyasa, the Plato of India. This doctrine teaches that degenerate spirits, fallen from their original recti- tude, migrate through various bobuns, in the bodies of differ- ent animals.

• It is snpposed that Pythajs^oras derived his doctrine of transmigration the Indian bramins ; for in that ancient book, the institutes of Menu* said td' compiled many centuries before Pythagoras was bom, there is a long chiiptefle on transmigration and final beatitude. It is there asserted, that so for n's '^"^ tal souls, addicted to sensuality, indulge themselves in forbidden pl^urev,

the whole universe as an ample and august theatre for the pro- bationary exertion of miHioa» of beings, who are supposed tji^ be so many spirits ac^grad^ from the high honouraof angiw? ieal distinction, and con&eaxk^ ed to ascend, through varioltt gradations of toil and auQer? ing,* to that exalted sphere ^ perfection and happiness whidi




thqr «gayed befim their defec- titn.

This doctrine^ io uniyersallj piof»ieiit in Asia, that man is aijhfleii caoBatore, gave birth to flMperauasion, tiiat by severe srifcriiigB^ and a long series of pNbationary disci^ne, the soul mijght be restored to its peuutive purity. Hence obla- tioDB the most costly, and sac- riiirai the most sanguinary, in ilieliQpe.of propitiating the an- gDitipowerSy forever loaded the altan of the pagan deities. ISheif/'liad ev^n sacrifices de- ntiifinatod those of regeneration, aafl Hiose sacrifices were al- iifm3% profusely stained with Uddd.

ditke Hindoos suppose that Ai: vicious are consigned to pNpvtual punishment in the aBmotion it successive animal fonlBB^ fill» at the stated period, nAer renovation of the four jMf^or grand astronomical pe- riq^i^^shall commence upon the doBdotion of the present. Then

they are called to begin anew the probationary journey of souls, and all will be finally happy.

The destruction of the exist- ing world by fire is another tenet of the bramins.

The temples, or pagodas, for divine worship in India, are magnificent ; and their reli- gious rites are pompous and splendid. Since the Hindoos admit that the Deity occasion- ally assumes an elementary form, without defiling his holi- ness, they make various idols to assist their imaginations, when they ofifer up their prayers to the invisible Deity.

Besides the daily offerings of rice, fruits, and ghee, at the pagodas, the Hindoos have a grand annual sacrifice, not v^ry unlike that of the scape-goat a- mong the Hebrews.* They inculcate various and frequent ablutions, which are intended as means of purifying their souls from sin.

tq^tbe fiapt degpree shall tibe acuteness of their senses be nused in their future W&»y that they may suffer analogous pain.

'* The necessity of some atonement for sin^ is one of the prevailing ideal

iSmipUie Hindoos. Hence they sacrifice certun animals at stated seasonal

I particularly a horse, which is the victim above referred to ; and hence

I voluntary tortures which they inflict upon themselves. Mr. Swartz, one of

i Malabanan missionaries, who was instrumental in converting two thousand

]»>tiam to the christian religion^ relates that a certain man on the Malabar

^M|t had inquired of various devotees and priests how he migjht make atone-

^gfft I .and at last he was directed to drive iron spikes, sufficientSv bhmtedL

%ray|^ his sandals ; and on these spikes he was to place his naked feet, and

^^IlA^ ihoiit fbur hundred and ei^ty miles. If, through loss of blood, or wei&-

^«n cf bodv, he was necessitate to halt, he was oblu^ to wait for heaUng

  • fed itvength. He undertook his journey ; and while he halted under a lai]ge

^nady tree, where the gospel was sometimes preached, one of the missionaries

^«ne and preached in his hearing from these words : " The blood of Jesus

^jbrislt deanseth from all sin." While he was preaching, the man rose up,

^hK.w offhia torturing sandals, and cried out aloud, Thi9 ia v>hat I watu ; and

«ie became a living witness of the truth of that passage of scripture, which had

aoch.a happy effect apon his mind* Sec Baptist Annual Register for 1794.




The Hindoo religiomistB are divided into a great variety of gects/ but ultimately branch fortii into two principal onios; those of Vishnu and Siva, the worshippers bf the Deity in his preserving and destroying ca- pacities.

There subsists to this day a- among the Hindoos a voluntary sacrifice of too singular and shocking a nature to pass un- noticed ; which is that of the wives burning themselves with the bodies of theii* deceased husbands. These women are trained from their infancy in the full conviction of their ce- lestial rank ; and the belief that this voluntary sacrifice is the most glorious period of their lives; and that thereby the ce- lestial spirit is released from its transmigrations, and the evils of a miserable existence, and flies to join the spirit of their deceased husbands in a state of purification.

In a particular district of Bengal, religious veneration is paid to the eow ; in former times it was universal through Hindostan. This animal is venerated in a religious sense, ■as holding in the rotation of the metempsychosis the rank im- mediately preceding the human , form ; and in a political sense as being the most useful and ne- cessary of the whole animal cre- ation, to a people forbidden to feed on any thing which has breathed the breath of life.

From the earliest period, the people of India, like the Chi- nese, seem to Lave maintained

the saitie religion, latirs, ^rid customs. The religion of the Hindckis, flibiigh involv^'th'sii- perstition and idolatiTi' 'sdUittf to have been 6riginsdly'^ti]W| inculcating the belief of ail Md(^ nal and omnipotent Bein^ ; flKlr subordinate deities^ Braitti^^ Vishnu, and Siva, boing[ 'biiS ly representatives of t)v6-wW2! dom, goodness, and poSver iilt the supreme Brahme, Whl(8f they call « TAc Pri Truthy the 8pvnJt of and the Supreme Being f* thoVhtiB others think them emblettiia^ of the mysterious doctrine (ifthtf trinity, as believed by the'iett^* cient Hebrews. - ' ■ '"'» *

It is a singular circumstiliid^ that there is a striking sidvUitt^^* ity between the sacred H^Ceb't^ the Hindoos and those tit mf ancient Jews; forinstanti^'lHp tween the character of the%Mli^ mins or priests, and the'l lH#t' ish levites; between the^!lir#^' mony of the scape-goat, aMME* Hindoo ceremony, in whi^^^' horse is used for the goat. 'Mv ny obsolete customs, aJQiid^ltf in the old testament, might di^ so receive illustration firom'tM' religious ceremonies of 'm^ Hindoos. They are jttrteM^' indifferent about making" pMU^- elytes or converts to th€fBf*#5^- ligion, alleging, that M *f^* gions are equally acceptabie^to the supreme Being; and^thlit' his wisdom and po^'er would- not have permitted such -^ vitffc riety, if he had not fodnd pleal^ sure in beholding them.

Mr. Halhed, in his code of Gentoo laws, has translated




tract from a preliminary irsje to their code, which Wl^^ the Gentoo as the tcdi^raiit of all religioiis. dijig to this extract, ^* the I^QS of belief amon^man- uf) a manifest demonstra- fithe power of the su- , iBeing. For it is evi- 2»t a painter, by sketch-

^;DiultipUcity of figures,

' arranging a vai*iety of jfp procures reputation fonen; and a gardener credit by producing a H pf different flowers. It R^re, absurdity and ig- ^,.to view in an infeii- ht, him, who created both |ij(.^andgardener«" Our itgoes on to infer, from Pfefties in created things, lie., supreme Being* has ^ and views diSei^nt if frellgjoiut worship with bpi^ncy. It has, howev- 4it«aid, that even the tol- gf which the Gentoo re- buts, is confined to the ities among themselves* IC. Wm. Jones thinks, that H^fin Christianity is not roadily received among -isy that tlioy confound, wn religion with it, and srthe jikdvent of Christ, ling more than one of the Ktions of Vishnu, f.^ptist society, which i|i)dod in l,r92, for evan- g the Iieathen, first sent r their ministers ; viz. ,,,T/ionui8f and Mr. 7^. to this country : and aU

their compunicationsx as well as the testimonies of many oth- ers who have made particular inquiry into these ihingSf fully confirm the above remarks.

