A Dictionary of All Religions and Religious Denominations/rest

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search


•riermls sect* so called-from Tan- flUelinus in the twelfth century. He is charged with slighting the external worship of God,

and the holy sacraments ; with ' holding clandestine assemblies: to propagate his opinions : and above all with abusing the clergy of the Roman Catholic church,

TATIANITES, a denomi- nation in the second centuiy ; so called ft*om Tatian, a disci- ple of Justin Martyr. They are, however, more frequently distinguished from other sects" by names relative to the aus«  terity of their manners. For they rejected with hoiTor, all the comforts and conveniences of life. Sea Encratites.

♦TEMPLARS, or Kwights of the Temple. See Knights.

THEODOSIANS. See^n- gdites. lliis is also the name of a numerous sect in Russiaf which some years since sepa- rated from the PomoryanSf (which see,) partly on account of their not purifying by prayer the various articles they pur- chase of unbelievers : they are very strict in their religion, and inveigh bitterly against the na- tional church as Antichrist.!

THEOPASCHITES, a de- nomination in the fifth century, (which derive their name from Gfd(, Godf and ^«^«, to suffer,^ the followers of Peter the ftillei*. ; His doctrine is said to have diflfered fixim that of the Patri- passianSf by implying the suffer- ing of all the Holy Trinity. f

• MosheiiDf vol. iii. p. 260, 264. t Pinkcrton*s Greek Churcli, p. 331.

i MosheimS Ecclest Hist. voL L p. 417. Priestley's Hist, of Early Opinion% ^1. ivt p. 262,




THEOPHILANTHRO. FISTS, (lovers of God aud man,) a sect of deists, wluch made its appeai^ance in France, amid the storm of the I'evo- lution. The celebrated Tliom- as Paine was one of theii* first apostles, and delivered a dis- course before them, on the principles of this new scheme. In September 1796, a kind of catechism, or directory, for public or social worahip, ap- peared at Paris, under the ti- tle of << Jianuel des Thean- tkro^Mes;^^ this breviary was received favourably by the pub- lic, and the congregations be- came very uumoi*ous. From this book the following parti- culars of their tenets are ex- tracted :

" The temple most worthy of the Deity is the universe. Ab- sorbed sometimes under the vault of heaven, in the contem- plation of the beauties of na- ture, we i*endcr its Autlior the homage of adoption and grat- itude. NcveHheless, we have temples constructed by the hands of men, which are moi-e commodious for the purpose of assembling to hear the lessons of his wisdom. Certain moral inscriptions; — a simple altar, on which arc deposited, as a to- ken of gratitude for the benefits of the Creator, such fruits and flowers iis the seasons afford ; — and a tribune fin' the lecturei*s, — form the whole of tlic orna- ments of thest* temples."

Of the insrjii)tions, the first is, <^We believe in the exis-

tence of God, and in the im- mortality of the soul/' This is << placed above the lUtar, to remind us of ttie two i-eiigiov dogmas, which are the foundgr tion of our moi'al preceptB."-v 2. ^'Woi'ship God; cheriflh your fellow-men ; render your- selves useful to your conn^ try." — 3. « Whatever tends to the preservation or perfection of man is good, whatever ha»a tendency to destroy or deterid^ rate him is evil.'^ — 4» ^ Children, honour your fathers and mothei*s; obey them with aflbi> tion; comfort their decliniB([ years. Fathers and motfacn^ instruct your childj:«n.i-*-& << Wives, esteem your husbanttj the chiefs of your houses Husbands, love your wives; and render yourselves redprch cally happy.*'

<< The assembly sits to heir lessons, or discourses, on morals, on principles of religion, of benevolence, and of ^ imiver- sal salvation : principles equally remote from the severity of Stoicism, and the supineneSi of Epicurean indulgence. Then lectures and discourses are divoreiiicd by hymns ; and the assemblies are held on the first day of the week, and on the decades.

  • >* Should we be asked what

is the ongin of our religion and worship ? wo reply : Open the most ancient books extant, and there examine what was the ivligioii, what the worship, of the iii'st human beings, whose acti<< Should the force of Aese reasons be insufficient to satisfy the inquirer, we forbear any farther discussion, rather than engage in a controversy tending to diminish the love of our neighbours. Our principle^ being the eternal truth, they will subsist, let who may pretend to support or tOySttpprefi^ them ; nor can the efforts of the wicked ever prevail against them. Let us rest, therefore, firmly attached to them, mth* out attacking or defending any i*eligious system : remembeliBy that such discussions have nev- er been attended with good^ but, on the contrary, have frequently dyed the earth with human blood. Let us lay aside systems, and apply ourselves to doing good, which id the only road to happiness.'^

The Theophilanihropists are now said to be nearly extinct ; they arose, as already observed, out of the vortex of the revolution, which had engulphed all institutions, moral and divine ; during that gloomy period, when the demagogues had for- bidden the cxoi'ctse of public worship, when the churches were converted into heathen




templesy and when << Death is an eternal sleep,^' being inscribed upon the gravesy had removed tor a time tUe hope of immortality from the minds of men. When Buonaparte reopened the churches^ Theophi- lanthropy became neglected, and is now scarcely known otherwise than by its name."*

♦THEOSOPHISTS, a sect of chemical pliilosophei's, who pretended to derive their occult science from divine illumlnation, whence they have been called Illuminati, but most usually Rosicrusians ; which sec.

♦THiiRAPEUT^, a sect of Jews, generally considei'ed as a branch of the EssetieSf which see. They affected extraordinary silence and decorum in their worship, and remarkable austerity in their manners. Some of the sect probably verged to Paganism, and othere to Christianity ; which has occasioned circumstances which the learned have found great difficulty in reconciling.!

THIBETIANS. The Grand Lama is at once the High Priest and tlic visible object of adoration, to this nation, to the hordes of wandering Tar- tars, and to tlic prodigious population of China. He i*esides at Patoli, a vast palace on a mountain near the banks of the Burampooter, about scven miles from Lahassa. The foot of the mountain is surrounded by

twenty thousand Lamaa^ in attendance on their Sovereign Pontiff, who is considered: as tho vicegerent of the Deitgr on earth; and the more • roDiQjte Tartars are said to regard bin absolutely as the Deity him- self, and call him Qod, the etm- lasting Father oflieaven^ Th^ believe him to be immeirteii and endowed with all Jumwf- edge and virtue. Every jeiir they come up from diffec^it parts to worship, and male rich offenngs at his shrine. Even the emperor of Cbially who is a Mantchou Tai|i|ip, does not fail in aclinawtojlf- ments to him in his r^ligj|||H capacity ; and entertains in tle palace of Pekin an . iaffrioyr Lama, deputed as 'hifiinmiiQio from Thibet. The grand La- ma is only to be seen is a^ cret place of his palace, amidBt a great number of lamps,; sit- ting cross-legged on a cyshioPy and decked all over withj^ofd and pi*e/Cious stones ; whiki^'^t a distance, the people prostate themselves befoi'e him ; it<^ ing not lawful for any so moph as to kiss his feet. He iwtnnis not tfie least sign of re^^ft, nor ever speaks even. to Jhe greatest princes ; but ofily lays his hand upon their hea^ and they are fully persuaded that they thereby receive a full forgiveness of their sins.

Tho SunniasseSf or IndinB pilgrims, often visit Thibet as a holy place; and the Lama

• Manuel of the Theopliilaiithropists. Evans' Sketch, ?. 17. 13th Ed. ■[• Calmel's Dictionar}', vol. ii« 

  • rm



entertains a body of two ot 4ibree hundi-^ in iiis pay. Bo- lides his religious inftaence and luithority^ he is possessed lof «TiUmited power throughout his ^Aominions, which are very ex- -t^nsive* The inferior Lamas, "Who form the most numerous, CiAs well as the most powerful ' liddy -in the state, have - the ■jjHesthood entirely in their 'Guilds; and besides, fill up " -Wany monastic orders, which 'it^ held in great veneration ^'Atnong them. The whole coun- ■ -%y, like Italy, abounds with •s'^ests ; and they entirely sub- "^ist on the rich presents sent ^=^-mifHn from the utmost extent of ^^'artary, flrom the empire of "^Mhe Great Mogul, and from al- ^^itoost all parts of the Indies. "'•'•'•The opinion of those, who "" 'aire reputed the most orthodox ^^IMong the Thibetians, is, that ^^When the grand Lama seems vte dic> either of old age or in- ^ttnnities, his soul, in fact, only -^^piitB a crazy habitation, to look ^OT ati6ther, younger or better ; ""-ibid is discovered again in the •■^'brtdy of some child, by certain ^'tiftens, known' only to the La- ^^ IMS. or priests, in which order ^he riwaj^ appears. ^' ^ Almost all the nations of the

    • Easi,'CXcept* the Mahometans,

^'^biillfeve the metempstfehods^ or

  • '*'fe^tfnsnrigration of ttie soul, as

the most important article of <**€Keiif faith } especially the in- ^^^•Inaiitants of Thibet and Ara, ^'tiki^Peguahs, the Siamese, the

greater part of the Chinese and Japanese, and the Moguls and Calmuckm. According to their doctrine, the soul no sooner leaves her old habitation, than she enters a new one. The Dailai Lama, being a divine person, can find no better lodg^ ing than the body of his sue** cesser; or the Foe, residing in the Dailai Lama, wMcIl passes to his successor: andthisbeing a god, to whom all things are known, the grand Lama is thei'efore acquainted with every thing which happened during his residence in his former body.

This religion* which was ear' ly adopted in a large part .of the globe, is said to have been of three thousand yeai's stand*^ ing; and neither time, northe influence of men, has had tho power of shaking, the authority of the grand Lama. This the" ocracy, which extends as fully to temporal as to spiritual con^ ccms, is professed all over Thibet and Mongalia ; is al- most universal in Greater and Lesser Bucharia, and iieveral provinces of Tartary ; has some followers in the kingdom of Cassimere, in India,, and is the predominant religion of China.*

It basbeen observed, << that the religion of Thibet is the coun- terpart of the Roman Catholic, since the inhabitants of that country use holy water and a singing service : they also offer

AnntialBej^lster for 17W, p. 6?.

e*-^ Ot




iilinsy prajei'Sy and sacrifices for the dead. They have a vast number of convents filled with monks and friars, amount- ing to thiity thousand; and confessoi*S9 chosen by their su- periors. They use beads ; wear the mitre and cap like the bishops ; and their JDailai Lama is nearly the same among them as the sovereign pontiff Is among the Romanists."* See Chinese.

  • THOMISTS, the foDowcrs

of St. Thomas Aquinas, in op- position to the celebrated Duns Scotusy in the fourteenth centu- ryf on the doctrines of grace, and on some metaphysical spec- ulations.! See Scotists.

TRASKITES, the followers of Mr. J. Trask, 1634. His opinions were similar to the Sdbbafarians ;i which see.

TRIFORMIA]NI,a denomi- nation which appcai'ed about the year 408 ,• so called from the Latin tria forma. They maintained that the divine na- ture was one and the same in the three ])ersons togetlier ; but not complete in either sepa- rately.$

TRINITARIANS, a name applied to all who profess to believe the doctrine of the

Trinity, in opposition to Ari- ans, Socinians, and all Anti- trinitarians. " The word Trin- ity," says Mr. Evans, " is not to be found in the bible, but is a scholastic term, derived from the Latin word irimtas, denot- ing threefold unity."

Theophilus of Antioch, k learned writer of the second century, is said to have bttHS the first who made use of Ijh^ word Trinity to exinxss the fflrf^ tinction of what divines fed persons in the godhead.||

Dr. Doddridge remarlo^ speaking of the ancient writdi upon the Trinity, that " aRtf the time of the celebrated* coiott cil of Nicely thry rpnj^ several subtleties of ex^reSnoi^ in which one would ima^Bti they studied rather to' c<< a divipe person' is only a mode, a respect^ or i*elation of God to his creatures. He beareth to his creatures these three relations, modes, or respects, that he is their crea- tor, their redeemer, and their sanctifier. This is what wo mean, and all wo mean, -when we say, Gt>d is three persons/'^ See Sabellians.

Dr. Clarke's scheme is, that there is a supreme Father and twa subordinate, derived and dependent beings, the Son and

^ According to Bishop Sherlocl:, ^ Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are as real* ij distinfst persons, as Peter» J^mes, and John ; each of whom is God. We x&ust aUow each person to be a God. These three " infinite mmds are distin- lioished just as three created minds are, by self-consciousness. And by mutual consciousTie&s each person of these has the whole wisdom, power, andg^oodness ^fbt otiber two persons." Vindication of the Trinity. Obs. on the Vind* p. ISL^JSQ. quoted by Mr. Worcester in his Trinitarian KevieWy No i. p. 8.

I l^bk seems, says Dr Doddridge, to have been Archbishop Tillotson's opinion.

  1. Goi}siderations on the Trioity, p. 7. quoted by Yates in his Iteply to

Wardlaw, p. 125.

™ ■



Holy Spirit; but he waives calling Christ a creature, as the ancient Arians did ; and principally on that account disclainis the charge of Arian- i0m. See Pre-eanstents.

Dr« Watts maintained one supreme God, dwelling in the pre-existent human soul of Christ, whereby he is entitled to all divine honours. Sec Pre-eocistents.

Mr. Wardlaw maintains, that the thi*ee persons in the Godhead are distinct, but in using the term persons^ he ex- plicitly disavows all pretensions to understanding the nature of the distinction ; and affirms, that by making use of it, he means no more than that in the unity of the Godhead there is a distinction, which, while he be- lieves it to exist, he cannot pretend to explain or to com- prehend.*

Dr. Jeremy Taylor observes, that, « he who goes about to speak of the mysteries of the Trinity, and docs it by words and names of man's invention, talking of essences and exist- ences, h^'postascs and pei'son- alities, priorities in co-equali- ties, &c. and unity in plural- ities, may amuse himself, and build a tabernacle in his head, and talk sometlung, he knows not what ; but tlic good man that feels the power of the

• See Wardlaw's Reply to Yates,

f Doddridge's Lecture's, p. 401 — 403, Baxter's Works. voL ii. p 1. Howe'i Works, vol. iii. Full's Sermons, vol. iv. p 829. Pearson on the Creed, p. 134 O ^'en on the Hebrews, vol. i. Tillotson's Works. Jeremy Taylor on John


t Mosheixn. voL I. p. 473. Barclay's Dictionary, article TritM9t9,

Father, ahd to whom the Son is become wisdom, sanctificai- tion, and redemption; in whose heart the love of the spirit oC God is shed abroad — ^tliis mai^ ' though he understands notlil ' of what is unintelligibley yet ii6. alone tnily understands the ( hristian doctrine of the Trin*

ity-"t The limits of this work wiH-:

not admit of giving a sketch of ; the various arguments, bj^ which these statements wne snpw- ported ; some of them may bt found under the articles ^riana, AntJianusianSf Pre^escistents^he^ TRITHEISTS, a denarii nation in the sixth centnfy^ whose chief was John Aaam^ nage, a Syrian philosopbeTf aai at the same time a MonG|fbyw site. He imagined in the D^ ty three natures, or substanccSf absolutely equal, and joined to- gether by no common essence : to which opinion his adversi- ries gave the name of TVithe- ism, or the worship of three gods. One of the defenders of tliis doctrine was John Philo* ponus, an Alexandrian philoso- pher and gi'ammarian of 11)0 highest reputation ; and hence be was considered by many as the author of this sect. Thu name has also been applied, by way of reproach, to certain Triuitarians.:|: S^e JlthanamM,





isiaii sect which arose in

among the old believers iaraduboCsk, iVom whom

differ in the three fol- g points. Fii-st^ they i to take an oath, be-

they say Christ forbids ing of every kind. Sec- 9 they refuse to shave their s. Thirdly* they refuse to

for the emperor and im- [ family* according to the

prescribed by the holy I.*

SCHUBSLVINIKS, the Is of union among the Ras- \LHf who attempt to propa- their conciliatory princi- urnong the different sects* >n this account are perse*

by the zealous men of all


^TUNKERS, a congrega-, tion of seventh-day baptists at Ephrata in Pennsylvania.:|: See

TURLUPINS, a sect which appeai*ed about the year 1372* in Savoy and Dauptuny. They taught* that when a man is ar- rived at a certain state of per- fection* he is freed from all subjection to the divine law ; which we call Antinomianism. John Dabantonne was the au- thor of this denomination. Some think they were called Turlupins because they usually abode in desolate places* expos- ed to wolves* iwpi. They call- ed themselves the Fraternity (^ the poor; but they were com- monly called Brethren of the free spirit ; which see.§

U ^ V


h of the GnosticSf which

ig up in the second ccntu- [0 called from their leader* [itinus. His principles t generally speaking, the with those of the Gnostics, e name he assumed ; yet [iny things he entertained ons pecidiar to himself, ilaced, for instance, in the na (so the Gnostics called ibitation of the Deity) thir-

ty aimiSf of which the one half were male* and the other* fe- male. To these he added four others* which were of neither sex ; viz. Horns, (who guarded the borders of the pleroma*) Christ* the Holy Ghost* and Jesus. The youngest of the atons, called Sophia* (i. e. tcis^ domifj conceived an lunlent de- sire of comprehending the na- ture of the supi*eme Being, and by the force of this propensity

Pinkerton*s Greek Church, p. 204. f Ibid. p. 334.

Ivans' Sketch, IStli edit. p. 257.

