A Dictionary of the Sunda language/All

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Contents: Preface A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Errata





It will be necessary to say a few words regarding the orthography followed in the following dictionary, and the sources from which information has been derived in making the compilation of the work.

That system has been adhered to, as nearly as possible, which has been followed by Marsden in his Malayan Dictionary and Grammar, which is explained in the prefaces to those works, and which was originally laid down by Sir William Jones for oriental languages. The chief features of which for facility of reference are now here repeated.

The Vowels have therefore the power which is generally ascribed to them on the Continent of Europe.

A is generally sounded full, as in French, Italian, Dutch and other languages of the Continent of Europe, and as in the English words hard, ballast, hammer; but in many words the pronunciation is not broader than in harm, farm, barn, man. Examples in the Dutch are balie, hamer, ballast—and band, hand, rand and man.

In a few cases where the a has an unexpected stress, it has been distinguished by ā, as in Tābĕng, to draw a distinction with Tăbĕng, which though only slightly differing in sound has a different meaning.

A is not, under any circumstances to be pronounced as in the English words Paper, nation, fate, where it usurps the province of the second vowel in every other language that employs the Roman alphabet.

E has been invariably accented é or ĕ, which was necessary to avoid confusion. é is pronounced as in French été, épé; the English bet, lead, send, and the first e in better, letter, seven—or in the first e of the Dutch words ketel, ketter, beler, and in ketting. As ĕ in the final e in the English better, harder, and in herd, and in the Dutch words berde, derde, zerk.

I as in the Italian long i, or as the English ee in been, seen, tree, green, and e in he, she, be, or in the English pill, still, will. The long English sound of i in wine, fine, high, is not that of a simple vowel, but of diphthong ai. Our sound of i is heard in the Dutch words bidden, bril, brigade, pil, pilaar, rilling.

O as in English no, so, port, moment, and Dutch boter, bos, bot, pot.

U is to be sounded as in rule, ruin, obtrude, or with less risk of uncertainly, as the long u, of the Italians and Germans, the oe of the Dutch, the ou of the French, and the English oo in the words moon, stoop, soon. Above all it must not be confounded with the dipthongal sound of the English u in the words mute, acute, puny.

Diphthongs are ai, au, ĕu, oi or oy and ay.

Ai is sounded as the English long i in pike, line, mine; or in the French aile, baille, caillou. It is the same as in the Dutch interjection ai, and as heard in the first part of abjert, bajonet.

Au is pronounced like English ow, in how, cow, as jauh, bau, baur. And as Dutch auw in kauw, lauwcer.

Eu is of very frequent occurrence, but is not heard in Malay. It is also not an English sound, but approaches nearest to pewter, lewd, dew, deuteronomy, duke. It is a common Dutch sound as heard in peuteren, peul, beuren, beurs, beurt, and in French in tailleur, leur, fleur.

Oi is not of frequent occurrence and is pronounced as in English hoist, moist, choice, and French goītre, royal. The ai and oi often assume the shape of ay and oy in the Composition of words when followed by another syllable or letter barai, to pay baraya, relations, poi, a day poyok, to jeerat.

It will be frequently found that two Similar vowels come together, separated by a hyphen—to show that they must each have a distinct sound. This cansesan hiatus which is of very frequent occurrence in the Sunda, as ba-al, sĕu-ĕur, ho-ok, ju-uh, dé-ét, ti-is.

Consonants. B is pronounced as in English and Dutch bend, bib, babble, Tub or bebloed, bek, bang.

C occurs only in ch which is pronounced as English church, chance, chest, torch, detached. The Dutch language does not contain this sound, and it is consequently represented by them by tj, which does not convey the Sound even according to the Dutch use of the letter, as j with them has the power of English y; It rather conveys the force of the French letters so applied. It is represented by the German Tsch.

D is pronounced as in English did, added, and in Dutch, dak, dood.

F occurs only rarely in words from the Arabic, when it has generally been converted into p, as f is a sound which the Malays, Javanese and Sundaese are unable to pronounce. Thus fikir to think, becomes pikir, fasal becomes pasal.

G is always hard as in game, gay, get, give, go, gun; and never soft as in gestūre, giant, wage, for which j is uniformly employed. Care must be taken to always sound this letter according to the examples here given, as it is by no means the gutteral Dutch g in geld, geven, goot, nor the French g in gentil, genou, genre.

H is the aspirate, and may be pronounced as in the English words have, hold, high, and Dutch hard, haring, haver.

J is a character whose power in the English Alphabet is of great utility in expressing all oriental sounds, and is to be pronounced as in jury, justice, jew, also as dg in judge, pledge, lodging, and as g in gem, gentry, sage.

Having in the northern languages of Europe the Sound of the English y. the Dutch write the words wherein it occurs with dj, which for the reasons above assigned under c for tj, rather express a French than an original Dutch Sound. Thus where I have written janji, the Dutch would write djandji, to give the Sound; or would pronounce janji as yanyi, which is often made ridiculous by the Malay example of jagah bai-bai jangan jatuh, which a Netherlander, fresh from Europe and unacquainted with the Malay language invariably pronounces yaga bai-bai yangan yatuh. So also the Dutch call the Island which we inhabit yava, which the natives call jawa, to express which according to his own indeas of the power of letters, a Hollander would have to write djawa.

K has a uniform sound as in king, book, kick, kettle, and in Dutch as koning, kok, ketel, koken, and as will be observed, 1034 out of the 9308 words in the Dictionary, begin with this hard consonant so pronounced. The English c with this power of k has not been made use of.

L is sounded as in land, loll, lily in English, and as lang, lui, lakker in Dutch.

M as in man, maim, mummy in English, und meel, meer, mom in Dutch.

N as in noun, no, linen, nose in English, and as na, naar, nanacht, neef in Dutch.

The combination of letters ng is to be sounded as in sing, ringing, longing in English, and zang, bang, tang, boring, hangen in Dutch. A great many words in Sunda begin with this ng, the pronunciation of which to a beginner is rather difficult and perhaps can only be overcome by a little practice from hearing the natives pronounce it. Thus in ngang'ah to gape, the apostrope after the second ng' shows that the word must be prounced ngang-ah, and not ngan-gah. The ng being in reality one letter sound, for which no European language perhaps possesses an appropriate letter. The apostrophe ' has been inserted wherever doubt was likely to arise as to pronunciation.

P as in past, pope, pippin in English, and as pak, pal, pap, pot in Dutch.

Q is not used in this dictionary, but the power of the English Q is represented by kw or kua.

R sounds as in run, river, barrow, in English, or rot, rand, boor in Dutch.

S as in sun, past, suspect in English, and sober, som, simpel in Dutch.

Sh does not occur in Sunda; the Arabic or Persian words where it ought to occur being softened by the elision of the h thus shah, king becomes sah.

T as in tame, tent, tatter, in English, und teen, toe, tor, tot in Dutch, and never sibilant as in patience, nation. The English sound th does not occur in the language.

V does not occur in any Sunda word.

W is a very common sound, the same as in English wall, weat, reward, or in the Dutch wakker, wand, wild.

X does not occur; its sound would be represented by ks, as kraksan, a place in the Residency Basuki should never be written kraxan.

Y is to be sounded as in yam, yet, yore in English, and not as the Dutch y which has the power of ai. The Dutch represent this letter by j and jong, jood are by them pronounced as yong, yood.

Z does not occur, and when occurring in Arabic words is replaced by s, as the holy well at Mecca, zamzam is called samsam.

The great simplicity of the construction of words and sentences forms the chief difficulty in the language. The nouns are not declined—the verbs are not conjugated, but are modified in meaning by prefixes and suffixes. The most usual prefixes are ka, mi, pa, pang, pi, ba, , sa, , ta, , and suffixes an, eŭn, kĕn.

Thus hadé is good, hadéan, is to make good, to mend; pihadéanĕun, is something which must be made good or mended. sĕuri, to laugh, langhing; pisĕurian and pisĕurianeun something to laugh about, a laughable subject. dua, two, midua, to divide, to part in two. kolot, old, pangkolotan, the most old, the oldest. gĕbug, to strike, pangĕbug, a bludgeon, a stick to strike with. bĕlĕdog, the report of a gun or fire works. Bĕbĕlĕdogan, squibs or crackers. ténjo, to look from a far, tĕtenjoan, a distant view. Kayu, wood, kakayon, timber in general, varieties of trees. Verbs are formed from substantives and adjectives by prefixing nga, as hidi, a fish spear, ngahidi, to kill fish with such a spear. hĕurap, a fishing net, ngahĕurap to take fish with a net. gantang, a rice measure, ngagantang, to receive rice by measure. When the word so used in composition is an adjective, it has generally suffixed an, as hadé. good, gahadéan, to make good. lémbong cleared away, ngalémbongan, to clear up or put in order a bit of ground or a garden.

To form a plural the Sundas like the Malays duplicate the substantives and say imah-imah, houses, jalan-jalan, roads, tuan-tuan, gentlemen, mandor-mandor, heads of villages, gunung-gunung, mountains.

Verbs and adjectives are made plural by a peculiar process of lengthening the word in its middle, for which purpose the letter r, and sometimes l, is generally associated with a cognate vowel of the word with which it comes in contract, and which R or l and its cognate vowel is generally duplicated, unless the consonant R or L already occurs in the crude and singular from of the word. Thus kuda hadé a good horse; kuda hararadé, good horses. hadéan, to make good anything, hararadéan, to make good several objects. Kayu panjang, a long bit of wood, kayu pararanjang, long logs of wood. Batu panas, a hot stone, batu pararanas, hot stones. Jélĕma paih, a dead man, jélĕma pararaih, the people are all dead. Buwah buruk, a rotten fruit, buwah bururuk, the fruit is all rotten. tong bochor, a leaking tub, tong bololochor, the tubs are all leaking. Boro, to go to wards (if one person who goes), bororo, to go to wards in a crowd, several persons going towards. Tarik kayu iyo, drag this piece of wood, tararik kayu na, drag those logs of wood.

When the word begins with a vowel, that vowel with r after it, is prefixed to the word which has to be made plural, as chai na éksél, the rivulet is very scanty, chai na di gunung itu éréksél amat, the rivulets from those hills have very little water in them. Gunung-gunung ururugan, the mountains have shot down from urug.

The initial consonants L and R in adjectives are also frequently duplicated to from a plural. This duplicated consonant is then followed by the vowel a, and not by the vowel which followed it in the crude form of the word, as luhur high gives laluhur, when speaking of several. Gunung luhur a high mountain, gunung laluhur, high mountains. Rowas, startled gives rarowas; Rikĕs, rarikĕs; rugi, rarugi. Thus as if only the consonant letter was duplicated, which has always the vowel a inherent in it. This duplication of the first syllable is of very frequent occurence, and does not always denote a plural , but indicates a modification of the original word so as to express a shade of idea. In duplicating the first syllable the inherent a is short, and is often heard as ĕ, and will be so found in the dictionnary, thus badak is a rhinoceros, bĕbadak, a funnel shaped bambu basket loaded with stones in making dams in rivers, as if it resembled a badak or Rhinoceros. tabĕuh to beat a musical instrument, a drum. Tatabĕuhan, frequently heard as tĕtabĕuhan, musical instruments which are struck, as gongs, drums, and the like.

The short ĕ suffixed to the initial consonant appears often to be made use of, to the exclusion of the vowel suffixed to the initial consonant itself of the crude word, thus we have chēcho-élan, derived of cho-él; tĕto-élan from to-él; chĕcho-oan, from cho-o, and not cho-cho-elan, toto-élan, chocho-oan.

When the vowel attached to the initial consonant is u: that vowel also occurs in the duplicated word, as guru, a teacher, guguru, to get instruction from a teacher. Gunter, a flood, gugunter, to wash away with a stream of water. Turub, a cover, to cover, luturub, any temporary Shelter.

The original word of the Sanscrit from which such initial duplicated words are taken, does not always exist in Sunda, or even in the cognate Polynesian languages, but is nevertheless a Sanscrit word. Thus we have sĕsawi, the mustard plant, from sawi, C. 720, strength, force, with out the latter word sawi being known in Sunda. So also sĕsĕmon, longing for, but ashamed to ask, abashed, from samu, c. 710, leave, permission. Bĕbĕndu and bĕbĕndon, disgrace, loss of favour, dishonour, from bandhu, C. 459 what is bound bandhura, D. 459 injurions, mischievous. The simple words sawi, samu, and bandhu not being found in the Sunda language, though evidently the etymons from which sĕsawi, sĕsĕmon and sĕbĕdon have been derived. This is remarkable and would seem to indicate a greater know ledge originally of the Sanscrit, than we should at first sight be justified in believing.

Another modification of meaning to an original word is indicated by the syllable um inserted in the middle of the word, in the same way as in the plurals, by inserting Ra, as above described. Thus we have from turun, tumurun, to come down by degrees. Tua, old, and agung, chief become tumagung or tumunggung, one of the titles of Javanese nobility. Tumorék, a deuse young jungle, which a man can hardly make his way through from torék, deaf. Many more examples will be found in going through the dictionary. Vide um in voce.

A comparative and superlative degree are formed by the words anan for the comparative, and pang for the superlative see both words in voce. Manan appears to be derived from Mana, where, and may be rendered by where of as Jyo hadé manan itu, this is better than that—as (these two) where of this is good. The word lĕuwih is also used for the same purpose, denoting more, in excess. Lĕuwih hadé, more good. Lĕuwih panjang, more long. Pang is always prefixed to the word to which it imparts a superlative degree, which word then must be followed by the particle and postfix, an or na, as hadé, good, panghadé na or panghadéan, the best. When extra force is wished to be applied to this superlative degree, the word sakali, altogether—is added—as panghadéna sakali, the most positive best.

The past tense is indicated by the word anggĕus, mostly abbreviated to gĕus, as gĕus anggĕus, it is done, it is completed. Gĕus datang, he has come, and corresponds with the malay suda. The future tense is denoted by Mĕngké, answering to the Malay nanti. Mĕngké datang, I will come. Mĕngké hadé, it will become good.

The initial consonants of many words often vary rather arbitiarily for the sake apparently of what appears to be euphony to native ears, thus


when a word cannot be found in the dictionary with one form of initial, an attempt must be made to quess at its cognate affinily, and sought elsewhere, as to have always given the words with their varying shapes would only have unjustifiably tended to swell the size of the dictionary.

An extensive class of words exists in the Sunda, which I have distinguished by the name of idiomatic expressions. They are monosyllables generally of three letters, as if they were a remnant of a very rude and aboriginal state of the language. They are often worked up into composite words, with the usual Sunda pre-and postfixes ka and an, or some other analogons particles. The use of them in the crude form gives strengh to the expression with which they are associated, and indicates a precise line of conduct or action. Such idiomatic expressions will be found scattered through the whole work, such are bĕt, bus, dĕl, dĕs, kĕk, kop, rĕm, rĕp, sĕp, sĕr, top, tut. They have a peculiar force and cannot be translated by any corresponding word in a European language, but their tendency has always been indicated. They may even be left out of the sense of the passage where they occur, without exactly injaring the meaning, but a native makes very extensive use of them, as they give force and precision to what he says. As kop bai di hakan, putting it into his month, he eat it. Kop indicates the deliberate act of putting into the mouth preparatory to eating, and implies that the man was eating it without knowing that there was any harm in it, or suspecting the stuff of being bad or poisonons and yet simply the act of eating is sufficiently implied by di hakan, he eat it.

So also of top, which implies taking hold of seizing top bai di bawa, laying hold of it, he carried it away. We might say that he could not carry it away with out taking it in some way, and that di bawa he carried it away, was sufficient; and so it is, even with a native, but when they prefix top, though we can give no precise translation, the idea is conveyed that there was no harm done in taking it, that no one opposed the act. The full force of these idiomatic expressions can only be learnt and appreciated on learning the language and hearing them used by the natives.

I have throughout the whole dictionary endeavoured to give the etymologies of the proper names of places, of the Archipelago, of the Residencies and of chieftowns in Java, of rivers and mountains, in short of the chief features of the country, whether in the Sunda districts or elsewhere, which may perhaps throw some light on these matters, and is at least an interesting topic of speculation. For examples of these attempts I would refer to the words bali, bantam, boro budur, jawa, sunda, sumatra, prambanan, prawu, priang'ĕn, progo, japara, and many others. An extensive and interesting class of words associated with hyang, Divinity, will be found on reference to this word. Under the heads of awi, chaw, hoih, huwi, paré, orai will be found an extensive classification of the different varieties of Bambus, Plantains, Rattans, Yams, Paddy and Snakes, which are known to our Mountaineers, and which may occasionally prove interesting or instructive. The varieties of Paddy were determined many years ago by collecting samples of them, and getting together a commission of natives to assign the names and point out their differences, which are often only trifling.

Weights and measures have been attended to, and when possible a comparison given between Dutch, English and Javanese articles of this kind. For which purpose reference can be made to the words bauh, pal, koyan, pikul, pond, kati, kaki, éllo, tumbak, gantang, sangga. The comparative details of which have been taken from Doursther's weights and measures, a work in the French language.

It may be also well to give here in a concise form the numerals used in Sunda, the particulars of which can be referred to, under each word in the Dictionary, where an attempt has been made to trace many of the words to their original meaning and indicate the process by which they have been arranged.

1 Siji, Sahji, Sa.
2 Dua, Duwa.
3 Tilu, Talu, Tolu.
4 Opat.
5 Lima.
6 Gĕnap.
7 Tujuh.
8 Dalapan.
9 Salapan.
10 Sapuluh.
11 Sablas or Sawĕlas
12 Duablas or Duwawĕlas.
20 Dua puluh.
21 Dua puluh siji; Salikur.
22 Dua puluh dua; dua likur.
25 Dua puluh lima; lima likur; Salawé.
30 Tilu puluh.
40 Opat puluh.
50 Lima puluh; Sékat.
60 Gĕnap puluh; Sawidak.
70 Tujuh puluh.
75 Tujuh puluh lima; Lĕbak satus.
80 Dalapan puluh.
90 Salapan puluh.
100 Sa ratus; Satus.
175 Lĕbak Satak; Sa ratus tujuh puluh lima.
200 Satak; dua ratus.
375 Lébak samas; Tiga ratus tujuh puluh lima.
400 Samas; ampat ratus.
500 Limang kupang; lima ratus.
800 Domas; delapan ratus.
1000 Séwu; Sa rébu.
10.000 Sa laksa; Sapuluh rébu.
100.000 Sa kĕti; sa ratus rébu; sa puluh laksa.
1.000.000 Sa yuta; sa ratus laksa; sa puluh kĕti.
Sa Rébu, Dalapan ratus, lima puluh lima = 1855.

The Sunda people, at present, have no written character of their own. Throughout Bantam and Buitenzorg they use the Arabic Character when writing, which strange to say is hardly ever in their own native vernacular, but when they do write any memoranda it is in malay; In the Preang'er Regencies the Javanese characters are in frequent use. The Batu Tulis near Buitenzorg which has lately been deciphered by Mr. R. Friederich is probably a remnant of a native Sunda character. This inscription, however, contains hardly any recognizable Sunda words, but is a rude attempt to jumble up as many Sanscrit words as possible, which remark also applies to the inscription of Kwali in Cheribon.

In compiling this Sunda Dictionary I have not hesitated to avail of all the information which was within my reach in cognate languages. Both Marsden's and Crawfurd's Malyan dictionaries have been carefully gone over, and every word appropriated which could claim a home in the Sunda. I have to regret my want of understanding the Sanscrit character given by Marsden, to many words in his dictionary, and as he has not given a Romanized version of these words, they are to me, as to most other people, very learned but also very unmeaning signs.

The Javanese dictionary of P. P. Roorda van Eijsinga 1835, has also frequently been consulted, but more nicety of discrimination was often here incumbent, as from the closer affinity of the two languages of Java, it was necessary to be careful not to admit words which had no right to a place, or perhaps only varied slightly from what are used in Sunda.

One work alone I have carefully eschewed, viz; the Sunda Dictionary of A. de Wilde, published by Roorda 1841. A casual glance down its pages soon convinced me that it would rather lead me astray than afford information, and so I was forced to lay it aside, although anxious to avail of all the light which I could find. It may even yet contain some words which I have not given, but to sift them out would be a labour of considerable extent, and probably a loss of time in the end. The work of Mr. de Wilde did not see the light, till many years after he had left Java, and was thus of course without the natives at his elbow to put him to rights when in any doubt, and without other authorities for reference or help.

Even in Java living in the interior, surrounded by natives who speak the language as their mother tongue, it often requires, with many words, some judgment to select the right meaning, and words are current in different districts which are not known again in others, or which have a somewhat modified meaning, and are sneered at when used differently from what is usual with any particular set of people. The Sunda people possess no literature to which reference can be made, and it is consequently a purely oral language spoken by a little better than two millions of people, at the west end of Java, to and with the greater part of Chribon.

The influx of words from that great classical language of the East—the Sanscrit—has also been considerable into the Sunda, where they have been retained with great accuracy during a long period of years, probably not less than 1000 or 1200 years. The same early intercourse with the natives of India, as that which took place with Sumatra and Java proper, or the Eastern parts of our island, no doubt extended also to the Sunda districts, but of this neither written history nor tradition preserves any remembrance, and with few trifling exceptions the Sunda districts retain no traces of temples or stone images indicating the presence of artists from Continental India, but with which the East end of the island so plentifully abounds. The Budhists were driven out of Continental India in the Seventh Century of the Christian Era, when a great trade was carried on with the Indian Isles, for those valuable products which found a ready market in the West—and from the conflicting ascendency of one sect or the other on the Indian Continent, we may fairly conclude that the worsted party had to fly and seek a safe refuge in foreign parts, and no country would offer them a more inviting refuge than the Indian isles. The Budhists were eventually the worsted party and settling in great numbers in Java built boro bodur, and many other old monuments and temples of which we still find the ruins, introducing at the same time the Sanscrit literature and holy books which descending through their children of mixed Hindu and Javanese race gradually imparted to the colloquial tongues that large accession of ideas which they still retain, in the same way as the Arabic derivatives have, at a later period, been introduced with the Mahomedan religion, and by some Arabs intermarrying with the natives, without either Hindus or Arabs having fitted out navies and armies to invade and conquer the country, as done by Europeans in our days.

The language which those Indians, whence soever they came, grafted upon the native stock, was not their own colloquial speech, but the language of their religion and of their sacred books. They probably came from the Gangetic provinces, as neither the Tellugu, Tamil nor Singhalese colloquial languages have made hardly any impression, and if the Sanscrit literature and words were communicated by these latter people, it was through the language of their literature and religion, which throughout India, especially before the Mahomedan invasions, beginning under Mahmud of Gizni in A. D. 1000, was the almost universal Sanscrit.

In the following dictionary I have endeavoured to trace out such words as have had a Sanscrit origin, which I have been enabled to do, with the aid of the Singhalese and English Dictionary of the Reverend B. Clough, Colombo 1830, who, in his preface, declares nine-tenths of the Singhalese to be derived from either Sanskrit or Pali. Not that 1 have any pretentions to a proficiency in the Singhalese language, but I trust that it will be found that such words as will be constantly occurring throughout the following pages, will tend to throw some light upon this part of the language, and will elucidate many words whose Sanscrit origin might not, at first glance, suggest itself. These words from Clough are always marked by the letter C. with a number after them, which is the number of the page where they occur in the Dictionary, the Singhalese words of which are in the Singhalese character.

In this part of my study I have been assisted by the Articles supplied by Mr. R Friederich to the Transactions of the Batavian Society, with reference to Bali, which his knowledge of the Sanscrit has enabled him to do so often with happy succes. I am also further indebted to this gentleman personally for communications on the same matters, which I trust I have, for the greater part acknowledged in their proper places.

I have endeavoured to give the Botanical names to as many of the trees and plants as possible, which occur in the work for the most part taken from Blume's Flora Javae, or selected from various books or writings of which several notices in the Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, by Dr. G. Wassink have been fruitful sources. Deficiencies have often been supplied by occasional rambles in the Government Palace gardens at Buitenzorg, where the plants are all carefully labelled by Mess". Teysmann and Binnendijk, the gentlemen who have charge of this scientific ornament to the residence of the Governor General of Netherland's India.

The scientific names for the Zoology of Java have had their origin in Horsfeld's Zoology of Java and in various writings and Museums.

With a view to gleaning something of the Ancient lore and language of the Country I, many years ago, used to have a village bard, called a tukang pantun or storyteller to recite his tales. This man was called Ki Gémbang and a dozen or 15 years ago, had a great run of popular native favour, being in great request all over the Western parts of the Province of Buitenzorg. The subject of such sagas is the olden time, when Pajajaran flourished and over which the native of the present day sits the live-long night, listening to the deeds of those who have long slept with the past. Such legends are not worth anything as matters of history, but are rich in native wit and humour, and found to contain a vast deal of words, which are little heard in every day conversation. The mantle of Ki Gémbang has now a days descended on his son.

The last of my authorities, to whom I am perhaps the most indebted, is the present Demang of Jasinga, Raden Nata Wiréja, with whom I have gone over the whole dictionary, that is all words of which I was not sufficiently certain, and who during several months of 1854, at intervals, devoted a couple of hours per day, to assisting me with the elucidation of difficult or doubtful words.

No pains have been spared to render the work as correct and useful as possible; and with this predication the author throws himself upon the good will of his readers. The following resumé of the number of words under each letter of the Alphabet may be interesting in various ways

Under letter A are 438 words—awi counting as 1.
B 823
C 407 „ —chaw counting as 1.
D 261
E 95
G 437
H 292 „ —huwi and hoih counting each 1.
I 135
J 287
K 1.034
L 484
M 501
N 657
O 69 „ —orai counting as 1.
P 937 „ —padi counting as 1.
R 367
S 946
T 819
U 127
W 176
Y 16

The printing of this dictionary has been long delayed and very nearly seven years have elapsed since the manuscript was handed to the Society. The difficulty of printing such a work in English, a language foreign to the place, is fully acknowledged by the author and must bear the blame of occasional inaccuracies. The abode of the author, nearly 50 miles from Batavia, rendered it impossible for him to revise the press.

The earlier part is often kindly illustrated by notes by Mr. R. H. Th. Friederich, whom sickness has latterly driven to Europe. The proper pronunciation of the words may sometimes appear doubtful from the necessary printing letters being absent especially where ĕu occurs. The ˘ above the first letter e of which must be considered as circumflexing both letters.

Jasinga, 5 Augustus 1862

Contents: Preface A B C D E G H I J K L M N O P R S T U W Y Errata



Abah-abah, goods, chattels, effects; gear, tackle – see Parabah.

Abang, Javanese-Red-rarely heard – occurs in the word Tanabang near Batavia – Tanah-abang – red land.

Abdallah, the son of Abd-ul-muttalib, and father of the prophet Mohammad, he was the husband of Amina. Not long after their marriage Abdallah set out on a trading journey to Gaza in the south of Syria, and on his return, died at Medina before Mohammad was born.

Abd-ul-Muttalib, the grandfather of Mohammad, who took care of him when left as an orphan at the early age of seven years: but he also died soon after in A. D. 578 aged 82 years. Col: Rev: June 184 Page 374. Abd-ul-Mutalib was noted for the munificence with which he entertained all pilgrims, who came to the temple in Mecca of which he was guardian.

Abdi, ar: a slave or bondman to the government; the term was in vogue under the Sultans of Bantam. Throughout the Country of Bantan there were scattered Lumbur abdi and orang abdi, abdi villages and abdi people, who were treated as serfs or slaves, and their young women sent to the Harems in Bantan, by a sort of "Droit de seigneur."

Abdul, ar: the slave of – from the arabic word abd slave. Many Mohammedan names begin with these words, as Abdul-Rachman the slave of the compassionate (God) – Abdul Rahim, the slave of the merciful (God).

Abdullah, ar: a common name for a man, means "the slave of God". All Chinese who become converts to Mohammedanism get the name of Abdullah.

Abĕr-abĕran, to stroll, to wander, often to avoid pursuit.

Abig-abig, the upper gable end of a house, being a triangle of which the sloping roof forms two sides, and a line drawn from eaves to eaves, the base. The triangular piece of thatch or matted bambu which fits into this place.

Abong, Forsooth, oh dear – abong sia bogah duit, forsooth now that you have got some money.

Abong-abong, said when a man presumes on his position or circumstances. Abong-abong ka nu leutik, presuming upon a mans position to oppress people of humble degree.

Abrit-abritan, to skip or skit about, to bound nimbly along.

Abu, ar: Father – often occurs in the composition of proper names, as the Javanese (of the western part of the island) mostly bear arabic names from being Mohammedans.

Abu Bakar, ar: properly Abu Békĕr – the father of the Virgin. The first Caliph so called and successor to Mohammad. He was father in law to Mohammad. His daughter Aisha was a virgin when Mohammad espoused her; he had been married before to Kadijah who was a widow.

Aburan, running wild, neglected, let at large, not taken care of. Jélema aburan, a reckless fellow – a man who has no permanent home aud is skulking from the police authorities.

Abus, to run in, to enter – abus na kadinyo, it ran in there.

Abuskĕn, to cause to enter, to put or force into any place.

Abu Talib, one of the sons of Abdul Muttalib on whom devolved the charge of his nephew Mohammad on te death of Abdul Muttalib. He took care of the orphan Mohammad during his youth, and reached the age of upwards of 80 years. Abdallah, the father of Mohammad, and Abu Talib were brothers by the same mother.

Achah, au interjection of derision: there you get it! that's it!

Achalok, a hop, a short jump; to hop, to perch as a bird on a branch.

Achan, even, at all. To di béré-béré achan, he did not even give me any.

Achar, Persian-Pickles Achar iwung, pickles made of the sprouts of young bambus.

Aché, the town of Achin at the north end of Sumatra: The name is familiar to the Sunda people from their Hajis or Pilgrims to Mecca often finding their way there[1].

Aché, a fine kind of Rambutan or Sundun, probably originally brought from Achin in Sumatra.

Achĕlok, to spring, to go by leaps, to hop as a bird or frog-see Achalok.

Achéng, a name of endearment given to children– as much as „My darling.“

Acheŭk, elder or eldest sister- a refined expression.

Achi, among Peranakan Chinese is elder sister, eldest sister- see Puachi.

Achi, the juice, the gravy, the essential liquid of meat.

Achi, the fecula of a palm tree or tuberous root, prepared for eating in any way. Achi kawung, Sago prepared from the Kawung palm tree, Achi konéng, fecula prepared from the tuber of the Ki konéng, or the wild turmeric.

Acho, to talk vauntingly, to brag, to hold ridiculons talk, see ngacho. Acho bai sia mohal aya nu ngandel, what stuff you talk, it is not likely that any one will believe you.[2]

Achung, a variety of Arum, of very offensive smell.

Adah, an interjection of surprise or dismay, oh! is that the way! is that what you are after! as we might say „the devil take it!“
Adah! wat lĕutik tĕuyn, oh the devil take it, it is too small.
Adah! sia daik ngabobodo kang aing, is that what you are after, you want to make a fool of me.

Adam, ar: Adam, the first man, called also Nabi Adam which means the prophet Adam – but most of the remarkable Characters in the old Testament bear the distinguishing epithet of Nabi.

Adas, carawaij, carum- name of a warm tasted seed.

Adas, generally called after the Malay, Adas manis, aniseed, anethum graveolens.

Adat, ar: Custom, long established usage, mode, way of acting, for the reason that. Adat nagara, the usage of the Country. Adat goréng, bad habits. Adat kula tilok ngala, because I never take any.

Adĕg, and ngadeg, to set up, to assume a situation or authority- Rank, position.

Adĕgkĕn, to be set up in office, or authority by another.