For seven years Mr. Carey and his colleague, with another who joined them, seem to have laboured without any real suc- cess. But in the latter end of the year 1800, after the arrival of four more missionaries, and when they had formed a settle- ment at Seramporc, in the vi- cinity of Calcutta, success be- gan to attend their labours. The new testament, which had been translated into Bengalee, was now printed ; and several of the natives, who, it had been said, would never relinquish caste, cheerfully made this sa- crifice, and. were baptized in the name of the Lond Jesus. From that time to thi9 thqr have been gradually increas- ing; and the scriptures have been translated into several of the eastern languages; mis- sionaries have also, been sent from other societies*

HOFrMANISTS,thosewho espoused the sentiments of Dan- iel, Ifoffman, professor in the university of Hdhpstadtt^who in the year 1598 taught that the light of reason, even as it ap- pears in the writings of Plato and Aristotle^ is adverse to re- ligion ; and that the more the human understanding is culti- vated byphilosophical study, the more perfectly is the enemy sup- plied with weapons of defence.*

Wd'sllistor}* of Philosophy, vol. iu p. 5.




niitted on all hands^ that God has a perfect knowledge, fore- sight, aud view of all possible existences and events. If that system and scene of operation, in which UHH-al evil shoald nev- er have existence, was actually {vreferred in the divine mind, certainly the Deity is infinitely disappointed in the issue of his own in eating the '«!«• bidden fruit, was not tba octidT his posterity t thereforv-^ttqf did not sin at the same tim^w did. (S.) The sinfiilnesa of «hik act could not be htrnt/STrai. to them afterwards: because ttt sinfiilness of an act can no lilmi be tranfbrred from one peMM to another, than an act itieUL (3.) Therefore Adam's a«t^ -it eating the forbidden frnit^^^Mi not the cause, but only thirds casion of his posterity's ^^'^^^ sinners. Adam sinned, SM iiow Gk)d brings his poaLtlilf into the world sinners* ^ <

X. That though bctinv«M are justified through CIttMfkl righteousness, yet his liRM^ eousness is not trantfmm^^k them. For personal rfghtlsM»» ness cannot be transferrtii Cma one person to another, Mr fM* sonai sin, otherwise lAe siniMf would became innocent tmd Christ the sinner. (SeeCMqrf-

oM.) Thesci-iptore,tberefi»m^ r^resents believers asFeoelv- Ing Qfniy the henefiU of ChtMb ri^teoiTsness in justiftcatiofi, or their being pardoned and «I6- - cepted for Christ's rightocwt- - Ttcss' sake : and this is the pro — per scrlptui'e notion of impi^ti tion. Jonathan's ligliteo! was imputed to Mephibesbethe s when David showed ki ndn i ife d to luin for his father Jonatbmi':.^ sake. £ Sam. ix. 7.

The Hopkinsians warmly i vocatc the doctrine of tlic flivii decrees, that of particular i




ttm^' total ixftwrityf the spe- \Uk influence of ttie spirit of fiMia rtgrnention, jiistifica- IMi.'by fi^ aloney the final niievmmcA of the sainta^ and wicofuustaBey b^iween entim Maiom and absolate dependU ^Bk»$ and tterefore daim it as 4kir j w^ duey since the worid mSt' make distictioiisy to be flUHed Bapkindan CkdvimaU.^ t' Jin thu place It may be prop- er to notice the difference be- tneatt' CialTinisis and Hopkin- ifauidf which consists in the fbl* fawing particulars : FirsUyyon tte onipn of sin. Secondly, on Hm eonsequences of Adam's sin. IM^dlyy on the nature and ■chiMbtor of Tiitue or holiness. ■fmafMyf on the nature of sin. Sillidy^ on the nature and ex- Mt<^ God hath decreed ^ ih a itgu ever comes to pass ; yet ^ONiy lliat he is the efficient au- ^^Omr of sin 5-4>ut the Hopkin- ^iaAa assert, that God is theef- ^tendons cause of all volitions

in the human heart, whether goodor eviLf

Secondly, ok the amuquenca rf Mafmf$ wn. The Calvin- ists maint^n, that «<< any want of conforroify unto, or transgression of the law of God/' The Hopkinsians as- wts^9 that sin consists exclusive- ly in selfish moral exercises, . Fifthly, on the extent and nature if the atenemenU Ma- ny of the Calvinists maintain that Jesus Christ, by his death and sufibrings, made an atone- ment for the sins of the elect only. The Hoiddnsians assert, that the atonement was coex- tensive with the effeets of the &I1 ; and that Christ died not for a select number only, but for all mankind ; they suj^pdse, however, that though by the aton^ment'N' a way was opened for all, yet none but those who were elected to eternal life will be saved.

The Calvinists maintain that Clirist was substituted for the elect, to obey and snffisr in their stead, and was by imputation legally guilty, and that God cannot consistently with his jus^ tice, refuse to pardon those.

whom Christ has wnximMeA^hji> undergoing the penalty^ due t» their sins. On the other handy the Hopkinsiaiis assert, that tto atonement diflfers essentiaVy' from all notions of debii ani credit^ and is simply an CTh a-i bition of God's hatred to 8ii|# and regard to his holy larw^ By the atonement^, a way is qpened for the great goveraour of llie world, consistently to bestow or withhold mercj as should most effectually answer the purposes of divine gooA? ness. x

Sixthly, on the cffedetf di^ vine influmcee. The Calviniati maintain that << effectual cayiag* is the work of God's spinlif whereby convincing us of ohq sin and misery, enlightening our minds in the knowledge of Christ, and renewing oar wil|%i he doth persuade and «• to embrace Jesus Christy fineatt ly offered to us in the gorotfc The Hopkinsians asso^tf '^ult << effectual calling consiatB>iii| Godls creating in the hearta-aa sinners, by his own imnediato energy, a willingness to be.aaTi* ed.^' l%ey teach, that aUQod performs by his holy spirit asite make th«n willing to do» what they are really able to do befbnw

The Calvinists maintain^ tbiA i the best actions of good mm «  are blended with iroperfectioaiiL^ but some of the most emiaaafe'=^ of the Hopkinsian divines t^aff hdsi that every moral exercise. oCaap

  • The Hopkinsians say, that atonement and redemption are widely dig e i>* -

ent in their nature and efTects ; the former sets open the door of mmv, .t))^0 latter applies the benefits of Christ" See the Triangle, p. 62




KW0iviedperaoii9 is either per* fettlj good or perfectly eviL"^ . . «t Bevendilyj on' •jitstt^b^otioNk The CfllvinistB maintaiQ^ that «. jwtification is an actof God's Ireo gvace, wherein be pardmi* etb «11 our sinsy and accepteth ua as- righteous in his sights oidy for the righteousness of Christy imputed to us and re- OBived by jhith alone." The Hopkinsians teach that^ though flie righteousness of Christ is the'only ground of a sinner's jMificatioiit his righteousness is not transferred to them. Ac- eording to their system^ neither rti'iMnr holiness canbetrans- IkmMy either from Adam to his posterity^ or from Christ to his

iiB^li!tidy, on the dirisUan

^raaWir > The Calvinists main- idiby'thttt true faith in Christ if th^ beginning oi spiritual life* ani« }the fcun^tion of all the g H i y -christiBn graces. The Soj^tiBians assert, that re-

atBAoe: is previous to faith ; r that love comprehends in ito'lMUKnce all the christian l^races,

•^ . ijph^ reader may compare the standard works of the Calvin- 1Mb ' and Hc^kinsians, from which the general collective sen- ttnieBts of each denomination my be known. There are so Aiany shades of difference be«  tMcn' Calvinists and Hoi^dn- siana; and Hopkinsians. differ 80' mocb among themsclveSf

that it is next to impossible to draw the line between them^ so as to. do perfect justice to all.