3roughton, vol. ii. p. 474. Dufresr.oy's Chronological Tables, voL ii. p. 243.

lirgp^M foi'th^ daughter', j^il^^ moivoyer with an aerial hodji

ed Arhamutli', 4c(t4iuoui btv which passed Uiroiigti the womb

ingesUtul fiprii tlic [(fci-inna, ml of Mai-y untainted., Jesus, one

tlpn II into llic i'lidc and uiidi- ^f the niipce)!^ lOtoni, was . Bub-

gcstediiiassof^MialU'ijto witich stantiallj' united to bim 'whep

she gave a! roHaiii arrange- -lie wbs baptized in JarSaq^

mciit ; and by titc assistance oC The God of the Jewa, wb^ I^

JesuRi produced tLe Utmiorgo, perceived his empire shaken b^.

the Lrji'il and Creator of all this divine man, caused him t(».

thiugR. Thiti Demiurge sepa- b^ apprehended and naile^.. to

rated th(sub1ije,^_

ensj and out of the latter, this Christ, ascended up on blghb

terraqueous globe. He also so that only the animal soiu

made man, in whose composi* and the ethereal body BuBpi^ea

tion the subtile and ttie grosser crucifixion. Those who abji^

matter ncre united ineijnalpor- doned false deities, andtli^ 1000

tions; but Achamoth, the mo- of theJcws, and,rivinga^i4;,

ther' of Demiurge, added to ing to the precepts of ChHfl^W

them a spiritual and celestial submit the animal' and Bpnm^ijr<

substance — (be immortal souL soul to the disctjilinoof reIU0J^',

The Creator of this world, shall be finally happy, ■'tbfic'!

who was the God of the Jews, rational and sensual soul sb^

according to Valentin us, ai'rir- ascend to the seats of hUs^^,

ed by degi-ees to that pitch of which border on the pterona.),

arrogance, that he either imag- And when all souls are pu^^^Q^,

ined himself to be God alone, thoroughly, and separate fijmLi

or at least was desirous that matter, then a raging firiesl^Jf-

mankind should consider him dissolve the frame of this ccfn-,!

as siicb. For this purpose he porcal world. . -,"

Bcht forth prophets to the Jew- The Yalcntiniana were djUj

ish nation, to whom he affect- vidcd into many bra|icj)m,f*[

ed to be the supreme Being; See Heradeoailes, i^fofem^^ji

and the other angels, who pre- Secujulimis, &c.

side over ilifierent partjinrtho vi-vtc-To n j » '

w«rl,l, ImiUted hii ambitio.,. >,T*^'STS, 8o oajlcd from

To coi-rert this arKB«nco of S.rH™ry Vano. rto ™ i^-

Dcmiorge, a„d to teih man- «"nteilgovor„„„r„tNewEi«.

kinJ tLf true and sop.cne Dc- ""!' '",*'" Jf" "f •' »? "J

itv.Chrirt appeared ipo„ earth, "'5,'» "" Jf" " "" ■"»*-

cimpo^d if an animal and »' JU,""'*?^"": *':° T*~

spwWisnbalance, and clothed *"S«* «ath ma,nt.™,ng An--

■ Mo3heim, Toi;i.p. 185— 1£8.




tinomian tenete.* See MH* nomians. VAUDOIS. See Waldehses. UBIQUITARIANS derived their name from ihaintain- itig that the body of Jesus Cfarist is ubique, every where^ Aild in every place. Brentius ik said to have first advanced fills sentiment about the year I SjSO. The Ubiquitarians were njit qnite a^eed among them- ^tves; some holding that • Christy even during his mortal Bfe, was every where, and oth- c^ dating the ubiquity of his too8y from the time of his as-

pCKEWALLISTS, a pa!:ty

oT Mennonists, folio wei-s of

ljfcke-Wa.1Ies,'h' native of Fries- land, who published his senti-

iftfents in the y^at 1637. He

eirfertained a favourable opin-

ioft 6f the eternal state of Ju-

dj^; and the rest of Christ's

Hiit^erers. To give an air of

p^^ibility to this sentiment,

H&^ iiiyented the following hypo-

t.]l^!s : ttiat the period of time,

'^ilrh extended from the birth

f Christ to the descent of the

[6ly Ghost, was a tiine of

Oatrtness ; during which the

'^^iwB tvere entirely destitute of

divine light ; and that, of con-

' • Calamy^s \bricl,ef. vol. i. p. 98.

f Broii^hton, Hist. Diet. VOL'S, p, 481. t Mosheim, vol. v. p, 8. i Mosheiro, vol ir. p. 552. . I ^Mr. Yates observes, tlut, "When our opponents call themselves Trinitn- ^iwi, they do not mean to intimate, that they believe in three Gods ; nor '^when we call ourselves Unitarians do we intend that term to sij^ify that we ^lieve in one God onlv. The former term was first in use, havings been adopted ^y the Trinitarians themselves to express their belief], that there is a trinity of l^psons in the Godhead. The latter was invented as a correlative appellation "^ designate those who believe, that there is in. the Godliead a unity of peraons, that is, only one person^ See Yates' Sequel* p. 15.

sequence, the sin^ coiiiiftittedf diiring this interval werp in a, great measure excusable.!|:

VERSCHOmSTS, the fol- lowers of Jacob Verschoor, a native of Flushings who pub- lished his sentiments in the year I68O5 much resembling those of the BaUemists ; which see.$

IJNITARIANS, a compre- hensive term, including all who believe the Deity to subsist in, one person only. The Socinians have claimed an exclusive right to this title, but unjustly, as Arians, Humanitarians, and all Anti-trinitarianshave an equal right to the denomination.-— Even some Trinitarians have claimed it : *^ but," it Is ev, ^ ident, '^this is to introduce a confusion of terms; sincey as has been observed. Unitarian is not opposed to Tritheist or Polytheist : it does not denote a believer in one Qod oiily ; but a believer in . G6d in one person only, in opposition to th«  Trinitarians.*^

The chief article in the reli-* gious system of the class of Unitarian Socinians If is, thai; Christ was a mere man. But they consider him as the great instrument in the hands of God



' tf^MV«i!iBitig iffl^^ of

the fell ; as the * tibje^t af all file pfTojphecies from Moses to -his own time ; as the great lioiid of union to virtoous and fjood men. whoy as Christians, usake^ne hoAy in a peculiar sense ; as intrMnced into the world without ahuman father;"^

to having commnnlQations with

^ -Gbd> and speaking and acting frpm God in such a manner as «i6 other man' erer did, and, ■ iiherefore, having the form of ^ 'Oodf and being the Son tf Ood -'■ In a manner peculiar to him- iSelf: as^the means of spread- ing divine and saving knowl- -edge to all the world of man-

  • kind ; as, under God, the head

-of all things to his church ; and

- as the Lord of life ^ having pow-

- er and authority iVom God to

raise the dead, and judge the

world at the last day. They suppose that the great object of the whole scheme of revela- tion was to teach men how to live Aer«, so as to he happy here- after; and that the particular docti'ines there taught, as hav- ing a connexion with this great object, are those of the unity of God, his universal presence and inspection^ his placability

- to repenting sinners, and the certainty of a life of retribution after death.

This denomination argue thus against the divinity and pre-existence of Christ : — The scriptures contain the cieai'est

and most expFMs declarations that th^ is but bh^^tfe'tf^a^,

and forbid'ttee i^orl»bil^W*^y oth^r* Exod; XX. «.-<]^te*^.

4. Mai-k xii; S9. • i C«K'*4L ^. Ephes. 1i. 6i Ai tlMr^^Mo. phetic atcoohts WKfk^ plKMiU the birth of Christ;, lito'ii^ldfjpblM of as a man highly fkvdi^elftf God, and gifted With settH^iS^ dinary powers frbnf -Tllta^'ttid nothing more. Heh'iras'^^iffe. told, Gen.xxii. S.'tobe^^ffb seed cf Abraham. ' D^flft^^k^ Jl prophet hke ^itfiSp^^4 Psal. cxxvii: Hi Ofkh^^i of Davidf ^c. As a mimvas • prophet, though- df^ifhis^lmlMst order, the SemiMimikAV^^ uniformly lobkkl ft^!^cft^ Hfc- siah. Christ ne^e^KRlMWdiaiy honour or rfeBpect'-on Ml^'wii account, but 'siiteIi^aJi'*4M9Kt be that -God .: to whom prayer isto.be offered^ ^ .because hci is the high priest of ' that Gpd, to make intereeasion ..jFor us. Heb. vii, 25. The a- ..rpostles speak the same Ian- It guage^ representiug the Father {,.S)Sthe pn]y true God^ and Christ {yfia aman^ the servant of Gtid, .,Who raised him from the dead^ \,,IKid gave him all the power of . .tVhich he is possessed, as a re- ^^;<|ri^4 for his obedience. Acts ,j 19, 22, SS« . The apostle directed .^M^. to pray to God the Father '^Wkf* PbU* i^» ^0. Rom. zvi.

j^ I, This denomination maintain

u,||iat repentance and a good life

iO^ of themselves sufficient to

^s^pmmend us to the divine

If ilsivour; and that nothing is

[% . saecessary to make us in allsit-

• lotions the objects of his fa-

  • > f your, but such moral conduct

-. • g^ he has made us capable of ;

  • > ( fliat Christ did nothing by his

I ^ death, or in any other way, to

I v^imder God meitiful to sinners;

-f tiu^that God is, of his own ac-

».€f^, disposed to forgive men

.Hhttiv sins, without any other

I >,f^ndition than the sinner's re-

V -p^nt^ce. Isaiah Iv. 7. Ezek.

«• XvUL 27. Above all, the beau-

'iiful and affecting parable of

, t^e ]^*odigal son, (Luke xv.) is

, thought most decisive, that re-

pentuice is all our heavenly

Fathcflp requires, to restore us to bis &vour.

The Unitarians of all ages have adopted 'the sentiments of PelagiuB, with respect to hu- man nature."^ -

The name of Unitarians is also claimed by all those chris- tians who believe there is but one Gk>d, and that this one God is the Father only, aiid not a trinity, consisting of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost They may or may not believe in Christ's pre-existence. The term is thus defined by the cdebrated Dr. Price, and ap- plied by him to what he calls a middle scheme between Atha- nasianism and Socinianism. His plan, and a few of the ar- guments he brings to support it, may therefore be inserted under this appeliation. — ^It teaches, that Christ descended to this earth from a state of pre- existent dignity ; that he was in the beginning with God, and that by him God made the world; and that by a humilia- tion of himself, which has no parallel, and by which he has exhibited an example of benev- olence that passes knowledge, he tf>ok on him flesh and blood, and passed through human life, enduring all its sorrows, in or* der to bless and save a sinful race. By deliveiing himself up

  • Priestley's Eccles. Hist. voL i. p. 143. Histoiy of Early Opinioiis, toL

i. p. 10—51 vol. iii p. T— 27. vol. iv. p 67. Corruptions of Christianity, voL L p 135. Disquisitions, vol. i. p. 376^ Institutes, vol. ii. p S^l- Appeal, 19 —47. TheolOjiical Repository, vol iv. p. 20—436. Lindsey's View of the Unitarian Doctrine, &c. p. 355. Vindiciae Priestleianx, p. ^^337. Apology, p. ISA. Answer to fiobinson'i Thau





to deathy he acquired the power of delivering us from death. By offering, himeelf a sacrifice on the croasy he vindicated the honour of those laws which sin-' ners had bi*oken, and rendered the exercise of favour to them consistent with the holiness and wisdom of GoA^s government ; and by his resuiTeclion from the dead, he proved the ei&cacy and acceptableness of his sac- pifice. Christ not only de- clared* but obtained the avail- ableness of repentance to par- Aon ; aiid became by his inter- pontion, not only the conveyer, but the author and means of ear future immortality."!^ This was a service so great, that no meaner agent could be equal to it, and in consequence of it offers of full favour are made to all. No human being will be excluded from salvation, ex- cept through his own fault; luid every truly virtuous man from the beginning to the end of time, let his country or reli- gion be what it will, is made sure of being i*aiscd from death, and of being made liappy for- ever. In all this the Supi*eme Deity is to be considered as the first cause; and Christ as his ^ift to fallen man, and as act- ing under that eternal and sclf- cxistent Being, compared with whom no other beinjs: is either gi'eat or good ; and of whom^ and thrmigh whonif ani to wJtom . are all thingSm

Our learned author argues in

this manner to prove the pre- existence of Christ, The his- tory of our Saviour^ as given in, the new testament, and the events of his life and ministi^,, answer best to the opinion oC the superiority cl his naturcvw Of this kind are his introduo-^ tion into the world by a mir{|pf, ulous conception ; the anniin-^ ciations from iieaven at ^fifk baptism and transfiguratipbyt, proclaiming him the SoiijdT God, and ordering all to heaV him ; his giving himself 6u.t api come from God to shedltijii. blood for the remission of slqil]^ liis perfect innocence, and Sin- less example; the wisdos^'by which he spake as f lever^yniiifj spake ; his knowledge . of. jlM| hearts of men ; his intinuLtiioft that he was gi'eater than AJirp' ham, Moses, David, or i ^ angels; those miraculouis, ers by which, with a comi over nature like that 1V1 first produced it, he «dli

this diviite f^^^o.^ and the man modern. The forraerivlSHM W

Chri!it Jesus n-iis only tempo- tbem before their BetfltnuMfffl

rary: fortbeyheldthattbisdi- Upper Lneatia in ITTZ'^ttk

Tine efflux,' which, like abeam latter alter it .'rd'iiii

^flight from the snn, went ont In an address ontiidrMMlF

of' God, and was' attached to to the English piivy ooidioil'bi

the person {jfChrist, to enable 1715, they are called Ths^'tH.

liifn to Woi% miracles while he formed episcopal chanhttf 'JiM

Ufts on ^^arth, was drawn into setUed in Bokemidt'and'^tKt

(3od again when he ascended forced hy the perMCBHahf- irf^

into heaven, and had no moi^ their memJeg to retite intit 1m s

occasion to exert a miracnious GVerrier Pdand, and PoifiAa

power. Someoftbemmigbtgo Pntssia. In an address shOiN

so fiu" as to say, that since this i\yin thejnsielves to the chnrcLj

ray was jnwperly divine, and of Bnglandr in the tlnM^tiS

tS^ divinity of ■ the Father, Charles II. they claim to hMV

i- * Price'a Bcraona, f..lS3—19% Price'* Itiswrtatjons, p. 154.

i T^eitley's Hiatorr of Bartv Opiaioivi, T91, m.p. 3T6. toL W. p. SA T»rieBUey^Eecl«.HUtvol. i.p.SSe.asr; '^ - ■ ■ '^ ~--

UM; ,301 UJ^,

hqeo " Aree &a> almoat 700 years theiqselres to a stricter cltwcli

from the encroHduncuts of the disfupUne, reaglving to suffer all

Romish seej" and speak of things for coasciencc's sake; '

Buaa, anA Jenmt of Pra^vst as and instead of defending them- .

t^ir^DOSB raartfrSf bjiwhckse selves, as some had dune, bj

bleod the cbuecb. of Bohemia force of arms,' to oppose nuft^ng.

had been watered and enrich- but prayer and i-casunablo ;re-

ed.> By the Bohemian church, moustraacestolbciftgeoftheir.

hflfvevw, can onlj' be meant the enemies.

cbriptiasa, who resided in that « Fnmi this period tu tlto ref>,

cpDotry; for Mr, Crantz places ormation they were severely

the beginning of th© church of persecuted, but still pi¥ser*xd.

3pb« Vhital Bretliren in the their unity. A ctmncxion was

3r!BBr 1457, and represents it as also formed between them and:

litSsing out of the scattered re- the Waldense^, who had for

■KVtina of the followers of Huss. many centuries borne witness'

    • TJiis people, in order to free to the truth. They had severaJ

IJi^einselves from the tyranny conferences with Luther, Cal-

«&f:Rome, bad applied.in 1450 vin, and nther rcformei-S) and

4»r a reruoion with the Greek some attempts were made for

^sbttirh, of which they had been an union. They approved of

^t^acieittiy a part, and their re- the Augsburg confession ; jjut

v^uest was cheerfully granted; not agreeing in ilLscipIiue, they

lt9iit:«n the taking of Constan- still continued a distinct hody;

T^i^leby the Turks, about two " After various pcrsecutiuris,

^rpara sfter, which put an end distresses, and discouragements

'ta the Greek empire, this pro- duringthe seventeenth ccutiiry,

^WS^junclion came to nothing, they became in a manner ex.-

Jt^Bter .^B they resolved to es- tiiict: but about the year 1720,

"tablish a community among a remarkable awakening took

ibei08eIveB, and to edify one place among the posterity of

~ anwtber from the word of God. the Brethren in Bohemia :, and

-^But 99 this would expose them as no free toleration coidd.J^

-initheir own country to pea^e- obtained for them in tbatCQiii\-

^mtion) they obtained penms- try, they agreed to emigrate

Vdon to withdraw to apartof Christian Bavid^ who had bewi

-jQte Jtlng's domain, on Utc boun- very useful amongst them, iqi-

'ttoy between Silesia and Mo- pliedontbcirbehalf toNicbola?

ntiirift, to settle there, and rega- Lewis, Count ZinzcBdorf, who

cUtoi^eir worship according to granted them permission to sef-

ittiMr own conscienpo and judg- tie on his estates in Uppo- Lu-

•neitt. satia. Thither, in 1733, a coB-

•< In the year 1457, they as- pany of them repaired, and

jjHimcd &e above denomination formed the settlement of ^fibv-

oftTnited Brethren, and bound kutt. Withip. the first four or

fire years tlioy had well High There is no doctrine on which

been broken up by religious they seem to dwell with such

disaensionS) occasinned (it is delight, as that of the croHSyOt

said) by parties Tram among the iuve of Clirist in laying

the Luthei-ans and the Reform- down his life for sinners. This,

ed coming to settle with them, they say, has been the preac^-

At length, by the cstertions of ing which tho Lord h&U> most-

Count Zinzendorf, the Unity ly blessed to the convei-aion rf

was renewed, and m 1727 rules the heathen, agreed to, by which divisions The church of the Unitejt

might in future be avoided: Brethi'en is eptsatptU; andtl^

The Count, who from the first orderofsuccessionintheirbi^-

was Mendly, now became unit- ops is traced with great ex»ctr

ed to thorn, and, in 1735, was ness in their history : yet the^

chosen to be their bishop ; allow to them no elevation

published in 1797 for the in- intend the whole Unity, in the

struction of their youth, they first sitting, a president is chd-

say nothing on the trinity, but sen, and these ciders lay down

merely quote passages of scrip- their office, hut they do luiE

turo which relate to it. Under withdi-aw from tlic assembly;

the article of the Holy Spirit, forthcy,togethor withthebislf-

bowever, they s^, '• He is very ops, lay elders, ami tliose mipia-

God with the Father and the ters who have the gpneral<;a'^

Son." They appear to avoid orinspectionof sevi'i-alcontjrl;-

the doctrine of unconditional, gations in one pniviiirp. liavT

election, and believe that "Jo- seats allowed in the sy mid. The

sns Christ (lied for all men, and other racmbera aic oro ui'mnifi

hath purchased salvation for deputies sent by rach cimji'C-

all."* Yet they say, "We do gation, and sncJi minister or

not become holy by our own missionaries as arc particular-

pjiwcr; but it is a work of the ly called to attend. Women,

Father, Son, and Holy Spirit." ax>proved by thp cpiisregatigiis,

• Crantz's History of tlic Brethren, section 82.

UNI 303 tNI,

are also admitted as hearers, to fill up the vacancies occav

and are called upon to give sioned by death ; and cTer?

their advice in wbat relates to member of the synod gives a

the ministerial labour among vote for such of the clergy as

their own sex; but they have he thinks bestqualiRed. Those

ao vote in the synod. who have the majority of votes

In questions of importance^ are ta^en into the lat^ and they

or of which the consequences who are approved are conse-

cannot be foreseen, neither the crated accordingly,

majority of votes, nor the unan- Towards the cloae of every

imguB consent of all present synodakindofexecutiveboaro

can decide } but recourse is had is chosen and called, " The

to' the bit. For this practice Elders' Conference of the Uni-

the brethren allege the exam- ty," divided into committees or

pies of the ancient Jews, and departments — (1.) The mis-

.ot^^iB jostles, (Acts i. 26-5 the noru' department, which super-

tifumciency of the hitman un- intends all the concerns of the Brstanding, amidst the best missions into heathencountriea. ud purest intentions, to decide — (3.) The kdperi? department* fw- itself in what concerns the which watohes over the parity administration of Christ's king- of doctrine, and the moral con- dom ; and theu* own confident duct of the difieruit congrega- njianceon the promise of the tions. — '(S.) Theseroaufs' de- ijord Jesus, that he will approve partment, to which the econom- wnself the head and ruler of ical concerns of the \Jmtj hi church. The lot is never arecommitted.^-^4.) Theinwr- ma^E; nse of, but after mature seers* department, of which the dulw^ation 4nd fer^'ent pray- business is to see that the con- Cr I nor is any thing submitted stitntion and discqiline tS the to' lis decision which does not^ Brethren he every wh(3* miun- ureer being thoroughly weigh- tained. IVo resolution, howev- -edi', appear to the assembly eli- er, of any of these departments^ i|ibte in itself. has the smallest force, till it he 'Til every synod, the inward laid before the assembly of the tmdoutwai'd state of the Unity, Eldei's' Conference, and have -aiid the concei'us of the con- theapprobationof that body.

f^gationu and missions, are Besides this general Confer^

en into consideration. If cncc of Elders, there is a Con-

jre' in doctrine, ordeVialdons ference of Elders belonging to

in pi^tice have crept in, the each congregation, Winch dL-

•srviMid endeavours to remove rects its affairs, and to which

them, and by salutary regula- the bishops and ^I other min-

boiis to prevent llLcm. for the isters, as well as the lay mem-

{unire. It considers how many hers of the congregation, are

bishops are to be consecrated subject. Thiabody,wfaichl!9ca1-




lei, << The Elders' ConFerence spiritual elders, or bishops^ wfaa

of the Congregation/' coAaists, are appointed to watch ovfer

--(I.) Of the nitnist to whose care the young men are more particu- larly committed. — ^And, (5.) . Those women who assist in car- ing for the i9piritual and tempo- ral welfare of their own sex, 'and who in this conference have equal votes.