Adénda, younger brother or sister, used only among people of rank- compounded of Adi which see, and Endah, good proper.[3]

Adi or adhi, much used in the composition of proper names of Chiefs, where it always indicates a high rank and perfection. Adhi, C. 24 over, above, upon, implying superiority in place, quality or quantity.[4]

Adi, a younger brother or sister; a term of respect or affection in addressing a younger person.

Adi Bĕutĕung, a brother or sister of our wife, which is younger than her.

Adi Dahĕuan, a brother or sister of our wife, who is older than her.

Adi Kusuma, a frequent name among the Javanese nobility; from Adi- vide voce- and Kusuma Clough 134 a flower in general-but on Java it is used as an epithet for any thing excellent- Adi Kusuma is therefore „the flower ot perfection.” (Or „the first „flower.” Fr.).

Adil, ar: just, equitable, fair.

Adi ning Rat or Adhi ning Rat,[5] a name subjoined to the two native Capitals on Java, and means „Chief of the Land.” Adi, vide voce, Ning is a Javanese and Sunda word expressive of of. Rat is a contraction of Rata, C. 581. Country, district, an inhabited Country; thus we have Surakarta adi ning Rat, and Jugyakarta adi ning Rat. Adhi ning Rat is a title often given to Javanese chiefs of high rank.

Adi pati,[6] one of the highest ranks of office, derived from Adi vide voce and Pati C. 383 Lord or master, thus Chief Lord – the native governor of a subdivision of the Country, under the European Resident- the highest rank to which the native Regents are usually raised.

Adon, to visit a neighbour or friend – mostly with a view to get something out of him- this frequently happens at crop or fruit time, in order to get a share- to go and receive food or daily necessaries from a friend. Adon jagong, to go to get maize; adon nyatu, to go to get fed.

Adu, to fight, to squabble, see Agadu- This word is also no doubt of Sanscrit origin. The nearest to be found in Clough are at Page 636 Wada, discourse, discussion, controversy, disputation.
Wadi, a disputant, a controversialist – Wadu, hatred, anger, malice, wrath.

Adu biru, an expression of contempt used towards any one- montong di bawuran adu biru sia, you need not put in any of your jaw to meddle with conversation or matters that do not regard you. For Adu vide voce. Biruma C 473 barking- the verbal noun of Buranawa to bark as a dog- adu biru is thus literally, controversy and barking[7].

Adug, to stamp and kick about, as a horse in the stable, or any animal confined in a fold or cage- to be obstreperous.

Aduh, an interjection of grief or pain- oh! mercy on us! It hurts!
Aduh! ulah bangat tĕuyn- It hurts, do'nt use so much force.
Aduh! aing to bisa nulungan, alas! I cannot help you.

Aduk, to mix, to mingle, to entangle, to cause confusion, to jumble together. Aduk apu to mix lime- Kusut amat unit di aduk, how confused it is by being jumbled together.

Adu kebo, literally „the fighting of buffaloes”- that part of the thatch which covers the ridge pole of a house. It is formed by tying two ataps to each other, so that their respective ends hang away from each other, and having thus the Jejalon of each in contact with the other.

Adukĕn, to set to fight, to put in competition; to set up or connect the different parts of carpentry or machinery.

Agama, religion- as Agama Serani, the Christian religion, agama Slam the Mohammedan religion agama Auda, the Bhuddist religion, which the natives know as their religion before the introduction of Mohammedanism, but which is about all that they know of it. Agama C 61 from â 60 a particle answering to our until, unto, as far as, with, and gama to come, to go, an approaching, a coming; a grammatical argument; also a science, a work on any one of the sacreds sciences; the word is universally (in the Archipelago) used, in colloquial intercourse to express religion.

Agar-agar, a species of sea-weed; Zostera or Plocaria candida. It is boiled down into a jelly and so eaten, especially by invalids. Agari C. 7 from a privative, and gara poison- a kind of grass. (This is also the derivation in Wilson, but it means only a kind of grass, vulgo Deotar. Fr.)

Agéhan, to leave for another, not to consume or use up any thing entirely. Agéhan kula lauk na saheutik leave me a little of the flesh or fish.

Agĕm, noble, lordly, consistent with dignity or greatness, dignified, praise-worthy. Agĕm naker tumpak kreta kuda opat it is very dignified to ride in a carriage with four horses. Piagem, a rent roll or schedule given to the chief of a village on the government lands,

Agĕr, a word expressive of vomiting. mantas nyatu teŭleŭi ager-ageran bai, as soon as he had done eating, he began to vomit.

Agul-Proud, vain, elated with success.

Agung and agĕng, Principal, chief, superior, great, noble. Juru agung, the chief director- Kagungan, Highness.

Agus, a rank of birth when the father has been a Mas, and the mother of ignoble origin; also much used as a term of courtesy in addressing any man.

Ah, an interjection of disapprobation, or dislike. Ah! ulah sok kitu ah! do not be doing so.

Ahad, ar: Sunday, the seventh day of the week. It is always named first in enumerating the days of the week.

Ahém, Hem! the sound caused by a sudden expulsion of breath.

Ahing, appertaining to greatness, splendid, magnificent, excelling others.

Ahirat. ar. a future state, the next world.

Ahli, ar: see Ali, instructed in, conversant with matters connected with the Mohammedan religion, Eminent, sublime. (From ahl, people; by name the people of the Islam, or from àlijjon high Fr.).

Ahwal or awal, ar: first, former, beginning. The word is used to distinguish some months- Rabiul awal- Rabiul akir, the former and latter Rabi, the third and fourth mohammedan months- awal na kiyo in the beginning it was thus

Aing, the pronoun I, used by a superior to an inferior. This word may be the first part of the word aya, a riffned expression for father, with a common Polynesion terminal ng attached to it- or it mey be the Singhalese ayiya C. 45 Elder brother, with the Polynesian ng subsituted for the final ya in the original word. Deference to age being so much observed by the natives, that a slight modification of Father or Elder brother has become current for the personal pronoun used to designate a superior individual- see kula.

Ais, to carry on the back, mostly wrapped up in the Samping.

Aisha, ar: the second wife of Mohammad and daughter of Abu Bakar. Aisha was only seven years old when betrothed to Mohammad, and was not regularly married to him, till two years later. She was always Mohammads favorite wife, and was the only one who came as a virgin to his arms, and hence her father was called Abu Békĕr the father of the virgin. All Mohammads other wives had been married before.

Ajag, a species of wild dog common in the jungle. It is of a brown foxy colour, and has a bushy tail. A small variety is called usung-asung. The ajag is the Canis rutilans. It worries sheep and young buffaloe calves.

Ajaib, ar: wonders, miracles.

Ajak, to invite, to urge, to press, to persuade, to take a part or share in any action to stimulate, to excite- Kula hanto di ajak Ywas not invited. Di ajak ka nu goring, he urged me to do wrong- ajakan reujeung to invite him to go along with you.

Ajam, intending, purporting, having a wish or design to do something- Ajam ka Bogor, I propose or intend to go to Buitenzorg.

Ajang, For, to be used for, for the purpose of. Ajang indung for mij mother; Ajang imah, to be used for a house; ajam pi-teuas, to make it hard.

Ajangan, to pay respect or deference to. To di ajangan sakali, they paid him no respect.

Ajangan, is also used for tho pronoun you when applied to great people, and might be translated your deference. Parentah ajangan kudu leumpang, your deferences orders were that we should set out. This word is derived from the Kawi word jeng meaning foot, and implies the humbleness of the person using the word, as he dare not address himself to any part of his superior higher than his feet- Jangha, C. 203 tho calf of the leg. (It might be conferred with or be the same as aing; see above Fr.).

Ajangan, said of a great man, as much as His Honour – Ajangan tuan, your honour, (certainly the same word as the two preceding ones. Fr.)

Ajar, to instruct, to teach, to train, to learn- Ajara, a teacher in compound singhalese words, as Loajara, a name of Buddha or Brahma, from Lo the world, Ajara, teacher C.610.[8]

Ajar, a recluse of former times, when the people were Buddhists, a hermit, an ascetic, It is probably also derived from Ajara C. 610 a teacher. It may however, be a contraction of Acharya C. 61 a teacher a preceptor, dropping the final and constructive ya, and softening down the rest of the word so as to suit Polynesian organs. Thus we find the father of Sawéla hala called Balia achar Raffles vol 2 P. 84 which is most probably an abbreviation of Balia-acharya.[9]
Ajar domas Eight hundred hermits who are said to have formerly lived abont the Palosari hill in Bantam.

Ajaran, admonition, reproof; to attempt, to try, to venture ones luck- ajaran lamun daik hadé, try if it will succeed or become good. Ajaran meuli I ventured my luck and bought some

Ajĕngan, the same as ajangan.

Ajĕrutan, jumping along, skipping off- running like a hare or rabit.

Aji, to study, lo learn, as at school, the formularies of religion; to read religious books, to recite prayers. The word Aji is most probably a corruption of the Sanscrit word Adhi-i or Adhi to read.

Aji, Price, Value, see Pangaji. (The same meaning has the word in Balinese Fr).

Aji, is a title preserved in old Javanese history in the name of Aji Saka, who is supposed to have come to Java from the continent of India with colonists about A. D. 75 or 78 and to have introduced both the Hindu era and religion. Raffles vol 2 P. 66/68 The word Aji, as a title, is heard in Aji Jaya Baya, Aji Nirmala, and Aji Usi was a celebrated giant of Sourabaja. Raffles 2 vol P. 75.
In endeavouring to trace the origin of this name, there is found in Clough’s Dictionary Page 14 Ajiwaka, a kind of Hindu religious mendicant who goes about naked as a proof that he has destroyed his passions. The word is derived from A privative, and Jiwa life, which means thus death, non-existence, a person not troubled with a mundane soul. Saka C. 691 a sovereign, any prince who gives name to an era. Ajiwaka Saka may thus have been contracted into Aji Saka, for both the wa and ka are constructive particles. Probably our Aji Saka was a religions enthusiast who came to Java with his admirers to escape persecution at home.[10]

Ajir, a stake or prod, particularly for lining out work.

Ajok, to mimic, to ridicule.

Ajol, to come running up to, to approach at a trot.

Ajol-ajolan, frisky and playful as a spirited horse which will not be quiet.

Ajug, a native candle-stick; a stand, mostly made of tin, in which to place an oil lamp a tin lamp stand, fitted at the top to receive a glass with oil to serve as a lamp.

Ajul, to poke and knock off, as fruit from a tree, with a long stick.

Ajur, sloppy, moist and dissolving, in a state approaching to mud.

Akal, ar: device, cunning, contrivance, judgment. Goréng akal na, his tricks are bad. Akal jélema loba, the devices of man are many. Kudu ku akal, it must be done with contrivance.

Akalan, to circumvent by device, to work at with contrivance. Kudu di akalan ku wang, money must be used to bring the matter about. Beunang ngakalan ku linggis, it has been cunningly managed with a crowbar.

Akar, root, the root of a tree or plant.

Akar wangi. Malay. fragrant root, name of the root of the Andropogon muricatus of a brown colour and emitting a fragrant smell, used to make hand-screens or fans.

Akas, a variety of ant which bites very hard and draws blood.

Akasa, the sky- the atmosphere, occurs in Jampés, but not in the common colloquial language, sometimes heard as Angkasa. Akasa C. 60, Ether, the sky, the atmosphere.

Akbar-ar: Great, used only in the expression Allah hu akbar, God is great. (allahu Ft.)

Akeŭl, the process of kneading warm and fresh, boiled rice in a Dulang which the natitives consider improves the flavour.

Akeŭp, to take up and carry in the arms.

Akhérat-ar: the future life, the next world, (cf. ahirat P. 6.).

Akhir and akir ar: last, latter, final, termination. Akhir jaman the latter dag, hereafter. Rabiul akir, the latter Rabi, the fourth Mohammedan month.

Aki, Grandfather, a term of respect for any old man.

Aksara, a letter of the alphabet, a character, the alphabet. Akshara C. 5. a letter of the alphabet. Daun aksara, a pretty and curions leaf which grows as a lowly plant on stones amongst the moist and elevated mountains. So called Alphabet leaf from being covered with black marks having the rude resemblance of letters.

Aku, to confess, to acknowledge, to claim as property, to own to.

Akut-akut, the ichneumon fly; the kind of fly which builds small mud nests, in which it lays its eggs, and buries along with them spiders, caterpillars &c. for the food of the future larvae.

Akutan, to bear away in loads, returning again and again till done.

Ala, to take, to appropriate, to get possession of; to gather fruit.
alla C, 50, seized, laid hold of.

Ala, as Ala manan, much more so than, much more preferably, Ala is probably the root of the Malay or Javanese kalah, to lose, not to win, worsted, and thus worse than (this or that).

Alaikum, ar: with you, as Salam alaikum, Peace be with you.

Alak-ilik, to peep and spy about, to look around pryingly.

Alam, ar: the world, mostly heard prefixed to Dunya. Alam dunya the universe. Paku Alam, the title of the Independent Prince of Jugyukarta, literally „the spike nail of the world.”

Alam, ar: in the time of. Alam Inggris in the time of the English. (The same as the preceding, عَالَمٌ Fr.)

Alamat, ar: Sign, token, signal, presage, Alamat paih a presage of death. عَلَامَة

Alang-alangan, to wander away, to skulk about, to wander at random.

Alap-alap, a small but fierce variety of hawk. Falco Bengalensis.

Alas, lands or forests belonging to any district, as alas Bantan belonging to the territory of Bantan. Also a continuons ridge of land uncut by any stream of water, and in this sense is always used in conjunction with the word tali, rope or line as tali alas, the unbroken ridge connecting two hills, or leading from the lowlands to the mountains. Alas in the sense of forest is not Sundaese but Javanese. But in Sunda it is used in composition as seen from the following examples, Alasan, aswalas, kopi alas.

Alasan, to collect in the forest such articles as grow there spontaneously, such as Ratans and wild fruit. The word alas means in Javanese forest, but the Sundas do not use it so.

Alasan, rain, and wind together, particularly in the jungle. Bisi manggih alasan, lest we meet with rain.

Alaya, occurs in the composition of some proper names and means house, abode. ālaya C. 65. House. Suralaya the abode of the Gods. see voce.

Aléan, to pick and select seed, said particularly of paddy.

Alĕm, to praise, to encourage by commendation.

Alĕman, giving oneself airs. unneedfully proud.

Alĕpa, careless, off one's guard, heedless, negligent. Marsden Page 13 gives Alpa as Hindu-negligent. It is also Kawi.[11]

Aleŭm, clouded and dull, threatening for rain. Covered with mist.

Aleŭt, with intermission, one by one, said of people walking, like all natives do, in a row, one by one after each other.

Alhamdulillah, ar: God be praised, God be thanked.

Ali, ar: Eminent, sublime, noble. Ta-ali, (Perhaps تَعَاٰلي taâla Fr.). exalted, most high.

Ali, as Ali talil (تَهْلِيل, tahlîl) the exordium to the prayers in the mosque.

Ali, was the son in law of Mohamad and fourth Caliph. He is generally called Bagind' ali, His Highness Ali. He was married to Fatima the daughter of Mohamad. He died AD. 660

Alia, ar: most High. (A corrupt pronounciation of اَعْلَي, the ي, ye made mobile Fr.).

Alim, ar: wise, learned, instructed. Also much used as a genteel negative, as Alim teuyn, I really do not know.

Alip, the letter A, also of the Arabic alphabet.

Allah, ar: God, the true God. Tuhan Allah, the Lord God. The word Tuhan is most likely the usual word Tuan, Mr., Sir, and it is believed the people of the Archipelago in general insert the aspirate to draw a line of demarcation, when they apply the word to God.

Allahu-akbar, ar: God is great, a favourite expression when in consternation.

Allahu-alĕm, (âlim) ar: God knows best, God only knows. An expression implying that something has gone wrong, or that some irretrievable accident has occurred.

Allah-taāla, ar: God the most High. God Almighty.

Alo, a nephew, a niece; when the father or mother, being our brother or sister is older than ourselves. See Suan. Alu, C. 789 light, lustre, from aloka C. 65. light-seeing. Thus the light of the family.

Alok, he says, he would have us believe, he pretends; this word is always followed by manéh self. Alok manéh to bogah béja he pretends he did not get news of it.

Alon, quietly, slowly, gently.

Aluan, the course of a vessel at sea; direction in which to steer.

Alu-alu, four chĕchéndét of Haramai flax.

Alun, to swim, and at the same time to support some other person or body, as a sinking boat, a loaded raft or the like. The swell of the sea, a wave.

Alun-alun, on open plain or parade ground in front of the dwellings of native official chiefs, or governors of districts, as the Regents, where processions and public ceremonies take place. Two waringin trees are always planted in the centre.

Alur, the beaten path in the forests of wild cattle and Rhinoceroses- a furrow.

Alus, fine in texture or quality, genteel, respectable, clever, cunning.

Ama, father, a refined expression used only when speaking of men of rank.

Amal, ar: pious good works, by which the grace of God is obtained.

Amar, ar: Thing, aflair, business, order, mandate, injunction. Amar allah, the mandate of God.

Amat, very, excessively, Bener amat, very true. Beurat amat, very heavy.

Ambalu, Gum-lac. The ambalu of the Sunda mountains does not give the true gumlac of commerce, which is produced by the Coccus lacca. The Sunda ambalu is nevertheless produced by a small Coccus insect found fastened upon the trees in the same way as books describe the true ambalu of commerce. In Java this ambalu is most frequently found upon the Ficus Procera or Kiara, which in common with all other figs, yields much milky sap, but does not seem to produce the lac which is valuable in commerce. Crawfurd’s Dictionary says the word in Javanese is Tambalu, which would give Tamba C. 222 copper, Baluk or Baluka C. 469, a drug, a perfume, sand, gravel. Thus copper drug, or copper sand. The colours would suggest the copper colour, and the Hindus might have imagined the substance either a drug or formed of sand. Or Tamba-copper, and Luta or Luna, C. 609, a spider, local inflammation produced by the urine or spittle of a spider, from a sort of spider forming the lac. Tamba-luta = Tambalu[12].

Ambar, ar: amnber; ambergris.

Ambar, a small foetus brought forth at full age of nine months, but unnaturally small; this child always dies, and same of them are dried and preserved as talismans or charms for good luck.

Ambar-ambar, a lot of little instruments to be used about the person, as tweezers, toothpick &c, hung together on a small ring and carried about tied to the corner of a handkerchief.

Ambĕk, passion, will, disposition for exertion. Gedé ambek a man of exertion: often a man who wants more than he is entitled to.

Ambĕkan, to draw the breath, to breathe.

Ambĕn, a belt, the girth of a saddle.

Ambén, the stage or platform before the door of a native house.

Ambĕngan, to have in readiness

Ambĕuh, to scent, to smell, to be aware of an odour.

Amblĕng, abandoned, not cared for, deserted.

Ambon, the island of Amboyna.

Ambrĕg, a united continuous report, as of guns fired off all at once.

Ambu, mother (of a human being) Ambā C 43, a mother. Ambikāwi C. 809 a mother, a wife. Ambuwa C. 44, a wife. (Ambâ, Ambikâ and Ambâlikâ, mother, are Skr. Fr.).

Ami, a designation occurring in ancient Javanese history, as a prefix to the names of men of rank. Raffles vol 2 Page 80 and 88, Ami Luhur, Ami Jaya, derived from Swami C. 783 or Hami, a master, a lord. They were the sons of Déwa Kasuma who had them sent to India to be educated, where they probably obtained the title of Swami, this was early in the 10 Century after Christ. (This is possible; Svâmi, Skr. lord. Fr.).

Amil, ar: a village priest, a petty priest.

Amin, ar: amen! so be it.

Amina, the mother of the prophet Mohammad. In the seventh year of Mohammads life, she took him from Mecca to visit his relations at Medina. They were on their way back to Mecca, when Amina sickened and died at Abwa, half way between the two places, and here she was buried.

Amir ar: a leader, a commander, an emir. Amir-al Muminin or Amir al Mumin, the commander of the faithful, a title of the Caliphs.

Amis, Sweet to the taste, luscious. Diamis an expression used in dying yarn of a red colour when it is put ont into the Sun before applying the Changkudu.

Amis, the inner or juicy bark of trees, as distinct from the onter and dry part.

Amit, to be unwilling, a polite way of excusing oneself, a polite way of asking permission, You must excuse me. Méméh di chokot kudu ngamit heula ka nu bogah, before you take it, you must ask permission from him who owns it. Amit bohong I am unwilling to tell a lie, you must excuse my telling a lie. Amit nibahken binih occurs in a paddy planting Jampé, and means, I entreat permission to scatter out the seed. (Balin. pamit id.).

Ampar, to spread out, to strew with. A layer, a stratum. Ampar samak, to spread ont a mat (to sit or squat down on). Jalan na di ampar karëés, the road was strewed or covered with gravel. Paré sa ampar, a layer of Paddy as lying in store.

Ampĕg, to abound in, full or enough of- to heart’s content.

Ampél in Javanese is a variety of Bambu. Ampél as a place in the town of Sourabaya connected with the introduction of Mohammedanism by a certain Sunan Ampél who is buried there.

Ampĕlĕm, a variety of the mango fruit. The first syllable of this word seems to be of Sanscrit origin. Amba C. 43. a mango. Pelem in Sunda is of good savour, fine taste, but to give it this interpretation, we should have to associate a pure Sanscrit with a pure Polynesian word, which is against the common run of associations. In Crawfurd’s dissertation to his Malay grammar at page 99 he has ventured to state that Mampalam a mango "is the Sanscrit. Mahâ-pala, the great fruit through the Talinga (13)."[13].

Ampihan, to put by, to keep, to take care of, to have in one’s keeping.

AmplasAmplas, the ficus politaria. A tree the rough leaves of which are much used to polish wood or horn.

Ampo, said of animals, particularly buffaloes and deer, wich lick the places where salt has been deposited, or are in the habit of licking the ground or rocks which contain some saline matter. Batu Ampo, is ampo stone which is found in many parts of Java and eaten by the natives. It is either a rock in a high state of decomposition, from having undergone a sort of caries in situ, or, in other cases, may be an aggregation of minute animal exuviae.

Ampok, a plate of Silver, or of any other metal, worn by naked children to cover their nudities.

Amprok, in conjunction with, joined to.

Amprokkěn, to shove up close to, to put together.

Ampun, forgiveness, pardon. Ménta ampun to ask pardon.

Amuk, to fight furiously, to attack indiscriminately, to smash and destroy. Said of any animal unmanageable from rage. This is the word which has given origin to the expression of "running a muck," as it is also Malay. Imah na di amuk, he pulled the house to pieces. Jelema sakitu loba na di amuk ku sorangan nana, such a large number of people, he ran a muck amongst singlehanded. Si amuk one of the three heirloom guns on Java the amuck-maker. See Guntur Gěni and Nyai Stomi.

An, is a particle of much and extensive use; its place is as a suffix to the word to which it relates, and is very extensively used with Pa as a prefix. Pa-gawé- an work, from gawé to work. Pa-mabok-an, a drunkard, from mabok, drunk. It often gives to substantives and adjectives a verbal form, as anak, a child, anakan to have a child, to bring forth. Hadé, good, Hadéan, to make good, to mend; Batur a companion, Baturan, to keep company with, to accompany; Imah, a house, Imahan, to put up a house on any spot. Jĕro deep, Jĕro-an, to deepen, to dig deep.
This dictionary has not been overburdened by inserting all derivative words formed with an which are in common use, but when an is found subjoined to a word, the meaning will easily be traced by referring to the crude or simple part of the word, as Hadé good will be found, and the composition Hadé-an will easily suggest itself, to make good, to repair.

Anak, a child; the offspring of any animal, the young, a seedling plant, an offset, a sapling; the interest on money, see Bibit. Anak is extensively used to designate not alone the young of any animal, but also a subordinate part of some larger implement or body, of which the following are examples.

Anak chau, young plantain sprouts used for transplanting.

Anak chělaka, a person habitually unlucky, a luckless wight.

Anak Jawa, a Javanese.

Anak kambing, a lamb, a kid.

Anak kěbo, Buffaloe calf.

Anak kotok, a chicken.

Anak kuda, a foal.

Anak kunci, a key

Anak létah, the uvula, at the back of the tongue.

Anak lochéng, the clap of a bell.

Anak Malayu, a malay.

Anak mas, a slave born in the master's house. Such slave children are often illegitimate, but an anak mas is not necessarily illegitimate, as the mother may be legally married either to a slave or a freeman, but the mother being a slave the child is also born in bondage. Mas in this instance is probably mas C. 55 flesh, a child of the flesh, and thus born unto the state of the mother.

Anak panah, an arrow.

Anak paré, the sterns of Paddy which tiller out form a parent stock.

Anak prahu, a sailor.

Anak roda, the spoke of a wheel.

Anak sapi, a calf, the young of the cow kind.

Anak téré, a step child.

Anak uching, a kitten.

Anak wolanda, a Dutchman, a person of European parentage.

Anakan, to bear a child, to bring forth young.

Anak-anakan, a puppet, a doll, an image.

Ananta, C. 26 from an not, and anta end; Endless, eternal, infinite; also an epithet or name of the king of the Nagalokaya the region of serpents or dragons. See Anta Boga. (Skr. Nâgaloka). Anawadak, a Pelican, called in Malay Undan-Pelicanus onocrotolos.

Anchak, a kind of temporary platter, generally about 8 inches square, made of split bambu wattled together, with a bit of plantain leaf upon it. Such anchaks are especially used when making offerings at Kramats or ancient Balais, or to the tigers in the forest, where they are always left, and not used a second time.

Anchak, Ficus Rumphiï, a variety of fig tree, found about Batavia where it is also called Kayu Bodi; it resembles the Bo-gaha of Ceylon, which is the sacred tree of Buddha, of which circumstance Kayu Bodi may be meant to convey the idea, and may then have been imported into Java with the Buddhist religion, of which it forms so prominent a feature in Ceylon. Bo C. 480 a tree, the ficus religiosa. Dhi C. 302 understanding, intellect, knowledge, thus the tree of knowledge, or knowledge derived from this particular tree. Vide voce Bodi. (14).[14]

Anchěléh, sneaking off, trying to avoid work or trouble, working with indifference.

Anchik, to put up, to hang out, said of a person's abode. Sok anchik di imah batur, he mostly hangs out with the neighbours.

Anchol, a promontory, a headland, a projection into the Sea.

Andaya ning Rat, a celebrated chief of Majapahit and successful leader of the forces of his country. He is also known by the title of Ratu Pěngging. The king of Majapahit gave him his daughter in marriage, and afterwards, admitted him to a share in the government. Raffles vol 2 P. 121/3. Andaya C. 33, share, portion, part, Ning, of the—Rat, country. (Dâja Skr. portion an prefix. Fr.).

Andé, supposing that, a figure in argument.

Andé, a close companion, a confidential friend; much used in conjunction with Sobat, as Sobat andé, a determined friend.

Anděg, to slay in one's course, to stop suddenly while running.

Anděl, to believe, to place confidence in, to trust, to confide.

Anděr, an upright post which supports the ridge-pole of a house.

Andika, thou, you. as applied to a person on equality with ourself, the same as te Javanese handiko , to order, to give command. (Handiko in Javanese means also thou, you. Fr.).

Andis, a kind of swallow.

Andong, a species of very large bambu, also called awi gédé, the big Bambu, Bambusa maxima.

Andung, a variety of thin palm tree, used for spear handles.

Ang, unwilling, I won't, a child's expression. Ang'ar, bad, poor soil; soil in which whatever is planted thrives badly.

Ang'ar-Éng'ér, to be pleased, to be smirking and in a good humour.

Ang'él, having to wait a long time; having trouble to get through business; provoking and unnecessary detention, such as native Chiefs take care to give to those who have to do with them, thereby showing, as they fancy, their importance.

Angěn, anatomically, the liver; morally, the heart, disposition; the pith of a tree, the inner part of a bambu; the soft part which lines the tubes of bambu. Leutik ang'en, little hearted, wanting pluck, discouraged. Gedé ang'en, great hearted, having courage, in spirits, enterprising. Ang'en goréng, bad hearted, deceitful, malicious. Ang'en putih, white-hearted, sincere, candid.

Ang'ět, warm, a genial glow, agreeably warm as clothing &c.

Ang'ěun, stewed or boiled vegetables, immersed in their juice.

Anggal, light in water, buoyant, easily floating.

Anggang, apart, gaping, with an interstice between any two objects.

Anggara, Tuesday, an ancient denomination for this day, derived from Bhuddist times, see Dité.

Angaharuw-a, C. 13. the planet mars. (Angâra Skr. the planet Mars.)

Anggarhéman, the word with wich some songs commence, particularly accompaniments to the angklung, but of which no one can give any intelligible meaning.

Anggěl, a pillow, a cushion.

Anggěus, Done, fineshed, used up, completed- an exclamation as, all's over! it's done! a preposition set before verbs and adjectives to show that an action has been completed, and in this case it is generally contracted into geus, as geus datang he has come; geus gedé, he has become great, geus béak, it is all gone, all used up.

Anggo, to reserve for one's own particular use; to have for one's own private use.

Anggo, a method of taking fish by making enclosures which allow the water to pass through but retaining the fish; much the same as Agombongan which see.

Anggon–anggon, apparel clothing.

Anggor, Persian-wine-Buah anggor, grapes.

Anggor, a bunch or string of Peuteui fruit.

Anggrék, a beautiful and fragrant epidendron or orchideous plant, often found on fruit trees.

Anggrit, Nauclea lanceolata, a hard, heavy and durable wood.

Anggur, rather, in preference. Angguran montong leumpang manan nindak ayeuna, I would rather not go at all, than start now.

Angin, the wind, a whisper of information as if brought bij the wind. angin kalér, the north wind; angin puyuh, a whirlwind; Luhuran ang’in, above the wind, to windward; Handapan ang’in below the wind, to leeward. Kula meunang angin, I have got information, literally I have got wind of anything. Ang'ir, to wash and cleanse the head and hair with some lixivium.

Ang'it, to arrange or compile a book.

Angka, a figure, a cipher, a letter, shape, outline. Angka, C. 11 a mark, a spot, a badge, a vestige, a line, a stroke; ornament, decoration. (In Skr. also a cipher. Fr.).

Angkanan, to intend to do, to propose doing.

Angkat, to take away, to lift up, to raise, to remove from its place, to carry off, to proceed on a journey.

Angka Wijaya, the last king of Majapahit, when it was destroyed in anno Javae 1400 AD. 1478. The word means the ,, Badge of Victory.” He is also called Alit Wijaya or Brawijaya. Alit in Javanese means little.

Angkĕr, any thing that must be done quickly, expedition. Paréntah angker, an order that must be immediately attended to; a sharp order.

Angkĕuh, to have a mind, to intend, to have in view. Angkeuh na daik ka Batawi, I intend to go to Batavia, Di angkeuhan kénéh, I still intend to do it.

Angklung, a musical instrument made of bambus, cut off at the ends, like the pipes of an organ, and being strung together in a frame, are shook to elicit their tones.

Angkuh, proud, arrogant, impolite, rude.

Angkul, a wattled hurdle of split bambus, used in the construction of dams in the mountain rivers. The pole of such an angkul is called Ranchatan, and the split wattled bambu Tali pitik.

Angkul golér, an angkul which in constructing a dam in a river, lies flat on the bottom of the river, and on which the damn is constructed. It often prevents the whole dam from settling, and holds the Chagaks or stakes in their places.

Angkup, the slough cast by a fresh leaf bursting from its bud.

Angkus, to refrain, to hold in passion or desire.