Those who wish to see a more detailed account of the real and verbal diSereoces between Cal- vinists and Hopkiasiansy^may ooBSult Ely'a Contrast^ Wil^^ son's Letters to Ely^ the Trian* gle, a Series oi Numbers upon Three Theological Points^ &C published at New York» 1816» 18179 cuid Wilson on the atone-^ ment^ published at Pbiladel* phia, 1817.

HUGONOTS9 or HuouB^ voTs^ a name given by way of contempt to the reformed, or protestant Calvinists in France, about 1560. The name is va- riously derived ; some take it from a gate in Tours, called Eugonf where they first assem* bled; others from a faultjf French pronunciation of tibe German word eidgnossen, or confederates ; and others from the first words of theii* original protest^ or confession of fiuth, << Hue nos venimua,*^ &c. The persecution which these people underwent has scarcely its par* alld in history ; in 1572, up- wards of 70,000 of them were butchered in various parts o£ France, on the memorable eve of St. Bartholomew ; nor were their sufierings much mitigat- ed till Henry IV. in 1598,pub- lished the edict of Nantz, miich secured them the free ezmr- cise of their religion. But in

  • This doctrine is not held univeraally amon^^ the Hopkinsuns ; but it is ad-

tbisatai by Dr. Emmotts and Dr. Strong.'




16SS ihia edkt wis cnielljr and dttddenljr revoked bj Louis XIV. when the persecution a«  gain began; their eharches were demolishedy thdr estates oonfiscstedy their persons in- aulted by the bigoteid soldiery ; and after the loss of innamwa^ ble iivesy 500^000 of them were driven into exile in foreign countries**

•HUMANITARIANS, a terra aj^lied to those modern Sodnians who maintain with Dr. Priestley the simple humaii' Uy of Chri«>t ; or tiiat Jesus was ^ a mere man, the son of Jo- seph and Mary, and naturally as fallible and peccable as Mo- ses, or any other prophef | See Sodnians and Unitarians.

♦HUSSEYITES, a name appropriated to the admirers of Mr. Joseph Hossey, formwly of Cambridge, a learned but ec- centric divine. His principal peculiarities of opinion were— thepre-existenceof Christ's hu- man soul, or rather of a spirit- ual or glorious body, in which he appeared to the patriarchs, &c. his high supra-lapsarian notions of the divine decrees, and his objection to all offers or invitations to unconverted sinners.^ Bee Supra-lapsarians and Crispites.

HUSSITES, the followers of John Huss, an eminent divine of Bohemia. He adopted the opinions of Wickliff, and de-

fended them before the coun- cil of Constance, who ooi- demned him as an ^retie ; and he heroically suflfered martyr- dom in the cause of the^ Mf* ormation, a» d. 1415. His death however excited an open rebellion, and his followers^ nt^ der the heroic Fiska, beinunie very formidable both to the emperour and the pope, * until they at length divided and weM overcome.^

HUTCHLNSONIANB, Ubih followers of John HutchinMi^ Esq. a very learned, ingenioM^ and laborious layman St Tofk^ shire, in the last century. AfiMf receiving a liberal education, M was appointed successrrl^ steward to Mr. Bathurst, tti$ Earl of Scarborough, and flUD Duke of Somerset. In these situations he paid particular at^ tention to mineralogy and t^ siis, and formed that fine 6^ lection, afterwards bequeatbei by Dr. Woodward to the tttf- versity of Cambridge. He tfodlif however, confined his attentiM to scripture philosophy^ attl from the sacred writings aKtme formed that system which to usually called by his name. HH writings make twdve volnii^i in octavo, published succcsaiVel^ ly between the years 1794 alrfM 1748. fc*

Mr. Hutchinson begins wiffars discai'ding what is usually cril^- led natui*al i*eligion, and de=^

  • Mosheim, vol. lii pt 404—448. new cd,

t Priestley's Defence of UniUriftnisip for 1806^ p. lOI^ 102.

i Hussey*s Glory of Christ unveiled— Operations of grace, but no oG<^^

§ Moslieim, vol. iv. p. 384— vol. v. p. 117*




itires 231 his science firom the Hebrew scriptures, which he considers as the fountain of trae knowledgey both in philosophy gmA religion.

.Th*". Htibrew he considers as die primitive language of man- Undy and revealed immediate- If from heaven ; but the points and accents he totally discards, amnderine the Jews as bad fpddfls in me study of the old testament. To every Hebrew toot he afixes one radical idea, iihkh he saj^Mises to pervade ailitsforms^ and for this i^ftd* kal idea he trusts more to his mn ingenuity and industry in iVamininff the sacred books, Ikan to rattier leucographers or tMiBlators, as wiO be seen in An fbUowing instances. '. ^e Hebrew naiqe of God» i^kh, he calls JUekn, he con- lidera as strictly plural, and re- faring to th0 persons of the trinity } and the construction of %noiiii plural with the verb ^fagnlao (which is an hebra- Mf) h^ views as referring to flia nnit^ of the divine essence. .,; A. cdiUHderable point of phi- htBOfiby is fisunded on the He- hMfw 0uminh << a con- aaining fire,'? (Dent. iv. £4.) "tl» Son « the true light,'* r John i- 9.) and the name of third per- son is the Holy Spirit — ^ihe same ^ord in the sacred languages

(as in- some others) signifying both spirit and unnd, or the air in motion.

It should have been remark- ed that JUm, the par^^e of Mdnh is by Mr. Hutchinaon ap* propriated to the seccmd persoii oftfaetrinity; andashethinka thenoun plural means the 9wea$^ ers^oT the sacred persons bonnd by oath in covenant for man's redemption; so by Mne he un- derstands " (Mai. iii. S.) as beine the great piHl- %sx of his people.

Another term of mystoious import in this system is that of Chtnibm, which he does not refer to the angelic ordws; bat considers the cherubic form^ namely, the ox, the lion, and the eagle, as typical, firstly of the trinity of nature, (as Mr. Hutchinson Speaks^) namely, fire, Ught, and air; and sec- ondly, as referring to the sa^ cred trinity of persons in the godhead; and the junction of the lion and man, in this em- blematic figure, he understands as pointing out the union of the

hnmui nature to the Son of is for iastancc, the chenibiiii

God* who is called '* the lion in the tabernacle and temple^

of the tribe of J udah." a& nbuve cxpUuifi^' ' '1. . IliuBf ^m tbew ajid some It is irapussible bei'e.tp pf^

^w otber radical woi-dsi Mr. ducc (much lean cxtunpe^ tljtp

ftutchinaqn tounda, ovt only a yarJouB Htriftiut^a ,oii. >y.w(^

fepttUar.tbealogy, hut a ajratem Mr. Butctiii^m) arid ' 1ils,,P(-

^jfblikeQfbj materially di8fer< lowci-s rc^t their i\y'putti|!siA j

Wtfromtitatof SirbaacXew- the inquisitive reH.(lt-'r will i-e^

ton. Sir Isaac Buj^aea a vac- to tUe authorilieH In-low. It

wm la nature, but Mr, Hutch- may be proper (o add, that ihey

infwna plenuiQ; conceiTing the adupt the copernicau (which

vhole system of nature a vast they esteem the spiritual) ^Sr

sphere) in the centre of which tern ofthelieaveus^ and confirqi

IB placed the ^un : this he con- their notion of the indeniity, w

aiders as an orb of fire, emitting Si-e, liglit, and airi by the ,nu>f^-

light to the extremities of the ero experiniciite in clcctrici^.