Episcopal ' consecration does not, in the opinion of the Breth- ren, confer any power to pre- ade over one or more congre- gations ; and a bishop can dis- charge no office but by the ap- pointment of a synod, or of the Elders' Co;iference of theUnity . Presbyter^ amongst them can perform every function of the bishop, except ordination. Dea- cons are assistants to the pres- byters, much in the same way as in the church of England; and deaconesses are retained for the purpose of privately ad- monishing their own sex, and visiting them in their sickness : liut though they are solemnly l^lessed'to this office, they are not permitted to teach in pub- lic, and far less to administer the ordinances. They have likewise seniiyres dvilesn or lay etders, in contradistinction to

tions or missions are estAblrai- ed, and over the prtvlh^gbs granted to the Brethren-fiy flie governments under whidk-fl^y live. ' ;\'"^

They have econoikiefl^ %r char-houses, where thtiy^'l!'^ together in commanatied;' tte single men and single wiiHufti^ widows and widowers' 'MArt^ each under the superiutenAut^te of elderly persons dflheiP'^iHIhi class. In theise hoits«^-4Mii^ person who is abte^fl^'-Ms not an independent Mjlu^pttiftf labours in hiis or hei^bWfi odM- pation, arid contributieiB'flt jM^" lated sum for ^fr -iiilAMb- nance. Their chlldMti^»«lre educated with peculiar ^-Jt^ift. In marriage the/ txHA^T.- ^nlj form a connexion with tiiM^ef their own commutiloA')^^>*4Se brother, who marries Mt itf tte congregation, is imni^KAilbJ^ dismissed ftx>m chm^ch^felMk. ship. Sometimes, hi^^^^^tpki sister is by expi^s IfeldUlM Mil the Elders' Conf(^renoci ttcMill- ted to marry a t^ersMi otyl^ proved piety in antfftiM^dwk- munion, yet ^till to joifiln ttldr church ordinances an befaM. As all intercourse between 'ttte ^iflterent sexes is carehitiyt £- voided, very few opportunities of forming particular attacb- mcnts are found; and they usually refer their choice to the




t rf

, churcli ratl^ tbao decide for ing to coiamwucatef conyavsep

.thGmselves» A^i ■. sis the bt

.rOnust be qast.to sanction their

'* uniph> each rcceiv;es bis partner

1 a^ a divine afipointsnent. They

^ not consider a literary .^WUVB^ of education as at all ...^eoessary to the ministry, pro- vT^ed there be a thorough

knowledge of the word of God,

A ^Ud christian experience,

-iH^d.a well regulated zeal to

jAfrve. Crod and their neigh-

^4KHirs« They consider the

.^ tojburch of Christ as not confin-

-i94 toany particular denomina-

^^tiw;: iMid themselves, though

^ipfijtjBd ia ofie body or visible

^ipjiurohf as Bpiritua)ily joined in

^^Q hpnd ^fabristian love to all

«3^he'aM^ taught of Godf &nd be-

with one of the eldera on tne state o£ his souL The celebra- tion of the pouinmnlon is pre- ceded by a love-fefist ; and on Maunday Thursday by asol'* emn washing of each other's feet,, after which the kiss of charity is bestowed. All the above-named ceremonies thoy consider as obligatory]! and au- thorized in all, ages ai the church; quoting Jjohn xiiL.VI, Romans xvi». 1&., Onfiasieir- Sunday they attend the chapf^, or in some places the . buf ijd ground, where they read a;pe- culiar liturgy, and call over the names of all their membei^^ who died in the preceding year. And every morning in Easter-

'Jl^Dg to the univie^aal church of week they meet at seveno'clock Jibpist, however: much they to read the harm^nie^ of the

^9AjEiy . jAiflTer in foniisi^' which they .^fl9^ oat essentials. vintTheii^pubUc worship is very r#Wpte ;: their singing, accom- <»lP!ltni9d by . an organ, jdayed '>llf^ Wt and solemn. On a v%IHJlay morning they read a 3^t*ffi^:Qf their own churchiiaf- fjbE|it^l^ch.a sermon is preached, ^#^A an fexKortation given to the »f|lM4fleR« , In the afternoon ,1^%: liave private meett^igs, .md, public worship in the eyen- Algic. Previous to the sacra- ^mwU' whick is adtninisteced ..mice a month, and on Maunday .Tbursday, every person intaqd-

•^ , • Cranlz^s History of thd Urtited Brethren. Summary of the Doctrine of -J^tfOfl Chriflt.' niifttB' Chur6h Hist. vol. iii. '

V -f l!he>Morarana have mivnionanes ettablished in the Dtnish West^Inidlii .ujUndk Two. Moravian .missionaries formed the project ; and were exceed- ingly desirous of selling^ themselves as slaves, that they mi|^t have an oppor- tunity of preaching Christ to the negro slaves at St. Thomas'. The^ sappos« 

Gospel on the crucifixion, &c. But the most idistiHguishing feature of this denomiuation is their earnest and unremitted labour in attempting to qoi|- vert the heathen. ; They seem to have considered ,the.msplveB within this last century as a church of missionaries. And though -other denominations have of late emulated ^ their zeal, yet they are said to j|^ far behind theon* By the most in4efatijs;able labour and sufferings they have sent the gospel to the four quarters, t^ the earthif For an account of




their numerous missionary set- tlemcnts^ see Appendix.

UNIVERSALIST8. The flcntiiDcnt which has procured its profcsaora this appellation \¥ss embraced by Origen in the third ccnturvy and in more modern times by Chevalier Ramsay^ Mr. Jer. AYhitey Dr. Chcyne* Dr. Hartley, Dr.New- fon^ bishop of Bristol and ma- ny others. The plan of Uni- versal salvation, as exhibited by a late, learned divine (Dr. Chauncv of Boston, in Amcri- ca,) who, in his work entitled, « The Salvation of aU Tiiew," has maile several additions to the sentiments of the above- mentioned authoi*s, is as fol- lows:

That the scheme of revela- tion has the happiness of all mankind lying at bottom, as its great and ultimate end ; that it gradually tends to this endf and will not fail of its ac- complishment when fully com- pleted. Some in consequence of its operation, as conducted by the S(m of God, will be dis- posed and enabled in this pi:es- ent state to make such improve- ments in virttie, the onlv ra- tional preparative for happi- ness, as that they shall enter

upon the enjoyment of it in fbc iirfxt state. Others who have proved incurable ander* the means, which have been used witli them in this state, instead of being happy in tlic next, wiH be awuiUy miserable; not to continue so iinallyy but that they may be convinced of their folly, and i-ecovered to a tifto- ous frame of mind: and this will be the effect of the future t'^rments upon many, the eonr sequence whei-eof will be theif salvation, after being thus- fitted for it. And there msif be yet other states, before the scheme of God may be perfected, and mankind universally cured of their moral disordci*s ; and in this way (juldlfied for, and fmally instated 'in, eternal happiness. But however many states some individuals of the human dpe^Cs may pass through, and oShtis$^ ever long continuance tlie¥ may be, the whole is ititendeSl to subserve the gratid deslgii of universal happiness, nndw^ finsdly terminate in it; insiU much, that the Son of God, WnA Savionv of men, wiA not ddiff- ei* up his trust into tho bandk of the Father, who committed it to him, till ho has dischirg^^

'<^d, that a teacher, by becoming' himself a slare, mi^ht he ahrays amon]^ theB^ unci iience able to instruct them, without interruption. Upon being in^rffte4» tliat no white persons could, accordinp; to law, be admitted us slavies. th^ purposed to w'ork at a trade for a livelihood, and arrived at St. Thoma^i De- cember 13, 1732. Their siifTering^, in the bipf^innin!* of ilie mission^ tvei^'^tvt- ceeding'ly great, but at length their labours were crowned with abundant suc- cess. To use the words of one of the Moravian society — ^"!\rany thousands are now feathered around the throne of the Lamb from that qitarter, and about 'fen thousand, in oiir connexion, are at nreserif. belong-injjtohis church -here oh earth." See Baptist Aomial Hegistcr:




«d his obligations in virtue qf it; having iiiiaily fixed all men in heaven^ whon Grod will be aUinalU 1 C3or. xv. S8. \ A few of the arguments made iose off in defence of this sys- tem^ are as follow :^ • I* Christ died not for a select number of men only^but for mankind uwiroersaUyf and with- out exception or limitation. ' For the sacred writers are singularly emphatical iu ex- preissing this truth. They ^qpeak not only of Christ's f^ dying for uSf^^ ^^Jbrour sins,** f^for sinners,*^ ^^Jor the ungoA- ly^** ^^for the unjust ;^^ but af- ntm^ in yet more ^tensive termsy thaA ^^he died for the "warldf* lor " the whole world." .See 1 Thess. v. 10. 1 Cor. xv. 3. Rom. V. 6, 8. 1 Pet iii. 18. John i.^9; iiu 16, 17. iJohn ii. £• Heb. ii. 9; and

  • » variety of other passages.

^ If Christ died for all, it is lar more reasonable to believe^ iHmt the whole human kind, in consequence of his death, will finally be saved, than that the ^gneatest part of them should

Jerish* More honour is here- f Ix^flected on God; greater irirtue is attributed to the blood ^Christ shed on the cross; and instead of dying in vain, as to any i*eal good, which mill finally be the event, with irespect to the greatest part of mankind, he will be made to

die to the best and noblest pur- pose, even the eternal happi- ness of a whole world of likel- ligent and moral beings.

II. It is the purpose of Godf according to his good pleasure^ that mankind . wUversaUy, m consequence of the death of his Son Jesus Chi'ist, shall certaucb- ly and finally be saved.

The texts, which ascertain this, are those, which follow : First, Ronu v. 12, to the end. There Adam is considered ap the source of damage to man- kind universally ; and Christ, on the other hand, as a Uke source of advanta^ to the same mankind ; but with this observable difiference, that the advantage on the side of Christ exceeds, overflows, abounds^ beyond the damage on the side of Adam ; and this to all ml^l- kind. The 15th, 16th, and 17th verses, are absolutely un- intelligible upon any other in- terpretation.

Another text, to the purpose of our present argument, we meet with in Rom. viiL from the 19th to the 24th verseJ On the one hand, it is affirmed of the creature, tiiat is, of man- kind in general, that they are subjected to vanity, that is» the impcrfectiotis and infelicities of a vain, mortal life, hei'e on earth. On the other hand, it is positively affirmed of the creature, or mankind in gener-

  • The learned author of the performance, whence these arguments are ex-

tracledy has illustrated the passages of scripture quoted* by critieal notes on the original language, and by lowing their analogy to other passages in the inspired writings. Those, who would form adjust idea of the arguments, must consult the work itselft




aly that fhej were not subjected to this vanity^ finally and for- erer^ but in conf^equence of Im^ ; not only that ttey should be ddivei^d trom this uhhapiiy snbjectiony but instated in iin* mortal glory.

' Another text to this purpose occurs in Col. i. 199 SO. For it pieased Hub Father, that in him shuuld all folnefs dwell; << and f having made peace ihrough the Uood of his CTMSJ by him to reo andU all thingg wUo himseif; ^ And in this Epistle, chapter ii, Teree 99 the apostle (speak- ing of Christ) says, In him dweUeth aU the fulness of the Bodhead bodily ; that is, he is the glorious person, in whom God has really lodged, and through whom he will actually comhiunicate all the fulness^ wherewith he intends this laps- ed worid shall be fiUed in or- der 'to its restoration. And Christ, having this fulne<:s lodged in him, fiscended up far (tb&te all heavens, that he might JiU aU things. Eph. iv. 10. And as the filling all things in this lapsed world, that they might be restored, was the fi- nal cause of the ascension of Christ up to heaven, aD things must accordingly be filled in fart by him, sooner or later ; the apostle therefore observes in the following verses, not on- ly that he has imparted gifts in prosecution of the end of his exaltation, but that in order to the full accomplishment of it, he would go on to ipipart them, witU we allcovfifi to the unity of

ihefaithf unto a perfect man, un^ to the nuaswre of the stature of the fulness of Christ^ And. it- is declared in Ephes. L 9, 10, that all things in heaven and. earth shall be reduced from the state they were in, by means oS the lapse, into a well subjepted and subordinate whole bj Christ. Another pro.of of the present proposition we find in. 1 Tim. ii. 4. If God is able in consistency with men's .make* as mural siud intelligent agents^ to effect their salvation, his de-^— siring that they should be sav- ed, and his eventually saving* them, are convertible terms.

III. As a mean in. order to men's being made meet for sal*' vation, Gk>d will sooner or lat* er, in this state or another, re- duce them all under a willing and obedient subjection to his moral government.

The texts which confirm this proposition are numerous. Tho' apostle says in 1 John iiL 8. For this purpose the Son sf €hd was manifested^ that he might destroif the works ef the 4emL Parallel to this passa^,' John i. S9, Matt^ i. aif Psa. viii. a, 6, as exphuiic^ and< argued from Heb. iL ^'9j- These words are appHcidileito!^, Christ, in their strict mnd^fUll) sense. And if aU things, withal out any limitation or exc^itisnjf shall be brought imdersubfn^n tion to Christy tlien the nmsl must come, sooner or lator, itr* this state or some other, when there shall be no rebels among- the i^ons of Adam^ no eniunies^




against the moral government ot Grod: for there is no way of reducing rebelSf so as to des* troy their character as surh^ but by making them willing and obedient subjects. That this scripture is thus to be un- derstood is evident by a paral- lel passage in Phil. ii. 9 — 11. The next portion of scriptui^e^ in proof of the present propo* sition, we meet with in 1 Cor. chap. XV. from the 24th to the ^d of the 38th verse. Though the apostle^ in this paragraph, turns our view to the end of the mediatory scheme, it is af- firmed^ that universal subjec- tion to Christ shall first be ef- fected^ in a variety of as strong and extensive terms, as could well have been «sed : as, by

  • ^ putting down all rule, ani-oU

tmUiority and power ;*^ by *< put- ting all enemies wnder hisfeet,** tuU it is worthy of special notice, that, before Christ's de«  livery, of the mediatorial king- dom to the Father, the last ene- Hqif must be destroifed^ which is dUUh — ^the second rJ^afA*— which those, who die wicked men. Host suffer, before they can be ndnced under willing subjec- tion to Jesius Christ. For the first death cannot be called the lHat enemy with propriety and truth, because the second death is^posterior to it, and has no existence till that has been so far destroyed, as^to allow ot a restoration to life. ' 'The two periods, when the nfediatory kingdom is in the

XitAcr/^ ^fllyat&n 'of idl ineii> p.


hands of Jesus^ Ghristr and when God, as king, will be im-^ mediately all in aU,SLve ceitain- ly quite distinct troor each oth«; er : and the reign oC Christ, in his mediatorial kingdom, maj be divided into two general pe«, riods. The one takes in this present state .of existence, in which Christ reigns at the head;^ of God's khogdem ;0f .gra£e»: During this period- a number of the sons of Adam will he fit-' ted for a glorious immortally in the next state* The other, period of Christ's reign is that which intervenes- between the: general resurrection and judg^ ment, and the time when OaA shall be all in alL This state- may contain a duration of so long continuance, as to answer to the scripture phrase, tt4 tv«f ai»ta4 rtn u,imw^ forever and ev- er, or as it might more properljr be rendered for ages of ages^ During the whole of this stato the righteous shall bo liappy^. and the wicked, who are naost obdurate, miserable, till they are reduced, as willing and ohe-. dient servants to Christ, which^ when accomplished, the grand: period shall commence^ when: God shall be himself immedi-^'

ately aUinall.*

IV. The scripture language: concerning the reduced or re^ stored in consequence of . the- mediatory interposition of J^' sus Christ is such as leads ns to conclude, that it is comprehen*^ sive of mankind imiversally,* See Rev. v. 13. dnd every crea^




iure whidi is in henven, and on the earlhfandundartAe cartlhand Much as are in the sea, and nil ihat areinJlam^heardltmying, Unringt and honmvr^ and glortt, and power, be unto him that-sitr- teth upon the throne, and unto the lamb forever and rc^r. ■ This title also distinguishes those who cmhrace the senti- ments qC Mr. Relly, a modern pi^acher of universal salvation

ui £ng)and» and Mr. Muri*a7in

fliis country. See Rdtyans.

This denomination build their scheme upon the following foundation ; viz. — ^That Christ, as Mediator^ was so united to mankind, that his actions were tfaoirs, his obedience and sufllbr- ings theirs ; and consequently lie has as fully restored the whole human race to the divine favour, as if all had obeyed and suffered in their own persons. 7he divine law now has no de- mands upon them, nor con- demning power over them. Their salvation solely depends upon their union with Christ, which €rod constituted and es- tablished before the world be- gan ; and by virtue of this union they will all be admitted io heaven at the last day.

They allege that the union of Christ and his church is a neces- sary consideration for the right explanation of the following pas- sages of scripture ; Eph. v. 30. 1 Cor. xii. 26 ; xii. 12. See al- so Col. i. 18. Ephes. i. 22, 23. Col. ii. 10. Rom. xii. 5. Heb. li. 11. John xvii. 22, 23.

The scriptures attirm, that by

the cffenee of cns^ judgment came vfon uU men unto con- demnation. Rom. V. 8 ; iiL*25. It is evident hence, that in Adam's offbnce all have offend- ed; which supposes such a union between Adam and his offspring, that his ain was their sin, and his ruin thdr ruin: and if this he granted, why should it be thought a tldng incredible, that the like union, suhsJHting between Jesus and his aeed^ should i:yider his conditioh theirs? especially as the apostle has stated the matter thus: Rom. V. 19.

To prove that the atonement was satisfactoi-y for the whole human race, they allege that il is said, « Christ died for all ,-^ that << he is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours oiily» but for the sins of the whole world."

This denomination admit of no punishment for sin but^riiat Christ suffered ; but speak of a punishment, which is conse- quent upon sin, as darkness^ distress, and misery, which they assert are ever attendant upon transgression. Bnt,^tolrnow the true Chd aiuL Jesus Christ is life eternal, and as aU shall know him from the least to the ^ea^esf,. that knowledge, or be- lief, will consequently dispel or save from all the darkness, dis- tress and fear, which is attend- ant upon guilt and utibclief ; and being perfectly holy, we shall consequently be perfijct- ly and eternally happy.




As the reader has been pre- £iented with a brief account of the argaments in favonr of uni- versal salvation, it is proper to give a sketch of the evklence brought on the opposite side of the question.

A few of the arguments al- leged to support the eternity of future punishment are as follow :

The sacred scriptures ex- pressly declare that the pun- ishment of the finally impeni- tent shall be eternal. Matt xrv. 46. mind these shall go away into everlasting punish- menu &c. See also Mark ix.45, 46. Matt, xviii. 8, 9. 2 Thes. i. 9* fi Pet. iu 17. Jude 13. Rev. adv. 11 ; xix. 3 ; xx. 10.

The texts concerning the sin against the Holy Spirit in particular, are a clear proof of endless punishment. ' It shall not be forgiven him. neHker in this toorldf nor in the world to come. Matt xii. 31, 32. See also Mark iii. S8, S9. Luke xii. 10. So long as the gospel re- jects eveiy idea of the salvation of men without forgiveness, so long will those texts confute the salvation of all men. The apostle l^ays, 1 John v. 16, << If an^ miun see his brother sin- a fiSn which is not unto deatlu he flhaH ask, and he shall give him life' for them that sin not unto death. There is a sin unto death : I do not say that lio shsdl pray for it." It is evident Hve reason, why we are not to pmy for those who sin unto death, is, because th^ir salva- tion is impossible. It is said

in Heb. vi. 4—^ << It is impofr^ sible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift^ &c. it they should fall away, to renew them again to repentance:" now since it is impossible to renew them to repentance, it is im- possible that they can be saved. Of like import is chap. x. 26, 27. — ^The woe denounced by Christ on Judas also seems to afford a demonstrative proof of endless punishment : << Woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed ; good .wei*e it for that man if he had never been born." M^tt xxvi. 24. Mark xiv. 21. But if Judas were finally to enjoy endlesft happiness, he would be an in- finite gainer by his existence^ let the duration of his previous misery be what it might It was, therefore, on the supjiosi- tion of his final salvation, not only good, but infinitely goody that he had been bom; which is a direct contradiction to tlw declaration of our Saviour.