Ang'on, to watch or take care of buffaloes, or other cattle, whilst at pasture, whilst grazing. This is the usual occupation of children and young lads, who are hence called Budak ang'on, and to whom the buffaloes become much attached.

Angot, exceedingly, violently, in an excessive degree.

Angsana, name of a tree, Pterocarpus Indica. It grows up to be a large tree. Its leaves are pennate, and fall off about once in eight months. The tree frequently becoming quite bare for a few days before the new ones make their appearance. The tree bears handsome bunches of yellow flowers, terminal on the branches. The seeds have thin butterfly-wing appendages, and hence the Botanical name Pterocarpus, wing-fruit. The word is evidently Sanscrit, though the nearest approach to it in Clough is only Asanâ C. 66. a seat; also a tree, ficus religiosa, possibly from such tree being holy, and under its shade the seat of holy men. In the Sunda districts it will frequently be found planted in old grave yards or Kramats. The tree grows plentifully throughout the Archipelago, and is said to yield the large slab tables of the Moluccos, where it is called Kayu Lengoa Mr. Friederich informs me that in Sancrit Asana has also the meaning of „sitting in some peculiar position, as is the custom of devotees” May the word asana, as the etymon of our Angsana tree have had its origin in this tree being often selected for the place where former devotees chose to sit and meditate, and from this holy character of the tree, it was planted about the graves of the deceased? (15).[15].

Angsěrot, a syrringe, a squirt-usually made of a bit of bambu and used for squirting Tuba or intoxicating water at fish in holes.

Angsěuk, to push forward to, to attack, to force forward.

Angsur, to push forward, to shove together, to push along the ground Suluh na angsurken deui, push the fire wood together again, when mending a fire of logs lying on the ground.

Anjěrogkěn, to come to a crisis, to come to the denoument of story.

Anjian, to copulate, said only of brutes.

Anjing, a dog, canis- a term of reproach; the big-headed ants, which bite so hard, and appear to be the guardians in a hillock of white ants.

Anjing awéwé, a female dog, a bitch.

Anjingan, to hunt or bait with dogs.

Anjog, Prematurely, too early, untimely.

Anjukan, haughty, overbearing, always having one's own way. Jélema anjukan, a bully, an unruly person.

Anjur, a kind of shovel shaped instrument made by fixing the upih of a Pinang tree, or a bit of broad bark of any kind, between a forked stick for the purpose of throwing up water from a hole; for baling out water.

Anom, properly Javanese- young, youthful.

Anta, brackish, having a taste of sea water.

Anta Boga, The presiding deity over the lowest region of the universe; he was in shape like a dragon. He caught in his mouth the Chupu with its Retna Dumila as it fell from the hands of the superior deities and swallowed it. The Retna Dumila subsequently became the Dayang Trusnawati, who presides over Paddy cultivation. Anta Boga afterwards delivered up the Retna Dumila to Sengyang Guru. The name Anta Boga occurs in Sunda Jampe's for paddy planting, associated with Trusnawati, which see. Anta, C. 32, a boundary, a limit; final, ultimate and sometimes death. Bhoga, C. 500, a snakes body, the extended hood of a snake; food, eating, wealth, riches. The Dragon of death. See Ananta. If Anta here is an abbreviation of ananta, then it will mean the „Eternal Dragon” the „undying dragon.”

Antanan, a very common creeping herb, with circular, scalloped leaves, and seeds growing on the roots. It has a bitter taste but is much eaten by the natives. Hydrocotyle asiatica.

Antara, between, even until, even unto, until, among. Interval- Antara C. 33, within, between, amongst. Antara bukti even until obtaining. Antara gunung jeung laut, between the mountains and the sea.

Antěl, driven hard up, pressing against, so as not to be able to go any further.

Antělas, ar: Satin.

Antěn, there is, there are, to exist, to be in any particular spot- Anten siji, there is one Tanten for To anten, there are none.

Antěp, in an excessive degree. Antep ing hadé, the very best- Di antep to carry to far, to be too severe, to overdo.

Antěp-antěpan, too severely, going beyond reasonable bounds.

Antěr, to conduct, to attend, to follow as a companion, or in suit; to carry, to convey. Aing kudu di anteur ka imah, I must be conducted (or attended) home. Di anterken deui ka nu bogah, it was carried back to its owner.

Antér, Slow, intentionally drawling; causing unnecessary delay.

Anti, to wait, to delay, to tarry; to long for. Di anti-anti, to wait for, to hang on in attendance.

Anting, a variety of ear- ring, with a piece of gold, silver or other metal curving in a circle under the ear. See Karabu.

Anting, backwards and forwards, back again the same day- as Pulang anting, to go and return time same day. See Untang anting.

Anu, an undefined expression, often of forgetfulness or doubt, as we might say, „thingumee” such a one, so and so, such a thing. Si anu, Mr. Somebody- Mr. Thingumee. Di béré anu, he gave me so and so- See Étaun.

Anut, to submit, submitting to, obedient, submissive.

Anyam, to plait or braid; to work baskets or matting- to intertwine.

Anyar, new, fresh, recent, Imah anyar a new house; Jamang anyar, a new jacket.

Anyar, The name of a place in the Straits of Sunda, called by the English Anjir, after the Dutch spelling, and where ships from Europe frequently call for refreshments.

Anyaran, to renew, to make afresh.

Apa-bila, when, at what time, whenever, as soon as. Apa-bila is also Malay, from which it has most likely been taken, as betrayed by the word Apa, which, what. Marsden P. 61 gives Bila as Hindu and meaning, time, point of time. Wela and wélâ C. 672 half a day, any portion of a day- time. Apal, versed in, skilled in, well acquinted with any matter.

Apěm, a kind of confectionary or paste made with rice flour. Appa C. 63. a kind of cake or muffin made of rice flour.

Apěs, delicate, easily laid up with illness; pretending to be disgusted; nice, in the sense of not liking rough work; Babari apes, téré mepes, easily disgusted, yon will soon be at a loss- that is, you must not shrink from disagreeable work if you mean to succeed.

Api-api, to feign, to sham, to counterfeit; dissembling.

Api-api name of a tree with hard stem, growing in mud on sea-shore. It makes good fire wood. Aegiceras majus.

Apik, careful, attentive at any work; guarded in conduct; neat, smart.

Apiokkěn, to put together, join or unite together for any definite purpose.

Apis, as Apis buntut, the crupper of a saddle.

Apiun, ar: Opium- See Madat- the inspissated juice of the poppy.

Apok, in conjunction, along with, met, put together.

Aprok, to meet, to find, to be in conjunction with, to meet while out and abroad

Apu, lime, either burnt from shells, coral or limestone.

Apu-apuan, Calotropis gigantea, a plant otherwise called Badori which see. The leaves are largish with a whitish pila on them, which look as if lime had been dredged on them, hence the name which alludes to this peculiarity.

Apun, a rank of birth below mas, and above Uyang.

Apung, to fly, to dart, or to fling up into the air; to jump up; to toss up the head- Manuk apung, the lark,

Apus, the crupper of a saddle; a rope; a string.

Apus, a variety of Bambu. Bambusa apus.

Apus or Sa apus, is a quantity of three hoyas of Plantain fruit.

Arab, ar: an Arab, Arabian, Arabia. Nagara arab, the country of Arabia. Orang Arab an Arab Person.

Arad, a drag-net to catch fish with. Di arad, to drag a net for fish.

Arafat, ar: a hill to the Eastward of Mecca, to which the pilgrims resort, and which ceremony forms part of the process of becoming a Haji. The visit to the hill of Arafat is made on the 9th of time month of Haji, and terminates on the 12th. Arafat is some 15 or 16 miles to the Eastward of Mecca.

Arah, to wish for, to covet, to desire, to have in mind to get. To di arah deui, it is no longer desired, no further use will be made of it.

Arak, an ardent spirit made from rice, palm wine and molasses, Arrack-Arakku, C. 45. Arrack, a spirituous liquor.

Arak, a kind of hardwood; vitex leucoxylon; the same as Laban.

Arak, to carry in triumphal procession, especially as the bride at a marriage, or children just before they are to be circumcised. Aram, brushwood used for consolidating or giving substance to boggy roads, embankments, dikes, dams &c. brushwood laid down on a muddy road.

Aran, a name; as to- Aran hadé, nya hanto, as to its being good, indeed it is not (Jav. id).

Arang-arang, name of a fish in some rivers.

Arangan, name of a fish, the same as Arang-arang.

Arap, bits of string in weaving, which raise the alternate threads.

Arapat, ar: the mountain of Arafat near Mecca, where some of the ceremonies of becoming Haji take place. See Arafat.

Arapap-ěrěupěup, to stutter, not to be able to articulate clearly.

Arawah, also much called Roa, the eighth month of the Mohammedan year; otherwise also called Saban.

Ardi, mountain, occurs sometimes in the composition of proper names, and is Kawi. (Scr. adri, a mountain; herefrom are formed in Javanese ardi and redi, by transposition. Fr.)

Aré, The open country, or where there is little or only young jungle, in contradistinction to the mountainous and forest parts. Orang are, the people living in open country; this expression also sometimes implies evil spirits, demons.

Arěp, to exspect, to hope for, to look for; To di arep deui, I no longer expect it. I do not expect to see him again.

Arěs-arěsan, sweepings of rice mixed with sand and dust, picked up for use.

Areui, Jungle rope; the twining and long runners which abound in all tropical forests, much used as bands or ropes. Called in French Liane. Called in Malay Oyod, which word in Javanese means Root thus the idea of root is conveyed, when speaking of these lianes, which spread their roots above ground.

Argopuro, according to Javanese pronunciation: otherwise Argapura. The highest part of the Iyang mountains in Basuki, 9237 feet high, covered with rude terraces and traces of ancient worschip.

Argha, C. 47. Reverence, mode of worschip.
Arghya, C. 47. renerable, deserving worship, respectable.
Pura, C. 409. a city, a town, a collection of houses, a house or cluster of houses walled in.
Argha-pura, the worshipful city- or place to worship at.
Pûra, C. 415 a piece of water, a large quantity of water.
Argha-pāra, the worshipful water, the water deserving worship.
At one place on the top of the Argopuro, is a sort of hollow, going down into the ground about six feet perpendicular. It is so narrow that a man can with difficulty get up and down it. On the top of the Argopuro, Mr. Zollinger found several glazed pots partly whole and partly broken. They are about two feet high and have a mouth one foot wide, but belly out below.
Can there have been some worship of sacred water on the top of the Iyang? Tijdschrift 8 year 2e No. Feb. 1846. The Dayaks are still fond of possessing large earthenware jars for religious purposes, and the Sunda people often tell you of mysterious jars having been found at Balais or sacred spots amongst the mountains. (16).[16]

Ari, If, in case that, now supposing that; Ari daik, chokot bai, if you like, you have only to take it.

Aria, or Ariya, a rank of office below Tumunggung

Aryya- C. 48. a Person of eminence, a man of worth, a master.
Ayrya- C. 64, a term of high respect, of veneration, and applied to persons of high descent. One of the names of Buddha, but particularly applied to the priests of Buddha. In the Pali form it is called Ariya- C. 64. (Arya with long â, of a good family, Skr., is in the old time of Bali (and Java) one of the titles of the Xatriyas. Fr.)

Ariya Bang'a, a character in ancient Javanese history, connected with the foundation of Majapahit and Pajajaran, and elder brother of Chiung Wanara. See Raffles 2 vol P. 100. Ariya Bang'a having settled at Majapahit. Bang'a C. 486. breaking, splitting, a fissure, a division, defeat, discomfiture. Ariya Banga was probably so called from breaking or splitting the country into two separate dominions.

Ariya Damar, the son of Angka Wijaya, the last king of Majapahit, by a witch of the Gunung Lawu. He was an enterprising youth and was sent by his father in command of an army against Bali, in consequence of which Bali became tributary to Majapahit. Ariya Damar was subsequently appointed to be chief of Palembang on Sumatra. To Palembang he carried the Champa Princess, who had been married to the king of Majapahit (his father?) and who had by him a son called Raden Patah. This princess had subsequently another son by Ariya Damar, called Raden Husen, and these two brothers were instrumental in upsetting Hinduism in Java, and introducing Mohammedanism. Raffles vol 2 Pages 115/117.

Ari-ari, as Tali-ari-ari, the after birth.

Arip-ar: intelligent, wise, acute, skilful.

Ari-raya, a holiday, a festive occasion. This is Malay, but still often used by the Sundas. Raya in Achinese is great, and the Malays may have borrowed the expression from them, and it will thus mean „the Great day”. Arit, an agricultural instrument like a hedging bill, called in Malay Parang. It is universally used for cutting grass, or for cleaning away weeds in gardens.

Arjuna, C. 48. gives Arjjuna. The name of a king with a thousand arms, see Bisnu. Arjuna is a celebrated character in the old Javanese legends.

Arjuno, name of a mountain on the confines of Sourabaya and Pasuruan, 10.709 Rhine- land feet high.

Aro, the large bottlefly, such as lays the eggs for maggots. Musca vomitoria.

Aros, a kind of gingham cloth in stripes of blue and white.

Arotan, festivels in former times; the word occurs in Pantuns.

Aru-aru, to meddle with, to disturb, to oppose or give oflence.

Arum, fragrant, sweet-scented.

Asa, I think, to be under the impression, to feel. Murah kitu asa di béré, It is cheap in that way, I feel as if it were given. Asa, C. 66, an interjection of recollection.

Asā. C. 65, wish, desire, hope.

Asa-an, to taste, to try, to take a taste, to make a trial.

Asad, ar: the zodiacal sign Leo.

Asah, to sharpen, to whet, to rub or grind upon a stone. Kuda di asah it must be sharpened. Ki asahan, name of a liane or jungle rope, good for using as a rope in tying fences, or making dams in rivers, Tetracera dichotoma.

Asak, ripe, done enough in cooking. Buwah asak, ripe fruit. Kéjo asak properly boiled rice.

Asakan, to cook, to boil, to dress food.

Asal, ar: origin, source, race, descent, beginning, commencement. Asal na li Pajajaran, his descent or origin is from Pajajaran.

Asal, as long as, so that, provided that. Asal ulah di leburken, as long as you do not spoil it. Asal meunang siji bai gé hadé, provided that you get only one, it will do. Asal opat kaki jangkung na, mahi, as long as it is four feet high, it will be enough.

Asana, I think, it strikes me; Asana mohal di béré, it strikes me he will not give it.

Asang, the gills of a fish.

Asar, ar: that period of the day which is towards 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and is the third prayer hour with the Mohammedans.

Asělan, to replace seed or plants, that have failed. To fill in.

Asěm, a tamerind tree-Tamerindus Indica.

Asěm Jawa, the acid of Java; tamerind prepared for use.

Asép, a name of courtesy given to the male children of nobles, or of great men being a contraction of Kasép, handsome.

Asěruk, to walk about and examine, as a garden or a forest.

Asih, love, affection, pity, commiseration.

Asilar: revenue, income, produce, profit, gain. Asin, salt, saltish, salted. Daging asin, salt meat. Chi asin salt water, the water of the sea.

Asmara, the same as Samara, the deity of love which see. Samara C. 710. from Sa for Saha, with- Mâra an enemy; having the passions unsubdued. (17).[17]

Asongkěn, to push forward, to shove along, to push on to eucounter-to set afighting.

Asrah, to surrender, to submit, to give one self up, to ask for mercy; yielded, submitted. Sarahken in Sunda is also to give up, to surrender anything.

Asrakal, the act of standing up in prayer. (ar.)

Asta, a cubit, the measure from the elbow to the tips of fingers. Hasta C 789 the hand, a cubit measured by the hand and arm, from the elbow to the middle finger.

Astaghafarillah ar: an exclamatio nof astonishment or of sudden alarm: may God avert, may God preserve us. God bless me!

Astana, the burial ground of Chiefs or of great men. In Bali Pangastanan is a sort of temple where Siwa is worshipped by the mass of the people. Sthana, C. 774 from Stha to stay-place, spot, situation or Asthana C. 66. an assembly (of the dead as used for a burial place).

Astina, name of the Country of the Pandus, placed by the Javanese in the province of Pakalongan in their own Island-Crawfurd. (Skr. Hastinapura , ancient Delhi. Fr.)

Asuh, to nurse a small child, to fondle an infant in the arms; to hold such a child in the arms and swing it about.

Asur, to push together, particularly firewood or burning logs.

Asur , to bribe , to gain to one's interest by gifts.

Asuran, a bribe, a douceur.

Aswalas, a term of reproach. The words are properly Javanese and Asu- alas, dog of the woods. Suna, C. 748. a dog, derived from Su to hear, to obey, and na affirmative. alas forest. (çvan, Nominat. çvâ; cass. obliqui çun- Skr.; cf. Gr. kyôn, kyn-os; lat. c(v)an-is; Germ. hun-d. Our form here is derived from the Nominative-çvâ, with prefixed a. Fr.)

Atah, unripe, raw, not sufficiently cooked.

Atak-atak, direction, position, as Kapahung, to nyaho di Atak-atak na I lost myself in the forest, and know not in what direction (or where abouts).

Atal, Orpiment, a yellow sulphurate of arsenic, with which the natives, especially at the east end of Java , smear their bodies , and make themselves yellow , on occasions of ceremony, especially when celebrating their marriage ceremonies. Artal is given by Crawfurd who says it is Sanscrit. Atar, ar: the planet mercury.

Atas, considering, with reference to, as to, since.

Atas pelkara itu, with reference to that affair.
Atas di béré, daik bai, since you give it, I am willing to take it.

Atawa, or- Sia masih kénéh daik chicking, atawa daik undur, do you still wish to remain, or do you wish to go away. It is perhaps the same as Tawa, C. 225, more, yet, still , moreover. (Skr. athawa, or; cf. utawa, lat. aut. Jav. atawa, utawa and utawi. Fr. )

Atěr, a variety of bambu, with substantial but not very thick stem; much used for boat-hooks. Bambusa Thouarsii.

Atěul, Itchy, having an itch to do something, ticklish, prurient-

Ateul biwir, itchy in the lips, disposed to blab.
Ateul leungan, disposed to make use of one's hand's to thrash others.
Ateul suku, disposed to wander about.
Sireum ateul, the itchy ant- a red variety of ant.
Sireum ateulan, said of things which are not even and alike, as some good, some bad- some light, some heavy.

Atoh, pleased, delighted, elated, glad.

Atu, an expletive, as Atu ho! well yes- Atu ulah! now d'ont.

Atua, or, either- atua sia, atua batur, either you or your companion; see atawa. (Is the same word; awâ corrupted to ua).

Atua, old- used only with wong person, as wong atua, the old people, parents.

Atua in the Pacific, almost every where, means God, Divinity, and has no doubt its origin in the Tua or Atua of the Archipelago, meaning old, as old age every where commands respect among these people-see Tuwa and kituwa. Wong-atua.

Aub, shade, shelter, used in conjunction with Payung an umbrella, as Aub-payung, literally the shade of the umbrella, but figuratively a duty that devolves on any person, or a right that may appertain to him. Saha nu bogah aub payung, who possesses the natural right?

Audabila men éshétan irajim, the way in which natives pronounce Audzu billahi men Sheitani r’rejimi by the aid of God, against the accursed devil- see Marsdens dictionary Page 205. a form of prayer used by the natives when in trouble, and especially used when a sudden flash of lightning is seen. The words are Arabic. (أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ Fr.)

Aulia, ar: Saints, friends of God. Although an Arabic plural, it is equally used in the Archipelago as a Singular, conformably to the genius of the languages-Crawfurd.

Awab or awap, vapour, exhalation- the breath or animal perspiration visible from cold.

Awak, the body, person, the trunk.

Awak, a pronoun, thou, you, used towards an equal, and is neither so low as Sia nor so high as Andika; little used except in songs and Pantuns. Awal, ar: first, former, beginning, see ahwal.

Awang, the clouds. The etherial space. The heavens.

Awas, seeing clearly, sharpsighted, vigilant, watchful.

Awét, lasting, enduring, which can be used for a long time. Kayu awét, durable wood. Umur awét, a long life.

Awéwé, a woman, a female.

Awi, a bambu, a general name for every variety of Bambusa. The Sunda people distinguish the following varieties-

Awi Apus, resembles Awi tali, and is used much for splitting into withes.
"Atěr, strong and good for boathooks or poles.
"Bitung, large and substantial, good for posts.
"Bongkonol, small like Tamiang, of little use.
"Buluh, large but subject to be eaten by worms.
"Buluh munti, resembles Buluh, and is of little use.
"Bunar, large, good Bambu.
"Changkeǔteǔk, small sized tubes, makes neat bilik.
"Changkoré, a useless variety, cannot stand of itself, but reposes upon other bushes.

Awi-Awi-Gědé, or big bambu, called also Awi Andong; a valuable variety, much used. Bambusa maxima.

"Gěmbong, of little use, thin in wood, joints far apart.
"Gombong, much resembles Awi Gědé.
"Haur, a peculiar variety of Bambu, with thick wood and makes goods posts.
""China, a variety introduced from China, with small tubes, and grown in gardens as ornamental.
""Chuchuk, the thorny bambu, large and bearing numerous thorns or spikes- good for posts.
""Héjo, or Green Haur, very smooth and bright green, good for posts.
""Konéng, Yellow bambu, planted as ornamental.
""Tutul, spotted variety.
"Léah, striped like Awi Gedé, but is smaller.
"Mayan, a large variety, but of little use, as the worms eat it.
"Saréngkol, small, crooked variety, of no use.
"Surat, or the written bambu, from being much striped along the tubes; of universal and great use.
"Tali, of universal use for all kinds of purposes; makes good string, as its name implies. The bambus Tali, Gedé and Surat are the most useful of the whole lot.
"Tamiang, thin, used for making temporary spears.

Awi-Tela, gives the best Iwung, or edible sprouts; otherwise of little use.

"Tereleng, smallish in tubes, but stout and strong like Ater.
"Wulung or Hideung- Black- a useful bambu.

Awis, a kind of long reed or rush, growing in bushes, with seeds terminal to the stem.

Awor, deprived of virginity, deflowered.

Awt-awt, confusedly, in disorder, without any regularity.

Awul, a mysterious and apparently fabulous animal, that is heard only at night, and is reported to be somewhat of the human figure, but with feet turned backwards; it is fancied to be found only in old forests, amongst the mountains. Its name is from the cry which the animal is believed to emit.

Awun-awun, the haziness which in dry weather hangs over the country, and precludes any distant view, as of the mountains.

Awur, to spread or scatter over or out- to strew about. Béas na di awurken ka buruan, he flung the rice about the yard (in front of house). Chai na di awurken ka kebon, he sprinkled the water about the garden.

Aya, is, there is, there are, to exist. Aya siji, there is one. Aya bai datang kakiwari, it still exists to this moment.

Aya, father, a very refined and respectful expression.

Ayak, to sift, to riddle.

Ayakan, a sieve, a riddle, a screen.

Ayakĕn, to cause to be, to produce, to bring forward.

Ayanda, Father- said with much respect. Aya father; endah, good. (Cf. Adenda Fr.)

Ayat, ar: a verse of the Koran.

Ayat, used in the expression Jamany ayat, a Jacket without sleeves or neck, a sort of waistcoat, or bodice.

Ayĕr-ayĕran, , neighing, sending forth a loud shrill voice.

Ayĕr Langgia- the predecessor of Jaya Baya as sovereign of Kědiri in Java. Under these two Sovereigns were prepared the greater part of the Kawi works still extant. Friederich Bat. Trans. vol 23 Page 17. He reigned in the 8th or 9th century after Christ. The name is probably derived from Ayrya C. 64 a term of high respect, of veneration; and applied to persons of high descent. One of the names of Buddha, but particularly applied to the priests of Buddha. The nearest approach which Clough affords for solution of Langgia is Langhanya, C 602, hunger, fasting, abstinence, and then the whole name would mean, „the holy and venerable man who was abstemious” Holy and abstemious”, which were characters eminently coveted by persons professing the Hindu austerities. (There is no proper derivation of this name out of the Skr. Fr.)

Ayěr mawar- Rose-water- Properly Malay.

Ayěuh, laid as corn, fallen down from over- luxuriance of growth.

Ayeŭnah, now, at this present moment.

Ayon, to compare weights, to balance one weight with another.

Ayu, handsome, pretty- in the Kawi of Java a name for the daughter or wife of a Prince. Raden ayu, a title born by native women of royal birth.

Ayuman, to mend by insertion, as a thatched roof by inserting new materials where the old had failed; or by replacing seed or plants, where they had failed in a plantation.

Ayun, to swing backwards and forwards; to rock as a cradle; to dangle a child in the arms. A ceremony performed when an infant is first taken out of the house into the open air.

Ayunan, a swinging cot for an infant.

  1. It is written in Malay اچس Achas, but pronounced as above, the last consonant being (mostly) omitted in Sumatra pronounciation. Cf. for instance Mr. W.A. Henny in „Tijdschrift voor Ned. Indië“ Vol. IV. P. 405. Aanmerkingen Fr.
  2. Bai is Javanese ꦧꦲꦺ, bahê, it might be pronounced as above, but is, I suppose, written in Sundanese as in Javanese Fr.
  3. Rather from Adi-an-da; da or hida being a pronoun of the second and third person, used in addressing high people, at present perhaps only existing in common use at Bali– Cf. tjokor-da = tjokor-hida or tjokor-hi-deva (tjokor means foot); baginda = bhagja-an-hida, and others. Fr.
  4. Adi first, prior; first, pre-eminent. Wilson. Both words are found in the western Polynesian languages Fr.
  5. The last only by mistake. Rât can be a corruption of râshira kingdom, but it is rather the nominative case of râj, king, the meaning being altered. Fr.
  6. Here it must be Adhipati, in contraposition to pati, master, herus, which is on Java a title of lower rank, born by the second, quasi the adjutant of the Regent of a division: Adhipati being not the first pat, but the upper, superior master; on Java also a title. Fr.
  7. If the derivation of Adu be right, which I rather doubt (Wadu being not found in Wilson), biru might be Skr. bhîru, timid, fearful, and adu biru would be to fight as a coward; not withstanding I mistrust the derivation of both words, and suppose them rather to be Polynesian. The same observation is applicable to all the derivations from such words out of Clough, as are no Sanscrit. Fr.
  8. I should divide Loa or loha = loka, (Cf. Patuha, a mountain in the Priangan regencies, which I am inclined to derive from Skr. Pâtuka, the declivity of a mountain. The same alteration of K. into h. is a rule in the Battak language)- and djarâ (being old age, djarat old) thus the old of the world (or of the age) Fr.
  9. The softening of the cha to ja is not necessary for the Polynesian organ, and is a thing rather unheard of. The only softening of a tenuis to a media that takes place in Malay and Javanese is that of ka to ga. Cf. Segala, telaga with the Sakala and talaka Fr.
  10. Saka is considered by the Javanese as founder of their civilisation, of their old religion and especially as having introduced writing and reading. So the term Aji, which they put to his name. I suppose to be nothing else than the word Aji (Page 7.) which the writer and I derive from adhi-i, to read, where from by a small and common alteration becomes aji Fr.
  11. In its formation the word might be compared with jelema in the place of jalma which is the same as janma in Skr. and Kawi, meaning birth, but in Sundanese that which is born, especially mankind. Fr.
  12. Tambalu, does not occur in the Javanese dictionary of Gericke, edited by T. Roorda. Amsterdam 1847; neither exists it in Wilson. 1st edition. Tamba is no Sanscrit; the words given for copper bij the Amara Kosta are: Tâmraka, (in Wilson is also to be found tâmra), çulva, mlechamukha. dvyashta, waristha udumbara. From tamraka is the Javanese-Malay tembaga a corruption, occasioned by the difficult pronounciation of mr. Tamba might be a Ceylonese corruption of tâmra; but it is rather an established fact, that Ceylonese, or Pali words have got no intrance into the Malay and Javanese, but only true Sanscrit ones. The rest of the above derivation will perhaps not be tasted by etymologists, and I restrain from judging about it. Fr.
  13. (13) According to Wilson and the Amara Kosha are Amra and Amrâtaka or Amrâta, reap. the mango and a variety of it, the Spondias mangifera. Amba might be Pali Fr.
  14. (14) Bodhi means in the first place understanding, in the second place the holy fig tree. Wilson. The tree received this name, because the Buddha received his understanding, or revelation, sitting in meditation under such a tree. Fr.
  15. (15) Asana and Angsana are no doubt the same word; out of some hundred, where the Javanese have put a nasal sound into a Sanscrit word. it suffice to name the word angkasa in place of Skr. ākāça. Asana with first long ā now as wel as Asana and Açana, have besides some other meanings also that of a tree, Terminalia alata tomentosa, which seems to indicate the same as our Pterocarpus Indica. Clough speaks according to Ceylonese information. Asana „sitting in the position of a devotee” has certainly given the origin of the tree being also called, he sharing the holiness of some kinds of ficus, which were selected for the same purpose. Fr.
  16. Argha is not only a mode of worship; an oblation (of eight ingredients), Wilson: but also the vessel where such oblations are placed in. It appears nearly always in conjunction with the Lingga and Jonî, (the latter forming even part of the Argha) and leads us with some certainty, principally in olden times, to distinguish the worship of Siva, in his mean (originally Dekhanic) from, The mountain called „town of the Argha“, is not far from the city called Probolingo „the illustrious linga“ (Prabhâ—lingga.) Cf. Moore Hindu Pantheon, p. 385 sqq. and plates 83. 84. 85. and principally 86. Besides the Sandhya or daily prayers of the Brahmins by Mrs. Belnos Plate 13.
  17. (17) Smara Skr. derived from smri, memorem esse (memor = me- smor); cf for the application of the word (love, the God of love), the Latin cura. The a is prefixed, as in many words, to facilitate the pronunciation Fr.
Contents: Preface A B C D E G H I J K L M N O P R S T U W Y Errata


Ba-āl, sore, painful the skin worn or rubbed off to the quick.

Bab, ar: a chapter, a division of a book. The stamp- like seal smeared with lamp- black, and put at the head of a great man's letter.

Baba, a name given to a male Chinese child born in Java, and generally called Si Baba. When applied to a grown up male Chinese born on Java, it is accented at the end and called Babah. This word Baba or Babah prefixed to a Chinaman's name shows that he was born on Java or in the Archipelago. Bāppā or Bālappā, C. 843, from Bala, younger; Appā father, a paternal uncle, father's younger brother, and is thus a term of courtesy.

Babachakan, to guttle, to eat greedily.

Babad, to cut down jungle, brush wood or grass in preparing land for cultivation; to clear away with an instrument called an Arit.

Babad, the paunch, the receptacle for food in the belly of ruminant animals. Babad may be a duplication of the first syllable of Bada C, 455, the belly, the abdomen.

Babad, chronicle, native history.

Babadéan, to guess, to solve a riddle; to play at riddles.

Babadotan, name of a stinking grass called also Jukut bau ageratum conyzoides; very troublesome in cultivated land, especially in the humahs. Derived from Badot a rancid he-goat.

Babai, to fix a token or mark of possession on a tree, either to secure the neighbouring land for cultivation, or to show that the fruit on such trees is private property. The mark so fixed, which is generally long grass tied round the stem.

Babak, the bark of a tree, particularly when peeled off for any use.

Babak, the state of a horse when its back is sore and raw from the saddle- sore- backed, said of a horse.

Babak, a turn, a short spell of work. Hayang ngajaran sa babak. I will take a turn for trial. Kudu ku kula ayeunah sa babak let me now have it for a trial.

Babakalan, said of young people are courting, but not as yet engaged in marriage: derived from Bakal. which see.