I^at^mi where it is condensed . In expounding the old festty-

iiito air, (or material spirit,) Qiei(t, pai-ticulariy the p^aLn^y

and revertmg back to the sun, the Hutchinsouians folla,\^'^,,t^

as it approaches its source ia Cacceians, (wliich see) and cqi^-

melted (or rather ^rtmn4) into siderJpsus Christ and .his rt-

Ught and fire. In the iomienae deniption as the sum ^d ,9]^

Qistance of the circumference of stanceuf the scriptures^* jj^.,, Oiva aystem he ]dacea the fixed UVrSISTABIl, worsl^i^era

Itars j but admits no other so- of the most high, [v^'i'rref^ a,^-

lar system than one,, beyond noi^ation in the fouirth CWtf^

tap limits of which he conceives ry,vi(i)0Be doctrine is repQ^w^Jf^

there can be nothing beside aulr ha^e been an asaen^lage^ofjUt-,

pe and utter darkness, j;aDism, Judaism, and c]W|Hi-

- It is an axiom with Mr. aiiity. Tboy atlor^ the t^ t^);

fiutchinson^ that all our ideas high Ciod with the cbrl^f:ian^ :

S'wrrowei from external ob- but they also i-evercd lirie ftiid

hence his science is a lig]ii with the |)agaii9f and wj-

of allegorical philoaophyj served the sabbath and.lbe.d^-

ahd he has a peculiar way of tinction of nteats witli |.be .i^v^j^

^tiritualizing the scriptures in Thej are sMppoaed by §ftn^,j^.

■■eference to aciestific, objects — he a branch of tbii ,tVa^s/^^aftf^^

■'■ • HutchmMn*! *ljrks. Vol. iii, pi 10, tc SAeftnnan'il'tfqhIV,' i>:"9tiWk. — Sra. Hodge't Bldiu, p. S9. LeeH Soplfnin, tbI. I p.Slt^MJ M!'^ 98V- J(ff«ei' UelUK^ Pk e> v. !iklnner'* EccIuiuticBl Hbttt^«G S«naMd,t.1!|^ ij,,p. 67;3-76f6. F(.rbe«* Worki. Pike's f^iUwofbiajSavf. ■ j .' J - y / i ' I Edcjrelope^ VOL U- p. 4^ .( • ■«'

lAir Ul lAK


Jacobites, a denomina- France* vfaiclk vu formed In

GoH of eastern cliriatians in the the y«ar 1640. Thfj follow

Qlxth and seventh centuries, so the (»rinioiiaof Janfleniiia«biBli-

denominated D-om Jacqb Bar- op M Tpres, fH>m whose wriU

deu9, or Ranzalus, a disciple I&gs the following proposittons

of Eutyches and Dj^oscorus. are Bud to hare been extnct-

EQb doctrines spread In Asia ed:-^l. That there arfe dirine

tiid Afiica to that degree, that pttcepta, wMch good men, not-

the .denomination of the Eutf- withstanding their de^re to oh-

cbians -was swallowed up by serre ^teia, are nevertheless

tbat of the JaeobitcH, which al- absolutely uni^Ie to obey ; dot

Id Comprehended all the Mono- has Clod given them that meas-

pliysitC3 of the East ; i. e. snch ore of grace which is essential-

as acknowledged hut one nar ly necessary to render them

tiai^, and that human, in Jesns capable of such obedience. — S.

Cbfist ; including the Anneni- That no person^ In this corrupt

aiiS and Abyssinians. They state of natnre, can resist nie

flbnied the doctrine of the triq- inftuence of ^vine graces whea

t^, and made the Riga of the it operates upon the mind. — S.

cross with one finger, to inti- flat, in order to render huniRA

mate .the oneness of the god- actions meritorious* it Is not

bead. requisite that they be exempt

'The' JaoAiiteg are lit two tnm necessity ; but that th^

■telk ; some following the rites be fi!«e tnm constraints-^

iKISb Latin church, and ofliers 4. That the semi-pela^rians err

tMiflntifiig st^rtUed from the greatly, in maintuning thai

(W^ orRMne.* ttie homan will is endowed wi^

The name Jacobites was used the power of either receiving

tdEni^aild In the seventeenth or resisting the aids and inBu-

Mtrtry as a political dislinc- ooces of preventing grace. —

tb^ to mark the adherents of S.ThatwhoeveraffimstbatJe-

Ihg Jamea II, who were also sua Christ made expiation, bjr

billed JVbiffiiron. A term very his sutFbringB and, death, for

Mu* Hiis, viz. JacoHna, was the sins of ajl mankind, is a

twd also to designate the vlO' Semi-Pelagian. Oftheseprop-

itnt party in the French revo- ositions Pope Innocent X. con-

blian, on account of their hold- demned tho first (bur as heretl-

>Bg their meetings in a convent cal, and the last as rash and

Bf Jacobins in Paris. impious. But be did this witfa>

JANSENIST8,adenomina- out asserting that these were

'ion of Roman CaUioUcs in the doctrines of Jannemus, «r


fmm naming himy which did abstinence, and selMenialf that

Bot satiBfy hhi ^versaries, nor were originally prescrihed bj

•Hence Urn. The next pope their rcspectiiTe foundenk Th^

Iwwm^erf Alexander V U. iffmed celebrated Pascal, and (|iieBiMi^

at bull, in which he denounced men eminently disttiigiuiihedfltr

the said pnqpositions as orro- talents and piety, are rakik^Af

neoua '• doctrinies of Jansenius, mong the followers of JwMia^

which exdted no smdl troubles nius.