All the texts which declare that those who die impenitent shall perish, be cast away^ rejected, fa:, disprove univer- sal salvation : as, 1 Cor. i. 18. ft Pet ii. 12, fa:. With what tnith or propriety can those be said to perish, be cast away^ be rejected^ destroyed^ and lastf who shall finally be saved ? So it is said in Heb. vi. 8, << That which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh untd cursing, whose end is to bo burned." How* is it the end of

tfni 8i£ t^

any mim to he burneil, if aU the dain]^'ii4i'^MliWp "WfflWfet

ilhall finally be. saved? The end. The peculiar epithets aiij nui- Saviour,

tare represents, that at the end Luke ivi. 3(!. All the t^xts

of the world all things arc which speak of the diviru- veii-

bujuftht to an end. 1 Pet. iv. geance, /imj, tvrath, indr^ia'-

7. Then shall there be a fixed, tiott, fiery mlignulUm, *cc. Ik|I(!

wialterahle state; and after foi-th some otlicr ]kiniHliTnoi)t

that there can be no passing tlian that which is iiiiirel.y dis.

from hcli to heaven, Uev. ixii. ciplinary. See Dcut. xxxjfn4l,

Hi 12. The last words do- Roui. ill, 5, 6 ; i\. 22. sTIif's.

termine tlii? text to refer to the i. 8, &c. Besides the argiirpcnla.

gwieraljiidgmcnt; for a period drawn diiectly fiom tcxtfl'tif

of ages of ages alter the general gnripture, there is one from ifje

judgment cannot be said to general iialiire of the gospe!,

come quickly, and to be at Those who dip impenitent di;-

hand. The representation in serve an endless punishnjeijtt

the parables «f our I.ord is, for if endltiss punishineiit' V

that after the general judgment not the penalty threai^hej m

the tares and chafi" sliall no the law, no .iccoiint can" be

inoro be mixed witli the wheat, given of the penalty orthelayr?.

iior the good with the bad. It cannot be the temporair piin-;

BfHideA, the judgment is said ishment nctiially suRere'd .(ii'

to be eternal (amtin ;*') doubt- the damned, because tlien ffiey'

less with respect to its endless would bo finally saved, withW

and unchangeable cgnscqncn- fiirgiveness. It cannot be 'a

ces. But it' the judgment be temporary punishment 9f '\^,

eternal witli respect to its con- duration than that whicii ij,

•equences, the punishment of suffered hy the damnedi /be-

• Dr. K(l«-;iTd9, and the olher sdrocnteB for tlic eternity offiihire pnnub- me;it, naaeri that liic Greek words si«> and aiititi strictly imply an eodlni duratinn. On thf other hand. Dr. Chauncy bos taken greitt p^in^ to show ihat they mean a limited diiration.




cause on that supposition they are punished more than t|iey deserve. 'It cannot be a tem- jiorary pUnlsIhnent of longer duration tban that which the scriptures abundaiitly declai*e "the datnncd shall suffer^ be* cause no such punishment is threatened in the law or in any jiart of scripture : it must there- fore be an endless punishment. The doctrine of the perpetuity of future punishment is also confirmed by the constitution of nature^ whicJi connects sin and misery together, and will

finally make the wicked neces-

sarily miserable as long as they lave existence; unless this ^xmstitution be annihilated, or superseded hj the grace of Clod, which, hie ^sures us never eball be the case.^

A new scheme of universal sal- tation has been advanced by the late Dr. Joseph Hunting- ton, of Americaj. in a posthu- mous work, entitled, " Calvin- ism Improved 5 or, The Gospel Illustrated as a System of Real Orace, issuing in the Salvation of all Men." The author of this pdrformance supposes the atonement to be /< a direct, true, and proper setting ,all our guil^ to the account of Christ, as oiir federal head and spon- sor ;' apd alike placing his obe- dience to death to our account.** <« every \vliere speaks to man in his own personal char- acter, the gospel in that of the Messiah. The law informs us what man in justice deservesj, the gospel what the Son of God deserves.** Accordingly Dr. Huntington understands all the threateningsin the word of God' as the pure voice of law and justice. Thus he explains Matt. XXV. 46: '< Mankind in this passage are considered in two characters :' in their own per- sonally ; and then the voice of the righteous law is, Tliese: shall go away into everlasting pinishment ; but [in tJhrist] the righteous [by union of faith] shall enter into lifk eternalm The wicked character shall re- main an everlasting object of shame, contempt, and condem- nation, in the view of God and holy intelligences; the right-

• Edwards against Chauncy, p. 53—293. Johnson on everlasting pumsh* ment, p. 59^—67.





eous character an eternal ob- tect of approbation^ woHky of life eternaL"

This author declares* that Die whole tenor of diviiie reve- lation ascertains the salvation of all men. In support of this assertion he « adduces various texts of scrijiture. But, as many of his general arguments in favour of universal salvation have been exhibited in the foregoing articles, our curious readers are referred to his post- humous publication;'^ especial- ly as this does not appear to be so properly a new scheme, as a revival of Mr. Relly% above- recited.

An answer to Dr. Hunting- ton's « Calvinism Improved*' has been published by the late Dr. Nathan Strong, minister of Hartford in Connecticut. In this work he endeavours to re- concile the doctrine of eternal misery with the infinite henevo- lence of Ood. Dr. Strong ob- serves, that those who bdieve in eternal punishment, found their belief in consistence with the infinite benevolence of the Godhead. They suppose that benevolence is the sum of all his glorious perfections; that it is a comprehensive name for his whole moral rectitude ; that there is no separation to be made between punitive justice and benev'olence ; that it is be- nevolence which moves him to punish both now and eternally ; and that if he did not punish, he would not be an infinitely be-

nevolent God. He states he* nevolence to be — (1*) A love of the greatest quantity of hafh piness. — (2.) That it is con- sistent with the existence of misery. — (3.) That it has, re. gard to the greatest quantity ot happiness in society 9 and not fo the happiness of every individ- ual. << Benevolence thus ^de- fined (says he) is that goodness, or holiness, which direct^ ttie supreme God in creating, eoy- eiTiingy and rewarding. The good of the u7iote, or tn^ great- est happiness of intellectual being, is the object of benevo- lence. We may be assiirod that the infinitely bcnevoleiii^ all-wise, and all-poweijul Opd^ will eternally execKte sucb 4 government as will produce ti^ greatest possible portion of ^p- piness in the universe.

In order to confute Dr. Haii- tington's plan of 'imtTerisoI, sal- vation, Dr. Strong attempts to prove— (1.) That the *' contains threatenings of cleat and impenitent sinners will ik as much condemned by the gospel, as by the law.l-(2^) Tliat there is in no sc^nse* a contradiction, or oppo8itio||y between the law and the gos- pel. ^< Neither the law libr {(le gospel gives life or death in< Christ, according to the "Will of the Father, and with his

pwn choice, hath by obedience

'luiid sufferings made a display ofcei'tain moral tnitlis, which ,the eternal misery of those, who were forgiven, was necessary for displaying; so that their Inisery is not now necessary for the good government of the universe. The reason that their eternal suffering was fit under the law was to make this, dis- play, . the necessity of which nkth now ceased, if God. will be "pleased to sanctify and forgive through Clirist ; but if he be hot. pleased to sanctify them

through Christ, the necessity doth not cease. The meritori- ous cause on which.he forgives, is the atonii^ sufferings of his Son. The moving cause in his own mind to provide the gospel- atonement, and pardon the sin- iicr on account of it, was, his own goodness and the general good.

<<; i

..■JK- -f!.


WAHiVBEES or Waha- niTEs, a sect of religionists foifndcd by Abdoulwehhab, a- bout a century ago. He received an orthodox education at Me- dina, hut early formed the de- sign of reforming the Mahome- tan religion. As his scheme of reform was not likely to gain ground in Mecca or Medina, where interest furnished obvi- ous motives for maintaining the ancient rit^s and customs, he began his raroor among the wandering Bedouin Arabs of the Desert. The sword was the weapon he made use of to promulgate his i*eligion.

• Mosheim, vol. v. p. 359. Willson

With regard to the r^lif^iMfl'i tenets of this sect, thfirfoUnhtii^ er, while acknowledgii^ ttS^ the authority of the KoMiJif professed obedience only to Ae' literal text of this book^iKP^ jecting all additions "of ' 'tke Imans and doctors of law, anA* condenining various pracAicwn of the Mahometans, which- -lio' » supjioseil had sullied the pini«( ty of the faith. / ^uM

The period of the refonh'tf^ Abdoulwehhab may bo reckon^ cd from \TA7.

As his design was to recdve only the texts of the Koran, he annulled many rites, and

on the atonement p. 47.




nofUBced manjiopinioiss genera ally receivecl.b]!? the Mahom^ laMs. For JfOfitaiieef every good muissulmatt believiosy that aft»p the death and burial of :the prophet^ hia soul reunited iisel£ to hi» bodj^and ascended to Faradise, mounted iqpon the mare of the angel Gabriel^ named El Borak, the head and neek of ^ivhicli were of a fine forsij

« Vhis events indeed^ is not an

aitie)e«f faith; but every mus-

srilnan^ who did not believe itf

viieuld be looked upon as an in-

Md^ and' treated as such.

AbdDulwehhiak asserted, that

thQknoi*tal remains (tf the proph*

et continued in thei sepulchre

the same as those of other men.

Among the mussulmans it is

customary to inter those, who

have obtained the reputation of

lieing virtuous, or saints, in a

private sepulchi-e, more or less

onaaaiented after theii' death,

asrtrta build a chajpy^l over it,

WKte their protection is invok-

edtforthe aiippUcant, and God

UkUlipposed to beMend their in-


oJbirwAy hail the wdl-inform- eArmusfiulmaus begun to dcs- piseftese superstitions sea^etly^ though. they seemed to respect th0mrp.tl)e^.yes of the /people. But Abdoulwehliab d^lared btj^yip >lhat thisspfecieaof wpr- sb^ j^enden^d to. the s^iiiit^ w^s a very grievous sin in tlic cye«  of! the -Divinity, because jit ^vas fi^ng^ him comps^nions. . in comBcqueucc of this biS' secta^ rics have destroyed the sepul-

chres, . chapelSf and templei^- elevatedtotheii* honour.

In virtue of this principle Abdoulwebhab.foatids vener^ tion or devotion to the person of the prophet as a very great siri. This does not prevenib, him ft*om acknowledging / his mission; but he pr^nds be^' was no more than another man^ before God made use of iiim to • communicate his divine word to men^ and, that when his mis:*- sion was at an endj he. became, an ordinary man*

It is on this account that tibe reformer has forbidden his fol- lowers to visit the tomb of the prophet at Medina. When they . speak of it, instead of makin^^^ use of the form employed .hy^ other mussulmans, namely^ << Our Lord Mahomet, or « Our Lord the Prophet of God," they only say Mahomet.

The grand doctrine of this sect is the wniff . of God. Their confession .of faith is^ "thei-cisno other God thaii . God ; Mahomet is the Prophet, of God." Their public criers made this profession of faith to- be heard in all its extent, from the top of the minarets of Mecc^ which they have not destroyed^ as well as the temple, whiqh.waj5», under their dominion. Thgr call themselves mussulmans by way of eminence, and when they speak of Islamites, they uur, dei'stand only by that word the pci*sons of their sect,\Vhich they look upon as the only orthodox. They esteem the Turks, and. other Mahometans as schismat-


VAL 318 "WjA^

ics; but they do not trctit doptedt and xvluf-^Wn known

them as lAolateTs, or infidels. by the name of WaldenRes, or

Abdoulwehhab never ofirred Vattdnift, before be < called Vallenses, Jf'aliriises, or

gypt, who conducted the war The People in the JWcysJ^

Bgainbt them with energy. By From a confession of their fWtll

his strenuous exertions they of nearTy the above date, at*

were driven with loss from the extracted the following partlttf-

Arabian coasts; Mecca, Me- lara.— (l.) Tliatthc scriptdfA

^a, and Jedda were retaken teach fliat there b one G^

and restored to the authority almightT^, all-wise, i^id 4^

of the Porte and to the Ma- good, who made all thihg^'ti^

bom etan worship. Itdoes not, his goodness: for he fortiiM

however, appear that this sue- Adam in iiis own initfge 9iii

cess is complete, or that its con- likeness-, but that by the en^

8ei|uenc(>H will he permanent.* of the devil, sin entered iiito't^t

WALDENSES, or Vac- vrorld, and that weare siiirtcri

nois. The antiquity of this in anil by A(lani.^-(S.) Tfiw

denomination can he traced Christ was pmniisfd to ot^ f^

back four hundred years before thers, who rereivrd thc'^hR

the time of Luther, and twenty that SO knowing by the Id^

before Peter Waldo. "Many their unrightwmsnc^s Jlritl'i'A'i

pmtcstants suppose that Waldo snfficienry. they might dj6'sj^

derived his name frtnn the Wal- the coming of C]irisf,to sjiti^fV

denses, whose doctrine he a- for thdr sins, and accomplish

the law by liiissEs|lf.--duced.f

&S of the iuvisibic giace; *WATERLANDIANS, a

wi^ ^h^ i^ is good for the faith- party of Mennonites, distin-

ml to use those signs, or visible guished by their prudence and

m3us ; but that they are not moderation, who, in their Con-

j^sen^i^ to salvation.~-(9.) fessions^ adhered closely to the

Tji^t there are no other s.-u;ra- language of the scriptures ; ex>

m^nits but Itaptism and the pressed their peculiarities with

^t^'s sui)per. — (10.) That w« much caution and reserve^

^^1it to honoui' the secular avoiding the language and con-

iwwevs by subjection, re^d^r duct of the early Anabaptists.^

' (fVdience, and paying of (rib- *WELCH INDIANS, (or

1^.* fodoKCoe, Ja colony su)ipnsed to

, " Tlic cisternal Iiistory of the have emigrated from Wales in

I • Perrin's Hi»tory of the Waldensea, p.S26. Athenian Oracle, toL L p.

3B4.- Milner'i Church Blstorv.vol Ui. ch. W.

■ t Jones' Hist, of the Wddeuea. Brief Memoir of the Waldensei, by a al«87intii, 1815. .

t Mocheim, vol iv. p. 464, new ed.




flie twelflh centurfT, (three him- dred years before Colambtis,) under Prince Madoc; and whose descendants still reside on the borders of the Missouri far to the westward of the Mis- sisippi.* Several accounts are to be found -in Welcli and other histories^ and various letters have appeared at different times in the Gentleman's and Month- ly Magazines. These accounts have been collected witli addi* tions and remarks* in three mimphletsy two by the late Dr. £• Williams^ and one by the Bev. 6. Burder, referred to bo- low. They wei-e much con- firmed in conversations with Gren. BowleS) the Indian Chiefs when in England ; by Mr. Cheshoiro, from the Creek In- diansy also in his visit to Phila- delpliia; and by Mr. Hecke- welder, a Moravian gentleman

tiiat there are nlKgCt oB the European arts amoiig/ theqi^ particularly rernnantftoftean tlien WHre» &c. 'Swlflrtdiiiv tives of Wales^ mnd ^Miam dot oeudauts from that ■a(tibil')ii America, have expresac^rni great desire to gb in seilTCkw this very distant CMoatajpiwM to commence B misaibn aoMM them, which indeed' ^M^ MHran press object of MA Bofdiekb pamphletf ■ »*|i'i ji< yrft

«W£SLEYAN6^tiia(lblbdi ers of Messrs. Jolittand GhaiM Wesley. See JtfUhodiste* fu'iAi

  • WHITEFI£i.DETH»^/ii

term applied to thoM^ithdoUy Methodists whd sidbd Miii flb. Whitefield and tha) GUvirihtt Sett MelhoditUi' ril't ^^ Jo a^Iq

WICKLIFFTFEiS^^'tt// te nomination whioli sjprawinnirt England in the fimrttoimtei tury. Theyderived'their^Wi

at Bethlehem ; an abstract of from John ^Yickliff, diactBriitad these and other accounts was professorof divinity in theonb

printed in the Weekly Register, for December 26, 1798. ■ The substance of all the ac- counts Is, that there is a nation of Indians of so much lighter complexion, as to indicate an European origin ; that their language is Welch, at least radically so ; that they have sa- cred hooks in that language, (which have been seen by na- tive Britons,) though they have lost the ai-t of I'eading; and

versity of Oxford, n man ^odih enterprizing genius ^andexinp ordinary learning; He bfegai with attacking the juri^etiMl of the po^Ks and the bisfaopR) and declared that ]>eiiaiioe tei no soi-t of merit in the 'siglttf Grod, unless followed witli'»i reformed 1 ife. He wa» a warn opposer of absolutioiip;'^for4M alleged that it beloni^ to God alone to forgive sir» f^ Bdt'^n- stead of acting as God's-ndK^

• Mr. M^ Owen fixes their situation between 37 and 43 defies N. \\i, and between 97 and HOW. long. Gentleman*! Magazine, 1791, vol. ip. 329

t Burdef's Welch Indians, Bro. 1797. Dr. E. WillUras' Enquiry into the tnith of the dlsco\'ery of America by Prince Madoc, ami farther obgervatioM gn ditto, 1792. Weekly Register, Nos. 4 and 38. . - : •




inten^ tto Bmnisb clergy tmit Bpow themyhe said^ to forgirfe 81118 in their own na^ie. Heabo teugfaft •tbal'«xtemal-cotifeaBion Jirak ast^BeeesBajry to^'rialmtioii^ fxclaimed agtinst indidg«tee84 |ragrn9'to tke snukib, the^ cditt- tey of the clergj^'the doctrine MrtraiuMlMrtantiatioriiy monsmtic ^avm^ andotber practices in the BoiiMil Gathidic church. He not oM^'Cxliorted the lait> to stady the scriptures^ but also trans* hitod IheiaiAfo Enjgliigh) in or-

sald fliat Ihe assertedilthot iA j.7r6,'8Ue was laken sicky^^anfl actually died, and ter'iloul went to reside in heairen. Soon a& ier, hejh body was re^adimated wifk tlie' spirit- and pofwer of Ohiisty upon wlitch' she set up a»' a public telu^her-; and 6&» dared she had -an immediatt revelation tb^ all she delivered j and was arrived to^ a 4srtatD of absolute perfection.* It is'alsil said she pretendied to fiiretell future events, to- 'discern tfad

ddP'to^ render the perusal of seci'ets of the heart, and tb^jiiur^ ftem noirBuHmVersal. The fol- the power of tiealing ■dlMfliises^

a|id if any persotis, whd hiA made a{^lication to rher, were not healed, she attributed it' tH their want of fiaithi . Sbe-acD^ kaowledged no other name 'bu£ that of Universal VtitmL fit# made some conveiit» In. NeiV York,:^ and in Rhode . Ulandri hut chiefly in; rthe -Qemftesaea country.

An ingenious yoianig gentbif man, in his tour to.tliei &Ua<^ Niagara^ Montreal»and QujBt bee in 1813^ was ititvoduced to Jemima Wilkinson, and lia«  given a very entei!tainin«; : ao«  oouttt of the interview. Among othor tilings he say8^ ^ Her command of the contents of thu bible, and her readiness in tba use of scripture language was surprising/' He suf^sed thrt << like most of the false preten-* ders to religious 8uperiori1y«  she made her claims to uncom*

kwtani iof« ' Wickliff were also

1 rWUiHELMINlANS, in the tkirleeiiA^ century;^ the disci- ples of Wilhelmina^ a Bohemi- nkj vsDmsaii^lIk^ HdAtA in the tBreitqony. ojf MUan. t She per«- sMdodialar^B nutnliep that the BU|t OhoBt was become incar^ bate IB hek* ^peifsbn for the saiva* tiini of^ great part of mankind* lliCOording to her doctrine, none saved by the blood of Je«  /btitj^trueaad pious chris«  tiait8:j labile the Jews> Sara* fMpN'aod unworthy ohristians tatfetoobtaifi ssdvcition through Ihetfidly Spirit which dwelt in hen ir^and in consequence all Miick. happened to Christ dup* ia|;*ihls abode upon eai-tb was f0)1ie«ep«Bted in her person^ .nJWXLKINSONt Jemima^ an AmmfiBXk female of some noto- Mty in the last century. It is

.■f • Moafiehn, TOi Hi. |v 16& Gilpin's Life of Wicklifl; p. 67— 73.