Babakan, a sub-village; a village whose inhabitants have originally come off as a colony from some other village, as it were peeled off, as we might say „swarmed” when speaking of bees.

Babak-haur, a kind of centipede.

Babalanja- to do marketing, to make purchases of household commodities.

Babang, to run away, to escape, to go off without knowledge or notice.

Babantal, the ground part of a plough which carries the share. The sleeper or rest for any part of machinery, from Bantal a cushion.

Babar, cast down, destroyed, put to rout, driven away.

Babari, easy, not difficult.

Babasaran, the mulbery-tree- Morus Indica.

Babat, history, story, legend, chronicle, see Babad.

Babatok, the skull, the cranium.

Babawangan, sieves, a reedy grass growing in wet poor land. The word means resembling Bawang or onions.

Babétkěn, to fling with violence or rage, to dash.

Babi, a pig, a hog, a swine, a term of reproach for a nasty dirty fellow. Sus- Lauk babi, pig's flesh, pork.

Babi lěuwěung, the wild pig, the pig of the forests. Sus Verrucosus.

Babu, properly malay- a nurse, a woman to take care of children, in the employ of Europeans. Among the natives such a woman would be called Pangasuh.

Babuk, to beat violently with a stick, to give a thwack.

Bachack, wet and muddy. Said of ground soaked with rain.

Bachang, a springe, a cord with a noose fastened to a bent stick, in order to catch wild animals.

Bachot; an expression of surprise; oh is that it! aye indeed! who would have thought it!

Bada, a period of prayer or festival. Bada isa, the period of latest evening prayers after dark. Surud Bada, after the festival.

Badag, coarse, of large texture or grain; rough; uncomely.

Badak, the Rhinoceros. Rhinoceros Sumatrensis. Badak may be derived from Bada, C455, the belly, the abdomen, and Ek C, 85. One- This Ek in Singhalese coalesces with the word to which it relates at the end, and when such word terminates in a vowel like Bada, the é of ék is dropped, an only the k suffixed, thus Bada = Badak, which though not a current Singhalese word for a Rhinoceros, means „One Belly”, and would apply very well to an animal of which the belly forms so conspicuous a part. The Sunda people have also Ladog and Gandol for Rhinoceros. Nyampal badak, the evening star, literally the feeding time of the Rhinoceros. Cheuli badak the cactus or opuntia plant, literally Rhinoceros ears.[1]

Badan, the body- The trunk of any animal- Crawfurd and Marsden call this word Arabic. It would easily come from Bada C 455 the belly, the abdomen, with Polynesian an suffixed = Badan, which would indicate „what had a belly”. The Sundas more generally use Awak for the body, yet still say Badan Semporna a faultless body, safe and sound, and some other similar expressions. In Pantuns Badan Si Nyai is generally the chief female personage of the story, (بدن badan is undoubtedly introduced from the Arabic; the original Polynesian word is awak, which occurs also in Javenese, Balinese and Malay. Fr.).

Badar, the young offish, small fry. The term is also fondly and playfully applied to children. Crawfurd gives Adar, aged, advanced in years. Our word would form from this with Be = Badar, being of some age, not old but still advanced from primative nascence.

Bade, to guess, to divine; to offer to be, to have a pre-appearance of- chik badé, try and guess. Badé na gedé, he offers to become great, he looks as if he would grow large.

Badega, a servant, an attendant, mostly a young lad.

Badi, ulterior meaning, what any line of conduct may lead to; the result. Budak tonyaho di badi a child who does not know what may be the result, a child who is easily taken in.

Badi-badi, a short dagger, much worn in the girdle or belt.

Badis, assuredly, oh that's the way! a term of surprise.

Baditu, still further on, beyond some object indicated.

Badiyadari, a celestial nymph. This word is used for the Huri of the Mohammedans. Widyadhara, C. 648, derived from Widya a magical pill, Dhara who holds- a Demigod of a particular order supposed to be attainable by magical rites and incantations. The Sunda Badiyadari is evidently the feminine of the above words of Clough, which with final a and thus in a masculine shape is never heard in the Sunda language, whereas the female shape with final i is very common.[2]

Badiyo, on this side, nearer the speaker than some other object indicated.

Badodon, a small temporary Saäpan, set to catch fish when Tuba has been used, see Bedodon.

Badog, to steal, to purloin- a coarse expression.

Badong, a variety of fish trap set in rapids, resembles a large cylinder made of bambu, with one end tapering to a point.

Badong, a country so called on Bali. It projects into the Southern ocean like a fish trap of this name, and a very rapid current runs through the adjacent straits. So that the circumstances favor the interpretation which might be given to it from our Sunda Badong.

Badori, Calotropis gigantea, a shrub which produces a pod, containing a fibre like cotton. It is sometimes called apu-apuan which see. It is called in Malay Biduri see Marsden Page 59.

Badot, a rancid, stinking he-goat.

Badui, a small tribe of heathens living among the mountains of South Bantam, who have hitherto resisted the adoption of Mohammedanism. Bedawi, arabic-rustic; a clown, a Beduin or inhabitant of the Arabian desert. The Bedui of Bantam do not give themselves this name, but it is applied to them by their Mahomedan neighbours. The Badui call themselves after villages, and have no general name to designate their race. (Arabic بدوي bedewî or baduî campestris. Meninski).

Bagal, the root end of any member where it joins upon the body, that part of a plant where it comes out of the ground. Bagal tepus the stump end of a těpus plant. Bagal buntut sapi the root end of a cow's tail.

Bagalén, name of a Residency in the middle of Java, and adjoining the South Coast.

Bhaga, C 485, fame, glory, knowledge; the absence of passion, the tranquillity of the religious man who has divested himself of all worldly excitability; omnipotence or supreme power; virtue, moral merit, final emancipation. Ali, C. 65. a race or family.

Bhaga-ali, the race of Devotees.
Bhaga-ali-an = Bhagalén, the abode of the race of Devotees. These districts were formerly probably the abode of holy refugees from India. They had in this position the Prawn mountains immediatly to the north of them, and the grand temples of Prambanan. Boro Budur and so many others in the districts adjoining them on the East. See Bagawanta and Serayu. (In the Mahratta country is a district Baglana. Cf. Lassen Ind. Alt. I. p. 148. N. 2).

Bagawan or Bhagawan, a title given to all spiritual persons on Bali. Friederich Bat. Trans, vol 23 p. 8. The word is also used in Ceylon, and in Clough 2 vol. page 486 is Bhagawantan, one of the names or generic terms of a Buddha.

Bagawanta, called according to the peculiarity of Javanese pronunciation Bogowonto. It is the river which runs between the residency of Bagalen and Jogjakarta.

Bhaga see voce Bagalen.
Wanta, C. 621 subjugated, possessive of.
The river subjugated to, or possessive of Bhaga. This river is still in so far held sacred, that no prince of Java blood may or dare cross it, and its presence often caused to Dipo Negoro and those of the blood royal much trouble in the Java war of 1825/30.[3] Bagědur, the soft centre of a plantain tree near the root, sometimes eaten.

Bagěr, upright, good, sincere; serviceable- a term of wonder. Jélema bager, an upright good man, a man in his right senses- Kayu na bager kénéh, the wood is still serviceable, still sound and good. Lain bager, how wonderful- how strange: literally, otherwise than upright or sincere. Nu bager, you d'ont mean it, can it be really so.

Bagi, to divide, to share, to allot, to portion out. Kudu di bagi you must divide it.

Bāgaya, C. 467, a part, a portion, a half. Bāga, C. 467 and Bhaga, C. 490 part, portion, share. (Skr. bhāgya, to be portioned or divided).

Bagia, the fated luck of any individual, either for good or for evil. Fortunate, happy, lucky. Bhaga, C. 485, fortune, prosperity, happiness. Bhagaya, the final ya is an adjective constructive form. Bhagya, G. 490, destiny, fortune, luck. Bāgya. C. 467. good luck. (The same as the preceding, which means also in Skr. destiny, fortune.)

Bagian, portion, share, division. Bagian kula ma saheutik my share is only a little, (bhâgja-an).

Baginda, a designation, an appellative for a person of royal birth, either male or female. His Majesty, His Highness. Probably derived from Bagei in Malay, as, like, resembling, and Endah, good, excellent- Bagei- Endah = Baginda. Ali the son in law of Mohammad, and fourth Caliph is always called Bagind’ Ali, His Highness Ali. (see Note 3).

Bagong, swine, a wild pig.

Bagus, handsome, pretty, of good quality, welldone.

Bagus, a title given to illegitimate sons of native princes, when they are generally called „To Bagus“, which is probably a contraction of Ratu bagus. As To Bagus Buang was a celebrated rebel in the Bantam territories in the middle of the last century, and was an illegitimate son of one of the Sultans of Bantam, (cf. agus).

Bahan, a plank, a board.

Bahas, drooping and dead.

Bahé, to pour out, to spill, spilled. The etymon of this word is Bah which alone does not occur in Sunda, though it is probably heard in Sawah, Wahangan. In malay it means a flood, inundation. Wāhinawā, C 641, to pour, to shed. Wahinawā, C 633- to rain.

Bahěula, formerly, originally; original, ancient.

Bahěuman, to gobble up, to swallow, often in an uncooked state.

Bahu, see Bauh, a measure of land. Baha C 633 from Baha to bear, the shoulder of an ox, any vehicle or means of conveyance; bearing, conveying. Bāha C. 640 a carriage, a conveyance; a carrier, a porter- the arm (21).[4] Bai, only, just, simply- a favourite and familiar interjection. Siji bai, only one: Kadiyo bai, just come here. Hadé bai, very good. (See Note 2).

Baiawak, a kind of guana- an animal of the lizard tribe- In malay it is Béwak. (At Batavia benjawak and menjawak).

Bainat, evident, apparent to every one, a clear result.

Baiombong, a house centipede, found among old thatch, a couple of inches long, and with venomous sting.

Bait-ullah, ar: the house of God- the Kabah or sacred Temple at Mecca.

Bajag, Pirates, sea-rovers.

Bajirah, as Karang bajirah, a variety of limestone which is blue and very hard.

Bajirah, a variety of white ant which is luckily scarcer, but is more destructive than the common Rinyu. It is found more under cover, or in buildings. It is long in the body, and milk white with small red jaws. It will sometimes even creep up between the plaster and brick work of a wall to commit its depredations. It never builds up houses or passages of earth like the common Rinyu or white ant. It is a variety of Termes. Wajra C 616 a thunderbolt in general, or the thunderbolt of Indra-crystal, glass- Hard, impenetrable, adamantine. Perhaps both the limestone and ant have their origin or their name in this word. The former from its hardness, and the latter from eating their way through every thing.

Bajogol, a liane which is very serviceable in tying up the wood of dams in rivers, as it endures a long time. The root is of a yellowish colour and stinks.

Baka, mangroves, a particular kind of tree growing in Saltwater.

Bakakas, tools, implements, utensils. Furniture, moveables. Chattels. (Malay: pakakas).

Bakal, the raw material; the rough stuff to be worked up. To promise or have the appearance of. Bakal luhur, it will become high. Bakal goréng éta, that will turn out- badly. (As a verb it is an auxiliary indicating the future time Fr ).

Bakatul, the fine bran obtained in pounding rice clean. It is often baked in leaves and eaten, and as such is called Pais bakatul.

Bako, Tobacco- Nicotiana Narcotica, called also Tambako. To bogah bako, I have got no tobacco. The name betrays its introduction by Europeans, probably by the early Portuguese.

Bakti, good and meritorious actions in obedience to the word of God. Ngabakti, to do good actions, to do what a man's faith or religion requires. Bhakti, C. 485, faith, fidelity, devotion, worship, adoration. (Skr. the same).

Baku, a turn, a rotation, an assigned day or period for the performance of any work or duty.

Bakul, a large basket, such as used in Rice mills.

Bakung, a kind of lily with white flowers. Crinum asiaticum. Bakutrak, the fourth consecutive year of planting the same humah field.

Bala, people, subjects, attendants, privates in an army. Ratu to bogah bala, a Prince without followers or subjects. Ari daik prang kudu mawa bala loba, if you want to make war, you ought to bring many followers. Bala, C. 462, an army, forces, a man, a male. (Skr. bala, strength, power; an army, forces. bâla, an infant, a child; infantine; unwise, uninstructed. Wilson).

Bala, overgrown with brush wood and grass, obstructed with vegetation. Said of a plantation which is not properly weeded.

Balabar, to get spread abroad by report or tradition.

Balachang, a superior variety of Délan or Trasi. It is of a yellowish colour and made of the choice of materials from which Délan is made. Balachang admits of the interpretation Bala, C. 462, strength, power; young. The young part of what is vile. The stuff stinks. Chan, C 191. vile, base.

Baladah, to break ground, to begin a piece of work in the soil; to clear the ground for any work.

Baladahan, to make a commencement- to begin work in the ground.

Baladéwa, C 462, from Bala strength, and Déwa, divine; a deity so called, according to Hindu mythology; he was the elder brother of Krishna, and the third of the incarnations termed Rama.

Balai, an ancient and sacred spot, for making offerings and prayers. They are frequently found on mountain tops throughout the country, and are often still held in some degree of awe by the natives. Baléyan, C. 469 fit or proper for sacrifice. This is very likely the etymon of our Sunda word Balai, and it has penetrated into the Pacific, where the Malai is well known, or was so when the islands were first discoverd by Europeans, as a place of religious observances. In mariners Tonga Islands London 1818- in the vocabulary occurs "Malai, a piece of ground, generally, before a large house, or chief's grave, where public ceremonies are principally held”.

Bālā, C. 469 is pure, clean, free from blemish, or defilement; fit to be offered- and Bālā-ya = Balai would be the object fit to be offered, or the offering. It is strange that this Sanscrit word, or its modification should have found its way into the distant Pacific islands (22).[5]

Balambangan, the ancient name of the district now called Banyuwangi, at the East end of Java. The word is probably derived from Balang, to throw away, as it was used as a place of banishment by the ancient native princes of Java, and even now the Dutch government have a penal settlement there for convicts, who are employed rearing Cochineal.

Balanak, a variety of sea fish, very good in flavour, but very full of fine bones. Mugil Sundanensis. A mullet.

Balandongan, a place to keep or pile timber in- an open shed to store timber in.

Balang, to throw, to cast, to fling.

Balangan, to throw at, to aim at with any missile.

Balangkěn, to throw or cast any object, as a stone or stick.

Balangsiar, to stroll or go about, raising the wind, or seeking the means of subsistance, or the necessaries of life.

Balanja, hire, cost, expense, disbursements, money for current expenses, pocket-money, wages, maintenance.

Balas, an eruption, or breaking out of pustules on the skin.

Balasawajar, an expression difficult to translate, answering to-D`ont tell me; do you think I am such a fool as to believe you.

Balawiri, to wander or go backwards and forwards to the same place.

Balé, a public building in every village, that serves for a mosque or place of worship, and it is here also that all strangers unknown to the inhabitants are lodged and fed. The Balé is probably of very ancient use, as it is still known as a petty Hindu temple on Bali. Bat. Trans. vol 22 Page 33/34. (It is the same as Balai; which see).

Balédog, to throw at, to strike at, to thwack, to thump.

Balég, ar: adult, marriageable, grown up to puberty- longing after the opposite sex.

Balén, turn, time. Sa balén, once, one time. Tilu balén, three times.

Balěs, to return, to retaliate, to have revenge; to fly back as a spring or bent stick; such spring itself. Bales surat to answer a letter. Panghadéan kula di bales ku goréng, my goodness is requited with evil. Ari sia sok jahil, mohal to di balĕs, if you are malicious, you are sure to be retaliated upon. Bales na bejad, the spring is spoiled.

Bali, the island next to Java on the East, where the Hindu religion found refuge, and continued to be observed after the fall of majaphahit on Java, and the consequent introduction of Mohammedanism. A sort of Hinduism still exists on Bali. Mr. Friederich considers that the word Bali is of the same origin as Bantam, which see- and fancies that Bali was a sort of holy land of the Panditas, devoted to religious purposes and offerings, which in short the word implies. Bāléyan, C. 469 fit or proper for sacrifice. The word in its origin is no doubt the same as the Sunda word Balai-which see.

Bali, the after-birth, the placenta.

Balibat, a word heard in the names of some ancient divinities. The Badui have a divinity called Dalam Balibat Jaya. Bali- see voce. Bata, C. 455 descent, going down, descent from a height. The west- Bali-bata may be thus ,,brought down by sacrifices, by of„ferings“ — and the whole set of words will be „The Dalam who is illustrious brought „down by offerings”. (23).[6].

Balik, to return, to go back. Geus balik, he has gone or come back.

Balik, the reverse, the other side, the back of any thing. Di balik lawang behind the door- Di balik na, on the other side of it.

Balikan, to return to the attack; to go over again, as work.

Balikkĕn, to send back, to drive back, to return, to put back.

Balimbing, an acid fruit, Averrhoa Carambola.

Balimbing bĕusi, another variety of averrhoa.

Baliyung, the native axe or hatchet; it has no shafthole, but the top is spindle shaped, allowing it to be set in its socket, at any angle. This is the native axe or hatchet, which is probably made after the model of stone axes, before iron was known. The shaft has a bit of the wood at right angles, at one end, for which purpose a piece of wood with its root has been selected. Round this projecting head- piece is fixed a bit of buffaloe hide, sewed together with thongs, which are also cut out of hide; and between the hide- cap and the wood, the head of the axe, which is a long spike of iron, is driven in. This spike turns round with a good knock, sideways and so the blade can be easily set at any angle to the shaft, and form, as may be desired, an axe or even a cooper's adze; and when set at any intermediate point, is found very useful for dubbing down wood.

Balla, European- a ball, the dance of Europeans. Main bala to dance.

Balok, a beam, a piece of timber. A rude representative of coin formerly used by the Dutch, being the end of a rod of Japan copper cut off in equal lengths and stamped. Balk, Dutch- a Beam.

Balong, to keep a sawah constantly under water, even at times when no crop is growing, which is thought to improve the land.

Baluk, small boats used on the rivers in the residency of Bantam, for the purpose of conveying merchandise.

Balumbang, a pool of water; the muddy pool which is always seen under the steps into a native house, caused by the washing of the feet.

Balung, a bone.

Baluntas, a shrubby herb growing near the sea shore, Pluchea indica.

Bamban, also pronounced sometimes Bangban. A Scitameneous plant, Maranta Tonchat or Maranta Indica, from which Arrow-root is made.

Bambung, a large Coleopterous beetle often found about cocoanut trees.

Ban, a band, a belt with a clasp worn round the body- Ban, C. 458 tying, fastening, binding.

Banaspati, the genius or genii who preside over forests and their trees. Wanaspati, from Wana, forest; Pati, lord, C. 621- the Forest lord. (Known also on Bali as a devil.)

Banchang, drawn of work, or usual occupations, unhinged, attention diverted.

Banchét, a small and active variety of frog, common in Sawahs.

Banda, property, capital, means, riches; the prime cost. Bhanda, C. 486. Capital, stock of money to trade with. Probably means literally „what is tied together”- from Bandinawa, to tie. (Bandha, Skr. a band, binding, tying; a pledge, a deposit; the body Wilson).

Banda, The island of Banda in the Moluccos.

Bandar, a chief town, or trading place, a factory, an Emporium. Bhandagaraya, C. 491, from Bhanda, a vessel, a cup &c. Capital, stock. Agara, a house, a storeroom, a place where household goods; and utensils are kept. A treasury. Probably corrupted into our short Bandar.

Bandaran, a custom house, a place at the mouth of a river where toll is taken.

Bandé Agung, the reception hall of a great man.

Banděng, a sea-fish, much kept in ponds near the shore.

Banděng, name of an Arěui or liane in forests- see Katalimběng.

Bandera, a flag, a banner. Portuguese. Marsden P. 50.

Bandil, a kind of pronged spear used by the police to take violent subjects; it is shaped like the letter Y, and the prongs being set with inverted rattan thorns, tear the flesh if escape be attempted.

Banding, to place next some other object; to compare by juxta position.

Bandrék, a warm drink, made of ginger, pepper &c.

Bandring, a sling to throw stones.

Bandung, two together, double, as two hens laying in one nest. The Etymon of this word may be Bandhu C. 459, from Bandha to bind, a kinsman, a relation, but especially of the distant or cognate kind. The Polynesian final ng has been suffixed. A friend, a brother.

Bandung, name of one of the divisions of the Prianger Regencies.

Baněn, a hog, a swine; a term of reproach.

Bang, properly Javanese, of a red colour; Kain bang, a red batik cloth.

Banga, a character in ancient Javanese history, connected with the foundation of Majapahit and Pajajaran, see Raffles vol 2 P. 100/104. He is usually called Ariya Banga. On quarrelling with his brother Chiung Wanara, the empire of Java was divided; Ariya Bang'a with his brother Raden Tanduran founding Majapahit, leaving Chiung Wanara in possession of Pajajaran or the west end of Java. Banga C. 486. breaking. splitting, a fissure, a division, a chasm; defeat, discomfiture. This name probably attached to him from the splitting of the royal authority in Java.

Bang'ang'ah, gasping and blowing for breath, as on ascending a hill. The etymon of this word is ang which appears to imply apart, separated, but is not used separately; it occurs in Anggang, and Bung'ang'ang- which see.

Bang'at, with force, with violence, excessively, beyond moderation in an extreme degree-severe- Bang'at teuyn di gebugan, you strike him too severely. Maréntah jélema ulah sok bang'at teuyn, in ordering people d'ont be too severe.

Bangbaluhan, a log of wood tied to the neck of a buffaloe or other animal, to prevent its fighting or goring the others.

Bangban, see Bamban, name of a plant- Maranta Tonchat.

Bangbang, an expression used with reference to the Eastern points of the Compass. The word is probably a derivative from the Javanese word abang red, and being duplicated will indicate the ruddiness of the East or of the rising sun.

Bangbang Siang, the break of day, dawn, the East. Siang is Malay for early or day light, and is not otherwise heard in Sunda than in this expression.

Bangbang wétan, the East, sun- rise.

Bangbara, a black bulky kind of humble bee or Bombus, with sharp jaws which bores holes and nestles in timber. These insects are especially troublesome in buildings made of common jungle wood, most of which they will attack, if the wood has been cut when young. The insect is familiarly called „the Carpenter”, and in Malay is Kumbang.[7]

Bangbét, one of the chief divinities of the Badui. The word occurs in the sense of a divinity in several jampés.

Bangka, dead, said particularly of cattle that have died in the wilderness without the knowledge of owners, and thus not fit for food.

Bangka, the island of Banca, celebrated for its tin. (wangka, Skr. the bend, or elbow of a river, the winding course of a stream. Might the island have been called after the currents of the sea about? Fr.).

Bangka, heard in the expression Tuwa bangka, an old obstinate or malicious person. Bangka is probably a contraction of Bangkawara.

Bangkawara, malicious, bad, wicked, perverse, naughty, acting contrary to orders. Bhanga, C. 480. fear, dishonesty, fraud, circumvention, cheating. Wara, C. 638. opposition: thus fraudulent opposition. (Might be derived from wangka, and wara best, chief, principal; meaning a person whose chief quality is bending and winding himself? Fr).

Bangkayut, the straw of the ear part of paddy, after the grain has been removed.

Bangkol, a hook, a crook.

Bangkong, a toad. Batu bangkong, a trachyte stone or rock.

Bangkong, as Ki Bangkong, a large forest tree with hard, heavy wood.

Bangku, Portuguese Banco- a bench, a form, a sofa.

Bangkulu, Bencoolen in Sumatra. Bangka-hulu, old-Bangka Fr.).

Bangkwang, a white round root, something like a garden turnip, generally eaten raw. Pachyrrhizus angulatus.

Bang'o, a bird of the stork kind, with black body and white breast. Sometimes called by the Dutch the Domine, the Parson, in allusion to his wearing a small white band at his neck, and being otherwise dressed in black. Ciconia capillata. Called also Bango Sésér.

Bang'o butak, the bald Bang'o, from having no feathers on its head. It is larger than the simple Bango. The adjutant bird. Ciconia.

Bang'or, obstinate, self-willed, naughty. Hardy, as a plant or animal.

Bangsa, race, family, tribe. Nobility, of high or noble descent. Wansa, C. 614. race, lineage, family.

Bangsa-an, having noble descent, being of good family. Made in Malay into Bangsawan. (The Malay bangsawan in is rather the Nominative case of bangsawat, possessing a lineage Fr.)

Bangsal, Paddy still in the husk but beaten out from straw.

Bangsal, a marine store house, a Banksaul- we do not hear this word in the interior, nor is it now a days in use along the coasts of Java, but exists wherever the native governments are still in force as in Ball It is most likely derived from Bandha, C. 459, a pledge, a deposit, a tie, a fetter, a binding. Sala, C. 719, a house or hall. Bandha-sala would thus be a hall of deposit, and thus of safety for foreign traders. When foreign traders landed their goods in such a building, it was a kind of pledge for their good conduct, and that they would and could pay for any produce, which they might engage.

Bang'si, a clarionette, blown from the end.

Bang'un, appearance, shape, make, form. Bang'un na bagus, its shape is beautiful.

Bang'unan, a set, an assortmant. Goōng tilu bang'unan, three sets of Gongs, with other accompanying musical instruments.

Bang'us, the muzzle, the mouth of an animal.

Bantahan, to resist, to oppose, to rebel, to act contrary to orders in Malay Bantah-Marsden 49 to wrangle, dispute, contest, squabble, quarrel in words: and Perbantahan. M. 217. disputes, contention. Some people wish to trace the origin of Bantan on Java to this word Bantahan, contracted into Bantan, as indicating a rebellious, disobedient people, which character they generally possess.

Bantal, a sleeper for any thing to rest on. The lower part of a Chinese plough; the part to which the iron shoe is fixed.

Bantan, the present residency of Bantam, at the west end of Java. The Javanese and Dutch Dictionary of T. Roorda published at Amsterdam in 1847 gives this word Bantan, as implying-instrument, means; an offering. In Balinese Banten is an offering; and Bantenan are collective offerings. Mr. Friederich considers Bantĕn, to be a Krama or refined form for Bali, which by Clough's dictionary, Page 463 implies, Propitiatory offerings, religious gifts or sacrifice- which meaning Mr. F. is of opinion would apply to the island of Bali, since the same meaning attaches to the word Bali in Sanscrit. Mr. F. fancies that Bali was a sort of holy land of the Panditas, devoted to religious purposes and offerings, for which same purpose Bantĕn had originally been employed, but as such was destroyed by Hassan Udin, on the introduction of Mohammedanism. Other words in Javanese make a transfiguration as strange as Bali = Bantĕn, as for instance Kari = Kantun. T. Roorda, Page 172, to remain over; a remainder. Kirim = Kintun. T. Roorda Page 180. to send; any thing sent.

Bantar, a fall in the course of a river where the water runs over a smooth bottom, and even surface.

Bantat, an hermaphrodite.

Banténg, the wild cattle, the wild bull. Found amongst the mountains, or in lonely forests in the Sunda districts. The bulls are handsome animals, sleek and black with noble horns; the cows are inferior animals and fawn- coloured.

Banting, to knock, to dash, to fling with violence one thing against another; to got a jolt, to shake, to joggle.

Bantu, to assist, to aid, to help.

Bantut, stunted, of small growth.

Banu, the sun: occurs in ancient lore as Banu raksa. Banu C. 468. the Sun. Bhanu, C. 491 from Bhā to shine, the sun, light, a ray of light, a master, a sovereign, a Prince. Banu- raksa, protected by the sun. Sun-protected.

Banyak Wĕdi, the name of a character in the ancient history of Java. Raffles vol 2. Page 98. It means in Javanese Banyak, a goose- Wedi afraid, frightened. As an infant he was thrown away into the Krawang river in order to get rid of him, but being saved by a fisherman, was restored when grown up, and became Sovereign of Pajajaran, under the title of Chiung Wanara. The name of the „Frightened Goose” has no doubt reference to his having been cast a drift on the river.

Banyat, to come out or up from the water, or from a river- to emerge.

Banyuan, from Banyu in Javanese, water. To wash, to cleanse with water.

Banyumas, a residency on the South coast of Java to the Eastward of the Priangan Regencies;— Golden water”.

Banyuwangi, an assistent Residency at the extreme East end of Java; the words mean in Javanese „Scented water” — Here was formerly the old state of Balambangan.

Bapa, Father- Papa- Bapa. C. 459 a father.

Bapang, a metal plate worn on the breast of police- men, or other petty officials as a mark of authority.

Bapang, a variety of Mangga so called.

Bar, an idiomatic expression indicating- „pouring out” — is usually associated with Bur which see, and which means Bar in a greater degree. Bar when associated with Ber means to keep flying, flying about.

Bar-bĕr, said of birds or bats which keep flitting or flying around any place; flying backwards and forwards.

Bar-bur, to keep pouring out.

Bara, glowing cinders, embers, live coals.

Barabat, proceeding in a straight line, forthwith, right on.

Barahala, some mystical being, anidol- Bāra- C. 468, charge, custody- Bara. C. 461, important, of consequence. Hala C. 788 venom, poison of serpents. Halāhala, a sort of poison, a kind of snake. Barahala will thus be „Venom-loaded” and will denote some malignant being. (Malay برهال; Inscriptions of Malang bharâla, seems to be the same as bhatâra, in Tagaly bhatála; with the cerebral t, which is nearly related to r Fr.).

Barahma, usually called Batara Barahma, apparently the God Brama which see- occurs in Jampés and invocations.

Barai, to pay, to make a payment.

Baralak, the dead leaf branch of a Cocoa nut tree, which has withered and dried up.

Baralak, as kuda baralak, said of a horse which has a tail which sticks out stiff and rigid. Cock-tailed.

Baranang, glittering, shining, as lamps or lights in the night, as burnished gold or silver.

Baranda, Port: Varanda. A Varandah, the open gallery of a European's house.

Barandi, European. Brandy.

Barang, goods, effects, particularly apparel, househould goods or things for Sale.

Barang, an idiomatic expression, as Barang Sapuluh, about ten; To barang nanya, I did not chance to enquire.

Barangasan, violent in conduct, furious, easily enraged, petulant in speech.

Barangbang, the leaf frond of the Bettle nut and Cocoa nut palm, when dried up and turned red it falls from the tree devidently dirived from Abang, red in Javanese, as such fronds are then dried up red. In Javanese Barangbang means red- onions.

Baranghala, obstructions, things is our way, difficulties.

Barani, the loadstone, called generally Batu Barani, perhaps derived from Bhrāntiya, C. 502, whirling, going round, revolving (as a compass does). In the back part of Jasinga towards the Kĕndang mountains, there are some rivulets called Chi-Barani. This name may be a modification of Bawani, the consort of Siva or his attribute of Courage, or be a modification of the plural of wani = warana or wararani, daring, courageous.

Barat, the west-Barat is a word very generally used for West, not only in Sunda, but in Malay and Javanese. The Sunda people have also a still more commonly used word, viz kulon of the same import. It strikes me that Barat may have a Sanscrit origin from Bahinawa, C. 466 to go down, to set as the Sun- or more probably the first syllable of this word Ba, which is also heard in Badiya C. 468 from Ba and diya water, the ebb or reflux of the tide, low-water. Rata, C. 581, a country, a district and by contraction Barat, the Country of the setting sun.

Baraya, Relations, of the same descent or blood, kindred. Probably the same as Bharaya. C. 492, charge, custody, derived from Bhara, which in its turns is from Bhrae to nourish.

Barĕlih, uneven, rough, shaggy.

Barĕng, at the same time, together, simultaneously.

Barĕngan, to work in concert, to do at the same time.

Baréra, the piece of wood used to strike the threads together in weaving.