in the OaOican church. JAPANESE. TherdikiiMi

This denomination was also of these islanders is ^agaiiinii»

idistlngaished firom many of but under some peculiar fomk

Hkt Roman Catholics by their which deserve attontion-^-Mr-

teaintaining that the holy sci*jp- ticularly , the SmUh ^^ andieiit

tures and public liturgies should idol worship of the Jn^aHeW'C

be given to the people in their the Bndso, or foreign idol itaft

mother tongue : and thcfy con- ship, introduced from CihifUK

aider it as a matter of import- and the religion of tbeir philnl^

ance to inculcate upon all chris- ophers and rooralists. - <*( '"*

tians, that true piety does not I. The iStotos have sane ^

consist in the performance of scure and imperfect ndtiona«f

external devotions, but in in- the immortality of thd sou^wil

ward holiness and divine love, a future state of bliss )and

It is said that Jansenius read etj ; they acknoiriedga « ifli^

through the whole of St. An- preme Being, who, they h Ai ffif

gustine's works, ten, and some dwelb in the highest > heaMI^

parts thirty times ; from these and admit of some inftMohr

no made a number otexeerpla, gods, whom they place iuUiiM;

which he collected in h» book fliestars ; but they worah]|i fw

called AugusUnu8. This he had invoke those gods aloiife vAbm

not the courago to publish ; but tiicy bdieve to have Ae

it was printed after his death, reign control over thiawofidv

and from it his enemies, the its elements, proddctiffliB» and

Jesuits, extracted thcproposi- animals: these, they flnmise»

tions above named.* will not oaly render tbein'DM-

Many of the Jansenift ts tvere py liere, but, by intercseding'mr

distinguished for their strict them at the hour of deaths imqr

piety, and severe moi'al disci- nrocure them a hapnyeoliii-

pline. They complained of the tion hei^eaftor* Hteiiea their

'Corruptions of the church of iairisj or eodeaiasticid chiffct

Rome^ censured the licentioas- being thought lineally lesceild-

ness of the monastic ordered and ed f^m 1M* eldest and

insisted upon the necessity of voiired sons of these deities*

reforming their discipline, ac- so|^osed to be the true and lii^

cording to the- rides of sanctity, ing images of their gods. <• »>

• Mosheuii, vol. u.p,'^6% Toplady/Hist voL b p. (^





. Hm SiliioB bdieve that tlue

toiili- after quitting the hodjf ig

r^ltoyed t» the high Mib«celee-

tfaUieWaf . aeiKled just beneath

ttH>:4wdliaK plaoeB of their

Bp4ai*4bat tiiose, who have led

»fQ0d Ufe, find immediate ajdr

mission^ while the souls of the

jffi9he4are denied aatrance, and

AWidbQiiined to wander till they

Mf eteapiated their crimes.

iiXbcdr religion enjoins ab-

jrtauing'flNMn blood, from eat-

Jag^flesBy or being near a dead

miyi hj whioh apersonis fiur

titbM rendered unfit to visit

ttiir.templesy or to aj^ear in

the presenoe of their gods. It

^Isojoenmands a diUgent obser-

fianoeof the solemn festivals^ in

iMmiir offlieir gods ; pilgrim*-

agNirtotheholy places at Isje ;

4liafri8# to the tem^e of Tensio-

JMMUli# the greatest of aU the

g»da>oC the Japanese; and the

iduMlteemeat and mortification

jnfiflwr bodies. Butfewof them

(jingrfUieh (regard to this prec^

nittSL Themost essential points

joCthe^AidiD religion are : That

«tta ooiya of' men and . animals

fmat iwMortal, and both of the

^aao^anbatancef difiering only

^HBEDidkigto the bodies in whicli

  • (nqV!l«-

rit th^ coafand mlh the aui- prame Beinr. *

. Thfese.phuoBoplMn coBsidep adf-onurdar aa an 4iaMic'«ii4 commendable actionf vthth H la iiie onlj means of aTvwding a sbamefid death, or of esoatiing firom'the hands of aTictorioniT enemy. They conform to the general custom of their country, n eommemoratlng their dedias- ed parents anitelations, by pla- eing all sorts of tprorisions on a table provided for the pur^ pose; but they celebrate no oth- er festivals, nor pay any re^ spect to the gods of the countiy.* •JASIDKANB^ or JasDAjfirs, a wanderingv ferocious tribe^ who frequent theGordian monn* tains and the deserts of C«rdto- tan, in Persia. Their prieats and rulers are clothed in blacky and the rest in white gaments. Thrir religion seems cxHnpcMied of some flragmentB of Chris- tianity, mingled with their an- cient pagan superstitions^ They pay especial marksof irespectyif not worshipy4o the •evil genius, whom they call Carubin or Chenibin, and consider him as one of the chief ministers of the grrat and good supreme Bring, Ae chief object of their worship, and whoseiiame in the Perrian<

  • Pkyiie*i Ei»it«iieof Hist. voL ii: ft

t MoBhuim, voL ir^ 370. . > ,.

i Mofheim, toL il. p. ^63, and dST.

langmige is Jaaid or ShUkn^ tram which tbetr denwninatiiMi is probaMy denTed.f • •<••«• ' r IBSRIAMI^ ew^at nfa i teaa obristians of iberia,r miw oalfcr ed* Georgia, whMe tMettfiawt said to be the ^hme wttir'thMNT •fthe>llrmllpchurchj ^' ^'^ '•Ji'

  • ICONOCLA8TB8>'iilMM»

breakers; (ft^m ^iMipy'iHiiMw' age, and %)mn^ioiimkf} mwt a name given Id Itoae' who^.<9redit«aip^MN»lid the beginnii^or «heeigktiso«n tnryi andwas»evived.a^galil|i«| few years afteiv nador lietf *iliil Isanriaa^ 'who issoel an'eildl^ against image worships wbiAi occasimled a cSvU walr islands of the Archipeli^Of liMh aflerwardsinltaly |*4ie BoMnr pontiflb, aifd the» Oimk>mMift cHs, aMemately wppoi«tefi|le At length images ' were^rqieft-^^ ed by »e Greek chiirchj wUe^f faewever, retaina* pkturar tii^ churches, though her m en i t swt ^ do not worship them r'btHttiair Latin cfcnrch net' only rebahsal ed images, bat made tlfem "M^ medium^ if not the^'ohjedfe ftft^ their worship, ilnd are'«iieM*U fore criled JhwMJiiH,«br J ua ari ^ t attetf u e. image-worskipi^Cia^F See ilfcoiMotift. > ..(ji>a

4^}EBUSAI«Mk 8toU¥HM<) J9m9akm ChwtlL • ^ ^:.iM-Mf






^ JOSfiUITSt « Gckbrtted wt*

li|^DMf«ander in. the Romn

Catholic chmcktfiHiiidMl by |f« 

MliMtl^iBofaua Swiiriihf knigjiti

Vhf^ WMithom /if a respectable


GMimcii^ia Spaia^m 1401.

The early part of his life was

Miibln^ mlitSTy flerTi€ej in

Wrtrbimeoquiiiedyeat reputa*

tilMk Baft whaa his leg waa brok« 

mmbjMMBnmm haU» .st theaSga

^FumatanSfin l55Uphe cBr

alefiid MUMolf 4inrii|g his GSiB-

■aimtrty ia wtog << the Lives

•^olto* !^BaiiiW. ^luch piaio

^i^ipui^/inipressioa oa

|that*lia4etenniaed to

jtte iwarldy to-make a

y(o Jemsalmiy aad

[evolB'i|jnhV in hi§ exartioiislo

«4Wlkv^rtsL' His efforto

•it IfiDgth cromiad with

\ flxk Oi^ year ISST^ he

guineAftiuHPiber (tf JEaUowerSf

wihaifbaand themselves by ivo

vdm vhkli^ liticalcatod vthe du*

tiia ^* ad&miMrtifiGation and

cbailly»iepfogced the jHrecepts

■aiiprsrtice of virtaet snd pro^

kmifibSf-Ub99Uf .aseidHoaslyy

Wl>uiit;ateb mong all classes of men, they natotiUy became roissionaries,^ school-«iasfesrs, and confessors.. And in a short time they were ahnostthe exclusive, and cer- tainly the most distinguishedi instnicturs of youth in eveiy catholic country. Theyculti* vated learnings because they perceived its use in governing- nwnkind^ and were not only theologians, but grammarians^ critics, mathemiUicians, phi-- losopheni, and poets. Thejf were the confessors of almo^ every catholic monarch, and person of distinguished rank^