"I* Mosheiro, voL iii. p> 131. "^t'-'t- Hie Duke de Rochefoucault^ mbls travels in America in 1796, met with Jltaiitta wakiniion in the state of Kew York, and describes her as a pti^onaMe ^t artful woman. . * . . ^





moil inspiration with sinceri- iyj* He, liowever, describes her as an ambitious and selfish woman j whoso mental powers were vigorous^ who was acuto and cimning, andmust* he says, be skilled in human nature to have gained such an ascenden- cy over so many minds. She amassed a lai'ge foiluue by the

donations of her foUowersi and lived in a luxurious and expen- sive manner."*

  • ^yINCH£ST£IlIAN8» a

name sometimes given to tte admirers of Mr. ElhananWiite chestei'9 who preachedtfae doo^ trine of universal sahratitfil both in England and AmaricMU See UnvoersalisU* -. s,- tu

■ ■■■•. -i ^» ■ - .i^'

  • Y0GEYS, (Sanaisys, or

dviTASEESy) Hindoo Devotees^ who practise a variety of self- tbrtarpJ^y and moi-tify the body in order to merit heavenly fcli- city^ and obtain the immaterial nature of Brahma, the supreme. In the Mahabaraty a Yogey is thus defined : "The man w^ho keepeththe outward accidents from entering the mind, and his eyes fixed in contemplation between his brows; whofTtofc- eth his breath pass equally

through Aw nostrils ; .

keeping his head, his neck, and his body steady virithout mo- tion, his eyes fixed on the paint qf his nose, looking at nottiing else around," &c. he is a Fogey -—and is forever blessed.

  • See Extract from a Journal of a tour to Nia^^ara Falls, in the spruai|^aj

summer af 1812, in the Christian Disciple, September 1817. ^ ,'. _

■\ In the interior ])art of Ifindostan an idol, called Jaggemaut, is wtirshlf* ped by immense numbers, who make frequent piljrrimages to his templei" Orisa. On these occasions the idol is brougrht forth on a stnpendouii tftf c tower, about sixty feet in height, amidst the acclamations of hundreds^^^ thousands of worshippers, who resort thither from various parts of Iridic ^ 5^Iany of whom sacrifice themselves to this idol ; numbers of pilgrims die ^on the road ; and their bodies frequently remain unburied. See Buchanan's JC^- searches, p. l';5, 106, and his Apology for Christianity in Indis.

+ vSketches relating to the Hindoos. Ward's account of the rcligi(»i ^7i.. . *

» <> ■

' :.. .♦




■ . -* ■




•"t ■:■■-■:; 'J.. ." . ■ . ., ■ . ■ ■ .■■.,■


r /***■'■*■-" ^ ■ ■

mTtiriTiisTAirDiKia the most ibpor^iit aihtides'compiis* ed in the second and third parts of the former editions of this work are incorporated in the preceding DifeTioxART^ the edi- tor judged that the following bird's-eye view of all the reli- gions and urincipal rdigious denominations now existing in the world» night glean up a few remaining particulars that had been passed over, and form an acceptable appendage to the woi^ : and in order to make it useful^ as well as entertain- ing, he has sulijoined a miscellany t>f observations^ not only on the population and ecclesiastical government of the various nations, 6ut on the present state of vital and evangdical reli* l^ony and tibe exertions making for the propagation of the gos- pel throughout the world.

In so compressed a. form it would be impossible to cite all the authorities he has made use of, which au*e^in general the most modern* as well as authentic, he could procure ;* and oa , the state of religion, and the heathen, he has particularly con- sultc/d the transactions and reports of missionary and bible so- cieties, and the most respectable periodical publications of a religious nature. It is but just to acknowledge, that for the first liint of these tables he is indebted to a tract of the great Dr. Carey of Serampore, (but then in England,) entided, <^ An inquiry into the obligations ol' christians to use means for the conversion of the heathen : a tract which laid the foun- dation of the Baptist Mission Society, and was one CQnsidera- ble mean of calling the attention of other denominations to the ^ork. It deserves to be added, that this excdlent man, after pioindng out the way to others, was himself one of the first to lead in the great work which he recommended.

  • Principally Pinkerton's Geography, and sundry Voyages aad

Travers, &e« 

326 AFramaix.

"" Religious DenominaHons esCablished or tolerated^

the fonnef pqnted in Italics.

Gountriea. £UROPE. Pop. inmiUt

EKOiiijrB and Church gf England^ or J^yi^coiMiIians,'* with; WjOJaiB. a general toleration oC all sects of Dissenters in religious woi*sbip ; but which however are , restrained, by the Corporation and Test Acts, from certain offices of trust and honour.

It is difficult to estimate the number of Dissenters in this country. The Arminian Methodists (including the new Connexion) amount to more than 180,000 in Society, be- sides occasional hearers* The Calvinistic Me- thodists are probably equally numerous with the Arminian ; and the Independents, Bap- tists, and Presbyterians, with a few other sects, may be reckoned equal to bath classes of Methodists. The Roman Catholics are es- timated at nearly 100,000 ; and the Friends are very numerous ;. so that the whole body ' of Dissenters must certainly exceed a Mil- lion, and make about one tenth of the popu- lation. All who are not Dissenters are gene- rally considered Members of the Establish- ment ; but if we farther deduct all who make no profession of rdigion, and who attend to no forms of worship, the number of real Churchmen must be still considerably re- duced. For a man who neither believes the articles, nor attends the worship of the Estab- lishment, has no more right to be called.^. ..^ Churchman than a Mahometan or a Chinese. 11

A^WRifr, s»r

  • " ' ■*

■ ■■ ■■'■■mmM.r-- ■ •

England and Among the circumstances favourable to vital Wales. religion in this country inay be reckotie* the M- ' iowihg. 1. The institution of bible sociefi^ and particularly that great en^ne of benevolence, « The British and Foreign Bible Society/' which, ill ten years has been the mean, fai whole or in ' part, at home and abroad, of printing and distri-

buting 1,148,850 bibles and testaments. With ^ • ' this parent Society are connected more than four

hundred Auxiliary and Branch Societies, in the -'•■ Britlshr dominions only. ' ■ ' " S. The general establishment of Free Schools for i. f , the education of the poor: as 1. Sunday Schools - -' '^^ foir cMldren employed in manufactories and man- < v:j;£ ^>tml^tabouK 2. Daily Schools either for chil- ■ > > ^-' ^ drfeh et the Church of England, as Dr. Bell's ; or r. h r- H 1 i ■ jjj, ,jgjj, denominations, as those tif the British and {:> n» ■>? HFordgn School Society, whddc infWence promises *^ - ^Hi6 bte aaeitcnsive as that of the Bible Society. K* ) 3. Schools for adults, whose education had been • 's ■ ^neigfeeted till they came to years of maturity.* O'.iij/: i '3= Village preaching, by which the gospel is ^ *' Upreadilfigin fdl the t>bscure and distant parts of oi ♦: r ihe kinigdom; where it had not usuiffly been heard. j.; .. k ■ . M' ? ? 4j? Societies fer Foreign Missions, which now «±ist'in allnost i^Very denomination of Christians, "^ ■ Mtthdteli^feild 46 ev«^y quarter of the world.

  • Among ilie o^er Qehevbleht institutions in England which

are nfentlOTJed by Mr. WJffiaftw',- the? * London Society for Promoting Chrisdamty. ah[aDngstthe^JeilE8i^ which he baa not mentioned, holds a distinguished rank. A brief account of this institution is ^ven under the article Jews. From the last report of the society it ap-' e^^^'lAat a jreai^ ffeWc^'dsefttltiess is opened to their labours m '^ii|l 'arid Rtissfijwlifete' thfer^e dre vast numbers of Jews. The Cottunttte'^ havfe' turned their, attientlon to these countries, and pro^ pose to ^en)i'liii^ioiiaV!ei^^mo%'t!i^ See fioston Recorder, May 7, 1817.

a£8 Art»mn*

M l ■• ...


f '

StmchAUm and The Scotch XCirk, or PreskjfUrians j the the adjacent Protestant Dissenters from which are call- Idea, ed Seceders^ and are divided into Barghers^ Anti-burghers, and the Belief KiriL, &c. It is remarkable that Episcopalians also, by crtissing the Tweed, become Bisdenters. i

IttEiajni. Church qf Englandf with the like toleration

as in England ; and the like ^satnlities as ^to ' ^ ' the Catholics, who form (says Mr. Butler) << two thirds of the population of Ireland."

The Wesleyan Methodists haYe in their Societies above 29,000 ; (besides occasional hearers ;) there is also a considerable num- ber of Presbyterians (especially in the North) and other protectant dissenters ; so that the established religion can hardly claim more than one fourth of the populattdn.

HoiXAKB and The Reformed Ckurchf or Calidnism, is the ^ the Nether- Established Religion of Hoffand, with* W ' lands, general toleration to all other sects; but though Calvinism must be cbiisidered as the established religion, a great part of the people are Arminians, under the forms and discipline of Calvin, as is also the cai^ in Scotland. The Netherlanders arc generally Catholics, with

ftyyn t iSftift y JiegjrTOB>' ^-

5. Benevolent institutions, adapted to meet and to reliere almost every species of human mis- ery ; and tikese supported in times and circum- stances which bear very hard upon the cltlsa of persons, by whom they are chiefly maintained.

In ^o^, it may be added> the children ot the poor bare derived great advantage from Circu- lating schools) which remain for a certain time to teach the children of a particular district and flien refnove to instruct another. Scoixunj ".Partakes in till that has h^n. said ,oT £i]glai^ ; ,^ , and has been particularly beni^nted by ioeiiisti- .. '^, jtuUtm of.jSabbath schoolSf whicU have been in- I '^_^(^'^^'^up^edjiBr many parts. oS ,ii^ country witk

iREi^nD ^^^, If) l^ef^^y far behind Epsp{Ui^^.in mental cuP

" I, li I- if^^^iffyi^ Now, however, jf(ej'ariousdenom- iiiiil fit ■jf1'??ft'.W-,^^'**^*^"*^ ?^1^J^S with each oth- . ^ , ffi.in pae. propagatioQ of evan^lical ^octrine I , ,„^^ugb fJie country. The Sunday school, Hi- ' (...„/ ,.|,i^'?|?!'*„*'^(^, .%*"' .?f*^i*'^,^ *™ dJ^P'^yi'iS great ■■ nut .v ^^^ f^ ^^^InS^® .nsiilK B^o^a^tion to read the „„ I, ... ,.tS**,%i'W^„VtiIy,. ia the JE.Bigli^.hut in the Irish . ' ' lanlgiiag^^-Iiere tlie.,fqrt^er^is.ppf understood.

HouandJ ilelorp tlic Ki-encli invasion of IIi)lia(fi[{r^her*

■,i J.- . ^wrc ri'ckoiied 1579 ministers in the ^^steblish-

■i!t ■ 1 bTT^Ei^"*' ^^ *'^ ^^ Walloon Church, [or ftotestant

'iliri'W .. t •1^^'^'^ of the Uiiitjjd Netherlands,] 800 Catho-

[ '_ iic^. 5.5 liiifiicraiis, 43 Arminians, and 312 Bap-

^ ,,j, Hals. The Froncli introduced their inlidel phi-

j^.^ Ifisonhy, bnt it wag not^^^a^tcdto the people,

■wbo «« genef ally grave and steady. There we


3130 jkM^)rDf&.

Countries. Rdtgums Dencmifiation^f ^t. ' Pop. in mill.

a limited tderatk>ii to'idt otliBr;«ectB^; but be- in^'noT^ bi^fi^bt under ih^ sanvBi government si£l Holland; yrfSi prdMbly' micb iiiGrease the • Pfbtestiint intcirest * • . i: 7

Dbnhabk and Lfiiherai^^ Calvinists, and . Catkolics j tho < > \ g its Islands* latter with Mennonites (or Baptists) exist

under some restraints and disabilities. 3

. I

I / 5 .

1- V f

•t « « 

■■ »'■

3 '1:1 '/

SwED^f Nor- Lutherans, Calvinists^ C^tholics^ and ^we« 

way^ and Ibeir denborgians^ (or New Jerusalem Churchy)

dqiendenciesb which are in Sweden numerous and r^-

pectable. The Catholics are under some re- straints as to the publicity of their religious ceremonies. The recent union between Nor- way and Sweden will make no alteration in the state of religion, as they were both Prot- estant kingdoms.

Pbussia. Lutherans^ Calvinisis. and* Cdmmds, wittf "^a ■ '

free tpleration to others | which may partly be attributed to the in6del prjunciples of Fred-





Frestnt 8tat^ (^ RdigioHf ^c« 



>i *..

also^inany. pipua .christio^ps^ who have not only

cc^tiibutedfi^y^sof ^tbeir property to the cause

. of( ifiiffiony.iMk ^eyeral of , the most useful mis- sionaries in Afripa have been from that country^ as Yanderkemp^ Kicherer^ &c.

The Danes have formerly taken as^ active part in missions to the heathen, and have particularly countenaiK^ the^ United^ Brethren in Green- land;* and in their West India islands. They had also the honour to patronize and foster the Baptist Mission at Serampore, when discounte-i nanced by our East India Company. The king, it is said, has expressed a great desire for the in- struction of his subjects, and the British system of education is intended to be introduced. The scriptures have been printed at Copenhagen in the Icelandic dialect, for the use of Iceland.

A Bible Society has been formed at Stockholm, which has co-operated with that in London, in jprintirig the scriptures in the Swedish language and that of Lapland.f The Stockholm Society is also active in the circulation of religious tracts in those languages. A Bible Society has been also formed at Abo in Finland, by the aid of the Lon- don Society, for the printing of the Finnish scriptures, to which the present emperor of Rus- sia has contributed 5000 rix dollars.

Berlin is famous for an excellent seminary for the educiaition of Protestant ministers ; and sev- eral missionaries to the heathen have been fur- nished from that quarter to Afferent societies in England. A Bible Society was formed at Ber-

  • The Danish missionaries have made two different translations

of the new testament, both of which have been printed in the Greenland language.

t In 1811, the British and Foreign Bible Society published a large edition of the new testament in the Laponese language.



(. I,.



! '■?.!.' i -•)


  • . €.

gofremed hj a consisloiy^ by a priocifnl and tkrw smiora;. This slate is about bcia^ ^^sain fenaed ialo a distiBct pnrcniflmty udcr the protodioii I;- n ',0ide88iblo aaoAer of livthefaas^ Cahmiisisy

r * '^ . , /;.:,aad.othor PratestaBtoof all dtaoauiiatioiis ;

/;..'; tiidf Iv the 110V constttIltisl^ then is to be m

^ perfecteqaalifyefrightsaiid^Yil^gcs among

the BoMui Catholic^ Lathmu^p and Catvinia-

• . tic cbofcbfa* In Hinigafj it was eakalated

ia 1797^ Ihat the Catk9lka aad^Crolestants

' - were noariy equal ;'bc8ids8:Vhich Jliisking-

4mi w»a stated, to coalaimTfladiOOO Jewsy

5MOO€l7psifi8ioiidagffafciMlhBrofGreek -

christiaaa* £0

S wrrzEBi^iJBa^ Switzerland is divi^ad .iiitQ,€«nt^»8. :> tbf^eo' > ^/ : Piedmoiil^ &c« of Berne, Zurich,^, are Calvinists ; Uri, . Schweit;^^ £u;» CaiJiolic; aoBie, are composed


Fr^ent- ^Stoie ^ tM,^mi^,M^

, V >,, tj

ilia in l^oa^ toiWbicb.^aie Jdsg hioMelf was both a cbntrtbirtorcaiidfpatroii« iv.<^ ?;< r^ SAXONt;' < Ltttite is kndWM i»&the reKgiiiwiitale of Sasohsr}

wbittb htt^ be^R wtHdlT" oecupleA' with political ieriaiits I but we shorid hope to fktA^ in the native « ' eowitfy of Luther a considePiAle tiomber of true '^ Protestants,

PoLAim. i The plan of a Bible SblSetFf for tijis couiftt^4^

just fom^ under tiiie auspice df the Emperor Alexander.

» vi •


■ ^. • ■ -: i • - ■ •'

. ? ,

• . 1

»' : ^ > '. - :

AusTRU. ^i '^^^Pid^iei^blishment of Bible and Missionary Sbef-"

' ^tksih various parts of Gemiaii(jr Mist? j^iiMifly - '*■■■' '■" sufc»enre'11iiB cause of christianl^; On its'b^ii^ ^^^■'- * ^presented to the British arid^ Fereign Bible So- ■'' ^letjr in London^ that there were -upwards of a ^!': "■ mffiibn^of 'Protestants in^HungaiTV who were in ■^M-.)M\i gfteat want of bibles^ aitd too poo^ to purchase Mr/): > them, 500L w^as giveti for the Ibmiation of a so- ^ ciety ih that countiy, for printing and circulating- the scriptures in the Hungarian and Sclaro- 3iian dialects^ which has been effected. Bible Societies have also been lately fonmd at Dresden fuiillaAote]?. -'The United Brethren have spread 'Z' a sweet savour of ev angelieal religion throughout

Bohemia^ Moravia^ and various other parts of Germany, from whence also they have sent mis- sionaries to the remotest parts of the earth.

SwrrsmttANB; The CSlttitoii of Ao^Ie'has of l&te bei^ remarkfl- ' ' Ble fot activity iiipfoifiotiri^ the circ«latk)## ' ^ ■ thescrtptuW^y-tfttStte chude tif mftsions,so long

ff f.

I *■







Spaht and Portagal. ■

.BeKjTM'itf IMiuimifia^tofuiy ^e.



Pop. in mill.



oftothfMll^iiiMi^amd the Frendi4ntroduced SI eonsidiirRUe' portion of infidciity. The Yanaisy or iAhafeitaiits of the taUies of Pied- ' mcinty were finrmerly called WaUenses, of "wfiich there are atill some remains ; but a ^reail part of the people were driveii, by a long and crael persecution, witiiin tibe pale of the 'Roman churchy in which they still' continue. Itie' Roman Catholic religion is declared to be that of the majority of the French peqple, and is supported by the state ; but the static provides equally for the ministers of the reformed church, either of the Lutheran or Calvinistic profession, and superintends even the synagogue of the Jews, niflference of religion is no bar to the advancc^^t of any French citizen to the highiest o^ces of the state. The Protestants are very numerous in the south of France, but with a great number of infidels throughout the country.

Gathclm, without toleratioa to any other de^r nomination. The late Cortes showed a dis- position to ^enlighten the peopl^^ and tolerate Protestants; but Ferdinand YU^^ince his return, has re»established the o^d^ of Jesu- its,' and the Inquisition f^ and iiberal mep



'* * The pop^,* however, hat endeavoured fodfiect a reform in the inquisition*' He has ordered, that the proc^^ij^^ i? ecclesiastical

tribunals shall, be regulated by the samc^ principles as those which govern in civil and criminal cases. Every individual. of whatever religious persuasion he may be, will b^ admitted as a witness, if cited by tlic accused. IleJations, domestics, and persons of infa- mous characters are to be excluded. The proceedings shall be public 5 and no witness shall ever he admitted to give hearsay evidence. In the Brief containing these orders, the pope says, " The way to render reliji;ion powerful, is to show that she is divine, and that she hrin«:;s to mankind only consolation and blessings. The prec<»i)t of our divine Master, love one anoUier^ ought to be the univerbaf law.*' See Christian Observer, May 1816.