Baréto, formerly, some time ago. Poi baréto, the day before yesterday.

Barĕubĕui, name of a large forest tree. Gynotroches axillaris.

Barĕuh, swollen, inflated, a tumefaction in the flesh.

Bari, stale, old from keeping, as provisions; musty, mouldy.

Bari, Indeed, even though. Bari saha nu daik, Indeed who would like it.

Barimbit, a general fear caused to the inhabitants of any part of the Country, by the presence and ravages of tigers. A general panic.

Barinjil, uneaven, rough.

Baris, a line, a stroke, a row, a range. Military array, to drill- of the rank or quality of. Baris ménak, of noble birth, of the quality of a nobleman. Baris kuring, of the common people.

Baron, proyo Nusa Baron, an island off the South coast of Java, near its last end, off the districts of Lamajang. Can this be an island risen by volcanic force from the waves within the ken of man, and hence called Baru-an = Baron, by Malay traders along the South coast in ancient times, as Baru is not Javanese or did the traders from India find Marabolans upon it and then gave it the name of Bara C. 461, the three noted Myrobolans, viz. Terminalia Chebula, emblic, and belerica?

Baru or Wang baru, Ten Copper doits or two stivers. Baru is a Malay word and means New. The Sundas use also Tahun Baru, the new year, of Europeans or Chinese.

Baruang, Poison. The bear of Sumatra and Borneo.

Baruang alas, literally interpreted, Forest poison, is a large caterpillar-looking insect, which the natives say poisons water when immersed in it. It is the Cladomorphus Phvllinus of zoology.

Barujul, the native plough for dry lands, composed of a crooked piece shod with iron, and a beam to drag it by.

Barumbung, Paddy straw next the ear- each individual stalk.

Baruna. Varuna, the deity of the Hindu mythology who presides over the ocean, and over rain. Waruna C. 625 the deity of the waters and regent of the west. Water or the ocean.

Barus, the name of a place on the West coast of Sumatra wheré the best camphor is produced, hence called Kapur Barus = Barus lime.

Basa, speech, language; behaviour, manners. Basa Sunda, the Sunda language. Basa jero, refined language, the language used about courts or towards great men, and corresponds with the Basa Dalam of the Malays. see Jĕro. To bogah basa, he has no manners; literally he does not know how to select his words. Basa, C. 465 and Bhasa, C. 493, word, speech, dictum.

Basa, points to some particular act or time. Eukeur basa orang kagunung, at the period when we went to the mountains. It is probably only the former word in a modified acceptation. (It might be wāsa, house, habitation, from was, to dwell; the given example would in this case to be explained: at the time we dwelled in the mountains. Fr.).

Basar, the power of God to see all things, all-seeing.

Basĕuh, wet, moist- Samping na baseuh, his body cloth is wet.

[[wikt:basi|Basi], a large dish for a joint; a platter, a large bowl.

Baskat, a sort of waitscoat; a close garment for the breast This sounds like a corruption of the English word waist coat. It ties with strings on both the right and left breast.

Basuki, a place and residency at the East end of Java, so called after the Indian Serpent king Wasuki, who in Indian and Balinese mythology accompanies Siwa, and is a conspicuous character. Bat. Trans. Vol 23 Page Page 24. Basuki on Bali is one of the Sad-kahyangan or six temples, and is situated at the foot of the Gunung Agung in Karang Asam. Bat. Trans. Friederich Vol 22.

Bata, a brick, a building material.

Batal, love and affection broken and dissolved; to become unclean and unlawful.

Batang, appears to be a nearly obsolete designation for a Deity, or for some superior being connected with old superstitions. The word is still in use among the Badui of South Bantam, who still adhere to a form of worship partly derived from Hinduism, or the former religion of the Javanese. Thus they talk of the Patang Jala or Batang Jala, as one of their chief divinities, and with them occurs the expression, when they are in difficulty or much fatigued, of Hari Batang tulung Maung. The word Batang may be a corruption of Batara which see. Wata, C. 617 among other numerous meanings has that of "a Tiger, the Bengal tiger" or the Tiger Royal. The initial W in the Polynesian tongues is often commuted for B. This mutation is also known in Singhalese, Clough Page 454 under the letter B says — "Considerable difficulties arise from a custom which has gained both among authors and Copyists substituting the B for W and vicê versa” a final ang is also frequently added to words, by which the original Wata would become Batang. This appears to be the more probable as this Hari Batang is associated with Maung; the colloquial Sunda word for the Tiger Royal. Batang may also be a corruption of Déwata, with the initial dropped, and ng suffixed. Hari, C. 787 is derived from Hara to take, and is a name of Krishna or Vishnu, Yama or Indra, and the expression Hari batang tulung maung will thus mean — „Oh God Krishna, help me oh Tiger”. Batang Jala may mean the God of magic or delusion. Jala C. 210 magic, conjuring, illusion, supernatural deception. Throughout Java till this moment the natives have a superstitious reverence for the Tiger royal, and will not hurt or kill it, unless it first has dosa or sin, and has killed a human being, or some of his Cattle. Batang is the name of a place and districts on the north coast of Java in the residency of Pakalongan, where the Prahu mountains come down near the shore. In these same Prahu mountains are found many remnants and remains of temples from Hindu times, and the name of Batang may perhaps be in some way connected with the Divinities there formerly worshipped. Another name of a place in this locality which attracts attention as being of Hindu origin is Sraman near Simbang. Clough Page 778 gives Sramana, from Srama to perform acts of austere devotion- an Ascetic, one devoted to meditation for the purpose of obtaining final emancipation from existence; a Buddhist ascetic, a beggar, a religious mendicant, a Buddhist priest.
Batang may also be explained as derived from Bata C. 455 descent, going down, descent from a hight. To the Sanscrit Bata the Polynesian Ng may have been added as a termination, and Batang may mean the low land, the low country along the foot of the lofty and sacred Prahu mountains, see also Balibat.

Batara, The Hindu Godhead. The Sundanese apply the designation to all the divinities, as Batara Guru, the chief Hindu God worshipped on Java, Batara Bisnu, Batara Gana or Ganesa &c. Guru among the Hindus was a kind of spiritual guardian of youth, one of the names of Brihaspati, the preceptor of the Gods - Clough Page 178. Batara Guru, however, on Java appears to have been the chief Hindu Deity worshipped, But whether Siwa or Vishnu is not evident. Crawfurd dissertation on Malay grammer Page 238 says that, on the authority of Professor Wilson, no doubt the Hindu god intended was Vishnu.
Awatara, C. 5k awa, down, tara to cross or pass: a descent, this word is used by most of the oriental nations to express the incarnation of their deities, or their descent from heaven to Earth; and in Hindu history it particularly refers to the incarnation of Vishnu in ten principal forms, viz 1, the fish- 2, tortoise- 3 the boar- 4 the man-lion- 5 the dwarf- G and 7 the two Ramas 8. Krishna- 9 Buddha, and 10 Kalkisee Bisnu. (Cf. Oesana Bali Tdsch. Ned. Ind. IX. 3.257. Fr.).

Batari, a female goddess; the female of Batara.

Batawi or Batavia, the Capital of the Dutch possesions in India, situated on the island of Java in the Sunda districts, and founded A.D. 1619 at the ancient Jakatra.

Bati, profit, gain-maybe derived from Bhataka, C. 491, wages, hire, price.

Batik, a particular method of dying Cotton cloths, the pattern being first traced with liquid wax and the cloth then dipped in the dye stuff; the places under the wax are not dyed, and when the wax is subsequently removed, the pattern becomes visible. Pattern, design.

Batin, ar: hidden, occult, interier, ulterior- the future, what is not yet known. Inward thoughts, what we ourselves only can know.

Bating, no, not all, none at all, oh never!

Batok, the shell of a Cocoanut. Babatok, the skull.

Batu, a stone, a rock. Batu asahan, a whetstone; Batu uji, a touchstone; Batu bata, a brick; Batu riyeus or Batu giling, a flatstone for rubbing down any vegetable matter to a pulp, see Pangriyěusan. Batu Barani, the loadstone perhaps from Bharantiya C. 502, whirling, going round, revolving (as a compass does).

Batuk, a cough, to cough.

Batur, a companion, a fellow in labour, in play etc. Batur is in very extensive use, and means generally-other people, our companions or neighbours; a neighbour, a person in same circumstances as ourselves. Beunang batur, my neighbour got it.

Baturan, to keep Company with, to keep in Company, to associate

Bau, smell, odour, scent. Smell or stink. Bau na seungit, the smell is sweet. Bau na busuk, the smell is stinking.

Bauh or Bahu, a measure of land, of which four make one Jung. Bahu, C. 470 the arm. The Bauh recognized by government on Java contains 500 square Rhinelands roods or Tumbaks of each 12 × 12 = 144 square Rhineland feet = 72.000 square Rhineland feet. Now as 0.94310 Rh: feet = 1 Eng: 72.000 or 1 Bauh = 76344 square English feet per Bauh, or a trifle more than 1 3/4 English acre of each 43.360 English square feet.

Bauh, the fifth in descent, the father counting first; and the terms for each relationship are thus expressed; Bapa, Anak, Inchu, Buyut, Changgah or Chénggéh and Waréng. These four last terms appear to be inversely used, thus the Bapa will call the 14th generation from himself, his Bauh, and that same Bauh will allude to the same Bapa as his Bauh. These lines complete seven generations, which the natives designate as tujuh turunan, and which in general is considered very ancient, and when property is at stake, if it has been in the family for seven generations, it amounts to what we call prescription.

Bauk, whiskers, hair on the cheeks.

Baur or Bawur, mixed, blended, intermingled.

Baurkĕn, to mingle, to blend. Bawa, to bring, to fetch, to carry, to convey, to take away.

Bawa, on Bali a name of Siwa, implying Nature. Bhawa, C. 493 nature, a state or condition of being. Friederich Bat: Trans: Vol 22 P. 35.

Bawal, a sea- fish, the pomfret. Stromateoides Cinereus.

Bawang, an onion, allium.

Bawani, the consort of Siwa, his attribute of courage- see wani.

Bawat or Payung Bawat, an umbrella of oncient times; a state umbrella. Such as rebels carry about with them when they rise to resist the government, as they are considered badges of authority. On Java there is an appropriately coloured Bawat for each gradation of rank, the gold Bawat indicating the highest authority in the land, and used by the Sovereign or the European Governor General.

Bawon, a proportion of the rice crop given for reaping, often also called Gachong.

Bawur, mixed, mingled, blended.

Bawurkěn, to mix, to mingle, to blend, (see baur and baurken).

Baya, evil, mischief, danger. Hayang ulah nimu baya, I hope not to meet any evil. Baya, C. 460 fear, terror, alarm. Baya in Jampes in Sunda means West, see Sěri.

Bayah, the lungs, the lights.

Bayangan, something or person that we have design upon to possess; marked ont as our own. Bayangan Ratu, the Prince intends to have it; the prince has set his eyes upon her, said of a woman.
To fail or be worsted in an encounter; wounded. Unchal bayangan a wounded deer

Bayangkang, stringy, porous and dry; said of fruit or edible roots.

Bayar, to pay, to discharge a debt.

Bayaran, payment, disbursement.

Bayong, the young or small fry of the fish Gabus. Ophicephalus striatus.

Bayu, as Batara Bayu, the god of wind, Aeolus. Wayu, C. 638, air, wind, derived from wa to go, and an affinitive.

Bayunan, as Bayunan Ratu, a royal bed- chamber.

, a particle prefixed to substantives and adjectives, by which they obtain a verbal form; as Bodo, stupid, Bebodo to make a fool of; Buah, a fruit, a piece of fruit, Bebuahan, a Kidney, which from its shape suggests the idea of a fruit. The crude form of the word, to which Be is prefixed, does not always occur separately, as is Běběd, Běběk, Bědag.

Béa or Béya, impost, custom, duty, toll. Crawfurd gives Béya as Sanscrit, meaning a Cowrie shell, such shells were formerly used to represent money or value.

Béak, done, expended, finished, got through, used up.

Béar, soft and crummy, not moist or adhesive but easily falling to pieces, or asunder like sand.

Béas, rice cleaned from the husk and bran, but not cooked. Also the cleaned grain of any plant, as Béas kopi, cleaned Coffee beans.

Bebadak, a long funnel-shaped bambu basket, which being filled with stones is much used in damming rivers. The name is apparently derived from Badak, a rhinoceros, a large bulky unwieldy animal.

Běbajég, the hamstring, the main tendon of the hind leg.

Běbalasan, an eruption on the skin, a sort of scurvy.

Bébas, cleared and square as a debt paid off, discharged.

Běbatok the skull, the cranium.

Běbatu, the stone used for any particular use, as a weight for scales, for a standing clock etc.

Běbéakan, using your strength to the utmost; in any extreme degree, putting forth your strength, or exertions till they are béak, expended.

Běbéchék, to work a bit of swamp for planting paddy, using only a pachul or hoe, and not a plough and buffaloes.

Běběd, to tie up with a bit of string, to tie round and round. Ubed implies a higher degree, more entangled.

Běběd-upih, an upih well filled with provisions for a journey etc.

Běbědah, to open or make new Sawahs. New sawahs lately made.

Běběgér, young and full of flesh and activity. Chowéné bebegér, a full grown maidenhead.

Bébék, a domestic duck; called also riri-anas.

Běběk, to pound fine, to beat in a mortar, anything pounded or ground fine; said especially of grinding rice till it is perfectly clean.

Běběl, glans penis.

Běbělědogan, squibs and crackers, fireworks.

Běběndu and Bebendon, disgrace, loss of favour, dishonour. From Bandhu, C. 459, what is bound. Bandhura, C. 459 injurious, mischievous.

Bébéné, a female sweet heart, a mistress, an affianced woman.

Běběng, of the same size or diameter throughout its whole length; not tapering to a point.

Bébér, spread out, opened out; clear, evident.

Běběra- new-made Sawahs. Sawahs that are kept the year through under water, but not planted, in order to improve them.

Běběurěuh, a sweetheart, a young man engaged in marriage.

Běbodo, to make a fool of, to deceive.

Běbuahan, the kidneys- from Buah, fruit.

Běburak, to chase away, to disperse, to scatter.

Běchara, a matter of lawsuit or judicial investigation, see Pichara, derived from āchāra, C. 61. An established rule of conduct, an ordinance, an institute, a precept. To which is prefixed the Polynesian Be which gives it a verbal form. Gedong bechara, a townhall, a place where public matters are discussed, a court house. [8]

Béchék, muddy, miry, soft and dirty as the earth after rain.

Bědag, to overtake, to come up with di udag kabedag, chasing him he overtook him.

Bědah, torn, burst, rent asunder: to open or make new Sawahs-Bhédya C. 499, broken rent, torn.

Bédah, different, varying, other, distinct, separate- Béda, C. 479 dissention, disagreement; or from Bhéda, C. 499, dividing, separating; distinction, sort, difference.(Skr. bhěda).

Bědahkěn, to make any opening for water to run out: to make a gap.

Bědak, a cosmetic for the skin, made from rice-flour and mixed with something to scent it. It is kept as -a powder and when wanted for use is mixed with a little water, and then rubbed on the skin; much used by young women.

Bědamé, at peace, reconciled, of one mind, concord.

Bědas, strong, powerful.

Bědaya, women who sing and dance before native chiefs. Called in Bantam Rejang. The Bedoyo of the Javanese.

Bědil, a gun, a hand gun, a fowling piece. Wédi or Wédilla, C. 668. shooting, explosion.

Bědodon, a kind of trap set to take fish wherever there is a small fall of water; the water passes through leaving the fish. A small temporary Saäpa.

Bědog, a common chopper, or cutting instrument worn by every native, and used for cutting wood &c.

Bědol, burst, as a dam or embankment swept away by water.

Bědug, a drum, viz. a hollow cylinder of wood with a hide stretched over only one end, the other end being left open. Such bedugs are hung up in the mosques to call the people to prayers, to give notice of a death &c, and are beat on all occasions of alarm. To nyaho di palobah bedug, he does not know where abouts the bedug hangs, a sly way of saying he never goes to the mosque to say his prayers, and thus does not even know where the bedug is to be found.

Bedul, a pig, swine; an opprobrious epithet.

Bégal, to way lay, the act of high way robbery or murder- a high way man.

Beg-breg, the breaking or snapping of sticks or young trees, as when some wild beast rushes along: to fling down in a confused heap.

Běgog, a monkey, apparently so called from squatting on trees and looking at people see Gog.

Béh, an interjection, of sight; there it is! look! it appears; behold! Béh bai témbong, looking I saw it. Béh bai kanyahoan dosa na, Behold his sin became manifest.

Béja, news, report: the talk of all people.

Bèjakěn, to spread a report, to send news.

Bějad, knocked up, ruined in strength, jaded, feeble, rendered useless for any particular purpose- spoiled.

Bějig, poor and mean looking.

Běkakas, tools, instruments. (See bakakas).

Běkèkěn, to hold open, to split open with the hands, to part.

Běkěl, food, provisions, victuals carried on a journey.

Béksér, frequently piddling, water gushing out readily.

Béla, aid, assistance; a seconder or supporter, a protector- Batur kudu di bela-ãn, we must bring help to our neighbours- Aing mengke jadi béla sia, I will become your protector. On Bali, according to Fricderieh Bat. Trans. Vol 23 Page 10. Bela is the burning of a wife in a fiery hole, separate from her husband. Into this she jumps without krissing herself. Béla has been described by Crawfurd as implying Retaliation, but as far as I (Friederich) can learn, the Bali meaning of the word implies rather the Sanscrit welā, sudden and easy death (Wilson). This becomes plain from the manner in which it takes place, also from the circumstance that the attendants of a chief who has been killed in battle, and who make an amuk and die with him, are also called Béla. In general in Bali the word implies „the act of dying with a superior", as the wife with her husband, the slave with his master, the attendant with his lord. This word is probably derived from Billa, C. 473, a sacrifice of animals to demons, or an offering made in honour of deceased ancestors. In Malay it means to accompany in death ; the voluntary sacrifice of a woman at the funeral of her husband — or it may come from Béla, C. 478, power, strength, force, might.

Béla, ar: misfortune, evil, hurt. بَلَاءٌ experimentum, tentamen, difficultas, aerumna, afflictio, Freytag.)

Béla-än, to support, to give assistance to, to maintain, to succour. Béla-än paih, to support, to succour even unto death; this expression is still frequently heard in the mouths of our mountaineers, and is most likely derived from Buddhist or Hindu times when the wife sacrificed herself on the funeral pile of her husband.

Bělabur, spread out, scattered.

Belai, injury, calamity. Jauh belai, out of harm's reach.

Bělang, pie-bald, party-coloured, black and white. Ku la belang, a pie-bald horse.

Bělang wayung Hyang, name of a supernatural dog in the Manek Maya, formed from the dirt washed from the body of Wayu Hyang with rice water. This dog was black with a streak of white extending from the tip of his nose, along the ridge of his back, to the extreme point of his tail. Raffles Vol 2. appendix.

Bělědog, the report of a gun, or of fireworks, as of Crackers.

Bělědug, a loud hollow sound, as of some object or body falling.

Bělědug, Ketan rice boiled in a Coconut along with the pulp, and thus making a mixture.

Bélék, having sore, weak and watery eyes.

Bělékék, a snipe. Scolopax.

Bělékér, the third time of consecutively planting the same bit of cleared forest land. The third year's crop of Paddy off such land.

Bělékēun, having cracked and sore soles of the feet.

Bělět, stupid, dull at learning.

Bělětok, to explode, to make a loud report in firing off, splitting or bursting. Beletok bai bedil bitu, the gun went off with a loud explosion. Batu na kabeuleum beletok bai beulah, the stone being exposed, to fire split with a loud report.

Běling, broken earthenware pounded fine to clean iron with, especially knives.

Bělo, a young horse still retaining its shaggy coat.

Bélot, round about, circuitous. Jalan bêlot, a round about road.

Bělu, disgusted, having an aversion, wearied and vexed.

Bělud, a kind of eel living in boggy earth.

Běludru, Portuguese Veludo, Velvet. Jamang beludru, a velvet jacket.

Běmběm, a fruit resembling a mangga. (Kabambam, Batavia).

Běnang, sewing thread.

Běnchar, split, cracked open.

Béndi, a gig, a buggy.

Běndu, anger, passion, wroth, rage, impetuosity of temper, Crawfurd calls it Malay.

Běndung, to stop the course of water by dams or other means.

Běndungan, a dam or embankment to retain water.

Běněr, true, right, genuine, real. Straight, exact.

Běněrkěn, to adjust, to put in order, to correct.

Běng, the idiomatic expression of throwing or flinging.

Běng'ang , the venereal disease; the name of a tree with fruit like that of the Durian or Kadu.

Běng'auk, a hobgoblin; a term used to frighten children.

Běngběng, said of the report of a gun.

Běngběng, of even size throughout, as a bambu or log of wood, which is of even thickness throughout. The same as Běběng.

Běngběng, said of water which flows back towards its source, particularly in water ways which are not cut deep enough.

Béngbréng, in a row, in a regular line. Hayo maka béngbréng, come stand up in a regular line.

Bénggala, Bengal. Used in a vague sense as implying a distant country. The people have Paré benggala, Bengal paddy, and Chaw benggala, Bengal plantains, a name of which, however, they do not know the exact meaning.

Béngkél, said of a Kawung palm tree, which yields little toddy.

Běngkěr, the hooping in a circular fishing trap, which keeps it open, and prevents it from collapsing; a hoop—called also Seungkeur.

Béngkok, crooked, not straight, curved.

Běngkung, bent or curved like any thin matter or plate which gives way to forces. Hump backed.

Béngo, warped, bent, crooked, not flat and even.

Béng'ong, stupidly gazing, dismayed.

Béngsal, unlucky, not successful, luck coming with difficulty.

Běng'uk, a legumenons pod, also called koas.

Běning, clear, limpid, pellucid. This is properly Malay, and is seldom or never heard in conversation, but on Champéa is a river Chibening limpid river. Hérang is the usual Sunda word.

Běnit, to be fond of women, always after the lasses.

Běntak, to scold, to speak roughly to, to frighten with fierce words. To shove roughly.

Béntang, a star.

Béntang timur, the Eastern or morning star.

Béntang buntutan, a Comet, a star with a tail.

Béntar, to become known, to gain publicity.

Béntél, a Couple of handsfull of seedling paddy plants tied together.

Běntěli, a forest tree which gives a milky sap used for destroying worms in children, when it must be mixed with sugar and water. This is the best vermifuge which natives know.

Bénténg, a fortification, a stockade, a battery, military trenches.

Bénténg, the familiar name for Tangerang, 15 Pauls Southwest from Batavia, where the old Dutch company had a Bénténg or fort.

Béntés, correct and clear in speaking, having good pronunciation.

běntik, bent like a sword, having a round bend; folding together by means of a joint or hinge.

Běntur, to dash, to knock, to joggle, to strike against.

Běnyéng, a plant the root or bulb of which being scorched and bruised, is made up into small candles or torches.

Běr, the idiomatie expression of flying, as ber bai hiber kabéh, and away they all fluttered and flew. Běra, many, plenty, abundant.

Bérag, Hot with love; Elated, in high spirits.

Běrěbut, to quarrel and scramble for any object; to snatch from another.

Bérék, to be noisy, to babble. Ulah bérék, D'ont be noisy, keep quiet.

Běrěkah, propitious, favourable, prosperous, blessed with success.

Běrěkat, ar: lucky, blessed. Berekat Allah, the blessing of God. Having in superabundance, more than we can get through; victuals remaining unconsumed at a feast. Enough and to spare

Běrěkéké, a disease in growing paddy caused by a worm.

Bérés, in even and neat order, pretty, handsome.

Běrod, the name of a scaleless river fish.

Běrod, confounded, in a mass, as Kiamat berod, things are in a miserable plight.

Běs, the idiomatic expression of forcing in or stabbing.

Běsěsět, to cram or force into a small aperture.

Běsot, slipped out, sprung out, come out with force.

Bět, the idiomatic expression of cutting through at one slap, as of small trees or twigs.

Bětah, to have pleasure in, to be gratified with, to have a delight in.

Bétan, as, like to, similar to. Pantan in Malay- Marsden Page 230, like, as, resembling probably of the same origin.

Bětok, name of a fish in swamps, which is hard-lived, and survives long even out of water.

Bětus, split, broken, particularly when by breaking any liquid flows out.

Běuběr, a sash or belt worn round the loins, to keep the body firm whilst either walking or at work. All natives wear a běuběr.

Běuběuntěuran, name of a variety of grass.

Běuběurěum ěndog, the yolk of an egg.

Běuběut, to dash, to smash against any thing, as a tiger would smash its prey against a tree or rock.

Běu-ěus, wet, moist, wet in a less degree than Baseuh.

Běuhěung, the neck; Siket beuheung up to the neck, as far as the neck.

Běuhngar, Rich, affluent, having abundant possessions. Sugi ku pikir beuhngar ku akal, rich in thought, affluent in device.

Běukah, open, expanded, as a flower or seed head; particularly said of Paddy when the ears shoot out.

Běukas, mark, trace; said of a gun which has been shot off, and leaves the trace of the powder.

Běuki, to have an appetite for, to relish, to desire to eat, to be fond of any act even other than eating. To beuki ka na kéjo, he does not like rice. Used also figuratively as: Sok beuki bohong, he is fond of lying. Beuki kolot beuki bang'or, the older he gets the worse he is. Beuki in this latter sense is the more. Běukrěuh, coiled, or huddled in a heap, as a person or animal asleep, any thing lying in a heap in a hole.

Běulah, split, divided; to split, to cleave, to rend; Part, portion, side, quarter. Evidently derived from Bila, C. 473, a fissure, a rent, a perforation.

Iyo suluh kudu di beulahan, this fire wood must be split up.
Papan na beulah, the plank is split.
Sa beulah ti wetan, on the East side.

Beuleum, to burn, to consume with fire.

Běuli, to buy, to purchase; hanto kabeuli, I c'ant buy it, or literally it cannot be bought (by me).

Běulit, a turn or hitch of a rope or string; entangled; twisted or twined round. Kabeulit, entangled by a rope getting twisted round.

Běunang, to get, to obtain, to get possession of. Beunang na, what is got, the thing obtained.

Běuněur, full and good as grain or seed. Applied figuratively to any thing which turns out well and satisfactory. Bilang beuneur, truly said, no mistake. Pare na beuneur, the paddy is full in the grain.

Běuněur héjo, said of growing paddy, when the husks are full, but the grain still green.

Běung'ěut, the face of man or animal; the countenance.

Běungkak, swollen or risen slightly, as rivers by rain.

Běungkěut, a parcel or bundle, any thing tied together, as firewood, Paddy, vegetables etc. Di beungkeut, to tie together, to tie up.

Běuntah, awake, with the eyes open.

Běuntas, to break down, to demolish. Beuntas pager, to break down the fence, to exceed one’s authority, to use unlawful violence.

Běuntěur, a small fish in the rivers or in ponds, of a yellowish tinge. Barbus binolatus.

Běunyěur, small broken rice, the grains which are broken in pounding or grinding.

Běunying, a variety of wild fig tree. Ficus fistulosa.

Běurang, in the day time, the day time in contradistinction to night. Also applied as indicating an advanced period in the day, towards noon, and thus not very early in the morning. Early, not at a late period.

Běurat, heavy in weight; also used figuratively to indicate affection for any one. Bara, C. 461, heavy, weighty, important, of consequence. Batu beurat a heavy stone. Beurat ka anak éwé, having an affection for child and wife.

Běurat sangga, said of ripening paddy, heavy on the stem.

Běurěum, Red; verbally Ngabeureuman, to make red, that is to make any one ashamed of himself, to worst an adversary. Běurěum buntut = Red-tail, name of a fish in the rivers.

Běurěum pipi = Red-cheeks, name of a fish in the rivers.

Běurit, a mouse, a rat.

Běusi, Iron. Beusi Purasani, the loadstone. The word Purasani is probably a corruption of khorasani, which at Page 125 of Marsden's Dictionary is interpreted as a Persian word meaning „fine tempered steel of Khorasan.”

Běutěng, stopped, left off, as any work or occupation. Said of a person who has lost a situation or occupation. Ceased from employment.

Běutěung, the belly, Nyiri beuteung, belly-ache.

Běutěung, properly Adi beuteung, which see.

Beuti, any yam or bulbous root; any bulb growing in the ground, at a root.

Béwat, a fine, to punish by fining. Applied also to government exactions, which are looked upon as fines or impositions.

Béwok, a long and shaggy beard.

Béwok, an insect resembling a Jangkrik; a kind of cricket.

Béwuk, a bird like an owl.

Béya, same as Béa, which see. Custom, duty, toll.

Béyé, soft, moist and easily giving way to pressure. Approaching a liquid state.

Bi, an abbreviation of the word Bibi, aunt, which see.

Biang! is an exclamation of surprise, either denoting fear or admiration. Also denoting mistrust, and at the same time half putting the question : Do you think I am such a fool as to believe you? This word is probably of Sanscrit origin, and would be properly represented by abhi hyang! which will mean „the Profound Divinity.“ „The superlative divinity.“ Abhi, C. 39 is a preposition implying similarity, before (in the presence of), separation, severally, wish, desire; also, Conjunction, as belonging to, with respect to etc. Abhi in Compound words implies very, emphatic, before, as Abhikkanta, C. 39 from Abhi, very, kanta, good excellent, good in the highest degree. Abhinya, C. 39 from abhi very, nya Knowledge, profound knowledge, supernatural acquirements. And in the same manner we may form Abhi hyang, the most excellent Divinity, the supernatural Divinity. So also may be explained the name of Abiasa, one of the early sovereigns of Java, see Raffles Vol 2. P. 80. from Yasa, C. 572, fame, glory, celebrity, renown, thus Abhi-yasa, renowned in the highest degree. So likewise in the words Abiseka, which is still current on Bali for the anointing of the Rajahs. Abhi-seka, C. 40 from Abhi before, Sikta sprinkling, an anointing, royal unction; Sikta, C. 730 from Sicha to sprinkle, and kata affinitive-sprinkled, wetted. Abhirupa, abhi, emphatic, Rupa, beautiful, extremely beautiful.[9] To return to the Sunda language we have Bianglala a Rainbow. Lala, C. 604 wavering, unsteady, fickle, Abhi-hyang-lala, the most excellent divinity who wavers or is fickle, from the evanescent nature of the rainbow. Abhi-hyang has here again been contracted into Biang. Raffles gives Yang-lalah for the Rainbow in Balinese.
That the Sundanese no longer dream of the real meaning of the word Biang! which is nevertheless so often in their mouths, is no wonder, seeing that they have been so long converted to Mohammedanism, and all that they almost know of the former worship of their forefathers is comprehended in the words Agama Buda.

Bianglala, the Rainbow, see above voce Biang. Vide Katumbiri.

Biar, the dawn of day, sun-rise. Barabg biar, just at dawn.

Bias or Biyas, Cast away, lost the way; said either of a man losing himself in a forest or wilderness, or of a man at sea driven to unknown parts by storm. Biya, C. 473, fear, terror, alarm, dread; āsā, C. 65, wish, desire, hope- and thus a mixture of dread and hope, which a man tempest driven will have.

Bibi, Paternal or maternal aunt, when younger than our father or mother. A term of respect for any woman who is younger than ourselves.

Bibit, seed, any thing used for planting to procure a coming crop. Used also to denote any female animal for breeding, especially a buffaloe as kebo bibit, a breeding buffaloe. The origin or commencement of any thing. Capital, money invested in any undertaking or speculation-see anak.

Bibitungan, name of a variety of grass.

Bidal, a thimble.