Their wealth, notwithstand- ing << a vow of poverty,*^ whkk they found litUe difficulty in evading, was immense. The^f obtained a license to trade witb th^ nations whom theyunder^ took to convert They made^ tjiemselves mastera of a very latge province in South Amel*-




ifA. And thuflyaltbough friam JUoyolAfin IMlDf petitioned' the Pope to authorize the inetilu^ lion of thci orders iie had only tm diac^ks^iA/the-yeav 1606 the numbevof Jeeuitavnioiuited to 10,581. In ITi^ the order poeaeiwed M pro&Bsed' liouiesy 59 hogaeeef probaticiivw841 roMdenoeSf ^Idt boUegd^'EOO miaBionsy ISO^seaMsairiesf^and the sociei^. oenaisted trf 19^998 membenu

They, were expelled ' firmn England hy proGkumation, 8 Jameail^Jn 1604i-^fron Yen- iee^ »L6Q6-4jEV)rti^U 1759— Franoe9.ir€4-HSpain.and Sic* iljf 176?; andfinallythe od- ebrated Pope Clement XIV.. in July 177S» signed a brief, which Bi^prefliied tliia fiunous order.

The doctrinal points, which are ascribed to the Jesuits, in

poseior dispotiy flr^diae^i . IL They coaptmehelid ^rtthi in the loHto of rthenohnqofcoM only BMiiq^#»iaiWad» er.oC its diTOie wt^OmtfyutL coamiif» aa true aNmberaiidr the ehunh, open ttmmgtmmik who ppofeas itBidobtrinh8«r/ ' IIL The Je aai t B u i n s ii iii n that haaiaB'natartfia'fiUNdMH being deprived * of alllpaMfardf doing, gosdt that^thS' iwhu a i— of grace ane admivlitireAtiWI mankind^! in MimMbBiUm^ eientto lead thtai io trteMai life and salvaiioH^t'ttaMtefi^ erations of jgpaeet*n0briib-iio- lence to the flicnltite diid^pb«is ers of nature^' and 'timaCMI

distinctioA from many others of may be resisted ? 'and tt ai t'fla i fc the Roman conomunkm, are as from all eternity, -has mwfaMt


L This order maintained^ that the Pope is infislUble; that he., ia the only visible soarce of that universal and un- limited ponsary which €brist qaence-of that di^mrai(||(i haa granted to the church z tiwt limited presciene^ by whiekhd all bishops and anhordinate m* foresaw llia>actie«i»^inerltNqMl

ed evifriasting rewards andipnb ishments, as Ihe-portloiis of taaa in a fhtufe worl^ noi byiiwidlt solute, arbitrary, aad^aBMii^ tional: ^ecree^ b«t) IV. They i«|iMenbit;Mili'ln matter of perfect indiMmAmi fhem wlftrt ww H i m^t ^dnfen-ldtey the laws of God,/ hrMdediliMll kiwa are ynallyiobeyihl9(lid mrvkUtt^^ ^ tbosey who obeyi'frem> 4M frftf *

• Thif if the repfesentation, whicti k giycn bj the ^Ttj(^(fiiji^.pti,, 4er. The c6nipilet ofthU wozk hji^ibt an opportoni^ to a^ apy bftttf^; its' vritinga in their own-deftnce. "^

-♦'.♦ irrnio- ^




vt'*fmbbihmbnii in us agreeable thdr own miniSf bb to jonty tiittiK .IMtjViW those actkins, even ideally, a good end to tbie

mMfk pntoera from a principk

eifikxRfi^O'Jiuti and bus ia>ws«- .

«:)j1Ka}iniB|r/ mainlauiy tint the

BiMiiahiMiirt hUfm in theoifleli^eB

robMhramental and efficient

4iy Ylrtue of which

tfca|Eiit«rk in the aoidy indepen*

Bamiifmm ila previous pre|iara-

lion»oi)i|irepenfrijties> a dti^oai-

iiBB^Teoeive the divine grace;

' y L :rThe- JeeuitB zecommend

in lAnrQiitr Ignorance to such^ as

■afciiJfa^tO'Hieir direction, and

tUnfejitqltfistian ought to yield

«ai4mUBiiled obedience to the

llntart^ o£:ei- pressly abrogated.* ,.,

JEWS, a name derived from the patriarch Judab, and frpm the predominance of that tribe in after ages, given to all duo, descendants of his father Jacpj^. who was also called IsraeL /X the ancient Jews, the most j||te^ thentic accounts may be fmma in the scriptures. The beUM of the modern Jews is eacpr^fft* ed by their great Rabbi MmIt monides, of the eleventh oeiita7> ry, in the fqllowing thirteeB ar- ticles:

I. That God is the creator «C all things; that he guidea anf supports idl creatures ; thatM has done every thing ; and fliiift he still acts, and shall act dur* ing the wlwde of eternity,

II. That God is one. Thn«  is no unity like his. He aloo^ hath been, is, and shall bet e? temally our Grod.

  • Mosheim, vol. iil p. 465 ; it. |i. 354, 355. Hist, of Don Ingnatios. FajteTii

liCtteni concerning: the Jesuits, 3 volt 8vo. Uobertson'g Charles V. roh ii. p. 431. Edinbui^h EncvclopeOia. CbrlstiaQ OhxTfer, Mtrch 1815. Febnuiy .1817. Buck's Tbcol. Diet. »




,IIi. That God is incorpore- aly and cannot have any mate- rial ^.properties j and no cor- poreal essence can be compared with him.

IV» That Gk)d is the begin- ning and end of all things; and smin eternally subsist.

,y. That God alone ought to be worshipped ; and none be- radea liim adored.

VI. Thatwhatcver has been ta ti^t by the prophets is true. VEL That Moses is the fa- ther imd head of all contempo- rary doctors, and those, who liTed befo^, or shall live after hi m, ^

^ Vm. Thatthelawwasgiv- en by Moses.

uL That the law shall nev- er be altered; and God wiM gire no other.

' X That God knows all the ttdogfats and actions of men.

SX That God will regard

Ae' works of all those, who have performed what he com- n&am', and punish those, who h ave tr ansgressed his laws.

Xn. That the Messiah is to come, thongh he tarry a long ttme.

^"Xm. That there shall be a JtisinTectiohbfthe dead, when Ikid shall ftink fit ^•Thc modern Jews adhere ttiQ a^ closely to the Mosaic €fe^e!ki8ati6n', as their dispersed iM despised condition wUl per^ ihit-fheift." Their service con- sists chiefly in reading the law SBdrthe prophecies in their synagogues, together with a va- '^ of prayers. They use no


sacrifices since the destruction of the temple. They repeat blessings and particular prais- es to God, not ortly in their prayers, but on all accidental occasions, and in almost all their actions. They go to prayers three times a day in their synagogues. Their ser- mons are not made in Hebrew^ which few of them now per- fectly understand, but in tho language of the country where they reside. The passages of scripture and sentences from the doctors are, however, quot- ed from the Hebrew ana ex- plained.

The Jews are strictly pro- hibited from all vidn swearing, and pronouncing any of the names of God without necessi- ty. They abstain from meats prohibited by the levitical law; fpr which reason, whatever they eat must be dressed by those of their own nation, in a manner peculiai* to themselves. In the observance of their religious festivals they perform similar ceremonies to those which were practised by their ancestors. All their rites, precepts, and ceremonies which are not con- tained in the pentateuch, are founded upon and derive their authority from the Talmud. There is, however, some varia- tion in their customs and cere* monies, and in the liturgies which the nation have made use! of at diJBTerent times, and in va^ rious countries. But in the principal points of belief and practice they all agree.