I ■

Present State of BiUgionf ^

■' 1

as they kad: any nneaiui left thefli; The modern •WaUemseB^ who are li rsii^^f^ and pious people are divided into 'thirteen pariaheif with each a miniiitet* ) they had fiormeriyfifteen great schools, ninety smaller^and two Latin schools. Both the mbiisters and schools auhaisted in great measure by charitable assistanoe from Holland, Switzeiiand, and ereii England ^ J^ut the events of the late war have reduced them to <:b ; wretchedness and misery. . r

Fbaitcb; * Ih the South of France the gospel is heard with

eagerness, and evangeUcal ministers from other

coutitHes are rec^ved with open arms ; the fullest

'-"■' liberty of conscience is allowed, and there is an

"UtiiVefeity for the education of tfie Protestant

-* ^ ■'•dter^i Mr. Martin, a young minister from Bour*

dekux, is now in England for the «3^ress purpose

of leat-ning the new system of education, with a

- ■ "new to introduce it into Ms native country.

SPAur. The introdu'ctibn of an English army into these

countries had a tendency to ¥feaken the prcgndices -of the people against Protestants as heretics, though there is little to reoomrnend true religion in the general morals of soldiers. Some of the late Cortes were also favourable to a reformation of religion^, and of the priests ; whidi has been lately ^ven as the true reason of their being flo obnc^Q^s to jhe pi^nt government, wUch . eertaialy jindeor tho influence of the church.

■■ r

.-. ■ • ' I*'-


896 AJVJBiiinz.

i^^t^h-^hplii^Mrfki^n**'*^ ft«4

^^T»»«^** MrUgJaui JhttmninatMrnf^u^.. ^op.ini&i]L

have been made the objects of persecutiom The Catholic clergy in Spain are estimated '. at 200,000, and in Portugal but little less. In Portugal the same bigotry and miperstition prevails^ but the assistance they have receive from the English inclines them to somewhat more liberality^ and English Protestants may live unmolested, though not beloved.^ 13

Itai.t^ ii^lud- ^nne is the metropolis of the Catholic^ ,i in^ Naples and churchy and the popedom* No toleration'

. Sicily^ / to Protestants can be expected here, though Sar^yUiia, ,&c« the pope shows some pecuUfur civilities to

the English nation. There are nine or ten . thousand Jews resident in Kome and its yi«  cinity, ' ^ ,t

The inhabitants of Naples'and Sicay (&- bout six millions) are also Cathdijcs; but when under the government of Murat, (for- ^ merly one of Buonaparte's generals,) a degree of toleration prevailed, especially at MipleSf which was favourable to the introduction of the gospeK In 1782 there were counted in Naples above- 45,525 priests, £4,694 monksy 20,793 nuns; but the next year a decree passed to dissolve 466 convents, which must have greatly lessened them. iS^

^PuRKET in The empire is Mahometan, and toleration Eimipe, with .is purchased by the fay meofc <£ a l^apitatiiqp ^ f thelsiesofthe tax. Of chrUtians, thofse of the Greek Archipelago, church are far the nost nuiiiei^^ and are

in someparts(a8 in Moldavia WdWallachia) admitted to places of trust and tumour. The Greeks, in general, are subject to the patri- arch of Constantinople in ecclesiastical mat- ters ; but there ai'e some Armenians, Copts,

-present i8ftefe ^Bfiigim j^r -


I . )

■ 1 1

- • )

n • '>

" 1 ■ f- -. . I. .i.-. -.-■ .1.. .. .t... .11. ■ ■ t. ■■■ ■ 1- ,. ..t . ■ ^ ■, ' -. ^.j.

ii; 'f(.if:J;'t '»-ri ^?-.--> .:ti •,•-•■ . , . ;•,. r ,./?■ 5l| ,.-■«; ' -iN- i- ;'v:;"?- ■■■'; i '.■•.•.. \*. sfo'htr-; ■i;*':' ^n- /':^ ..,■■• ^ ■•■ ; ■.' ".■■:'^'T

|»'» it';*"" ' " - ' ■' ' ■

l-TAiT* ' ' ' A Protestant congregation h^ tieeij kfely iSAii- * ■ ' ' ed at Naples ; the government has granted tnefik" one of the unoccupied churches for their worsliip^ ^ and there seems a great dispoiiition to liisteii to

evangelical preaching. It is said also^ that the po^ has complained of the Protestant worship's „ being tolerated at Venice.

JTH l»'jtnj.!(-') 'n'>// I*"; ' -. .- ■•' ■■•*■. :ri

,?/iiMnn ^■'■^^i> v-r-/^*:- - . -. • . :Hjr/'

TimieBifi '^ f/ It ib Kupi^d.iiili?^ the G^e^ky t§ will ife R^'^ >j,o.r> 'ifestknti*i4i5tiittWj« thinly 6bktt€^^ ot^ ^hiscia*

(.. .1 .:.!; :^iit^^it^n^ei^iitmay ple^ Oodtoopen a

  • »'» * ' - *di*ji5i^ tor ttaJ gbipdl ^ filter UilU'COfmtry.

1 •






Rusbul in £UiDDpe»

L * *

■* 1 ; '. '. .

•' .'.

RiUgkms JknomifuUionSf ^


Pop. in millt



Nestorians, *cc. The Jews are very numerous^ and subject to a chief of their own nation. The Greek clmrdk is the . estaUiahment ia this country » with a free toleratioQ to Rasl^pl- niks, or Dissenters^ as well as to Catholics, Protestants^ and Jews.*

The church isgoverned^ not by the patri- ajpch of Constantinople, as formerly ; but by a grand national council of ecclesiastics^ in which the emperor has a layman of high rank as his representative^ The church service is performed in the old Sdavonian language.- [Pinkerton.]




llussiAitt The Qreek Church is the ebtablishe^^jr^V' . ; : Asia, includ-* gion in all the civilized provinces i but witk/

ing Siberia^ a general toleration throughout this vast em- pire. A great part of the inhabitants of the des^ are Pagan Tartars of illie Samman religion. Some atiach great importance to the fprm <^ their whiskers ; and the Altaians are so fond of military show, that they dress up their idol deity in the uniform of an officer ' of., dragoona. Thie Kamschatluma have been conveHied to the Greok religiou by a ten years' exen^tioajfpdm.all tases» . , .< .v £

  • The emj^eror Alex^nd^V has Ifeltely itteuW-in tFkase at Pc-

tersburgh,bj which pecu liar pri vile jves are granted^ to Jews who be- come coaverts to cliristijinity. ; iSj^^^re Jtjo f^v^ a society under the title of Jewish Christians 5 ani are to be established as colo^ nists upon the land of the croT^n, to fbm s^^kratlf communities, and to enjoy a temporary exemption from taxes. Privileges, however, are continued to the Jews, independent of ^theif. dQ9^ersion to Chris- tianity, though they are more fully to be enjoyed on that event* Seelaterary Panorama, 1817.

I ■■ •

-> .■;;.' ii: ii:;.n'kj^ < *j^i'.i-^njt! -t.V

-•'^liiniiiin ri "^ ■^*— ~^ «-^-^


Russia in


Present State rfReligianf ^t.

11 II I

• .-■.■'■;. ■ • ■ 'i,r » j.,_ ..K> ;...>

The empeft^er^ patronage of - Bibk Societies* in FetersbtfrgbV MoscdtiS ftc; canniMibut haiw a fiu vourable aspect to' the "Cause ccff true religion. Mr. Pinkertony ^o has visitbdthi^ country , gives a pleasing account of the orthodoxy of the Greek church, as to the main points of the christian reli«  ^i6n, and mentions iseveral denontiiAations of Ras- kolhlks^ (or Disseht^rSf) who discover much of the life and power of religion.

BuasTi: in Asia.

I . ■ 1

«; •


' The United Brethren have lohghad a idssienarjr establishment at Sarepta, and the Russian gofrk i^rliment encouraged Protestant setflements on tiw

' ' blanks of the Wolga. SoiAe yean^ since liie Ed-*^ inburgh Missionary Society also attempted amis- '^ion at Karass near Astracan : b ut all are broken up (ait least for the prestent) by the calam- itiwiS eflbfcts of the war. The missionaries of

. iKOth setdements halve, however^ in the mean time been usefully and honourably employed in iranslating* the ndw testament f the one, (whose work is already in cireiriatioiiv) into the Turkish language^ and the other into that of ttie Kalmuck Tartars, msmy of whom have embraced cltrteti- ahfty urllheG^ek church. A mission is also in contemplation to the Mogul, and Manjur Tar- tars^ who reside in that part of Siberia, which borders on the Chinese empire.

  • The Bible Society in Russia priiit the sacred scijptares in 4\t

the languages spoken in the Russian empire.

Jld^jwiU iAmtmimoltont,^

TDBKETin Mahonutans occupy Palestine, oi- the boly Asia. , }*air S;r>'iti> Mesopotamia, and other coiul-' ., I triesj the scene of scripture history: but there . . arp also many Jews* and Chri^iana, of van-' „ . . ous denominations, who are indulged, by pay- ing for it, with liviug under the ecclesiastical government of their respective patriarchs, whether of Jerusalem or Antiocli, Alexandria ., or Constantinople. The same may be stud of the Xestorians, Armenians, and other re- ,puted Sectaries. 10

AxiAiJu MJahometanSt Sabeans, and ^ababees. .8

Pbbbu. Mahmnetans, of the Beet <^ Ali { (who differ

' t : from the TiirliB as to the true successour of

I!: Mahomet;) also Sufis and Gaurs^or Guebres, < ' the diAciples of Zoroaster. ^ lo

TabTabt. MUxmetaHS, Pagans, and worshippers of

the Grand Lama. See Shamans. 6

Chisa. Picons of various sects, but chiefiy wor<

shippers of Foe. There are some Catholics,' ~ . Cir^kfi,and Jews among them, rather by con- nivance tiian legal toleration. The Russians have a church at Pekjti, and the Jtfws a syn- agogue at. Kai -song -foil. The ' Catholics notwithstantlittg the peisecution tbey have met with, boast of 60,000 converts still in Pekin. , ' 250

Japan. Fagans, particular^ Sintoos, Budsoes, and a

• The London Society for promoting clifistianity amon^t the Jews contemplate sending missionaries to those of that nation in Pileatine. See Boston fecorder, Oct. f, I8ir.




Fmewt State^^ Rdigion, i^

Turkey, Arabia, Persia, TartaiV.


Bible Societies have been formed, not only at Petersburg!! and Moscow under royal patronage, liut in the provinces of Esthonia and Livonia, for the express purpose of printing the new testa- ment and religious tracts in those dialects.

No mission hais yet been attciinjpted ix) tnfe^e' . countries, but the way is preparinglrjr printtn'gN;he scriptures in almost all the various languages of the East. Amission was attehip^d by the late Mr. Bloomfield at the Isle of MaMt^, with a view to introduce the gospel into the Greek Isles, and ,^entually into Turkey : but the pestilence which ra^d there, and the death of that missionary, 'taye hitherto retarded the object. It is not, fiovirever, forgotten ; Dr. Naudi has been attempt- ing to excite attention to it among the christians ' mtdinfeohthe borders of the MediterraiMtor^^- '- ^d ^ndeirtlons it as a prottiferuig'^€ircumsiaBoe»i 'tliiit ffiere hate been of late maJiy conversions of ' J^WB residing in those parts. A late decree in Persia has permitted the public reading of the ' scriptures. The new testament has beefi/^riat-y ed in Persian and Arabic. « 

The Jesuits undertook a. mission to this connti*y in, the sixteenth century, oti the pl^ii of blending tha Catholic religion with that ot Foe and the philosophy of Confucius ; this hoWever was dis- .apprpvefl by Pope InnpcentX, and he enjoined a renuciation of iheir idolatrieis. tii 1788 it was reported that the. Catholics had, in the course of thirty years, made 2f,()00 converts in the prov- ince pf Su^chiieii, and 30,000 in Hanking but 'a storm of persecution gathered soon after this, and the name of christfenity became peculiarly ob- noxiousin i^hii^ft; , A Cliiie^ .c^^ has. I^t^SIj;




Mdigmi9 Dm(miiHaHons, ^

Pop. in mill.

Ill fci

T&IBET5 or


India beyond the Cranges, incladmg the. Binnan em- pireyMalaja^ Sianiy &c« 

kind of moral philosophersi. (See Japanese. J The celebrated Francis Xavier, and other JesnitBy commeneed a mission hei% in 1549, and were followed by the Franbiaranfi. Their success at first was rapid and extraordinary; but their inipradence (as is asserted) brought on a persecution which lasted forty years^ and ended in their utter extermination. £5

The worship of the Grand Lama is the es- tablished religion, (See Thibetians,) mixed with various shades of Paganism.

The Birman and Siamese Mndaos are dis-" ' ' ciplesy not of Brahma, but of Boodu ; but the Malays are chiefly Mahometans. Some Dutch and Portuguese setttemehts exist in different parts of this extensive country. The Catholics boast of 300,000 converts in TonquiUj and 160^000 in Cochin-china. 20

2 1

HorsoosTAir* The native inhabitants are Bmdoos (fol- lowers of Brahma) Mahometans and Persees ; among whom> about fourteen millions are reckoned to be British subjects. The Af- ghans are supposed to be the descendants of the ten tribes of the Jews carried into captivi^ ij9 to whom a mission is projected from this country. Under the aiiicle, < Syrian Chris- tians/ in the Dictionary, it is mentioned that there is a considerable body of professing christians in the interiour of the country. I vrould add, from the i-eport of Dr. Kerr, the christians of St. Thomas are stated at TO or


. f

I ' lW — — — a— — — — i^^fct— 1— — III! I ■ ^ . ^1 — 1, II 1»<1>— — — — — — ^^— ,!■ ■ I ■

Present State of Biligion, ^c^

been issued againdt th^ introduction of mission- aries and their books into this coatitry^ yet Mr. Morrison^ has been long empli^bd at Canton, and MaeaOyin ti'anslating the scriptures and in- structing the natives^ and has lately been joined by Mr. Milne ; and though they may not pene- . trate directly into the interiour of China, there is no doubt but they will send in the scriptures by means of the natives, whose curiosity seems mucb excited.

India... The American Baptists haye a mission at B911-

• . . g90Q, a sea-port town in the Birmaa e^lpire ; , conaistiog of Messrs. Judson and Hau^ht. . Messrs. Coleman and Wheelock were ordained .,,. in Bos^n, Sept 10, 1817,to join- the same mls- i^ion.

The missionaries at Serampore have present- ed a press and Birman types to their brethren at Rangoon. Mr. Judson has published a cate- chism and religious tract in the Birman lan- guage. More missionaries are solicited for this station.

HiNDOOSTAN". Almoist all the * existing Missionaiy Societies

have made attempts to convert the Hindoos. The *^ Society for promoting Christian Knowl- edge" has missionaries at TVinchiriopally, Tan-

  • jore, Madras, iand Cuddalore. The Danes,

while thfey had posstissions in the East Indies,

■ were active in tMs good work. The Baptistsf

. . ■ . ■• ■/•.-: "ot -.■■'■ •

  • Mr.. Morrison has effected ;Jhe unportant work of translating

the new testament into tf»e Chiiie^e language. He has also trans- lated the hook of Genesis and th^ I'salms.

t pThe Baptist missionaries in the East Indies are eminently distiogi|isbed for their zealots and successful effort^ to convert the heathen. ."The labours of a Carey, a Marsliman'i and a Ward have^eicited Ae admiration df'ife Christian i^'orld. Under their















>y ^rr^w^-^'"^'



.tvucl *!;Ldo«» ^*^«tutea :"cuic\etj foi:





.> i

AFPKN1I11E. $45

•■ ■ - ^ ^t.

— '-present iState ^Mdigimtf ^r --

>■ I I ■tli^^jritM^ii * imtm^mm^mmi»i^

have been pa^tteidai^ saccessfiil ; besides the settlement at Serampore^ they have missionaries at Cutwa, GDamattjj Dinagepor^ Saddomahl^ &c. in BengaT^ and in other parts of India. Cal- cutfaltself 119 not the seat of infidelity as former- ly ; but contains many hundred serious cliris- tians in all the ranks of society.

The Missionary Society of London has mis- sionaries in Yizigapatam, Madras, Ganjam, Bel- lary, Cliinsurah, Oodagerry, &.c. The Society for missions to Africa and the East has also two or three missionaries, with native readers and catechists ; imd there are perhaps, among all the societies, nearly a hundred persons en- gaged in the instruction of a hundred millions of inhabitants.

The 'United Brethren had a mission in the ll^ghbourhood of Tranquebar, and attempted one' in the Nicobar Islands, but both have failed*

An Auxiliary Bible Society has been formed at Calcutta to co-operate with the society in Lon- don, and witli the Baptist missionaries, in trans- lating and printing the scriptures in every con- siderable language of the East ; and great pro- gress has been already made in this important work.*

superintendence, the sacred scriptures are translating into thirty three different languages. At the same time they have not less than twenty mission stations, which are occupied by more than fifty preachers, scattered over the different regions of the East, to the distance of four thousand miles. At most of these stations Christian churches are established, in which are united Hindoos and Mussulmans ; Armenians and Europeans. Bramins also of every order have renounced Cast, and embraced the gospel of Christ. See Dr. Baldwin's Sermon, delivered at Philadelphia, May 7, 1817.

  • Calcutta is the seat of the first Protestant Bishop's See in In-

dia; the diocess extending over all the territories of the company.


H6 ffSnUFMi.


Countrie*. ' Sdt^imsJ^^ Fo^riiriiinL

'M. - ..

C^tWf £;^ iliiV(tan^ Vjarious na-

neOfJavM^ fj^$tiiE>o»ettte,;^9W^iii I7j^ ilbo^. |^ 45,000, ...vc ' ammsiw)i^^wei;f n^

s^nd abput (15 cliristiaii ^cbapeb. The native

. irUgiw ctf €^to» is the sajopie 1^

.. ^-., (.:,w»^ 8fU*maiui; besidfiB whichf it ui staid to contain

t-i!«r.ito:/. ilpO,000 Pi^otest^ts, 50,000 Aom^an Catho-

. .x'ir- rr, »> Uo«9 and in the whole, about amU^on and a

ir'.K"batf«f inbahitants, 
- Ito

t >

' , . ■ •■'


.. ;r T,f. :^.>,TU|^^ tlufl t^tt aTc con^TdlMidM dKTJvfelF^.'iX '^ ^' •' ' wrf iiiimn«?able islands ^iiitffiMth SeadMA^/ VTsir Geographers are not jrcSt agthedl, whether

fibitiiiifB. to eall this a continent or sin Ishm^ or sever* '^ .:.{.> r i . ij adjacent islands $ the whole leogth being

' 1960 miles, and Hs breadth 4680^ which is

' ' Marl jr t^o thirds the size'of thivij^, besides

the surrtmnding islands, tlie^^ginal in-

' ' hfibftants are savages of tw^erthree races,

an^Mn Mie lowest ' state of barbftrism. In

if lT7t),Cai^ Co(*4f>*pds*^**iori'oftheeas^

tern coast in the name of fits Britannic Ma- jesty, and called it New South Wales, and here a colony has been settled, at Sidney Cove, chiefly formed of convicts from Great Bri- tain. Dr. Carey estimated the population at twelve millions ; but I can find no authority to justify such a calculation ; the coast ib thinly peopled, and great part of the interi- our perhaps uninhabitedr yan[Dieman's

. I ■..

Asiatic tsii^sd' flie Mii!lsl<^ cMrf* i oth«h5 Wifej l^ ti^Mota^^^ tis-ekp^cted christiaiuty -- ^ ^ inajr 6e catried ihte the h^rt top China. The «:??.;; ^liine Soeietjr has two {M* -tt^^ "^missionaries in - - G ^ ^ Ce^, aiid the Baplisfe^ oner Tie Methodists ,

  • ■ ^ '^' '^^^'^i^ 'also very recentfy cei^kiieiice4 a mission in

this Island, and alT EaTeh^to favourably re- ceived. A Bible Society was formed at C(dum- bo in this Islaiid5 1812.


New SQUifft {AtSMnigBrCove in lapathe popnlRtion ajnount-

Waxx84^8 /^edM»»b^e0B eight wdnuaetboM and h»»

v^i ; .( V befift- g^duaUy inqroacdng^.., >The g^sipfd is

i3/^^ :.^ fimicihQ4 by Mr^Maisdf»,?dwi|*^n ifft^j^-

p'l:' i J191 aiidfflclKnJsit.opeiied iia4fl^ #3 patronage.