Bidara, a common tree growing near the sea coast Zizyphus jujuba. Bidara, C. 471. a small species of Jujube.

Bidara-laut, the sea-shore Bidara. Different from the foregoing one. The wood being dried and grated is mixed with water, and given to children for a variety of complaints. It acts as a bitter tonic.

Biduri, Opal. Bhidura, C. 494 the thunder bolt of Indra. Biduri is probably the feminine of this word.

Bigeug, deaf and dumb.

Bijil, go out, come out; the act of coming out from any cover or place, Bijil ti imah, to come out of the house. Bijil ti jero taneuh, to come up out of the ground. Kudu bijil, you must come out.

Bijilan, what comes out. Bijilan ti chai, what comes out of the water.

Bijilkĕn, to cause to come out, to turn or drive out.

Bijil pamautan, said of growing paddy; the last leaf which comes out, being the one

under which, in cutting, the straw is snapped, and which is then pulled off- di paut.

Bikang, female, a woman, the good wife. In many parts of the country Bikang is not applied to a woman but reserved for animals, especially Buffaloes. This is the case about Buitenzorg.

Bikĕun, to give, to hand over.

Biko, stupid, foolish.

Bila, occurs only in the expression Apa bila, whenever, at the time when, which thongh properly Malay, is sometimes heard in Sunda. Both Marsden and Crawfurd give Bila as Sanscrit meaning: Time, point of time, when, at the time that. It is probably the same as Wela C. 672 Time.

Bilang, to count, to tell over, to reckon, to number. Jélema na bilang heula, count the people first. Probably Bila — see above — with the Polynesian ng suffixed.

Bilangan, an account, enumeration, to be of account or value. To hasup bilangan, it cannot be taken into account; it is not of the number. This word is sometimes pronounced Wilangan.

Bilatung, maggots, worms in putrifying flesh. Bilatungan, having maggots in the flesh.

Bilik, split and platred bambus to answer the purpose of partitions; bambus so wattled answer the purpose of boarding for houses and buildings.

Bilis, a small sea fish, not larger than a minnow, now and then appearing in great swarms off the South Coast of Bantam; after them a small island off the South coast of Bantam is called Pulo Bilis. Engraulis Grayi.

Bilis Alanat or more correctly Iblis lanat, which is arabic and means the „Devil's curse.“ An opprobrious answer to any one, amounting to our — „go to the Devil.“

Billahi, arabic, by God!

Biluk, to veer or turn round; in sea language, to luff up, to beat to windward.

Bima, name of the East end of Sumbawa, noted for its good horses. Kuda Bima, a Bima horse.

Bima, C. 494 Bhimā a name of Siwa, he who inspires terror, from Bhima, fear, terror.

Bima, a son of Pandu and Déwi Kunti, one of the five Pandus in the war of the Mahabarat.

Bimbang, properly Malay, but sometimes made use of; being overelated with joy; so pleased as to forget your daily occupations or what you are about. Said of a person in love who hardly knows what he or she is about.

Bin, arabic, the son of. A contraction of Ibn. Mohammad bin Hassan, Mohammad the son of Hassan.

Bina, very, excessive as Kabina-bina teuyn, that is carrying the thing to an extreme, or being excessively troublesome, or going further than necessary.

Binchurang, the bone which goes up the front part of a man's leg, from the ankle to the knee. The Tibia. Bingbing, a small variety of dwarf Palm, growing wild in jungle. Areca humilis or Pinanga Kuhlii.

Bingkěng, bent, curved.

Binglu, a sort of wild mangga. Mangifera — hardly fit to eat.

Bing'ung, confounded, troubled in mind, embarrassed, perplexed.

Binih, seedling paddy plants meant for transplanting; such seedlings ready for transplanting. Seed meant to be planted.

Binong, name of a plant, Bucida nitida, Crawfurd. This word occurs in the name of an Estate and post station between Batavia and Buitenzorg, called Chibinong.

Bintara, the ancient name of the district now called Demak. Bintara in Javanese is the name of a sweet scented grass. Raffles Vol 2 P. 124.

Bintinu, name of a tree. Visenia umbellata.

Binw-angan, name of a district on the south coast of Bantam. In some malay countries in Sumatra Binuwang is a species of deer, and Binuwangan would be a place abounding in deer. Marsden P. 51.

Biola, a fiddle. The native way of pronouncing Viola = a violin.

Birah, a wild plant, with broad leaf like Bolang; a variety of Arum.

Birĕt, said of knotty wood with the grain so twisted as not to be able to split it. See Burĕt.

Birěungo, to inspect, to view.

Biribisan, a slight sprinkling of rain; a few small drops of rain, the commencement of rain; to rain lightly. Bhira, and Bhiru, C. 494/5. fearful, timid. This may be the etymon, and then the word will imply rain enough to give a fright.

Birit, the rump of man or beast.

Biru, fuss, uncalled for interference. Only heard in the expression ngadu biru, to meddle with matters which do not concern one. Biru is probably the same as Biruma, C. 473 barking, the final ma is only constructive, and adu biru, would then be, to squabble with barking (like dogs), [cf. sub voce adu, and the Note].

Biru, name of a plant. Colocasia odorata.

Biruluk, a small dwarf cocoanut, the nut injured in its growth.

Birus, as di birus, to strip young growing paddy, in order to get at the stem, to make a child's pipe or ole-ole-an. The young stems so stripped.

Bisa, able, clever, skilled, learned. Can, to be abe, to have the power. To bisa, I cannot, Id'ont know how. This word is also, no doubt, of Sanscrit origin, though Clough does not give the word in the shape of simply Bisa or Wisa. He, however, gives wisakunu Page 663, a Pandit, a learned man, as derived from wichakshana Page 643, a Pandit, a learned man, clever, able, wise (27).

(27)Bisa and biâsa (to be accustomed) I consider to be the same word. I d'ont recollect if this interpretation has been given by others before me, at least I found it already myself some 10 years

Bisa, poison, venom; wisa, C. 663 poison, venom.

Bisi, in case that. Bisi to hadé, for fear it should not be right.

Bismilah irahman irahim, as pronounced by the Sunda people, being the Arabic invocation at the commencement of any work or undertaking. It is used especially at the beginning of prayers, and means „In the name of God the merciful and compassionate“.

Bisnu, the Vishnu of Hindu mythology. As the word sometimes occurs in Jampé's, it may be well to copy over Clough's account of him at page 662. Wishnu (wisa, to enter, to pervade the universe) one of the three principal Hindu deities, and the preserver of the world, during the periods of temporary annihilation, he is supposed to sleep in the waters, floating on the serpent Sesha; Brahma is fabled to have sprung from a lotus, which grew from the navel of Vishnu, and the holy river Ganges is said to spring from his foot; the different avatars or awataras are considered as emanations of this deity; and in Krishna he is supposed to have been really and wholly incarnate; he is usually represented as a mild and benevolent deity. The name is also written Wisnu, C. 665.

Bisoro, a kind of fig tree- Ficus hispida.

Bisu, dumb, unable to speak.

Bisul, a boil, an inflammatory swelling under the skin.

Bita, delight, pleasure. Bita, C. 474, and Bhita C. 495, fear, alarm, apprehension, terror, dread- see Jagabita. This word appears in Java to have somewhat altered its meaning, which may have occurred from a misconception of the real meaning, which is an alarm, say lest something bad might occur, and hence has been taken to express delight, see kabita. The alarm at loss or injury being stronger with the native than the manifestation of delight, when in the enjoyment of any advantage.

Bitis, the lower part of the leg, from the knee downwards. The leg.

Bitu, to go off as a gun, to make a loud report, to explode. Bedil to daiken bitu, the gun would not go off.

Bitung, a variety of bambu, with thick wood, good for posts.

Biwir, the lips; Biwir mata, the eye lids- called in Malay Bibir. Loba teuyn biwir sia, you have a vast deal of jaw; too much to say.

Biyo, just now, a little time ago. Composed of the particle Be (vide), and iyo this.

Biyuk, stinking, putrid. Chi biyuk, stinking river.

Biyur, an idiomatic expression indicative of birds flying away in a flock, or animals running away in a crowd.

Blak, an idiomatic expression of flinging oneself down before another, as to ask for pardon and surrendering oneself. Blak nangkarak, he throw himself down on his back.

ago. Biâsa now is abhyâsa, practice, exercice, (Wilson); from as with the preposition abhi studere, studiose facere (Westergaard). Fr. Blas, the idiomatic expression for counting between 10 and 20, corresponding to the English teen and Dutch tien. See Wĕlas. Sablas = 11- Duablas = 12- Salapanblas = 19.

Blěg, the idiomatic expression applied to any thing thrown down with a dull bluff sound.

Blěng, the idiomatic expression of throwing away or down. Bleng bai di picheun, and away he flung it.

B1ěs, the idiomatic expression of stabbing, as of a kris thrust up to the hilt.

Bles kasian, properly Malay, but still frequently used in Sunda, especially when favors are asked. Pity and compassion. Hayang neda blĕs kasian tuan, I entreat sir your pity and compassion.

Blok, the idiomatic expression of breaking off in large pieces. Blok bai somplak, and a large lump split off.

Blok, ground which is soft and muddy so that the legs sink in and are with difficulty withdrawn. Jalan na blok naker, the road was very deep in mud.

Blug, the iiomatic expression of falling on any thing and covering it up. Blug bai di tubruk, flinging himself upon it he seized it.

Bo-āh, a word expressive of doubt or uncertainty; it may be; perhaps. It may not be. Mohal datang boāh, he perhaps will not come. Kabéh boāh kudu leumpang, I fancy all must go away. To hadé boāh, tapi to nyaho, it is perhaps not right, but I do not know.

Bobo, rotten, giving way from decay.

Bobo, to go to sleep, said of a child.

Bobogohan, to have pleasure in; to begin to court a woman.

Bobok, to cut a hole into any thing which is hollow, as a Cocoanut, bamboo, hollow tree &c.

Boboko, a small circular bamboo or wicker basket, especially for holding boiled rice. It is smaller at bottom than at top and not providdd with a cover. When it has a cover made to fit on the top it is called Sumbul. Kudu néang boboko we must get hold of the rice basket, a sly way of intimating a wish to have something to eat. Geus mojeuhna néang boboko, it is high time to look out for the rice basket- thus to eat.

Bobokong, the buttocks, the groin, that part of the back along the back bone, see Bokong.

Bobontos, the wooden sheath of a kris, that part which covers the blade, from the Dadaun towards the tip.

Bobontot, said of fisb freshly caught in the river, and tied up in long grass, to be sent to a distance, and keep fresh.

Boboréh, a fragrant or coloured wash, either yellow or white, rubbed on the body, on occasions of ceremony, especially at marriages.

Boborokokĕn, to call the neighbours together, to help to perform any work, as planting out paddy or the like, and not paying them in money but giving a treat of Bubur or the like.

Boboso, a fish in the rivers of the South coast of Bantam. The spawn develops in the sea to fish, which then ascend the rivers to remain there ever after. Resembles the méng'a, which see. Bobot, a weight in the scales for weighing cotton.

Bocor, leaky. Parahu na bocor, the boat is leaky. Figuratively to disclose a secret, to blab.

Bodas, white.

Bodi, see Anchak. Bodhi, C. 481 knowledge, intellect, omniscience, the state of being a

Budha. The Holy fig tree.

Bodo, a method of preparing fish, by allowing it to partially decay, and then salting it.

Bodu, C. 479 — boiled or cooked rice.

Bodo, silly, stupid, simple. Often used to express simply „not having knowledge", though the person may otherwise not be stupid.

Bodor, a Buffoon; the man who, at any exhibition, causes merriment. The mountebank of a set of players in a gang of ronggengs, or a set of angklung-players.

Boéh, white cloth used for wrapping up the dead previous to burial.

Boga, possessed of, having, owning. Corresponds with the Malay word Punia. Boga batur, to have a companion. Boga imah, to own a house.

Bogo, a variety of fish, a kind of small gabus.

Bogoh, having pleasure in any thing, delighted, elated with joy or love.

Bogol (Bonggol), name of a piece of bamboo tied to the wrists of a man in charge of the police, to prevent his escape. Same as Tambalung, which see.

Bogor, the native name of the place called Buitenzorg by the Dutch. Intelligent natives can give no interpretation to the meaning of the word. Mogor is to run about after a women, and in a substantive form would become Bogor, but the natives do not appear to attach this meaning to it. It is the residence of the Governor General of Netherlands Indie.

Bohak, laid open and gaping, like a wound from any cutting instrument.

Bohong, to lie, to tell a lie: a falsehood. Ulah sok beuki bohong, D'ont tell so many lies.

Boja Nagara, that part of the north coast of Bantam which terminates in St Nicholas Point. The same words in Javanese form are Bojo Negoro, an assistant Residency belonging to Rembang. Bojo in Javanese has several meanings, viz, a wife; food or provisions; the chief, the principal, whatever is of most importance. This word is most probably derived from Bajanaya, C. 455. association, union, embracing, an embrace, or Bojun C. 479 or Bojuna, C. 481, food, eating, provisions, nagara, C. 306a town, a city. It means thus a town where food is in plenty, or a town fit to be looked upon as a wife and be cherised. The people at Bojo Negoro in Rembang have an idea that the name of their place implies a spot where food and the means of subsistance are in plenty. Bojo kromo implies in Javanese, real hospitality. Raffles Vol 1. P. 101. (Skr. Bhoja> a country, Patna or Bhagalpur; bhojya, food; bhojana, food; eating. Fr.)

Bojong, the land contained within the sharp turn of a river, or stream of water. Land projecting into water, a promontory; also an islet in a river. Bokérkěn, to open or split up; often applied to large fruits that divide in cloves. To open a slokan or water course by removing sand and other sediment, which has accumulated at its mouth.

Bokong, to take a weight upon the back; to carry a load upon the backbone; to set the rump against any thing for the purpose of pryzing it up or shoving it along—see Bobokong.

Bokor, a brass basin or bowl. It may not improbably be derived from Boku, C. 479, the hand bent as if to receive water; a piece of cloth, or any thing that is pliable, as a leaf, a piece of paper &c bent into a hollow shape, as a Sugar peper &c.

Bolang, a kind of wild Arum growing in swampy places, which the Chinese often boil up and give to pigs.

Boléd, a small native yam or potatoe; same as Man tang. Convolvulus Batatas.

Bolodog, a half amphibious fish, found on the sea shores of Java, sometimes in the pools of half stagnant water, and sometimes crawling up on the sand and mud, in which it burrows. Chironectes.

Bolong, having a hole in it, as a bag, basket, boat &c.

Bolong'or, awake but not sensible, in a sort of trance. So far awake from sleep, that the eyes are open, and seeing what is going on, without their owner having the power to move.

Bolongsong, a rope or halter with one end adapted to fit a horse's head.

Bonang, a musical instrument belonging to the Gamelan. It is a frame in which cords are firmly stretched, and on which a number of small brass pots are set which are tapped with a wooden hammer.

Bonchénang, said of well filled fruit.

Bonchérét, staring, agog.

Bondol, name of a small bird, with dark brown body, and white head.

Bondoroyot, as Sabondoroyot, a collection of immediate relatives. Our near relations; called also Saboronjotan.

Bonéka, Portuguese, a child's doll.

Bong'an, your fault, you are to blame; carelessly, without thought, without due consideration. Bong'an sia pandeuri, it is your fault that you are left behind.

Bong'bok, a hole in a tree or in a post. Any snug deep hole in which to stow anything away. A chink.

Bongbong, an opening made in jungle, tall grass &c, a clear passage.

Bongbong, said to a child which has difficulty in swallowing, with a view to induce it to disgorge.

Bongborotan, a hole or small opening to peep through.

Bonggan, look out for yourself, take care of your own matters.

Bongkar, to tear open, to pull roughly to pieces. To upheave, to take the contents out of a prow or boat. Bongkék, small and dwarf, said of a man.

Bongkok, crooked, mostly with old age; hump-backed.

Bongkokan, the curved beam of a Chinese plough to which the buffaloe is yoked.

Bongkonol, a variety of bambu, thin and slight in stem.

Bongkonol, a variety of Pandan growing wild among the mountains, the leaves of which are used for tying up Java Sugar.

Bongkor, a man not able to pay rent; land, as asawah, usually planted left uncultivated. Bongkor Pajeg, unable to pay Pajĕg or the fixed rent.

Bongkot, the thick end of any thing, as of a stick or piece of wood. The lower and almost solid end of a stick of bambu. The piece of wood fixed in the handle of any implement, to hold it by.

Bongsor, young but grown large. Said of either man, animals or plants, which though still young have grown up to a large size. Budak bongsor, a lad who is big for his age. Penyakit Bongsor. The small pox.

Bonteng, Cucumbers. Cucumis melo- much planted in the upland Paddy lands called humah, and in the Sawahs, as a second crop, when the paddy has been cut.

Bonténg Suri, a variety of the Cucumber. The Queen's cucumber?

Bontot, a tree or stick which has been burnt, and one end remains unscathed- that unscathed end is the Bontot. The fag end of a Sigar that has been smoked and thrown away. Any thing which has been burnt and a stump left, as in a wood fire, the fag ends.

Bo-ol, the anus.

Bopati, see Bupati.

Bopong, name of the colour of a horse, being a fawn colour, or intermediate between white and brown.

Bor, a gimlet, a borer, an auger, a centre piece. It is the Dutch word Boor which has the same meaning.

Borak, or Al-borak, the Lightning in Arabic. The supernatural steed on which Mohammed pretended to make night- journeys to Jerusalem and heaven.

Borangan, afraid, timid, fearful.

Borélang, variegated in color, having several colors on the same ground. The word is also applied to the tiger royal, as having a striped hide brown and black.

Boro, to run after, to pursue, to go to any one or to any place, to approach.

Boro ampar, quite impossible, ridiculous to think of it.

Boro tĕuyn, foorsooth, quite impossible. It is quite out of the question.

Boro Budur, the name of the remains of a magnificent Hindu tempel in the Residency of Kadu, where Buddha is frequently represented. Bara becomes in Javanese Boro Bara, C. 461, surrounding, encompassing, heavy, weighty, important, of consequence. Bhudr in Hindi, happy, prosperous, propitions. Calcutta Review No. 18 Page 384. „The Great Propitious". Or Budur may be an abbreviation of Budu-raja. Budu, C. 475 the Ela or ancient form of Buddha; Raja, King. Boro Bada Raja, the Great King Buddha, elided into Boro Budur; or it may mean the encompassing of King Buddha, from the place having perhaps originally been the depository of some relic of Buddha, as such relics were highly valued, and sent every where and preserved wherever Buddhism made its way, and preserved in Dagabas or Domes. The temple of Boro Budur is surrounded by many such Dagabas, with an extra large one in the centre, which has been evidently intended for such a Dagaba. Dagaba, C. 264 from or Dáta, a bone and Gaba from Garbbha the womb, a large solid building in the form of a Cone raised close to the Buddhist temples, and is an object of the highest veneration. The erection of these Dagabas had its origin in the fable that after the death of Buddha, his body, according to the custom of the country where he lived, was burnt. After the conflagration had ceased, certain portions of his bones had survived the operation of the fire; these were carefully collected and deposited with great pomp and solemnity by the priests in a building of this kind, raised for the purpose; afterwards, these sacred relies were divided, and sent over the world, for the purpose of religious veneration; every temple had its Dagaba, and every dagaba has a portion of these bones.[10].

Borobot, expressive of the sound of any thing giving way, and about to break, as a dam of earth, a fence, or of an animal rushing out of the jungle.

Boroboi, name of a tree Gynotroches axillaris, of the family of Guttiferae.

Borocho, a plant, the Celosia argentea of Blume, of the family of Amaranthaceae. It has a red stem and leaf, and is a pretty object in a garden. Often planted by the natives in their humaha.

Borok, ulcerated breaking out in scabs.

Borokosokol, a variety of small Cockroach- a Blatta.

Borolog, great in size; said of grain, particularly Paddy.

Borong, to take work by the piece, to buy whole sale; to undertake anything on a large scale; Tah borong sia bai that's your look out.

Borongan, is any work or undertaking taken by the piece- a set task.

Boronjotan, a collection of immediate relations. Saboronjotan kabéh gens kumpul di lumbur, all the relations of one family are collected together in the village.

Boronyodkěn, to extricate a pedaty or Cart which has stuck fast in mud, or in a hole by helping out with extra buffaloes.

Boros, the inner and tender shoots of certain plants, particularly of Schitamineae, and of the Plantain, which are eaten raw or cooked.

Bosěn, disgusted with, tired of, said of anything which one has to satiety, loathing.

Botékak, belly overfull, the belly distended to excess with food.

Botol, a Bottle, from the Dutch word Bottel.

Boyobos, soft and unresisting, anything which gives way when worked amongst.

Boyongan, a captive, a person held in durance.

Brai, the idiomatic expression of the dawn of day, of a glimpse being caught of anything. Brai beurang, and the day dawned. Wat peuting keneh hayang gerrah brai, how long the night lasts, I wish the day would dawn. Brai tembong I caught a glimpse of it.

Bral, the idiomatic expression of setting out on a journey, of making a start to proceed. Geus Bral, they are gone.

Brama, a Hindu God. The following is taken from Clough's dictionary Page 483. Derived from Braha or Wraha, to increase. According to the Vedas and doctrines of the Hindus, the divine cause and essence of the world, from which all created things are supposed to emanate, and to which they return. The unknown God; a celebrated Hindu deity; Brahma is generally reckoned the chief of the gods and ranks first in the Hindu Triad, and is the operative creator of the world, hence he is frequently styled the grandfather of both gods and men, he is represented in their temples as having four faces of a golden colour, dressed in white garments, and riding on a goose; in one hand he holds a stick, and in the other a Patra or alms dish.

Brawijaya, a name given to the ancient kings of Majapahit. Bara, C. 461, heavy, weighty, important of consequence. Wijaya, C. 644, from wi implying intensity, and and ji to conquer; victory, triumph, conquest. Mighty and victorious. [11]

Brébopati, a Javanese title of high rank, but now adays in little use. Bara, C. 461, heavy, weighty, of importance, or Brahat, C. 483, large, great, vast, and Bupati, vide voce. Thus supreme master or world-lord.

Bréd, a yearning after woman; Budak bréd perlénté, a young man who snuffles after the girls, and is a coxcomb withall.

Brěg, the idiomatic expression of flinging anything down on the ground, or of anything giving way and falling to the ground.

Bréh, the idiomatic expression of sight or view, as Bréh bai témbong and lo! it came into sight. See ébréh.

Brěm, a fermented liquor made from rice, with sundry additions to give it relish or strength.

Brěng, smut on corn, on coffee trees or other plants. It is a disease on coffee trees imparting to the leaves and branches a black pellicle, whilst at the axillae of the fruit a white smut sets itself, which causes the berries to rot and fall off.

Brésih, clean, clear; said both naturally and figuratively.

Brésihan, to make clean; also applied to a child which is circumcized, in the sense of to make pure, according to Mohammedan law.

Brésin, to sneeze.

Brěum, an insect called in English- a lady- bird; a small coleopterous insect, the Coccinella.

Bri, to thrash, to pitch into, to belabour.

Bro, the idiomatic expression of giving way, either breaking up easily of itself, or when any force is applied.

Bromo, the Javanese way of pronouncing Brama. The name of an active volcano among the Téngger mountains. Bromo in Kawi is Fire. This Volcano, the Bromo, is frequently in a state of combustion.

Bruk, a large Cocoa nut shell used as a measure for any grain &c. Such a shell is more than half the nut, often with only one end cut off.

Brul, the idiomatic expression of moving off in numbers, as a herd or flock. Also said of weeds or any plants which easily pull up out of the ground.

Bruwang, a bear. Not known on Java, except as brought from Sumatra or Borneo as a rarity. Ursus Malayanus.

Buah, fruit, grain- any projecting substance on the body which by its rotundity suggests the idea of fruit. Hujan buah, fruit- rain, the name given by natives to hail, which now and then though rarely occurs in Java. Buah Kayu, tree fruit; Buah paré, Paddy fruit, the Paddy grain.

Buahan, to bear fruit, as upon a tree or plant.

Buah birit, the round of the rump.

Buah bitis, the calf of the leg- litteraly the fruit of the leg.

Buana, the universe, the world. Bhuwana C. 496 from Bhu to be; a world, water, heaven; a man, mankind. (See Buwana.)

Buana pancha téngàh. This mid world.

Buang, to banish, to transport for an offence. Has a common meaning with the Malay word Buang, which is also to throw away, in which restricted sense the Sunda people do not use it; but employ the word Picheun.

Buāt, to cut paddy: by snapping off each ear against a peculiar little blad of iron fixed to the hand, and which is called étém.

Buběr pasar, the breaking up of a market, the period when the market or Pasar closes by the people going away.

Bubu, or Buwu. a wicker or bambu trap set for fish in a river.

Bubuahan, all kinds of fruit.

Bubuai, a variety of Rattan, common in young jungle, but not fit for any use, as it soon dries and snaps. Calamus maximus.

Bubuĕuk, the round bambu circlet for the head, in native Tudungs or hats.

Bubuhan, district, departement.

Bubui, to cook by thrusting among hot ashes.

Bubuk, a small worm which eats and destroys bambus after they have been cut. They eat through the tubes and cause them moulder away and be unfit for use.

Bubuk, smashed, crushed to pieces. Anything ground or pounded fine. Bubuk kopi, Coffee ground for using.

Bubulak, grazing ground, ground where the grass is short cropped.

Bubur, Pap, rice or any other grain boiled well down till it is soft and watery, and being then mixed with sugar, is so eaten. Poultice for a wound.

Buburak, to chace out of any place, out of a field or forest; to drive impetuously before one. To hunt wild animals with dogs.

Buburuh, to take wages to do any work; to work for wages. Buburuh nyatu, di upah béas, taking pay for eating, he is still rewarded with rice: a Sunda proverb, for doing every thing to the best advantage.

Bubut, to turn wood or metal on a lathe. Tukang bubut, a Turner.

Bubutut, to go out in night time to take fish; the fish so caught is immediately broiled and eaten by the river side.

Bubuwahan, fruits of various kinds. Fruits collectively. (See bubuahan).

Buchak, muddy, dirty, mud sticking to the feet. (Batavian Malay béchek).

Buda, Buddha; a name still retained by the Sunda people without any precise meaning, since they have become Mohamedans. They however still talk of Alam Buda, Buddhist times, as of an almost fabulous time, to which no definite meaning can attach. As a remnant of their old faith they still retain the Buddhist names for the days of the week, where Buda represents Wednesday, as in India. It is not, however, every man who can enumerate these days of the week; only some of the more knowing. See Dité. Buda, C. 475, the planet Mercury. It may be useful to copy over here what Clough gives at Page 475. Budha from Budha to know; the name of the founder of Buddhism, the religion which is professed by the Singhalese part of the population of Ceylon, the Burman empire, and several other nations of the East; a sage, a wise or learned man; a philosopher; any eminent or deified teacher. Great confusion has taken place among Sanscrit writers and the Europeans who have followed them, by confounding Buddha which is a generic name for a wise man, a philosopher, with Buddha (Gautama) the son of Suddhodana, and the founder of the religion which goes by his name.[12] Gautama Buddha died at Kusinara - Nuwara, near Oude at the age of 81 years, in the year before Christ 543.

Budah, froth, foam.

Budak, a child, a young person, either boy or girl; a lad, a lass, a slave.

Budal, going away in numbers, or in a crowd; off, departed, removed, shifted quarters. Jelema na geus budal, the people have all gone away.

Budeg, foolish, simple; also perversely doing what is wrong.

Budeng, a peculiar trap set to catch JSler fish.

Budi, understanding, intellect. To bogah budi, he has no intellect- he is an idiot. Budi, C. 476. understanding, intellect, wisdom. (Skr. buddhi).

Budi-akal, resources, means of obtaining one's end.

Bug, the idiomatic expression of lying down.

Bugang, a dead carcass, any dead body of man or beast. Kembang bugang, a very stinking plant in the jungle, Clerodendrura inerme. Churuk bugang, the middle finger.

Bug-brug, thrown down carelessly in aheap; materials lying in heaps.

Bugis, name of a people on the island of Celebes, considered the most enterprising of the Malayan race. Prahu Bugis, a Bugis trading boat or vessel. Soldado bugis, a Bugis soldier.

Buhaya, an Alligator. Bu, C. 477, a demon, from Bhuta, a goblin; Haya, C. 786 a horse; a Demon -horse. (Jav. baja. Skr. bhaja is frightful, horrible, dreadful. The w might have been interposed for the purpose of not losing the aspiration, h. Fr.)

Bujal, the navel.

Bujang, an unmarried young man. This is the name by which house-servants, and paid labourers of all descpriptions are now known, though mostly married and often old men. In native society before it was meddled with by foreigners or Europeans, young men served the parents of young girls for wives, as did the patriarchs of old; for example Jacob served Laban twice seven years for his daugthers Leah and Rachel. Genesis 29 Chap. Probably derived from Buja, C. 475, the hand-, the arm, with the Polynesian ng suffixed; the hand or the arm taken to denote aid, assistance in work.

Bujangga Manik, the name of Ratu Guriang, or the king of the moutain spirits. Bujangga means a serpent. In India the worship of serpents is adopted into the Brahminical system. In particular it is found in Cashmere. On Java and Bali there existed an adoration of serpents (Vasuki) and the Bujangga's appear originally to have been worshippers of reformer of Indian absurdities. Every body knows Buddha is not the name but the title acquired by the son of Cuddhodana, But Budha is one of the till now rather mysterious persons of unrcformed Hindu Mythology, whose coming into existence depends upon the decision at what time the week of seven days first was invented, or when the next planets became known to the Indians. Budha appears at the head of the lunar race of Kings of India. Fr. serpents, who afterwards coalesced with the sect of Siwa. Bat. Trans. Friederich Vol. 23 Page 48.

Bhujanga, Clough Page 495, from Bhuja, crooked, and anga, body, that is a serpent or snake.

Bujuk, to coax, to cajole, to wheedle.

Bujur, tha same as Jubur, the anus.

Buk, the idiomatic expression of striking, either with the fist or with any implement, by shoving it against the object to be struck. Hence the word Tumbuk which see.

Buka, to open, to uncover, to expose. Open; space, breadth, what a thing opens out to. Laicang kudu di buka, the door must be opened. Rasiyah na kudu di buka, its secret must be exposed. Buka na meunang sa asta, it opens out to the breadth of a cubit.

Buka puasa, to break the fast, to cat after fasting; literally to open the fast.

Buka upih, name of a bird in Sawahs or swamps. See upih. The bird is so called, because when on the ground, it is of a dirty dark color, and hardly perceived, but on flying up shows white under its wings, which is like the opening of an upih.

Bukit, This word is properly Malay, and means a hill, not a mountain. It occurs in only two solitary instances in the Sunda districts, as applied to mountains, and these are the Bukit Tunggul and Bukit Jarian, two mountains in Bandong. Bukit Tunggul means „ Stump Hill"; it is on the boundary line between the Pamanukan Estate and SumSdang. The tradition of the ecountry says that here was felled the tree which was to form the Prahu which is supposed to still exist in the adjoining Tangkuban Prahu y which see. The Bukit Tunggul is a rather conical hill and bears a rude resemblance to the stump of a fallen tree. It is strange that these solitary instances of Bukit should occur in the interior of the Sunda districts, surrounded by otherwise purely Sunda names. Had it been on the coast, we might have imagined some ancient Malay colony settled near it. As it now is, it looks as if the Sunda people had hunted a name out of a foreign language to designate a mountain which it appeared to them anomalous to call a Gunung, with the word Tunggul jz: stump of a tree, affixed to it.