This people acknowledge a twofold law of Gt)d, — a written and unwritten one ; the fofkner is contained in the five bool^s of Moses ; the latter they pre- tend has been handed down from him by oral tradition. (See Cabbalists.) They assert the perpetuity of their law, togeth- er with its perfection. They deny the accomplishment of the prophecies in the person of Je- sus Christ; alleging that the Messiah is not yet come ; and that he vdU make his appear- ance with the greatest pomp and gitindeur, subduing all na- tions; and subjecting them to the house of Judah ; and mak- ing Jerusalem the metropolis of his kingdom.

They say that "during the Messiah's reign, the world will be restored to its former glory, a new hearen and new earth will appear; the former will pass away 9 mankind will recov- er their primitive glory, and will be above the angels ; satan and his band will be des- troyed. The seventh day of the creation was the sabbath, and that day only received a blessing, and was set apart for- ever to be observed as a holy day ; which was a typo of the great sabbath ; i. e. the world of the Messiah, which also will be called the blessed world."*

When it is urged thst fiie prophets predicted the Messi- ah's low condition and suffer ings, the Jews talk of two Mes^ siahs ; one, Ben Ephraim, whi they grant to be of a mean and afflicted condition in this wMd j the other, Ben David, who skiB be a victorious and powei^ prince.

This people maintain,that tito souls of the righteous enjoy tU beatific vision of God in nnii dise^ and that the souls, of 04 wicked- are tormented in hV with fire and othei* ^nidA> ments. They suppose, fliii^ sufferings of the mosc atrodoil criminds are of eternal diAit tion, while others renudM mif for a limited time in pnrgite ry, which does not differ tfik hell with respect to the phei^ but to the duration. Theyin^ for the souls of the dead^-apauih agine that many ar« delivmil from purgatory on the grait day of expiation.

The Rabbinist^ or modm Pharisees form the bulk 1^*04^ nation. The two branjches of Portuguese and German Jem arc of this description, vAUk includes all who admit tnlffi- tions, &c. They entertala -m implacable hatred to the Kwi- itcs, or Caraites, who adbere strictly to the text of Moses^asd I'eject the Cabbala. '.

• This paragraph is extracted from Rabbi Croors " Restoration of Isradlt published 1814. By this \\ ork it appears, that the mode of thinking and argning among the Jews of the present day is similar to that, whicli was prevalent ainon| their ancestors; The Jews in t]ie time of our Saviour, liketliose of thepreseit day, expected not a suifering but a triumphant Messiah ; and that his appear- ance and the restoration of Israel are coevaly and closely connected with each other.




There are still, however, a &w Sadducees in Africa; aud ik ithe £aflt Bome renudns of t^iuncimt sect of the Samari- twifl nt Gaza, Damascus, and JOvsmid Cairo.

■ 'f-]PrilJi regard to the ten tribes, llr. Basnage supposes they lltSl subsist in the East ; and Ihr. Buchanan observes, that §^H has been sufKcienfly ascer- ll^iedby the investigation of Hhi^leaniedin India, that the A%Ma and Py ran nations con- HHnt of the descendants of the


4»:It is impossible to fix the Inpdber of people the Jewish ifjitiinn is at present composed |i^.; But in a pamphlet recently MiMisfaed, entitled, <^0f the liPPB in the nineteenth century, ^Sffge^ is an approximative cal- C9^1ion^ though of course in lipiiie measure hypothetical, of .ill Ae Jews spread over the Hi^.of flie earth. Our author erfimates them at 6,598,000; 4I which there were 1,000,000 lit Poland, before the division tf fliatcountry in 1772; 200,000 .ia Biiaaia,comprising Wallachia laid Moldavia; 500,000 in the IMXB where the German lan- jpge is spoken; 80,000 in Eo&nd, and the low countries ; S^ in Sweden and Denmark ; JIII^OOO in France; 50,000 in Eoriand,of whom 12,000 are tt London ; 200,000 in the ibtes where flie Italian lan- guage is spoken ; 10,000 in

Spain and Portugal ; d,000 in the United States of America ; 4,000,000 in the Mahometan States of Europe, Asia, and Af- rica; 500,000 in Persia, and the rest of Asia, comprising China and India.*

The Jews however, since the destruction of JerusaJem, have never been able to regain a permanent settlement in Judea, or indeed in any country on earth ; though there is scai'ce- ly any part of the globe where tihey are not to be found. In most countries, they have been terribly massacred. In Chris- tendom, they have been dcspis- cd,calumniated, oppressed, ban- ished, executed, and burned, and in general, have suffered more cruel treatment from christians, than even from Pa- gans and Mahometans. For a detail of their sufferings the reader is referred to Basnage's History of the Jews. Tovey's Anglia Judaica, &c.

The situation of this people has been greatly meliorated during the last and present cen- tury.

France has allowed them the rights of citizens, which induc- ed many of the most wealthy among them to fix their resi- dence in that country. In the city of Paris they have three synagogues and a consistory, composed of three grand rab- bis. England, Holland, Poland and Prussiaf tolerate and pro-

  • See a Pamphlet, styled " The Correspondent,*' consisting of letters be-

^^<^een eminent persons of France and England. London, 1817.

tin Berlhi, the Jews have enjo^'ed singular honours, as men of genios ttd study. The late ]Moses Mendelsohn, by the force of his reasoning, has been




tect fhem. In the United States of America they have never been persecuted, but have been indulged in all the rights of citizens.

In England, energetic at- tempts are used to effect their conversion. In 1809, the Lon- don society was formed *<< christian faith; an episcpp^ j chapel for the Jews has been ! erected in that quarter of the city where they most abounds com^ses of lectures for their benefit have been preached in London, and various other pla- ces in England ; many works connected with Jewish litera- tui-e have been publiBhed ; and above all, some adult Jews, it is hoped, have been truly convert- cd, and admitted by baptism into the christian church. The for- eign coiTespoudence of the soci- ety seems to indicate that a great change is silently operating throughout the continent; and the society are encouraged to hope and expect a final bless- ing on their endeavours to pro- mote the salvation of the lost sheep of the house of IsraeL* :

siimamed the Jewish Socrates ; and hy the amenity of his diction, the Jewish Plato. Blocb, a Jewish physician, was the first naturalist of the age : Hers ia a professor, with four hundred auditors ; IVfainon, a profound xnetaphystciaii. There are Jewish poets, and Jewish artists, of eminence i and, which pethapt exist no where but in Berlin, a Jewish academy of sciences, and a Jewish IiiU erary Journal, composed in Hebrew. See Vaurier, or Sketches of the Times^ voU ii. p. 249.

• Basnage*s History of the Jews, p. 110, 115, 227, 746, &c. Encyelopedia, vol. ix. p. 143 Jewish Repository, vol i.p. 210; voL ii.p. 289,320. LeWi Ceremonies of the Jews. Rabbi Crool's Restoration of Israel. Monthly Mag* azine, 1796. Asiatic Researches, vol. ii. p. 76, Works of Sir William Jcnes-i^ vol L p. 336. Christian Obserier, 18J6.