'< r <»itr to the South

■:, «: >>• . ^fStfMi4i9irej9C<»GttoniiyyreBi4ed«i^preachedhere;

.('f ^.i^.'; i«chiov)ls h«i>febeeB opened. Inith fi^r the Europe-

^v<.. H^anaAnd natives^ wd one oCthiDia with

r'l :. > -.iFeryiencouragh^psiiCcessiit ^ )fM^mpts to teach

^ the latter^wiio prove far moi^e. docile than was

^j. .;■ i* -i-. .■.:■)•■' h-^rfna^*:-"^ ^ : . > ■ ■ ■• .;

■ ■•■. • ' » r>";'Jiii.»' ;,;:■ ? ■ • ; ■ J




Countries. Bdigums BenominoUonB, ^C Pop. in mill.

land, formerly supposed a part of New Hol- land, is found to be a separate island. On mature consideration I cannot rate the whole po]iulation at more than 4^

Nsw Zba- New Zealand is the most considerable 1b1« - /

u^irPrNew and in this neighbourhood, being about 4iijL

GuineatNew hundred miles long, and a hundred and fifty

Britain and broad. The othera are inferiour islands, dif-

Ireland. &c. fering greatly in population, but the whole

probably not exceeding 1

FoiiTKBSTA. After all that navigators have daid, I;dMe^ ^ t ^

Pelf w Isles, not reckon the inhabitants of these islands at

Lad rones, Ca^ more than the preceding. Finkerton remarks

rol{nee,Sand- that navigators have oveirrated them at least

wichr Isles, ten to one.

MAi6Kttlssi!9J This is proved to be the ctt»*wittf ^kpt. Cook ;

Sdcfety is; < and it is hot VktAj that eithei* ti^tdv or La &c. ' "' Perouse was more accurate. -Otiiheite had nil') (Ml : '^been;rat€4 at 160,000; th(b misi^ioiiflrieB found 'i^it :fc. ify r- i^^to OMtain little more than 16,00§. On the II a- hi I Other hand Mr. Pinkerto^, who makes this

I'.- I J

remark, has been quite as much mistaken in mderrating the population of some other pla- oesy particularly the Cape. I take the pop- '-^ ' illation oottectively at

' I •


States of Mahometansy with a considerable number^ of ' . f ^ Barbary. Jews ; but few christians, exciting what are

in a state of slavery. s


Fresent State of Bdigion, '^^

I ■ ■ 1

1-r ■ >■ ' ■■:.!. i; ■'; ; ■. ' ■■« ■•,-• ?.. • rrJ

< '< I ■

' - .11

New Zba. 'AnislaiMl (600 miles in length bj 1 50) h& hmT

l^Nii. . laMy UMide a tnissionary station^ by the Chtiit^h^

Society for missions to Africa and ihe Efast '

■/■;■: - ■ . ' • I

-. / I . . ■ , . : •

■>••■•■.* . ■ . ' * / . . r . ■ ' •

Otahbii:^. "The first efforts of the Londoii Missionary So€t-'i

- ety were directed to the islands in the Soiith Pa--: cific Ocean. The missionaries were called to? '■r-i.. t ^^endare manytrials, and exposed to pecnHar diffl^' culties. But after the perseverance of m6i*e than" vrr > .i,.tweii|(y years, a permanent misaiw luiftijec^ei^^ ,^ ,^, , >]^b^hed at Otaheite. In ISl^ji: Pomprp^.tjic^ ' ; i^S 9^ ^^ island, avowcd^tiimaQlf a christian. „ J ■ . ,i:iji4my- lt"^v,e followed his fp^ampl^.find diligently . , ; } ^.att^nd the ordinances of relii^ion* i Schools have ... : ,j sfbcQii. established to instruct the uMives, particu- ,.,},l;a*^ their children^ Achristi^JiiiC^urchhasbeen .. ,j ., fof^ed among the m^tiv^s of (Otaheite, and civ-

.,. iUzaljon m^,y be expectevl, to ^d^ance rapidly.

Missionaries have al^o beep (sent* to Eimeo and Tongataboo ; and have converted many of the inhabitants of these Islands.^


Barbart. Chridtiaiiity canb6 expected t<> make no pr6-"

gress in these states while the system of piracy' is tolerated and every christian made a slave :

  • For a particular account of the labours of the missionaries in

the South Sea islands the reader 13 referred to Brown's History of Missions*

...MdipxmiJkaaniiadJiaiu,.^ ._. .RtibiiLsm*

iJ. Wrai^ni Thia district compreheiidH a great number of „ ' C< converts have been made tu christianityf

but in general this part of Africa is involv- ed iu Paganism. See JVbgroes. a

Blaj^-^ Jfs^-,,Tjb^ O^aigis, fu^ .diyidcd .inUi, &^e tribes^^Q

nfaqua^t ^i^d, Ij^t^ wlki. reside near the cQa^- ^"^ verj.

Cfva^a^ .^ aoqr».ar|d many become servjinta^ the Na- n.-ii'iO b'-'U .™*9U**.= farther inland some become rich ill cattle, (the only riches of tfaoa? eountrtea.) and upon the death of such, the horns and bones of the animals they have consumed are laid upon their graves as trophies. They are naturally mild, and treat their prisoners with humanity. The Naraaquas are known to have ten tribes, and the Corannas fif- teen [Campbell ] 1

C«Mtx«£ Puifmutth aod chiefiy B^tcfiHtfT Iheset,,^:.

tho Cs^ tlenisnt having been peopled g^fp Holland ;

hut ge&»al toleration pran^l4,.4^14^I' cei-tain

rcebictuons The pf^ulat^qi} iaj 1810 was

e ascertained ba excoed S]n^Q,»qF whom 50^000

wqr« Hottentots or sla^e^ r

'PieBrbliLbmcii oi Buslinicn arc a mid na-

CDuntJry»and tion with uo settled abode whotia*ei'HC the

GttQHli^B oountrj to the extent ofcight n mnp degrees

of longitude ind pluiulei whence ci they can

find oj>portimily flip tfrm C-kifiaiia, or

, theliiidot liitidcls was [imbibly given to

thi» coHiitij I)} tilt \i ihs aiiJ it IS certain

thej aiT III tliE lUilEst btAh of hcatltenism ;

bi^t tiit-ir oitiitrj H lir nior-i poiiulouy than

tbatoftheBushmenorJtie C^raitnas These

Jiattuns wit'i the iiihabitints c^ the Capo

may form a popH'fttipn bf j

.rffc* h M - 4


'■ ■ > P*



PreM^ iatoto GfMdigiM^^

' ' ' ' .■ ^ - 1 •■ I . .! '"

^J ■


r.'-» >,

I : ■■

The Missfonsiry Society of Loiidoi^ Iiave ii^ settlements in the Nam'aqua couniry^^ellaVaAd' Mr. Schmelin's station on thie Orange river j atso one aiAong the Corannas, called Orlam Kraalt and more recently Bethesda.

' • .J v/w .. r'.

.•■ « ■

> I 1 /" ' * .

.ijj'.-i ^

t :

^\i\ -».'!.! tr ^

Catk* -'- ThmtTnited Brethren have*longfaad twoftMi^ '"-"'* li^itig settlementB in (Ms colony^^^ne attiroeM '* ' («WTi»rly Ballan^s) KJoof--^ at Gena^

' ' * ■ d^idal (Gfcadenthall) or Grace Vale. M ^r- "»i= ^ The Missionary Society of London hare sev- eral ^ttlemehts in these ports,' viz. at Stellen- bosh between the Moravian stations — at TaU bach or Rodej^and, where ]V!|[r« Yos resides-r-at ' 2^\irbrak pear 2! wellendam^— at Hooge l^vBsi in '6e6r^ Drorfdjr • and towdrtl tie ^tot '^tf ; of 'the Colbiyij atBethelsdoiTJ nciai^'i^goa bay, Which ^^ms tmnhiiii' iij fir. VknderkAiip : but as this

' ';' '^^ feist i^ feWn^ound ah iridbnv^^^ situation for a

' ' ' ^ ^^ Iniissio^, a'hW^setilbiiient hds b^n formed farth- . er east fon a sjrat pointed out by the governor) and

1 « M I . , '^ jgj^ Tilfr(bQp6iis, wt ich may of present be con-

. ' * ijidfere^^ as the principal ml^ionary Station of this (Society i]^ South Africa. An Auxiliary Missionary Sclciety eidsts here, and another in Graaf ReyniE^t^ which a}yprbiiche3 the limit of the







JUligi£(V^ fi^ntmivfitiofa;^ ^

Pop. in mill;

t I f! :1 ' > i; ■ ./ I'? ' ..1 it;. .'

> (t.

.-.-J*: ■

»v J •• .' "•

B(KNtciiiiaiiatf> / and'Otber tieighbouring nationsw





These are numerous and powerfiil, tliecitjr!. ^ Latakoo alone has about BOOO inhabitants ; and the capital of Makquanas is three times as large* They are all FagQxa. [Camp- belL] ^ 1

Tambookies^ Mambookies, atid the inhabi- tants of \the coast, as fiir as Deldfgoa Bay, are Pagans and Mahometans, mixed with some Portugtiese christiani^, trW of course are Catholics. ^ . <

As not more than half this quai-ter of the globe has been hitherto explored by Europe- ans, and even that very imperfectly, it is but reasonable to assign a considerable popu- lation to this great extent of unknown coun- try, which is wholly Pagan. *

Chrktian9 of the Abj^inian church, (wUch i y* i see.) They practise circiimcision, and some other J^wisb^.rit^;jl(u4h'wereM0QnYerted to Christianity .b^^t^^n tlntf fi)urth and sixth centuries, and stiil^ retain itte^m^pc of chris- tians* . .; '. -^ A miserable country, and in some parts thin- ly peopled, chiefly with Mahometans. Se- naar, however, one of its cities, is said to contain 100,000 persons, and Dongola about half as many.


A^^ndtik. sis'

Ftesettl'Stdtt'ofXdi^hrti ^,

- -- • j» - -

Colony toward Caffraria. Here resides Mr. Kicherer, the minister, and the three converted Hottentots, who visited England in 1803, and 1804 ; a great revival of religion has very re- cently taken place in all these stations ; and sev- eral African preachers (one a Hottentot) have been appointed as itinerants to assist the Euro- pean missionaries, GBiqipuLs, i { The same society have a imssion at Claapwiit»^^^ • (;:<{•<. mw called Giiqua Town, where Ring. G^q4 mid^ •>^ii ' hia people profess great r^pect fiftr Dr. '¥and6i^i^ I j ^ . : M kempf who resided some time amongthem^ ^ > ! The king of Latakoo, on a visit from Mr.' ^

f.) ,.,., ..Qapi^bell, e^ressed his willingness to^ recisivef « V tiki iu ^J^i^ou^i^Sy and promised to be a father to thfinn nu<' Iv /iAf^w^^ip*^ i^ therefore imn^ediately designed to >^(irn> to^f^^^^ and to Malapeetze^ and Makoon's Kraal — stations farth^ to . tfie^ east, where the ,^ J Jijihabitai^ts Mve eiqpr^sed the same M^^ ' ,,,,,,;.j Jl^?%ive instruction. ..m,m >


j^BYi^lKXi. Iti the latter part of the last cfetatAry the^'UnftiHi^ ■MV' ' » Br^y^A Sent missionaries into Egypt, with a i < . ; 1 1 » ihope of th Wr penetrtiting into thii^ country, which It/; t(>;^prbved' imJTractkiabte, and the door seems shut ^^ mI 1 » ttj^inBtthe go6peI> aa much as in any pagan na- tion whatever.

'^ Nit:- ^i ,^'»0r? ."ji f" >•• ; ' '

i •

^ 4 W M P U *

Countries. JIAgi$lt§ JBeifpmauMom^ ^ Pop. in mill.

». ■LW,U.'.>^JIUU r -1.^-UJM~LlLf II IIM^— W— ^i^w ■ I — WM—— rr

i2iiC'.. £>jhnfxliTiji9tlu»iiniJte%^ttr€lEgr^.fK^id^ Cairo JjiV:.-. bnh .htd«»i>rfffdt0iwi.iifftwtBiii I6(H^ inhabi-

llf^otbf«jb]|9a;4iff«rm The -iahabitants, who

o«^.fia9f!:.{ 4iiiilWrriium0roi»9 bearOofifaivacter of iin t«mtC!«Mt«t jTj MMg^RCQ aad hoispitali^ ^ 4|

IfjjUkf^iM .on ^:. Barfly Pagans^and parity CtO^iHcs or Pro- the Western testants, according to the European powers Coast. to whom fliey belong. 1


WssTERir The inhabitants are Pagans of various In* Coast & dian tribes^ thinly scattered over the conti- « Indian tribes nent, and much diminished by disease and in the North, war ; yet it must be considered there are ma- ny tribes and countries yet unknown — ^I therefore take them at 1

Smimi»mt ^ -^ 1? haae natiotts ^beingt 1^ the poMgr of Spati^qg DamaaSons^.: p.mMi ^ Mrta of the Jesuits^ mtiirrdr— liii H iacliidingr> / f:.:^[iaaiib4omiMionf of cooiseptfiAfeMtheCati^ JltMak>y\ iix iiflk<-v

There is^ however^ a considovrible number of Copts in the country^ who retain the name and many of the forms of Christianity*

MABgLttfciie.iflu Dr* Yondferkempliad l6Af^taltendM>af]|iteidtf , 'H\ ^ ,:>::> to Hut island^ aniViras about^eiitMii^i^yM^it ai ' f ' ; 10' ^HK'time of his deaths Mr; Mitm had i^ce Tiii» ited it to make inquirtesyimd H^MU n^ihnAlijbeM ,.^rjr ^^, r, vCcAie'amiflsioiiary station of i;Aat imperfcanifel

» ' ' - . -. '"I


S)*t.< ^^H'y'f.


> .• .-•■!'.

i' ■■

    • '■


SPA^mBH^ ' ' ' ^Tfae mhafoitants of Aose proviflfees are> SmBanA

PnmihiMinf Catholics. The Spaniards oansidfiir 'Aa^ fiiitlii^ .?>^^- >^ ■:•'••' ■ •■




Xdij^icm Dervtnnimlimst S^c.

Pop. in mill.

Cbristikhs bf all dehomiiiata^s, Infidels atid ' Jf^wsV with equal ttghte and complete liberty " of conscience. ' 'The prtJJdttion may bejudg- ied of by the following estimated ot the nurn*

' ' ber of congregations of the difTereift sects.

In Massachusetts, Congregationalists 450,

Baptists 135, Episcopalians 15, Friends 36^

^' ' Presbyterians 6, UniversaliBts 4, Catholics,

Unitarians and Methodists each 1.— total 639.

-." In Philadelphia only. Friends 5, Presbyte-

rians 6, Episcopalians 3, Lutherans 3, Cath- olics 4; Grerman Calvinists, Moravians, Bap- tists, Universalists, Methodists^ and Jews, 1 each^— total 27.*.

In New York the Presbyterians are most numerous, and the Baptists in Kentucky. The Catholics who are not numerous, reside chiefly in Maryland*! TTie population of the United States was taken in 1810 at 7,239,431 ; which, comparing it with preced- ing estimates, gives an increase of about a million and a quarter in ten years ; we may^ therefore, in 1815, (allowing for the war^) very safely estimate them at

BhitishDo- Protestants and Catholics^ (the latter, stran^ million in as it may seem,) being the established reli- America. gion in Canada, whiip the establishment in

New Brunswick, Newfoundland, &c. is that

of the Church of England^ The coasts of Labrador and West Ch'een^

land are too thinly peopled to admit a diis-

tinct enumeration in this brief sketch,

  • This statement WAS made in 1 801 ^ and is consequently at

present incorrect.

t In 1801, the number of Catholics in Maryland was computed to amount to about 35;G00.


▲ppje^mil^ 359

Present Stale ofJUUgunif ^e.

Unitkj^ Though thjare iis m. eocjesiastica^ establisJiPI^ i

STA'n^^ II .. 4i)i the Umte^ St;^te39 i^t dpQ^ not £niI}ow that tbc^ • bifi 'i^ nq.r^ligion; indeed in most of th^ states every uijan is required, to contribute iotfike support of public worship (where it is instituted) though he may choose the denomination he will support. Missionary Societies have been -established at Boston^ New York^ and most of the capital towns ; and many Bible Societies jiave been in- . stituted. In many pai*ts great revivals of relig- ion have taken place,and it is hoped that true re- ligion is, in general, on the inci*ease rather than otherwise.

The United Brethren have long badmissiona-- ries among the Indians in the back settlements of Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Georgia, and among the Cherokees on the borders of Tennes- see ; and in 1803 the American General Assem- bly sent a mission to the same neighbourhood ; but some of these have been interrupted, by the events of the late war.*

Whitish There are several missionary stations also in Dominions, the back settlements of Canada, &c. supported

by various American Societies, by some in Eng- land, and by the tFnited Brcthi'en. « The Soci-

  • The zeal for the circulation of the scriptures is not less ac-

tive and ardent in the Western Hemisphere, than on the old con- tinent. In 1816, it is- stated that there were 125 Bible Societies in the United States. A National Bible Society was established in New York thp swpe jear : findi^ 1817, the number of its auxilia- ries amounted to 108. The missionary zeal is also active in the United States ) atid numerous societies have been instituted for evangelizing the heathens. For a particular account of the reli" giouB and benevolent iaatitutions in America, see Christian Disci' pie, Panoplist, American Baptist Magaziae^and Boston Recorder*




t* ■<•')>


jBf%untf Aeiioiiijtyi

ety for propagating the Gospd in Foreign Parts' employs chaplains in many towns of Canada, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland, but few of them preach to the heathen. The Methodists have also a number of missionaries in the same parts, and some considerable congregations*

The United Brettiren have long established settlements in West Oreenland, and on the coast of Labrador, which have given an evangelical tint (so to speak) to those inhospitable regions.

.«.* ji* . SOUm AMERICA.

^f ^OiloiU4'i rU V^tfTl' ^•>?J • . .j;r>'


■V--yWlW ^^A.t ;t'V**4-» JiViMr> -..,:>■;■ I ■, •" ". ^ - ■

, »7Ji*J"y.f \l i.*np iii. ■.•; • . .. ,'■ v.-

QvtihiK^ ;fri ^fB^i 9ff||Mh, Bi«d^ irh» penetMb' all' /Hfii^

irtjiiw^ it^*tv ffil> g|lfc^ ^ vi». ftt RaiBimaribo, Bombiy^

"^ iM')bMf48^

• WBitjat(tfpSwpimj^,in^ labours

•' •-■ '^ ' :■'*«■■ ■' ':i;'j-»r;\ Oil* f)ifii ,oi';

BiCttiiil* ' Bruitt«fr6u$ aitdferta«, MftlAbjlSt to Eob^haH Istitefir; ' landj but fsmr inhabited^ andftbefiopulation

yi^ry iticoi^giderabk. *■' 'd <^?o'l

Cuba. Spanish Ckithdics, all the natives being ex-

tirpated^ and the island cultivated by ne- groes. The capital, Havannah, was reckon- ed to contain 30,000 inhabitants many years since ^

J4IWCA. :n-,,^rai o/EngUind, a|i4.P^n|,j^th a Ij^rt ,^^j .^ l?j - :-. fij. tjOjl^i^ipPtoa^i impede^ by th^^^^^h church zeal of the coitomal $|sseiid)fyA wtuch is dis- couraged by the government at home. Kingston the capital has 50,000 inhabitants. 1

Hayti, Or St. Domingo, was formerly divided be-

tween the French and Spaniards, afterwards possessed by the French only ; but is now an independent island, exhibiting the singular phenomenon of an empire of blacks and peo- ., $

pie of colour, regularly organized under a ^^ black emperor.* ^

PoKTO Rico Spanish Cathdics. },*

ViRGiir 'frdmfdiih. A grtMi^^f «hAMAan*«Sirifci#^^

Islets. . iy otfctfpiea hy the^atf^ J TWff^ftl flfe late wai^

captured by the English. The nrincmal jgre



AHwnnab)/. 969.