Buko, a book, derived from the Dutch work Boek, a book, and pronounced the same as the English word.

Bukti, a possession, any thing valuable which is obtained; a fall of good luck. Ngabukti, the act of coming in possession. Buktiya, C. 475, a possession, an inheritance. Sia ngabakti aing ngabukti, Do youmake offerings and I will appropriate them. (Bhukti, eating; possession, usufruct. Wilson).

Buku, a knot in a tree, a joint, articulation. The space between two joints of the hand.

Buku pare, the joints in a paddy straw. Buku leungan, the joints of the hand.

Bukur, having some tangible substance, which can be taken in the hand and examined, as distinct from air or water. Substance, contents, matter.

Bukuran, having substance, something tan ible. Omong eta bukuran, that talk conveys something tangible. Bui, the idiomatic expression of coming up, as a man, fish or bit of wood from under water — the heavenly bodies from under the horizon. See Bulan, Timbul, Jebul, Kabul.

Bulak-balik, twisting and turning; laid alternate ways, as bottles laid neck to neck in a basket, Bambus laid side by side, the top of one along the root part of the other.

Bulakan, a place where water bubbles up, an eddy, a whirlpool. Nijabulak, a forcible spring or jet of water.

Bulan, the moon; literally the object which keeps coming up (from under the horizon), but it is more especially entitled to this designation of Bui with the constructive affix an, from its constantly increasing in size as it comes up during successive nights, till it becomes Bided or round. The Javanese being Mohammedans have adopted the Arabic division of the year, and the 12 months are known by the following Arabic names; See each month in voce for particulars: Muharam, the first month. Sapar, Rabiul awwal or Mulud, Rabiul akhir or Silih Mulud, Jumadilawwal, Jumadilakhir, Rajab, Saban or Bulan Roa, or Arawah, Fuasa, properly in Arabic Ramazan or Ramalan; Puasa means fasting. Sawal, Dulkahidah or Hapit, Dul Haji.

Bulan an, having the monthly disease. Menses,

Bulan-bulan, the name of a fish in the rivers. Megalops Indicus.

Bulang-baling, a double headed shot; a short bit of stick or bambu loaded with a weight, as a stone, at each end, and so used as a missile.

Bule, the white buffaloo, which is very common in Java, but not a distinct variety as it sometimes occurs that Black mothers have Bule calves, and also that ~Bu mothers have black calves. The colour is not exactly white, but of a ruddy hue, the hair, however, is white. Any animal which is usually black or dark coloured would be called Bule when white coloured, for example an Elephant. A naif way of calling anything white, which is usually dark coloured, as silver money in contradistinction to copper doits.

Buled, Round like a ball, globular. Also circular or cylindrical.

Buli-buli, a covered cup; a cup with a cover to it; mostly used for keeping oil in. Bulu, hair of the body of man and of animals, but not the hair of the head of man which is Bu-uk. The feathers of birds, a quill for writing.

Bulubur, gathered up at random, what has been thrown away by others. Hateup bulubur, ataps or thatch which has been used and thrown away as useless, but gathered together and used again for want of better.

Buludru, velvet- the Portuguese Veludo, velvet. (See Beludru.)

Buluh, name of a variety of bambu; Awi buluh, Bambusa aspera, of little use as the worms eat it very fast.

Buluh Munti, a variety of bambu, somewhat like common Buluh only somewhat smaller.

Bulukan, mouldy, covered with mouldiness from having been moist and not properly dried, said especially of bread or boiled rice which has been set aside long enough to get mouldy.

Bulukbuk, a sort of large glaga, or tall almost arborescent grass.

Bulumanukken, a verb compounded of Bulu feather, and manuk bird; and it implies to confound or mix like feathers of a bird which you cannot distinguish one from another.

Bulu-Mayang, the fine plume or tail-feathers of cock-birds, which come out at the period of maturity. The sign of adolescence.

Bulu Ongko, The poison tree of Java. I have never heard of it in the Sunda districts. The Bulu Ongko is a large forest tree growing in the Eastern districts of Java. I have seen it in Malang and inland of Banyuwang'i, and the people there all assure you that from its juice the virulent poison is prepared. Bulu they say is the name of a particular Ficus called in the Sunda districts Bunut, to which the leaf bears a resemblance; and Ongko is an abbreviated form of Nongko, nangka, the Jack fruit tree, because the fruit resembles it. In most books the famous Poison tree of Java is said to be called Anchar, antiaris Toxicaria; that name having been assigned by either Leschenault or Horsfield. Anchar may be the name in some districts, but I have never been able to hear of the word any where on Java.

Bumbang, having a fair and clear passage through, as through grass, reeds or Jungle &c, by often passing through, or by cutting down. Knocked over, slapped down.

Bumbu, condiments, the ingredients of any mixture for eating, as of curry. Spices.

Bumbung, a small bambu measure, mostly for rice or other seeds. A bambu fitted with a lid or cover for the purpose of keeping any object.

Bumbung delan, name of a tree. Cassia marginata. Has long black round pods, called in some parts of Java Trengguli and Asem Wolanda, called familiarly by the Dutch „ trommel stokhen" drumsticks, from their shape.

Bumi, the Earth, the world; the residence of a great man; the original inhabitants of a place; those who by long descent are dwellers in the same place. Bhumi, C. 498. The Earth, land, place, scite in general. Bunar, narao of a variety of bambu, thin in stem, and distant between the joints.

Bunch is, pulse, beans of any kind. The Dutcn word Boontjes, small beans.

Bung'a, Interest of money. The term is derived from Bung'a a flower in Malay, the interest being considered as the flower of capital, which is thus compared figuratively to a tree, or a stock. See Tangkal and Dibit.

Bung'ang'ang, said of a bambu pag£r which is hanging out of its place, as if cut open for a thief, to pass. Said of anything or place that is gaping or yawning open, as a chasm in the ground, a hole in a bridge or the like. Yawning and open. The etymon of the word is ang which is also heard in the word Anggang, open, separated, and occurs again in Bang'ang'ah.

Bungbulang, said of a decrepit old woman of whom nothing but skin and bone is left. Kari tumbling jeung tulang deui> nothing left but the pudendum and bones. The word is evidently ccmpounded of the final syllable of the first word added to tulang.

Bung' in, land which contains much sand, which under water as Sawahs is very productive. Rich alluvial soil.

Bungkak, pleased, elevated in spirits, joyful, having agreeable emotions.

Bungkar, the same as Bongkar, torn open, forced open; unloaded.

Bungkeureuk, a small short pool in a river; something less than leuwi.

Bungkul, a knot in a tree where a branch leaves the stem, any hunch or trump.

Bungkui tuwur, the knob or round of the knee.

Bungkus, a bundle, a parcel, a bale; a wrapper. Di bungkus to tie in a bundle, bundled up- folded up.

Bung' Ion, a Cham el ion, which are often met with in the jungle. The natives have also the verb NgungHon, to deceive, to change appearances, alluding to the well known properties of this animal. (The most harmless animals, who exist. Fr).

Bungsu, the youngest child of a family, the wreckling. the last born.

Bung'ur, a tree, Lagerstroemia regina. At some seasons of the year it is covered with handsome pink and purple racemi of flowers terminal on the branches. It is a very ornamental tree and much planted in the gardens of Europeans. The word sounds as if derived from Ung'u purple, a reddish brown colour.

Buni, hidden, concealed. Buni tilcukur, able to conceal a turtle dove, said of growing paddy when it is big enough to cover the ground. (Sembuni, to conceal himself. Bat Malay.)

Buniaga, to work, to use ones powers. This is evidently Sanscrit, and is heard also in the Malay word Berniaga, to trade, to traffic. (Skr. banHj, a merchant, a trader; banHjyae trade, traffick; there from comes the common word Banian. Fr.)

Buniaga, a person fresh arrived in a new village, and who has not yet got a house. Probably derived from Bhu C. 496 to be, and Niyaga, C. 325, drought, dryness, aridity, heat-indicating thereby that the person has no possessions. (This is certainly the same word as the preceding, only as a substantive, barCij; the new comer being confounded with the trader who has no fixed home; the r in the Malay word I consider to be placed in consequence of the n being cerebral, as it were rn. Fr.)

Buntal, the name of a fish in rivers; by irritating it, and rubbing its belly against the ground or on a stone, it swells out into almost a round ball.

Buntas, got through, done, achieved as any work or operation.

Buntel, a bundle of clothes, or anything tied up in cloth, as the corner of a handkerchief &c.

Buntet, not opening, closed.

Buntiris, a plant with thick and crenulated leaf. Calanchoe crenata.

Buntu, closed, shut off, not admitting further ingress, as a cave in limestone rock.

Buntung, maimed by the loss of some part, as a man of his finger or hand; an animal of its tail. Kuda buntung a short tailed horse. Suku na buntung, his leg is shortened off, part bf the leg wanting through accident.

Buntut, the tail of animal or bird; the fagend; metaphorically the tail of any occurence or incident; the consequence of; the followers and accompaniment of a great man.

Buntut luku, the tail of a plough.

Buntut Anjing, literally Dogstail, is a tall reedy grass with a bunch of seeds terminal to the stem.

Bunuh, to cut open anything, especially fruit or vegetables, to get at the contents which are eatable or drinkable, especially said of Cocoa nuts.

Bunut, a tree, Ficus Glabella.

Bunyi, to sound, to make a noise, to crack a whip. Sense, meaning.

Bunyian, sounding instruments; their sound; music.

Bupati or Bopati, a Government Regent, a native chief over extensive territory; a general term, not a denomination of rank. Bupati, C. 477, a King, a monarch, from Bu the Earth, and Pati> chief or lord.

Bur, the idiomatic expression of pouring out, or of running away, escaping, fleeing. Bur bai di taburken> and out they poured it.

Buragu, a word used in Pantuns to express prosperous, lucky.

Burak-barik, to be dispersed, scattered about.

Buraken, to spite out; to blow out of the mouth anything that has been chewed, as siri leaves &c. This is frequently done on occasions of Jampd.

Burang, a caltrop; sharpened bambus set about gardens or plantations to spike wild pigs or other animals; sharpened bambus set any where to spike man or beast.

Burangrang, said of the leaves which wither and drop off a tree all at once. Said especially of the withered leaves which drop off a felled tree. See Rangrang.

Burangrang, the name of a mountain on the confines of Krawang and the Prianger Regencies, which the ancient tradition of the country considers as the withered bran dies of the tree which was felled on the Buhit Tanggul to make the boat, which still exists in the Volcano Tangkuban Prahu (inverted boat) which lies between the mountains called the Stump and the Branches. See Bukit Tunggul.

Buras, a dispute or claim which cannot be established; said of a lawsuit wherein neither party wins.

Buret, said of knotty wood which will not split on account of the twisted state of the grain. See Biret.

Bur en g, defaced, obliterated; especially said of a writing which is daubed and hardly legible. Said of any act by which a man tries to conceal his deeds.

Buri, behind, the after part; subsequently. Ulah ka ping hareup teuyn % ulak buri teuyn y neither push yourself too much forward nor lag behind. Buri na to daikken, subsequently he was not willing.

Burik, spotted, freckled.

Burik-barik, to twist and turn, to tumble over, to put in confusion.

Buring'as, startling with fear, as a wild animal or a buffaloe. Wild as cattle.

Burit, evening, night fall.

Buron, a run away, an outlaw; from Burn to chase after, which, however, simply as Bum, to run after, to chase, is not used in Sunda. A wild beast, any object which is chased. (In the last meaning it occurs on Bali; where it is nearly synonimous with binatang. Fr).

Buru, to hurry on, to hasten, to bear a hand.

Buruai, the spawn of frogs , as seen in pools of stagnant water.

Buruan, the yard or clear space in front of a house.

Burubul, to gurgle out, to come out sluggishly.

Buruh, wages or recompense given for work done.

Buruhan, pay for work done, wages. Ngala buruhan to take pay for work done; to do work for payment.

Buruhken, to give wages to get work done. To pay for work done.

Burujul, a very simple and rough plough used for working dry land ; consists of only two pieces, a crooked piece and the pole.

Buruk, rotten, stinking, decayed; given way, worn out.

Burung, a good for nothing person , a neer do well , a foolish person ; said of any work that has been taken in hand but not carried through; abandoned and neglected given up as a bad job; perversely causing disappointment. (Jav. wurung as Telaga wurung, the mountain near Cape Sedano.)

Burung randa, name of a shrub, the charcoal of which is used in blackening the teeth. Literally means widowhood not taking place, widowhood no go.

Burunganan, an apposite expression in an argument, as we should say „That being the case. The natural consequence is". Burunganan sia mohal di bcri> that being the case they will not give you any. Burusut, slipped out , glided out ; said of a child or animal as it comes from its mother or dam; protruded. Anak na anyar keneh burusut na, Its young had just been protruded (born).

Burut, a hydrocele, hernia, rupture, a swelling of the Scrotum.

Bus, the idiomatic expression of shoving or putting in. Bus hasup ka imah, he popped into the house.

Busal, a wild pig or boar with bosses or knobby bony excrescences on the face. Sus Vittatus.

Busiat, a word of contempt or of scorn. Diga busiat, like a good-for-nothing thief.

Busik, entangled and twisted together , as hair which is never combed. Said also of other things which are neglected and in confusion.

Busuk, Malay but often used in Sunda; foul, stinking, rotten, and more particularly applied to foul actions.

Busung, having a swollen belly from disease; the dropsy; daik busung , may I become swollen bellied or dropsical, a very strong asseveration or appeal to truth.

Buta, properly Malay- Blind. Frequently used in the expression Buta rata, where no trace is left, obliterated, entirely disappeared. See Wuta. Buta-rata would also admit of the meaning, Goblin-level, as if the goblins had distroyed all before them.

Buta, a goblin, a malignant spirit; the word is used in Pantuns and traditions. Bhuta, C. 496, a goblin, a ghost, a malignant spirit hunting cemeteries, lurking in trees, animating carcases, and deluding or devouring human beings. A name of Siwa.

Butak, bald, no hair on the head; said also of a high mountain where no vegetation exists ; Gunung Butak , the Sajira hill in South Bantam , said to be bare about the top.

Butuh, in distress for want of food or money, hard up, pinched, destitute.

Butun, or Huwi Butun, a large variety of yam,

Butun, name of a tree growing on the South coast of Bantam, with fruit of the size of a man's fist, with four sharp corners or ridges.

Bu-uk, hair of the head of human beings.

Buut, a squirrel , Sciurus Plantani of Ilorsfield , such as are found about the villages in the Cocoa nut trees. There is another variety found in the jungle called K6kcs y which is rather smaller.

Buwa, fruit, see Buah.

Buwana, universe, see Buana. Buwana panclta* terufah this mid world. (This suggests the idea that the people formerly believed in the existence of five worlds , ours being the middle one. Fr.)

Buwu, see Bubu , a sort of fish trap.

Buyamin, Benjamin, a proper name- Arabic.

Buyung, a largish earthernware jar, mostly of coarse brown unglazed manufacture, for holding water. Buyut, forbidden by some hereditary or traditionary injunction. Different families of the natives are found, who labour under various prohibitions, often regarding articles of food; as many families are, from acient times, forbidden the use of the flesh of the white Buffaloe , others that of the turtle dove &c , and for such people this flesh is

Buyut. Thus Buyut is applied to any thing else in the sense of „ Sacredly forbidden".

Buyut, is also a term of relationship, as applied by people to their progenitor or descendant in the fourth generation , as the Great Grandfather or Great Grandchild (Kabujutan are the places of worship of the ancestors found in every Balinese house. Buyut is thus taken in the sense of ancestors, pitara, and as an adjective means coming, derived from, enjoined by the ancestors. Fr.)

  1. The synonymous words ladog and more yet the Javanese warak seem to indicate that the word is of Polynesian origin. The word is perhaps the same as the preceding Fr.
  2. In Kawi the masculine and feminine form exist, and are written as they ought to be according to the Sanscrit. They are inferior deities at the command of Indra. The derivation of Clough must be a Buddhistical fancy; widyâ meaning really knowledge, and the compound word thus one possessed of knowledge.
  3. Bhagawanta is lenghtened from bhagawat, of which the fuller form is Bhagawant, Fr.
  4. (21) Skr. bâhu and bâha, the arm; the other forms of Clough are in Skr. written with w; all derive from the root vah to bear. Fr.
  5. (22) Bali) Skr. an oblation, a religious offering, presentation of food to all created beings: it is the same as banten; there from is devided bâleya, fit or proper for a sacrifice; this is the same as the Pali bâleya-n, and I think our balai. The other derivation is not to be approved of, bâlâ meaning only in the feminine form and in a circumscribed sense, pure, (as of a female animal, which is fit for sacrifice). Fr.
  6. I should rather think it to be baliwat, possessed of offerings, rich in offerings, receiving many offerings. See bagawat, Fr.
  7. This might be the Skr. bhramara, a bee, which occurs also in Kawi and means not the honey giving, but the black humble bee, the Malay Kumbang. The corruption might be explained by the natives avoiding two r in the same word, wherefor they left out the first r (bhamara), and with their fondness for alliteration they put in another b = bambara, or bangbara). Fr.
  8. It is a corruption of the Skr. Wichara (Malay bichara), the exercise of judgment or reason on a present object, investigation, consideration, deliberation; discussion, dispute. Wilson. The Malay bichara, means to speak deliberately, to discuss. Fr.
  9. Hyang, so written, is no Sanskrit; the composition of such a word with a Skt. particle, abhi would give quite an hybridous word. Abiasa is the old Muni Wyâsa (the redactor, of the holy litterature of the Hindus) and who was related to the heroes of the great war. Abhinya is Skt. abhijnyâ.
  10. Bara in Kawi is a large number (hundred millions) like the Scr. arbuda; budur is also called Budo, and the word might mean "the innumerable Buddhas", there having been about 900 large figures of Buddha. Fr.
  11. Bra is till now on Bali a name of the godhead; see Bra galungan, Usana Bali pp. 316. 327. (Tydschrifl voor Nederlandsch Indië. Xlde jaargang. 3de deel). We must not wonder to find this word as a title of the Kings of Majapahit, the name bhatâra being employed in the same way. Tr.
  12. A similar confusion exists of Buddha, the planet Mercury, and the Buddha, the quite human
Contents: Preface A B C D E G H I J K L M N O P R S T U W Y Errata


Cha-ah, a flood, an inundation, a rise in the rivers after rain. Chai geus cha-ah, the river is swollen with a flood.

Cha-ah d£ngd£ng, a flood which comes down suddenly, some two to four feet or more high, which has great force , and sweeps dams and other impediments away before it. A Bore.

Cha-ang, clear, bright, brilliant; cleaned up, put in order; daylight. ClTh&or Ch'han, C. 201. pure, clean. Geus cha-ang, it is day light. Jalan gede cha-ang ayeuna, the great road is now cleaned up. (Skr. Ch'haya , is light ; lustre ; but I doubt if Cha-ang can be derived of it. Fr. See the article chahaya).

Chabak, to handle; to take work in hand; to lay hands on. Pagawean eta kudu di chabaky you must take that work in hand.

Chabar, careless, indifferent.

Chabe the capsicum or red pepper so universally used as a condiment by the natives. It is distinguished when necessary from Chabdrawit, by the name of Chabd gedd, the the big chabe. Variously called by Botanists Capsicum Frutescens , Capsicum annuum ; or Capsicum Incurvum.

Chabe areui, the same as Chabe Jawa- Piper longum.

Chabe Jawa, Long pepper. Piper longum; called in Malay lada panjang.

Chabe Rawit, a small variety of pepper, more pungent than the foregoing ones; Capsicum Fastigiatum. Raxoit is Javanese and not Sunda, and means either fine , handsome , or as is more likely to be here the case , a sort of small worm or maggot. The bird's eye pepper.

Chabol, dwarf, of diminutive size.

Chabuk, Persian, a whip. (Chumdk a stick with a knotty head. Vullers lex Persico-latinum. Chubuk a whip; virga. Meninski; who gives it as a turkish word).

Chabur, to splash in water in swimming; to move through water with force or impetuosity.

Chabut, to eradicate, to pull or pluck up or out; to extract, to select; to remove from a post or situation: to substract, to deduct.

Chacha, a common man; in contradistinction to a person of noble birth. A man turned out by the government to feudal service. A man subject to the orders of his superiors.

Chachab, preparations used to make the hair grow.

Chachabean, a plant growing wild in cool upland situations. Leonurus Javanicus.

Chachad, blemish, defect, accident, injury overtaking any one. Chachad tiwas, by ac- cident, overtaken by some accident.

Chachadan, the two main side flooring pieces of a cart; the beam of a plough.

Chachag, to chop, to cut in pieces, to hack; to cut at with a weapon.

Chachak, like, as.

Chachangkir, a cup, a teacup, any small earthenware vessel to drink out of.

Chachangkiran, name of a plant; Panax Cochleatum.

Chachangkiran, name of a small shell fish in sea: limpets; Patella.

C ha chap, well accoutered; being provided with what one wants; coming it strong, pre- suming on a man's position.

Chachar, to cut down jungle, bushes or long grass; to cut down the brush wood of a forest, previous to felling the great trees; the space so cleared. Chachar , though a Malay word in this sense is often also used by the Sundas for the small-pox. Tukang chachar a vaccinator. Chacharan, to vaccinate. See Kuris.

Chachariwan, the knee-pan.

Chaching, a worm. Chaching'an , having the worms , said of a child or of a young buff aloe.

Chadang'an, prepared for, made arrangements for any one. Anything set aside for ano- ther person's use.

Chadas, Tufaceous strata; any indurated matter that has set so as to become rock, es- pecially volcanic ashes which have set in the sea, and subsequently been upheaved in strata. It is sometimes almost confounded with rock. Chadas gantung hanging rocks; rocks standing boldly up and presenting an upright surface like a wall. Chadas ma- lela, a variety of coarse sedimentary rock, which it is difficult to break up even with crow bars.

Chadong, a game in which the object is to knock down some sticks that have been set up for the purpose.

Chaduk, excrement.

Chad, name of a tree with pennated leaves , produces siliquae which contain pretty red beans.

Chagak, a stick or bit of wood with a fork or division at one end. A forked stick; much used in fences and the construction of dams, in the mountain rivers.

Chageur, well, in good health; in a sound state of body.

Chah, a contemptuons expression of disapproval or disgust Chahl saha nu daik> who the deuce will be willing.

Chahaya, bright, brilliant; radiance, lustre. Clihaya. C. 203 of same import.

Chai, water; abbreviated into Chi, means a river, and as such is placed before the proper names of rivers as Chidurian, Chidani. Chai-iyan, to put water upon, to inundate.

Chakar, to scratch, as a fowl or any bird. The claw of a bird.

Chakarub, dipped in water , plunged into water.

Chakchak, a house-lizard, such as are seen so plentifully on the walls of all dwelling houses. (Chěchak at Batavia).

Chakĕup, sufficiently provided with, as with courage or will to set about anything, or with the means of accomplishing any object in view; Confident of success.

Chakung, a small frog which is sometimes found in houses; it has the faculty of sticking to a perpendicular wall, or to an upright plank.

Chakra, a word often occurring in the composition of proper names. C. 191 a wheel, a circle, a discus; a weapon in the form of a discus, having the outer edges exceedingly sharp, besides many other meanings. (The discus of Wishun).

Chalakutik, the short bits of stumpy hoof at the back of the foot of a buffaloe.

Chalang'ap, open- mouthed, gaping, ajar.

Chalik, to sit down; to take a seat. A refined expression used by an inferior to a superior.

Chalik-ang'in, the name of a tree, literally the „Seat of the wind", and from this circumstance, its bark is torn in shreds and hung up about the humahs, when the wind is very strong and is doing injury. Rottlera Paniculata.

Chaluk, a straight iron implement for cuttiug brush-wood: when crooked it is called an Arit.

Chalung, a rude musical instrument so called, being half a dozen slips of bambu fastened to a string , like the steps of a ladder, and when hung up, tapped with a bit of wood.

Cham, a Chinese wood; a tally, a bit of bambu or wood given to a man as proof of work done.

Chamara, a tree so called, Casuarina litorea, its leaves resemble those of the fir of Europe. False hair worn by women. A chowry, or whisk of hair to drive away flies. Chāmara, C. 196. a whisk. (The tree is certainly so called from the appearance of his leaves. Fr.)

Chamat, a petty title of distinction in some of the Sunda districts.

Chambal, said of Jampé which does not take effect; inefficaceous, when said of Jampé; only used in this sense.

Chambor, mixed, of different sorts.

Chambuk, a whip, to thrash with a whip. A modification of the Persian word Chabuk.

Champa, name of a Country on the East coast of the gulf of Siam, the site of a Malay Colony of long standing. Purti Champa, the Champa Princess. The queen of Angka Wijaya, the last sovereign of Majapahit. This Putri Champa may however, have been from the Champa on the Ganges, which will be more consonant with the Hindu religion which existed up to her time on Java. Champa C. 195 the capital of Carna, and the modern Bhaghalpore on the Ganges.

Champaka, the name of a tree which bears a smelling yellow or white flower. Michelia Champaca. Champaka, C. 195 a tree bearing a yellow fragrant flower, with which the altars in the temples of Buddha are covered every morning. (Used for the same purpose on Bali).

Champéa, name of a large private Estate near Buitenzorg, celebrated for its limestone hill, which abounds in caverns where the edible birds nests are found. Chāmpeyya, C. 197, the Champaka tree, another form of the word Champaka.

Champur, to mix, to mingle, to confound.

Champur-bawur, to intermingle, to jumble together, to mix indiscriminately.

Chanar, the name of a creeper in the jungle which has an edible root; Zanonia Indica. Chanar-babi, is another variety.

Chandak, to bespeak, to have made arrangements to appropriate. Geus di cliandak ku aing, I have bespoken it.

Chandi, a mausoleum, an old burying place; an old Hindu temple or relick of antiquity. — Durga the wife of Siwa was much worshipped in Java and had temples raised to her. In Clough's dictionary Chandi is given at page 193 as the name of the goddess Durga, alluding especially to her incarnation for the purpose of destroying Mahesasur, the demon of iniquity. Probably from Chandi being thus a popular goddess, and having many tempels, these tempels themselves, and all temples eventually came to be called Chandi. Chandi on Bali according to Mr. Friederich, Bat. Trans: Vol. 22 is a small pyramidical temple attached to the houses of the chiefs.

Chandi Séwu, the thousand temples, one of the principal groups of ruins at Prambanan.

Chandra, the moon; the more usual word is Bulan. Chandra C. 194 the moon. See Sangkala.

Chandra Kirana,a princess of Kědiri, the wife of the celebrated Panji of Javanese romance. Chandra, moon. Kirana C. 124 a ray, a sun beam, and thus Chandra-kirana, moon-beam. See Inakěrtapati.

Chandu, Opium prepared ready for smoking. In appearance it resembles treacle and is thus a black sluggish liquid.

Chandung, to marry a second wife, whilst a first one is still in existence, and thus to have two or more wives at once. The law of Mohammed allows its votaries to have four legal wives at the same time.

Changchang, to tie, to fasten with a rope or string, as a horse or a buffaloe put out to graze; to tie anything with a string. The shreds of bambu prepared as string to tie ataps on a roof.

Changchangan, anything that we have fast by a rope or string; figuratively anything that we have made arrangements to appropriate and which we hold, as it were, fast by a rope.

Changchangan, a part of the native weaving loom, viz. the stand which consists of two uprights each long 1½ to 2 feet, with a notch or mortice cut at the top, so as to admit the Totogan to lie horizontally upon it. Changchi, a buckle.

Changchi, an ear of paddy or of any grain.

Changchorang, the Mantis, or the praying insect. An Insect with long legs and wings, said to turn itself always to the rising sun. There are three kinds, green, white and black; said to permanently keep these coulours, of which green is the most common; called also Chénggéh.

Chang'ĕrĕd, a running noose or loop.

Chang'ĕrĕdkĕn, to tie with a running knot.

Changgah, a term of relationship, or descent. See the word Bauh.

Changgéhgar, a wild fowl, a jungle fowl. Spotted and speckled and larger than the Kasintu.

Changgĕum, as much as can be taken up at once in the hand; a handful.

Changgogo, squatting down or cowering down on one's hams, with both knees up to the chin.

Changkakak-Alcedo, a bird, the kingfisher, of which there is great variety in Java.

Changkal, a very scarce fish; it is flat and broad like the Raranchak.

Chankang, the husk or skin of fruit, Paddy or any grain.

Changkaruk, boiled rice which has been put out in the sun to dry and desiccate so as to be able to keep it. Those who go on the pilgrimage to Mecca, generally take with them Changkaruk of Ketan, which in bad weather being soaked in sea water, serves as food.

Changkĕd, a notch cut in a tree; a step cut on a steep bank; an indentation made either for climbing or affixing anything, as a rope to prevent its slipping. A nick, a notch.

Changkĕl, benumbed, cramped.

Changkéng, the waist of the body.

Changkéo, a shrub with a small, sweet, white flower, something like hawthorn in Europe. Nelitris Polygama.

Changkĕr, stiff-built, as a man; stout and strong.

Changkĕrĕma, feasting, eating and drinking; keeping up merriment.

Changkur awok, name of a bird, prettily coloured, fond of devouring soft fruits, as plantains &c.

Changkĕur ilung, name of a bird, dark coloured, with white under tail and wings.

Changkĕutĕuk, name of a variety of bambu, Bambusa. Makes neat bambu work, being thin in the wood. *Much used for fishing rods.

Changkok, a method of propagating fruit- and other trees by scarifying a branch, and tying it up with a little earth and leaves. The carified part then shoots rootlets, when the branch may be cut from its parent stem, and then planted out.

Changkolong, to cut off an account, to deduct, to receive something on acconnt, as Paddy or any other objects on account of monthly wages, to be settled for at the end of the month. To receive something in advance on account of wages which are being earned.

Changkoré, a small and crooked variety of bambu. Bambusa serpentina.

Changkudu, Morinda Citrifolia; the bark of the root of this plant gives the red dye every where used by the Sunda people for dying their cloths. They make plantations of the shrub for the purpose. Changkudu is reduced to a powder for use. It is called in Malay Cangkudu. Marsden Page 42. Ch'han, C. 201 pure, clean. Cang in Javanese is red. Kudu, C. 128. powder, dust. If this interpretation is correct, we must conclude that Chang-kudu was introduced to the Eastern Isles by the people of Continental India, who began by bring the dried pounded root-bark, in the shape of a powder. And when they introduced the tree, the islanders continued to call it „the pure powder tree", after the article which was already known to them. (At Batavia it is called Menkudu, so that it appears, that the first syllable is a preformative. Fr.)

Changkudu Badak, Fagrea morindifolia , name of a tree growing wild in the forests, and resembling the true Changkudu in leaf and stem, but it does not give the dye-stuff.

Changkwang, Pandanus horridus. A variety of Pandan with a long narrow leaf, sometimes made into a kind of rude matting called Salasar.

Chang'or, open and dry, not dhesive; the opposite of glutinous.

Chang'ri, a variety of Tĕpus or Geanthus, only with greener stem and leaves The fruit grows in the ground like the Tĕpus, but it is deeper in the ground and of a sweeter taste.

Chanir, the large projecting buttresses or roots of some trees, which act as props near the ground, and out of which solid wheels for Carts or table-pieces are cut. Called in Malay Banir. Marsden Page. 34.

Chantél, the crooked bit of iron fixed to the end of the pole of a Chinese plough, on which is hung the splinterbar by its Katimang.

Chantigi, a shrub in the jungle, or in open poor land , with leaf like that of the tea plant.

Chantilan, a small hut for occasional use.