IKONOBORTSI, a small fuxij of dissenters ii-om the Greek church, who so far re- tun llieir zeal against imageSf that fhey will not suffer sculp- Inrar of any kind, or even jpic- imtB in their places of worship; Und oiqpose all superstitious nrerence to the buildings ihemselves, saying, the id-

degrees of perfection and glo- ry, to which the saints and the blessed Virgin have attained ; and this improvement might be carried on, till our actions be- came divine, and our minds wholly given up to the influ- ence of the Almighty. They said further, that none of the doctors of the church knew any

iiUgbly does < not dweD in tem- thing of religion ; that St. Pe- ]ile8 made with hands.'* Sec ter and St. Paid were wdl


ILIiUMINATr, or Illumi-

STEBs, L e. the enlightened, a

term in the primitive church

«pfplied to such as had been in-

-fltnicted and baptized, but has

'rince been adopted by different

^iriBCts and parties. Such a sect

appeared in Spain in 1575.

They were charged with main-

iaining, that mental prayer and

contemplation had so intimate-

if united them to Gk)d, that

Ihey were arrived to such a

state of perfection, as to stand

'In no need of good works, or

4ie sacraments of the church ;

lund that they might commit

'the grossest crimes without sin.

meaning men, but knew noth- ing of devotion ; that the whole church lay in darkness and un- belief ; that every one was at liberty to follow the suggestions of his conscience ; that God re- garded nothing but himself; and tliat, within ten yeai-s, their doctrine would be receiv- ed all over the world ; that thero would be no more occasion for priests, monks, and other relig- ious distinctions.

But the modern Illuminees are said to be a secret socie- ty, founded in 1776, by Dr. Adam Weishaupt, professor of canon law in the univer- sity of Ingoldstadt ; a man of

After the suppression of the learning and genius, of great IDuminati in Spain, there ap- activity and insinuating ad-

wured a denomination in Flrance, which took the same Bune. It i^ said they main- tained, that one Anthony Buck- iwt, a fiiar, had a system of be- firf and practice revealed to Wm, which exceeded every ^g Christianity had yet been ^uaiuted with : that, by this "wShod, persons might, in a

dress. He is charged with aiming at the same object th%t Voltaire, Diderot, and others had attempted some years be- fore, namely, the abolition of Christianity, and the establish- ment of a philosophical infidel- ity.

The mysteries of this sect are asserted to be comprehend-

short time, anive at the same ed in the following summary.

  • Pinkerton's Greek Churclj, p. SZi.




« Liberty and equality are the essential rights that man in his orig^al and primitive perfec- tion received from natwe. Property struck the first blow at equJity ; political societies or governments were the first oppressors of liberty : the sup- poitere of governments and property are the religious and civil laws; therefore to rein- state man in his primitive rites of equality and Ubei*ty they be- gin by destroying these. And it is asserted, that the society have executed, to an alarming degree, its plan for exterminat- ing Christianity and destroying jgovemment and social order. The m^ns of effecting this was ihe French revolution, which was in a great measure brought about by the secret influence of Hus society, and extended over the gi*eater part of Europe. This afforded the French phi- losophers the opportunity of disseminatingtheir infidel prin- ciples among the lower classes of society.

The society of the lUumiiiati, says the Abbe Barruel, is divid- ed into two grand classes, and each of them is again subdivid- id into lesser degrees, prapor- tionate to the progress of the adepts.

The first class is that of preparation^ which contains four degrees; those of W]rcict9 of mivervalf of miiun- lUuminee, and major lUumitiee. Some in- termediate degrees belong to this class. The second class is that of the mysteries^ and

this is subdivided into the neater and less mysteriea. The latter conqprehend tbo priestliood and admimstratign of the sect, or the degreesnf priests, of regents^ and of prin* ces.

In the greater mysterteff are comprised the two degrees of magif oTphUoiophers, and oC the man king. Theefectof thelaU ter compose the council aad dst gree of JireopagUes. ^ ■ . i

In all these daases^ and M every degree, there is a pMt4if the utmost consequence^ and which is common to all Um brethren. It is that empl^y^ ment known in the socifi^ffli code of laws, by the appelhitlaii of brother insinuatoTf or recmji* er. The whole strength of tlii0 sect depends on this part ; fiit it is this which fumidies mea|* bers for the different degreen* The insinuators, or recniitetn of this society, are sent by their superiom's to diflhrcit towns and provinces, and-lil distant countries. They aiji directed carefully to conomdl their being lUuminees, imd tp make the knowledge of buniMi nature their particular utadfm One of the professors ot Vtt- minism gives the* following a|> struction relating to this kiad of science : << The novice muHi bo attentive to tiifles, tat. inoL frivolous occurrences a man indolent, and makes no effect act a part, so that his real chaT'-^ acter is then acting alone.^^ This assiduous and long tinued study of men^




i i

i ft


the possessor of such knowl- edge to act with meiif and by ]i» knowledge of their charac- tara to influ«ace their conduct iFar sack reasons, this stndyis oolrtiniied during the whole jfTogreaB through the order.

The object of the Illuminces Js said to ho, to enlist in every countey such t3 have frequents J^ .Seclared themselves discon- teiited with the usual institu- tioiis; to acquire the direction 6f edocationy of church manage- jMitt^ of the professional duur^ JMl of the pulpit ; to bring ftur opinions into fashion by Bfieiy art^ and to spread them tiofMng young people, by the

ai^ of yonn^ writers ; to get W ^beir influence reading vad 'debating societies-, review- «v^ bOaksellersy and post^tnas- %^^i journalists, or editors of «B(w»<^ It now appears fffm undoubted evidence, col-

lected from the most authentic sources, and produced about the same time, by two different authors, of different countries and religions, and writing with- out the least concert or commu- nication with each other, that there have in fact subsisted in the heart of Europe certain sects of men, distinguished by various fiuiciful names, and va- rious mysterious rites and cer- emonies, but all concurring in one common object, namely^ the gradual overthrow, not merely of all religion, but of all civil government and social order throughout the world/'

The Chevalier Yon Hamel* berg, in the Prussian service, translated the work of profes- sor Robison into German, and presented it to his sovereign, who expressed the highest ap- probation of his performance.

On the other hand, the histo- ries of the Abbe Barruel and professor Robison have been called in question by men of learning and extensive infor- mation. In particular, the celebrated Gregoire, in his Histoire Des Sectes Religien- ses, gives a very different ac- count of the niuminati. He supposes, that the project of Weishaupt and his co-opera- ters was at first praise-worthy. It, said he, ^'embraced the plan of difftasing light, union, chari- ty, and tolerance ; of abolishing the slavery of the peasantry, the feudal rights, and all those privileges, which in elevating one portion of the community




degraded fhe other ; of dissem- inating instruction among the people, of causing merit to tri- umph, of establishing individu- al and political liberty, and gi*adually and without a shock, of meliorating the social or- der."

Our author admits, however, that the society was too littie rigid with regard to those it admitted. <^lt is not," says he, « rare in every society to find men who, not being ani- mated with its spirit, coun- teract its operations ; and that of the Illuminccs had such men. If they had been only negative members in that way they were injurious. Every thing, which has the air of mystery, awak- ens suspicion, and favours ca- lumny, and calumny exhausted itself with regard to the invisi- ble society.. As soon as the alarm was sounded, it was spread abroad, that this socie- ty, numerous, and of high re- pute, had no other aim than to monopolize all the lucrative and honourable posts; to ex- tinguish the torch of trutii, to overturn all government and to dastroy all religion."*


small party of the Eutychians, who maintained that Christ's body was incorruptible even be- fore its resurrection, so that it did not need the support of food, &c. nor was naturally subject to mortality. Th^ were op-^: posed to the CorrupHooUtm