^^" ***^ '•SoiiMa4Byt;^hft«biye=oitth<^Co^ The

    • ^ '^'Mwaindiif Sdatt^^ ?ifive also mis-

siori^w'^f 0€4UaMfii9 MtfiaibM; and Esseque- bo, and the gospel has been attended with such success and ^vantages among the slaves^ that some of the planters have eqcpuraged it.

BAHA|iii:i ' 1%e Methodifitfii have a promising intere6t.hf9^>». . i^aJiili: rand haTO built a cjiapel which is jK^ell attende4i ; both by the white 'andUaek inhabitants.'^^'

»VA.-n/ /■tjaiii r:;t;i>. ,;.. . '■ . .;..-. ..j \.

jAMiieil. 'JCUc^ ^^thodists have a cPilsidefable intere^l

"^ere^is^nd the United Brefllj^en t#o small settle- ' 'thents upon the island.

^'k'llo*' '.: '1 ■!■■■■■ • ; . .t

'■ I « 

teSiiiiUCi"..- ...'., . . , j{

'■^•'^ l)-jLi ■'.'■■■•: ■■■ . • . ; .. ■ -. )

.-bvj.- f* I k\'- ._ ■■) '■ \:* ■ - . ^.\ '•■■■'. 1 ■ . -v;

i;-. ^/{'f -: ^= i' r • 5..-; ■' t-. >■' ' ■ , ; ,. i ■..■ ..-.. r.j

« t


I t '

V :j'. ,. .-

f -

TiRQ^!r„ffffWin ; T^fi <'< ).-■' Ffis&U' State ^f-MMgUntf-^j^

.III ' ■ ' ■■■II ■■ II ■ n ^"

Danish govemmeiit; and are still continued.

.,».tKrM.MTlWt>)ifltk«4wt«^^ tittle societies

. ,ail;, 3[;(fl^^ aptl.^thpp.of fte Id»nd^,;

liEEWABf . Tfhe Merthodiste hayp misfiooai^ stati^9;ifi^,,j Isles«i' M ^ ' W^st of these isUiiid^if parUe)ila#ljr^t St Eu^t^-^ . i «^Y,.{ .,\. iiat Antigum and Do]»kuca» ip^fe they are ^f .,.1. • .n^idly m theii|ci;$ase.: .The, I^Ai^ Brethren ,^ .f,t.*WP ^ ^ estal)li^hed a^lppiWg interest at Antigua. ,•....• •..' ^t

nwm^y.iJ^V/ifi^^ is, but m inH>yidedwitb i^liffkMwiii*^^^ Islfyj. ,,^ j^j^t^H^ipn, The Methodists and United Brethr^, > (Mt> I .jilW^i^P^^^ each a small society upon the isU ?\miil?l fM^VyTPl^ Missionary Sodefyj and the Metho# V distSy have each attempM to introduce the gos.*

pel at Trinidad, and at Tobago, but with no re^ markable success.


a: , ;\'. ., ..." =j V "• •.; . .* ■ ... ■; ;•• » . .*<: $ Mjin'l 31)38

■ ■ •■-': , ,;•..■-.■ . ■ '. ■■ rti io bof>iwi3 

.r . ■..■; . -.: ' -■ • ... : :.■. -u^iU^^/noO

-.: ■ ■:• 'r . •'. .- . •' ':■•' 'y:iik\hbsiun

■ ■ f-:. .-■.■' .: : ■ -..-,•'. .',:•. ••.".] 'm!j ni ,f>3


■ r

t ' * r



As Mr. Williams has b^n verj concise in bis account of

Ihe religious denominations existing in the United States of America, the following brief sketch is added.

The Congregatibnalists are the predominant religioas de- nomination in each of the New England states, Rhode Island excepted. It has been computed that there are in Massachu- setts Proper 350 congregations ; in Connecticut 212 ; in Maine 114 ; and in Rhode Island 8. The churches in New Hampshire and Vermont are chiefly Congregational.")^ They are divided into Calvinists of the old school, a large number of Hopkinsians, Arminians, Unitarians of different grades^ &c.

The Cohgregationalists are not numerous in the Middle and Southern States ; they have, however, a number of church- rt»*oC tfiet Gey»ra>ifc!licl»flt are -gmtn^f ■■irttiWi hjjitiMii dMUMniijti^f t Ihuj -mwwe have adopted, alj^atijn f|Mr^(^ BojdKMiaiiaii'fljaiteiiu - f • • , . ^ . m . iviKKUorf/?iiio tl

ffoVh*f6rti09i^«jrMordie JNa^ DwtoiiiGlMsil iM Cba- vdmOilr fi%weefU ImdgE of>Pwri^>toiffan»Baiaih^

8m9b]Ft^ilMB ; t!unr 4}haBdiea arafiKmmiMUym^

ttdrJKen JeiH8r«>' The AfeiMtal. &74idd «t thattttsoaateBoH formed ChMrc^^i(PihMW»aMr>oomiwftih^<^ the lwJUi»Sahwa<ia^t Bev. Alexander Y. (Sriswold. Cilmiectto^fiirhttto/tftaaiaai ni^ Spi^capafoitii^^faniuiatiatJK^

th^Middla)!^ 8Mth«miS|^pietMpfliiaiM4)r^.iiftP3i»f^.tttr Spia^^eHfehuroliMW;!^

C;fl|Hni«tM>^ ViKtk ift uiidierait^ WlMm

ArminiRa flentimeiifltew -^-.t i-?i /iV o^i;.1 #tr Lirt« i«a ^it/riiiqig

brXlifi Jtoman CetholicatevaiaiaAflSiiite^AMw #f^lier-

iMi(inf» ejrcW^Mop ifiBaltiiaoi^eiidjhiftap^i^^ adelphia, New York, Beardstown, Keu'y. and New QrleansL

  • There is an Aseodatiottrffirpiwiii BiftfrfM ais u ^^jtix^mo

t Boston Recorder, 1B16.

VMbe «irirer» inchidais ttoie ui h&mbMk «ad mmfb IndiM tribal is Slid to futoowt to IM^OOO.*

^ '. Tli^ nieiidsy or Qvakmh afO« sBnerMd deiMmbmtimi of £lhviBttam ia flie United Steteo. There are thirteen cul* lections of this people ia New England^ The eriekrated William Pem^ the foifndor «f FenMyhraniay by his meekness and wisdonfi dli honour to this society^ whose sentinionts ho fipdpraeed and defended* They have at preset fifty fonr oon^ gaegatidnsia that state. This denomination have been em^- iaentty distingQiBhed for thdr sealoas and perse?er6ig eSbrto ta^procwne the abolition of the slaye trade. There aihe^eaiv ly one thousand congregations of Friends in this ooantt^v-' 1^

'f> ThO' Methodists aro a nameroos and popular combinalloil ifi^the UluMad States. The greatest part of this deaoaiihtttidli abe Ifelihe Middle and Soothevn States* ThM« are, hbwttery ili'Mlsaaoiiusetlil twenty societies of this people, and '^igUteeflJ iB' I[ala0^>9hoss kk Urn country are dl, witii a tei*)r small flkmeptlxia^'Weiiflsihnf or Arminian Metihodists.'

i.'^h^^GkniHMl' Moitmans are a numerous and respeistable bodf 4r ehfilliflns tt Bsnnsytvaaia. In Ute vfllftge ^ B^tUe^ heair they %arc^ two^ laif;e stone bufldings, in which the dtflfer'^ rtift>iSKe8 are adhtcated in habits of industry, being; employed ia> mribhs uiofidb- mannfiictores. They hare also flovrisldi^ iMMkeiltB'itt Northr Carolina; and one church in Rfaod^

ISlaBdi' ■:-. =i" l •■■ '

M;J9nir Oensftn * Lutherans liave several places of worship ia FoansyMiania and New Yoiii:.

rif|%enl'aro»twslve soeieties of Universalists in N6# l£ng^ itod^iisfe>ven ifi'Massaeh«Bett9, fbar in Madne, and one in New HittpsUrei >* Thewfe riBO« soci^ety of Unlversalists in P^nn- ^jlvanik'- OiA»>'i)part0t 4lis'denelnination^^ diicipl6s of ehilM^ 'DiRtfAiiry^ iGiinneMlcut, and one in F^wtsmoiit^, New

-■».. r^^i^^ ^"^'z-: ^'^'^2 '*v'-X^ '* '

♦ This statemeni wis given by ihe ttev. Dr. MatignoDi who now irificiatcB at the H4wii<3athali» Anrch in Boat^.


5T0 Are^smxi

Hampshire. There is also a small number ' of Sandemahi- ans in Boston.

lliere is a considerable number of believers in the doc- trines of Swedenborg in the United States. They have cliurches or temples, tis they call them, in New York, Phila- delphia, and Baltimore. There are also a few who embrace his sentiments in Massachusetts, Virginia^ and Ohio. ' Thei^ are likewise Halcyons, who agree with the Swedenborgians, in maintaining f Ae mU divinity of Jesus Christ ; though they dif- fer in other respects.*

There is in the United States a considerable number of the fellowcrs of Mr. Elias Smith, formerly a Baptist minister in the Warren Association. They call themselves Cihrystians, iifid profie^ to found their opinions solely on the sabri^ sct^ tiired. In many respects they are said to harmoiifise \^^?tb'tte Free Will Baptists. Mr. Smith, in some of his fMbllt^^bOlv advocates 4he doctrine of the annihilation of the'ffhallj^im^i^ itent ; but he is said to have frequently changed Ms'to^ibilii'. Those who wish to know more of this denotmmitiiiMi fffe-1^ •ferred to Smith's New Testament Dictionary, and 'Benedk!C% History of the Baptists. < • '»»

It appears from the most authentic intelligence^ 'wUi!A could be obtained, that there are, in the United State&v ab^ three thousand Jews. ' * 'Vi 'Ji»^« 

They have one synagogue in New York ; two in PMI^ delphia; one in Charleston, South Carolina; and one in Vir- ginia. ' • '^••'^

The numerous religious denominations in th^ Hfnftdd States all unite in approving and establishing Bible- Sociefiiil. The Congregationallsts, Baptists, Episcopalians, Presbyl^Mi. ans, Moravians, and Methodists have made energetic e^- tions to convert the heathens, both in' our own aftd foi^i^ countries. Sunday Schools have also heen established ; ' and various societies, formed to promote tlic present andfutttl^ welfare of mankind : for instance, the Peace 'Societies wftich have been honoured with the approbation of the Emjieror

  • See New Jerusalem Magazine, 1817.

Alexander and Prince Galiczin, President of the Russian Bible Society. A society has also been formed for the religious and moral improvement of seamen^ and there are many other r^g- ious and benevolent institutions. It has been justly remarked, that <' At no time since the days of the apostles have equal ex- ertipns been made for the advancement of Christian knowledge, piety and virtue, as are at this time, and have been for a fe^ years past, both in Europe and in our own country ^^

The div^sity of sentiment among Christians has been ex- hibited in the preceding pages. The candid mind; will not cppsider those vajirious opinions as an argument agajxist di- vinfi revelation. The truth of the sacred writings is attested b^.th^ strongest evidence, such as the miracles recorded in t^ New.Teitam^t; the accomplishment of the prophecies,; Ihp ra^ spread, of the gospel, notwithstanding the nio^ violent opposition ; the consistency of the several parts of the inspired ,pag^ with each other ; the purity and perfeotion of the precepts of Christianity ; their agreement with the mora! .attributes and perfections of the Deity ; and their benevo-' I^. tei^^cy to promote the good of society, and advajQice our present and future happiness. Perhaps there may be as gjtf^ a vaiiiety in the moral, as in the physical world. . .Flr^oin, this diversity in mind, some may have a natural bias towards one religious system^ and some to another. V,l^b6 education of different persons," says Dr. Watts, << has a QUghty influence to form thejr opinions, and to fix 4heir prac- tice ^ and this, it^ust be confessed, is not in a man's own choice ; but depends on the prcwidence of the great and bless- ^ ; God, the verrviler of aU things. »

{rti Notwit^iatanding the gr^at variety of opinions which, di- yi^i^ the christian world, the following articles are acceded tOtftj all \i;ho profess to believe in divine ^revelation. . . r^^. That th^re ia one Su^cme.Being of infinite perfecti«|p9^

  • Christian Disciple^ ^u|y,.A9l^, . .

V / -

The MaiiiiehMMittaT'aMm to be an eoxq^tim of beliel^ because thtdj maintained the doctrine tboi^^ they explain tl\e term metaphorically. t

5. That piety and virtue will be rewarded in a fiitffi% state, and impiety and vice punished. TUs article in^udee the idea that piety and virtue are indispensably necesfistary to happiness. This point is universally acceded to ; and/ thelre* ' fore, upon every religious system now embraced, tt is.aiir dif-i ^ ty and interest to be-virtuous and pious*

The wretched state of the worid at the time of oar Sac^-. iour^s appearance, which is exhibited in the Introduction to this work, evinces the necessity of the Christian dispenaaticMi*

AlMilflllS/^ . SfS

a«d their ^iiioMrttdtity t^pocUi)^ » lutdi^'sMVf elqpUfet^ IM apostle's dicKdaratipn»'llMt {>« lifo^ Hie Inreeeiting -work farther evinces^ fliat ilKe^^FA^^vorld slill pnratttiM a variety of religious rites ; and tbwt the'Mahdmi^ ^Huad'-ive'-^ti^ mnak divided as the Christians.^ lf<^e» ^MltS time wJtoMk)Mt nevdation bett^ Agreed among ttdiisalm^it M-^t i9f»teMf«ltUllt4h&'gl*i^test Infidels^ which mfmgel produced^ were divided and unsettled in tbeir ^luton^'i^VoltAiiv leaned to deisfii, and seenied ibr ^me «ttie^tbhtt<^klc^Mit; but insensibly falling Intliaj^fMim^ flfy^tem, ^Iteliitc^ Mt what to believe. IVAleibberi;^ InvottMlia iMI^M'tldlrity'iPdii^Cttng the being of a G6d> asserisfHIittt it^ia

"^ * Cicero/ fambus' throughout the learned yi^6ti^or%h'^^ ries after truth, and investigations into the nature, moral facuralSil^ aidfutire^xiKictaiioni of nuiii< rives us thesum of alLAef knowN ffig^ t^|; c^nl^^be. acquired without revelation. In.hja 7\;^oii]{^ questions^ lib. i. he rives us to understand, that whether the soul be in(jftht^ 'it mtaibrtal is a question which caiinot be piiditfV^fy detM- ^ •■ ' ttlft^dtfv«IMy wished' that the imnfiortalHy ef theiMUlicmiid^lie proved to him. So that with ril his knowkoge, aad af|e^}a)l||^ ^^ft^hes^he, w|ia not ablis t(»^ determine a fact^ on w^qlithe liap. pmesi of toe rational creature^ for time and eternity, iilii^i dfepeua. 8«*BMidito6t»i8 AgeofRevelatibn. ^ ^ ....;/:>

.'t> Aooordmig^to :'i)kediiiitiuii^an anci^t' Greek orator jsod phi-

Ip^phef;.. ther^. wc^Tftn^r^.fthaiL three. hundred septs (4. the ^es- tc(rh philosophers, dinenng rreatl v on suUeets of high iinpbrtkhce* Aici^in^ to%i4-bV%%rrMtW hundred and eighty '%%h«atfw ferent opinions entertained b^^then eonceming the stt w K wmi kttum, or:«hi^tg(|g!4 1 ;iMRd tlM*Q9^ hoMmd fipinioff^.coiiseri^ fipdf or as Varrq, himself fleplares^ thrae bwdred, Jumters or supreme deities. «^e Pre^l^tlb^^ §Sm^n tlvd mhxtt df Ae tAttdM'im^


more rational to be skeptical tlian dogmatical ou the subject. We find Diderotf after having decided against the AtisU de- ciding in the same peremptory manner for or against the skeptic or the Atheist ; and Rousseau, that prodigy of incou- sistency, sometimes declaring las certainty of the existence of a Deityf and writing the most sublime eulogies upon Christy that human eloquence could devise; at other times a dis- tinguished champion of skepticism and infidelity. Surely a difference of sentiment cannot reasonably be objected against ChristianSf when we find the most celebrated Infidels thus di- videdy and inconsistent with th^nselves and each other.

The differences among Christian denominations will ap- pear still greater than they really are, unless we recollect that a large number of the ancient sects, which are described in the preceding work, are now extinct* It is also to he con- fiddered, that the opinions of several sects are nearly the s^e^ though under different names, and some few. modifiaations, Mr. Evans, in his ^^ Sketch of the denominations of the Cbris-^ tian world, observes, that the most distinguished denomina-

tions, which attract our attention at the present day, may bo included under the following threefold arrangement,

1. Opinions respecting the person of Clu'ist. These in- clude all the vaiious grades of Trinitarians, Sabellians and Unitarians.

2. Opinions respecting the means and measure of Gt}d's favour. Under this head Calvinists, Baxterians, Arminians, and others are comprehended.

3. Opinions respecting church govenimentt and the ad- ministration of ceremonies. These include the Roman Cath- olic, Greek, Episcopalian churches, and various dcnomij^ar tions of Dissenters.

To these divisions Mr. Evans adds a few denominations, which cannot be classed with propriety under any of these three general heads.

Fi'om the foregoing view of the various religions of the different countries of the world, it appears, that the Christian religion is of very small extent, compared with the many and vast countries overspread with Paganism and Mahometan'*



idniT 'Thte'greait and painful ttath is further evidehded by ih6 calctilatloni^ wMeh hare been 'made tf the popnl&tlon of iJife t^rorid;')^ and the ptoporHhii of the t^tacipal religious denoniU nations to each other. '

  • ' Iii renewing the history of llie varibtis denominations bT

Christians in paist ages, humanity is deeply Wounded bj^ ihp intolerant spirit which has been so often exhibited by the' dom- inant party. Till of late, attempting to suppress by peir^eidi^- tloii, what were deemed erroneous opinions, was Jiidg^ law- ful, riot by Catholics only, but by the Reformers, by'figisljo'.^ palians, and almoi^t all the different denominations^ of I)isseik- tiers. But siich is the happy progress of religious liberty and toleration, that at present, almost all sects and patties 'df Christians disclaim the right of using coercive measures fH the Sacred concerns of religion.

' "■'iTioiigh the ends to be answered by divine Provtdeiice. itt permiftihgsiich a variety of opinions, cannot be fuHy compi*6- hende^ ? yet we may be assured, that they are iindei' the in- i*^ctidn of an all-perfect Being, who governs in infinite wis- dom.

• . . . ♦ ■

  • < From seeming evil still educing good, . •

And better thence again, and better still ' i -

In infinite pr(^ression." Tnoacsoi;. »'j


Mr. Cummin^s, in his Geography, estimates the population of the world at eight hundred millions ; and ^ives ,the following, statement of the religious divisions of the inhabitant^. Of the four principal religious denominations,

ehrlstiaos, - - 170,000,000.

.Jews, - - - 9,OOP,000.

Mahometans, - 140,000,000.

  • Pagans, - - - - - - - - . - 481,000,000.

Total,- 800,000,000.

Subdivisions among christians may be thus :

Protestants, - 50,000,000.

Greeks and Armenians, ----- 30,000,000.

Catholics, ----- go,ooo,ooa .

»— — ■ ■

Total, iro,doo,ooo.

Hence it appears that about one -fifth pjirt otily of thelMIOiii mcehttv^ ret embraced IheChriatiftn reUgio^ in Any of its.fiNWcis^v


976 Mmaxmu

Why provideDCt has stffered the Christian rdipioA to be hith-* erto confined to so small a portion of the globe is also a mys* tery whidi we cannot fathom. But we are encouraged by many prophecies in the sacred scriptures to expect a period when the gospel shaU be universally extended, and received with onanimity; when all superstition shall be abolished; the Jews and Gentiles unitedly become the subjects of Christ's universal empire, a/nd the knawUdgc aj ihe L^rd Jill th^ earthy B»th€VHUer$ayoirtiii$$ea.