Chanting, a small empty Cocoa nut made into a Gayung or dipper.

Chap, supposed to be a Chinese word. A seal, a signet; mark of a seal or stamp; any mark put upon anything to recognize it again; a brand or stamp. Surat chap, any paper with a stamp on it. Paper stamped by government, in order to raise a tax.

Chapang, said of Buffaloe horns which expand much; which are not curved quickly up.

Chapé, tired, wearied, fatigued.

Chapéo, Portuguese, a European's hat.

Chapĕuh, a wild herbaceous plant Conyza graveolens. The same plant is also called Sumbung.

Chaping, A silver plate worn by female children to conceal the nudities. It is sometimes but rarely in use among the Sunda people. See Ampok.

Chapit, jammed between, caught or hooked by. Chapit hurang the name of part of the apparatus by which Carts or Pedaties are fixed to the wheels which revolve with the axle.

Chaplak, a joining of wood, by cutting a little off the ends of two pieces, so as to be able to fit them together.

Chara, like as, resembling, similar to; method, fashion, mode. Chara batur, in the same way as the neighbours. Châra orang Bogor, after the fashion of the people of Buitenzorg. Chāra, C. 197, going, motion. Chara, C. 835 to go. Acharana C. 61 walking. (32).

Chara, a trap set to catch monkeys. Quere Chara, 196, a spy- a secret emissarry or agent (sent to catch the monkeys?). (Châra, a prison, a house of confinement. Wilson.)

Charak, a powder-flask.

Charallang, a kind of squirrel, found in forests, but not about homesteads.

Charaman, to forbid, to prohibit, to interdict.

Charana, a betel stand or dish; a salver; such as used by great men. Charana C. 195 a foot; the root of a tree; (probably from resembling a wooden platter, and compared to a tree stump, as being used by a great man).

Charang, scarce, not often met with; far apart, with intervals between. (Batavian and Malay járang.)

Charangka, a rudely made but rather large basket for holding anything bulky, as Pad- dy, Cotton &c. &c. (Seems to be Skr; Angka, gremium, pectus; cf. Bali-angka, the womb of heroes, or the womb of offerings. Fr.)

Charéchét or Chěréchét, a bit of cloth to wipe the face with, carried hung over the shoulder. See Chěréchét.

Charéham, the after teeth, the molars, the large flat teeth in the after part of the jaw.

Charék, saying, speaking. Charék na, and he said; what a man says.

Charékan, to grumble at, to scold, to be angry with.

Charĕuh, the Viverra Musanga of Horsfield. Called in Malay Luwak, a wild animal which is fond of stealing poultry like the fox in Europe. It also feeds upon ripe Coffee, the pulp of which alone is digested, and the beans are voided clean. These are collected in the gardens, as they are of the ripest and finest description, and are called Tai Luwak or Tai Chareuh, Charĕuh voidings.

Chariang, a plant with succulent cabbagelike stem growing in moist and soft ground. Aglaonema Simplex.

Chariang Beureum, a plant; Homalonema rubrum.

(32) It is rather âchâra, an established rule of conduct, an ordinance, an institute, a precept. Wil- son. This form occurs yet in Bali , but the shortened châra has also there become the common form. Châra Bali Bali, in the way of the Balinese, according to the instates of Bali. It is translated by good Mohammedans into the Arabic adat. Fr. Charieu, a liane in the jungle, producing a long big pod, set full of seeds of size of spanish dollars. The fruit resembles Peuteui only it is much larger. Entada monostachya.

Charirang, name of a large forest tree.

Charita, a relation, a tale, a story, ancient legend. Charita and Charitra, C. 195 a fixed institute, a proper or peculiar observance, an observance, a custom, a mode. (33).

Charitakĕn, to relate, to tell the story, to narrate.

Charulang, a gramineous plant with fine seeds upon it like pin's heads; it is sometimes eaten by man, but frequently given to cage birds. The head of the plant splits into 5 — 6 or 7 divisions, and each is covered with the seeds.

Chat, the idiomatic expression of climbing, or getting up anything as a tree, a hill, the top of a house &c. Up he went. Manuk chat ka luhur imah, the bird perched upon the top of the house.

Chat, Chinese, Paint.

Chatang, a log of wood; a tree which has been cut down, and had its branches lopped off.

Chatangan, said of running water. Chai chatangan, running water, river water, sweet water as distinguished from Sea water. Chatangan is properly like a Chatang or log.

Chato, a kind of bill-hook used by natives, a bedog with square, blunt end.

Chatok, to cut a piece of wood or other material so that there comes a step or hitch in it. To notch at the end.

Chatur, dry and clean. Said of land which after having been swampy or boggy in wet weather, has become dry and firm with the return of fine weather.

Chatur, Chess, the game of chess. Said to be Sanscrit. Chatu C. 196 cheating, deceiving, misleading. [Chatur is four; the name of the game of chess is in Skr. Chaturangga, the four parts (of an army), being elephants , war-charriots, horse and foot-soldiers. Fr.)

Chatut, Tweezers. The native has often tied to the corner of his handkerchief a variety of little conveniences called collectively Ambar-ambar, and the Chatut forms one of these, with which he pulls out any hairs which may be found growing on his face or chin.

Chaung, name of a fish in the rivers; he is a filthy greedy beast, and swallows all he finds floating , which in Indian rivers is often none of the nicest, as they serve the natives for Cloacae.

Chaur, that part of the weaving apparatus which fixes to the lower part of the back of the woman who weaves, so that when she sits back she streches the web into a proper position.

(33) Charita, as a participle means also what has happened, id quod actum est; so it could be taken in the meaning of history, tale. Fr. Chaw, a plantain, called in Malay Pisang, the Musa of Botany. The mountaineer distinguish the 43 following varieties, of Chaw.

  1. Ambon, stem tall and dark coloured, fruit large and green even when ripe. One of the most common varieties.
  2. Badak, thick short tree, name means the Rhinoceros.
  3. Banténg, or wild bull which is black. Fruit short and thick; has a darkish skin, and is good for Kuéh or cooking.
  4. Buhaya, or the Alligator, has very long Jantung, reaching almost to the ground, being ripe at top and unripe below.
  5. Běulěum, or the roasting plaintain, must be either toasted or else steamed, di seupan before it is fit for use.
  6. Běusi or Iron, tree short and thick, spotted dark; fruit large and green.
  7. Burut, the hydrocele Plantain.
  8. Churuk, the forefinger.
  9. Gading, the Ivory.
  10. Gěmbor, a common variety.
  11. Hanggasah, name of a Scitameneous plant.
  12. Hihid, name of a cooking fauner.
  13. Hoih, a Ratan.
  14. Honjé, name of a Scitameneous plant.
  15. Hurang, the shrimp.
  16. Karok, one of the most common wild sorts, stem reddish.
  17. Kapas, or cotton, common, must be steamed.
  18. Kollé, the most common of the wild sorts of plantain; stem slender, and leaves smaller than those of cultivated sorts. The leaves are often striped or blotched with brown or green which gives them a very distinguished and pretty appearance in the wilderness. Its fruit is called Keu-eus, and is full of seeds. It hardly has any pulp.
  19. Kollé monyét, the monkey kollé, is a variety of No.18.
  20. Kapokan, fruit small and short, must be steamed.
  21. Kosta, properly from the coast of Coromandel.
  22. Lémpénéng, of yellowish skin, long and thin.
  23. Lubang, the eel; a very rare variety; the fruit is said to ripen in the stem before it is protruded, hence called the eel- from being in a hole.
  24. Lumut, the pulpy.
  25. Lutung, the black monkey.
  26. Manggala, Batu, Siki, Raja Gěnděng, or Kulutuk five names for same sort; common but not eatable.
  27. Mas or Golden; this is the most common of all the plantains. The fruit is small and sweet.
  28. Palémbang, common.
  29. Pinang, the areca nut.
  30. Poké, wild and like kollé.
  31. Raja, or the King, has a ruddy skin and is rather large.
  32. Raja beusi.
  33. Raja-Pandan.
  34. Raja-Pakuan, small tree and fruit. It is acidulous.
  35. Rangrang.
  36. Ruju, tree low, fruit long and thick.
  37. Sambatu, hoyas, but the individual pulp-pods are grown together, as if the fingers were glued to one another.
  38. Sěpět, green stem, tree middling size; very common and acrid.
  39. Séwu, the thousand, very small and insipid.
  40. Sukun.
  41. Susu, or milk, one of the most delioate of Plantains.
  42. Tanduk or Galék, the Horn, long fruit curved like a horn. Very common but must be toasted or steamed.
  43. Warangan, or arsenick.

Chaw Asak, the ripe plantain, name of a river fish.

Chaw Kipas, the fan Plantain, called in Malay Pisang ayer, the water plantain. Introduced from Madagascar. Ravenala Madagascarencis , formerly called Urania Speciosa. It is known in English as the „ traveller's friend" — from the quantity of water which can always be got from it.

Chawat, any cloth twisted round the loins, of which a part or slip hanging down in front is taken up, and passing between the legs is tucked in fast behind. The Chawat was probably the oply dress of natives in days of old, before they learnt the use of cotton, and the art of spinning. Sunda chawats, in old times, were no doubt made of a bit of bark as, to this day, is the case with the natives of some parts of Celebes.

Chawél, to bite or snap at- as a tiger bites at its prey.

Chawis, ready, prepared. Ceunang nyawisan, made ready.

Chaya, also heard as Chahaya, bright, brilliant. Radiance, lustre. Ch'haya, C. 203. an image or picture. The wife of the sun. Radiance, beauty, splendour; lustre. (See Chahaya; which means also shade).

Chayur, a forest tree, Pterospermum Lanceofolium. Makes good planks.

Chayut, a temporary sort of basket made of the leaves of any palm tree platted together.

Chě, used only with na after it, and thus as Chena, he said, said he.

Chěb, the idiomatic expression of sticking in, as a stake in the ground, a needle in cloth or the like. Cheb bai di pager, he stuck a fence round it. Cheb bai di kaput, he sewed it up.

Chěblok, the idiomatic expression of slapping a post or large stake into a hole in the ground, in which it is to be set. Imah cheblok, a house made of posts stuck in the ground and made in a hurry, not set togeter carefully with joist work.

Chěbluk, to splash in water; to make a hollow sound by slapping water.

Chěcharékan, a vow; some obligation which a man has put himself under when in difficulty or in sickness, to make some offering or do some act, in case he gets well.

Chěchémpé, a small nyiru or flat rice basket. A small bambu tray to shake or clean rice or any other grain on.

Chěchéndét, a small skein of Haramai threads of the thickness of a man's thumb.

Chěchépéh, a small nyiru, or flat rice basket.

Chěchěrahkĕun, to cause to split or crack. See Chěrah.

Chěcho-élan, anything eaten as Cho-èl, which see. Greens eaten with Sambel.

Chěcho-oan, any living animal or even person whom we have in keeping, which we keep for work &c.

Chéda, a scar, the mark of a wound. (Skr. Ch'héda, cutting, dividing; ch'hidra, hole, perforation).

Chěgah, to warn against, to forbid, to give orders that some act shall not be done; to restrain, to hinder.

Chégér, a bit of young jungle cut down and planted with paddy; a small humah made in young forest. A small paddy plantation in addition to some greater piece of cultivation.

Chéhchéran, to drop out grain by grain, like rice out of a torn bag.

Chékchok, chattering, much petty talk; grumbling and snappish at each other in conversation

Chěkék, to throttle a man or animal; to size by the collar or neck; to kill by tightening anything about the neck. Figuratively to oppress, to deal hardly with.

Chěkě1, to hold, to lay hold of, to seize, to arrest; to hold in reserve; to have in hand, to manage, to administer.

Chěkělan, anything which we hold, or administer; administration.

Chékér, a sort of diminutive of Chokor which see. The foot of a small animal , a small paw.

Chěkong, said of wood which is not cut or planed even ; a post with unevenness in its surface.

Chĕl, the idiomatic expression of flower or grain coming out and expanding.

Chěladi, a woodpecker; the bird woodpecker; Picus in varieties, hasup ka liang cheladi , it went into the woodpecker's hole.

Chělaka, a calamity, ill- luck, misfortune, an affliction; disastrous; a wretch. Kahullaka, C. 157, low, vile, mean, wicked, malicious, abandoned. (34).

(34) Chala, trembling, tremulous, unfixed or unsteady; as substantive also trembling, shaking; fem. Chalâ the goddess of fortune. Here from is dirived Chalaka, which means with reference to things, a trembling, unfixed state, and referring to man, an unsteady person shaken by every accident. The ě in stead of a for reason of the accent, and also of the following l. Fr. Chělana, trousers, such as reach down to the ankles; pantaloons. Chulna, short knee trousers. Moorés Pantheon.

Chělécher, any mark or sign set up in the ground in marking out work. A bit of cut and stuck in the ground for the purpose of a mark.

Chělěguk — Chělěgok, said of fish which keep coming up to the surface of water to draw breath, and then go down again immediatly.

Chělék, the act of getting on, jumping upon, seated, perched. Chelék ka na kuda, he jumped on a horse.

Chéléng, a pig, swine; properly Javanese, but occasionally used along with so many other names by which the people designate the arch- enemy of their cultivation.

Chělochchor, to plant seeds, especially paddy, in drills or rows.

Chě1ong, not full, deficient in quantity; said of any measure or receptacle which has been partly emptied; gaping.

Chěluk, cry, call. Cheluk na harus, his call is loud.

Chělukan, to call, to send for.

Chěmbawul, a variety of Chokrom or Solanum Melongena, of which it has a similarly indented leaf. The fruit of the Chěmbawul is as big as a common apple or usual sized orange, being also round: it has an appley substance for fruit containing a few small seeds in the middle.

Chembul, showing grey; Chembul bai huwis, he shows quite grey in the head.

Chénang, a scab, over a wound or sore place.

Chěndana, Sandal wood; Santalum album. Chandana C. 194. Sandal. It implies either the tree, the wood or the unctuons preparations of the wood held in high esteem as perfumes.

Chěndil, a large wart or excrescence growing on the skin. A lump of skin and flesh growing out unnaturally on any part of the body.

Chěndukul, squatting in a heap, cowered down by oneself, from grief or trouble.

Chěng'al, a large forest tree which gives a gum. The bark of this tree is used for putting in the bambus which collect the toddy from Palm trees to make Sugar, as it prevents the juice from souring.

[wikt:chénggéh|Chénggéh]], a term of relationship, see the word Bauh. Also called Changgah.

Chénggéh, another name for Changchorang which see. A mantis.

Chĕngkal, to prop up, or prop open anything, as the lid of a box, a piece of atap in a roof to admit temporary light, or the like.

Chěngkar, dry upland soil, in contradistinction to swamp. Sawah chengkar, Sawahs made on upland soil which can be irrigated.

Chéngké, cloves- the spice cloves. Myrtus Caryophyllus, or Caryophyllus Aromatica, or Caryophyllum Aromaticum. Theng-hio, cloves in Chinese, literally odoriferous nails, supposed to be the original from which the natives have made Chéngké. The Chinese having of old traded for this spice. See Crawfurds Indian Archipelago Vol 1 Page 497. The clove in some dialects is known by the name of Bung'a lawang. Lawanga, C. 605, the clove tree. The English word Cloves is evidently a modification of the French Cloux, as heard in Cloux de girofle. The Dutch call this article Nagelen, nails, so that all nations appear to have agreed to call this fruit by the name of nails, from the resemblance which it bears to that small iron article.

Chéngkél, hair which has got interwoven and frizzled together so that you cannot comb it straight.

Chěngkir, a young Cocoa nut which has not yet got any pulp.

Chěngkir, a variety of Mangga so called.

Chénténg, a watchman, a guard; this word is probably of Chinese origin.

Chéntong, a large spoon, a ladle; a mason's trowel.

Chéntrang, clear, transparent, unclouded. Lang'it chéntrang an unclouded sky. Chéntrang ka barat, it is clear towards the west.

Chĕpak, level as land; a level place.

Chěpat, in a straight, unswerving direction. Seems to correspond with the Malay Tepat, a term annexed to the East and West points of the compas. Marsden P. 77. Chepat bai ka barat, straight towards the west. Chepat bai ka na tangkal kalapa, straight on towards the Cocoa nut tree.

Chépat, to cut off, to lop off small branches. To cut through or off at one stroke.

Chěpěl, adhesive, clammy.

Chépér, flat, not curved or very slightly so. Flat like a flat dish or waiter.

Chěpět. quick, active. Be quick! look sharp!

Chěpuk, a small brassbox; a cup with a cover, generally found on a betle stand and containing tobacco.

Chěrah, split, gaping a little; a crack.

Chěré, a variety of Paddy which grows with little water and will thrive in bad land or where better sorts fail, but the grain shakes easily from the straw.

Chěréchét, a handkerchief which is worn hung over the shoulder, often with Seureuh materials or the like tied up in one corner of it.

Chěrědik, wide awake; unfairly taking advantage of another's ignorance. Shrewd, acute.

Chěrělěng, squirting out, as a liquid tapped out of any vessel, or juice flowing naturally, from a tree or plant.

Chěrěmé, a tree and its fruit. Cicca nodiflora.

Chěrěmé, name of the great mountain of Cheribon, high 9731 Rhineland feet.

Chérét, the splash of water.

Chěrét, to scribble, to write; indicative of scratching marks or writing on anything, as paper, a bit of bambu &c. Cherét bai di tulisken, and scribbling he wrote it down.

Chěréwét, quarrelsome, finding fault about every little trifle; a matter of dispute. Chés, the idiomatic expression of cutting an animal's throat.

Chětik, millet, a kind of grain. Sorghum.

Chětok, a variety of Dudukui or native bambu hat, made somewhat like a haseupan or rice boiler; not very broad but deep, and much used for boiling water, being of a shape which makes it serviceable as a bucket.

Chěucěub, nettled, taking offence at; inwardly vexed with.

Chěuděm, cloudy, overcast, threatening to rain.

Chěuli, the ear. Chûlikâ, C. 200, the root of an Elephants ear.

Chěuli Badak, literally Rhinoceros ear Opuntia polyantha; the Cactus plant on which Cochineal are kept.

Chěuli Wangking, name for a Rhinoceros.

Chěumpal, to take up anything dirty or disgusting in a leaf, a bit of paper, or other object, so as not to dirty the fingers.

Chěumpal, to surrender, to submit.

Chěuri, the name of an inferior sort of wild Mangosteen. Garcenia Dioica.

Chěurik, to cry, to weep.

Chi, a contraction of the word Chai, water or river. As Chi it is used in composition and prefixed to the names of rivers, as Chidani, Chidurian &c.

Chianjur, mostly heard pronounced short Chanjur. The seat of the Resident of the Prianger Regencies, and a large native town. The word is compounded of Chi, river; and Anjur an instrument, vide voce. Probably so called from the river being small and within the compass of being baled out.

Chiantěn, a river which after running between the Champéa and Lui Liang Estates falls into the Chidani. Anta, C. 32 a boundary, a limit; final, ultimate, and sometimes death. Chi-anta-an, Chiantan or Chiantěn, Boundary river; or Yanta to go, the infinitive mood of the verb Yanawah, go Chi Yantan, would denote, the far- going river, and would then have a parity of meaning with Chidurian.

Chichariwan, also Chachariwan, the knee-pan.

Chichékolan, the hollow at back of the knee.

Chichiap, a variety of fig tree, Ficus leucopleura.

Chichibluk, to splash in water, by striking with the hand, or by flinging in a stone.

Chichikěn, to pour out, especially a liquid, to spill about; to pour from one vessel to another.

Chiching, quiet, not moving; the order- Stand still! dwelling. Di mana sia chiching, where do you dwell.

Chichiriwis-an, impudent, insolent in speech, foul-mouthed.

Chidani, name of the river of Buitenzorg, called also Chi Sidani. The natives may have given the river the name of Widani which would be the feminine of Widana, as flowing past and from their ancient Capital of Pajajaran, and being the main river of this part of the country. For the meaning of Wi, see voce. Dan, C. 255/6 a gift, adonation, an offering; Paddy; clothing to cover the Pudendum muliebre; the name of a tree (Calyptranthes) of which there are several species and yield a fruit much eaten by the natives. Dana, C. 256, riches, wealth, property, possessions; people, mankind; birth, origin. Chi Sidani; the Si may be the ordinary Sunda preposition which see: and in this case prefixed to the feminine of Dana = Dani. Sidani, she who gives wealth, prosperity, by inundating the rice fields in the neighbourhood of the old capital of Pajajaran, where tradition relates that the first Sawahs were made, and it will be seen above that one of the acceptations of Dan is Paddy, and in this sense Chi-Si-Dani would be the river which gives or has, produces or appertains to Paddy. The Hindu people who cut the Sanscrit inscription on the rock on Jambu, at Pasir Koléangkak, might have introduced the system of irrigated rice-lands, and called so large a river as the one in question Si Dani, or her of the Paddy, personifying the river which gave the water, as the grain-producer or Ceres. Dhani, C. 298, is a rich and opulent man, and Chidhani or Chi-Si-Dani would be the river typical of opulence either from irrigating the land or from admitting foreign traders at its mouth. (Dânin, Nominative case dânî, would be possessing, affording gifts. Fr).

Chiduh, spittle, saliva.

Chiduhan, to spit upon with contempt.

Chidurian, The name of the great river of Jasinga. It rises very far back amongst the Kěndang mountains, and discharges itself into the sea at Chikando near Tanara. The etymon of the word cannot be Durian, the fruit so called in Malay, Durio Zibethinus as this, in the Country through which it flows, is called Kadu. As however, in the Mountainous part of the Country where it exists, many Sanscrit names are used to designate the objects of nature, as districts and mountains, so also perhaps a Sanscrit origin must be sought for to elucidate its meaning. Dura, C. 282, far, distant, remote. , C. 572 going, proceeding. Ya is the crude form of the verb Yanawa to go, and forms Yanta to go, Yana, going: thus Dura-yana, and with suppression of the final vowel, Dura-yan, would be the river which goes remotely, which has a long course, and which will apply very well to this river which travels, in the early part of its route, through such distant and sequestered mountain ravines. The transition from Dura-yan to Durian or Duriyan with a people who were not conscious of the etymon of the word, would be very easy, and is heard also similarly in Mada-yoni = Madion.

Chih, a word of contempt, for shame! Pshaw! fie!

Chihujan, rain water.

Chik, the idiomatic expression of interrogation; how now? how is it to be? a persuasive interrogatory, as we would say, come! Chik kumaha? come! how is it to be. Chik also means, said, affirmed as Chik batur, my companion said so. Chika, gripes in the stomach; any sudden and violent pain in the stomach.

Chika-chika, the fire-fly. Elater noctilucus.

Chikal, the first born, the eldest child; the first or prime of anything; one of the chief divinities of the Badui is called Chikal.

Chikaniki, name of a river which flows from the Gunung Kěndang over the Nanggung and Jambu Estates, into the Chidani. Kaniki is not Sunda, so we are driven to attempt an etymology in Sanscrit. Kanyaka, C. 104, a girl, a maiden. The word is further rendered female by making it termate in i. Chikanyaki = Chikanikī, maiden river. See voce Kaniki. (Kanî means also a girl, Kanika is very small; cf. kana and kanaka (both with the cerebral n) small. Only a form kaniki or kaniki seems not to exist in Sanskrit. Fr.)

Chikénéh, just now, a short time ago.

Chiki-ih, piddle, urine, stale. Also some liquid compounds especially for soaking thread which has to be dyed; a mordant in this latter sense.

Chikuah, name of the ingredients for dying thread of a red colour, after they have been boiled together.

Chikur, an aromatic plant of which the root is much used when bruised in all native medicine. Kaemferia Galanga, called in malay Kěnchur.

Chiladaěun, name of a river in Bantam falling into the Chibérang. See Ladaeun. It is warmer than the Chibérang.

Chilěgok, holding open the mouth, pouring in water and swallowing it as it falls.

Chilénod, swept away by water, floated away.

Chilěpot, just done, just let go, this instant finished. Just started.

Chilětu, said of paddy when just a few heads or ears begin to show themselves. In the act of coming into ear.

Chilěuh, the mucous matter which forms in the eye.

Chilěungchang, rain water on the surface of the ground; rain water which soon drains away.

Chilěungchangan, said of rain which has been hard enough to run on the surface of the ground.

Chilik, a petty mandor in Bantam. Chili, little in Javanese. (Chilik is also Javanese Fr.)

Chilingching, a liane or creeper in the jungle, lasts well in water.

Chimata, a tear, literally „water of the eye".

Chimata-an, crying, literally „giving out water from the eye".

China, a Chinaman; the country China.

Chinchang, to chop, to cut in small pieces.

Chinchěratan, a species of Nauclea; a good timber tree.

Chinchin, a ring, either to wear on the finger, or for any other purpose.

Chindawa, Saltpetre. Chindawa is probably a corruption of Sindudbhawa, C. 734 rock salt, derived from Sindu C. 733 the ocean, the sea, the Indus; the Countrv along the Indus, or Sindh: and Udbhawa, P. 820 produced: abbreviated into the more smooth shape of Chindawa. It is called Sindawa, and Chendawan in Malay. (The more simple form in Skr. is Saindhawa, a patronymic from Sindhu, originating from Sindhu. We should prefer to derive Chindawa from Saindhawa. Fr.)

Chindé, a variety of cloth with peculiar pattern used for belts. Name of a pretty red flower, called also Kapas-chindé, from the cottony shape of the fibres of the seeds.

Ching, an interrogative particle, how now? come tell me? what say you?

chinggir, the little finger.

Chingkĕd, awkwardly walking in fits and starts.

Chingkir, a young Cocoa nut which has not yet got a hard shell.

Chinta, to love, to have a tender regard for. Chintaya, C. 199, reflection, consideration, thought, meditation. [Chinta Skr. id., it has got the meaning love, in the same way as the Latin cura. F.)

Chipamali, name of a river in Tagal, which was of old the boundary between the Sunda and Javanese districts. It means the river of Prohibition, or which it is sacredly forbidden to pass.

Chipansalu, name of a place near Bandong in the Prianger Regencies, where Mr. Junghuhn in August 1843 discovered some images of Siwa. Chi, Sunda, river. Pansilu, C. 345, one of the celestial choristers or a musician of Swarga. A name of Siwa. A name of Wiswakarma, C. 666 from Wiswa, universal, Karmma, act, action; the son of Brahma, and artist of the gods; the Sun. (Pânçula, Wilson; a name of Siwa; a weapon of Siwa.)

Chipati, called in Malay Santĕn. A milky matter got from the maceration of rasped Cocoa nut.

Chirěbon, name of a Residency in Java. Chi, river: Rebon, small shrimps. See voce.

Chiri, mark, sign, a mark by which anything may be again recognized.

Chirian, to put a mark upon.

Chis, the idiomatic expression of contempt. Said when the speaker wishes to express disgust.

Chisapu, the water of burnt paddy straw, which is used as a lye; also much used in washing the head of hair, which it cleanses. (At Batavia the Javanese word měrang is used for paddy straw to be burnt for the above said purpose.)

Chisusu, milk; literally water of the nipple. Milk is also frequently called Susu alone, which means nipple or teat.

Chita, Chintz, a printed cloth so called. Chitra, C. 198 a painting, delineation, writing &c.

Chita, an affection of the mind, sensibility, sometimes used with Duka as Chita-duka, sadness, melancholy. Chitta, C. 198 the mind or faculty of reasoning, the heart considered as the seat of intellect, thought, conception.

Chitak, to cast in a mould, as iron or bricks, to mould, to impress, to print as a book or a cloth. Chitakan, anything that has undergone the proces of moulding. A mould, a form, a casting.

Chitrěs, compassion; condescending and friendly feeling towards any one.

Chium, to kiss, or rather take a sniff at any one, as natives would do all over the Archipelago, the nose rather than the mouth being the organ in requisition. Even the distant natives of New-Zealand seem to salute each other in a similar way, which is called Ong'i, rubbing of noses. The word Chium is probably derived from Simbima or Simbinawa to kiss, C. 734. The latter syllables of these words are constructive parts peculiar to the Singhalese language. (Skr. Chumb, to kiss; Chumbana, kissing.)

Chiung, the name of a bird usually called by Europeans a Minor. This bird is black, with some white in the wings, and has a yellow flap or earlike appendage hanging down on each side of the head. This bird is easily taught to talk and the word Chiung is a representation of its usual cry. It is called about Batavia, Béo. In Sumatra it is called mina, Marsden Page 343. Gracula religiosa. (At Bali he is called Siung).

Chiung wanara, a character in ancient Javanese history, connected with the foundation of Majapahit and Pajajaran, and brother of Ariya Banga. He settled at Pajajaran. Raffles Vol. 2 Page 100. Wanara, C. 621 a monkey, from Wana a forest Rama to play, what plays in the forest, and thus in this case must be the Chiung which delights in the forest. As a young lad he was known as ki Jaka. As an infant he had been, like Moses set adrift on a river, either the Krawang or the Chitandui, in order to get rid of him. See Banyak wědi. (Wanara is derived from wana by the affix ra; foresta forester).

Chiwit, to pinch a bit off, to take a small bit off anything by nipping it off with the nails,

Choba, to try, to make an attempt or effort, to endeavour.

Chobong, a whore, a woman of bad fame.

Chochéng, scabby, any wound producing ichorous matter.

Chocho, to press down with the end of the finger, to stick the end of the finger against anything.

Chochog, hit heavily against with the foot; struck endways with a stick or piece of wood. Rammed down.

Chochok, to stop up, to bung up; a stopper, a bung; anything put into an aperture to close it, as a cork in a bottle or a wisp of straw or leaves stuffed into a bambu &c.

Chochong'o-an, the upper and thin ends of sticks or bambus cut off. A derivative from Chong'o which see.

Chochopét, the ear- wig insect. Forficula.

Chochorot, a sort of pastry of the consistency of hasty-puddiug, much eaten by the natives.

Cho-él, young and delicate leaves or vegetables eaten mostly uncooked with rice; a little red pepper is generally nipped up with the leaves before they are stuffed into the mouth, and are called Cho-él sambĕl.

Chohai, a frog which is sometimes found in houses, and which has the power of sticking to a perpendicular wall.

Chokél, to dig or scratch out with a bit of stick or iron; to dig down or into a small hole by stamping something into it.

Chokolada, European, The Cacao tree, Theobroma Cacao. Chocolate.

Chokor, the foot, the paw, particularly of a beast; when applied to the foot of a man, which is often the case, it conveys and idea of indignity put upon the man who owns the foot. (At Bali it is a honourable name for foot; there from comes Chokor-da, your foot, cf. Jav. sampéyan, a title given to the highest Râjas. Fr.)

Chokot, to take, to lay hold of. Lay hold!

Chokrah, to make a hole in a bank of earth, in a bit of wood, or any other substance, by scooping out or twirling a knife in it.

Chokrék, small sticks for fuel, small firewood.

Chokrom, the egg-plant, Solanum melongena. Called Térong in Malay.

Cholat, a white mark or star on a horse's forehead.

Chologor, the seed branch of an Arén or Kawung tree whilst yet young and unfit to be used for tapping to gather toddy to make sugar. Such seed branches, which after properly beating and preparing refuse to give toddy are called Chologor.

Cholok, shoved in between; inserted in; jammed into; to insert an instrument into an aperture. Mata na kacholok ku awi, his eye got run into by a bambu.

Cholong, to steal, to take covertly, to abstract.

Cholongchong, a bambu conical basket in which tame pigs are caught and transported.

Chomas, name of a place, amongst others of an Estate near Buitenzong. Evidently compounded of Chi, river, and Omas, the name of a variety of Rattan, or it may be an abbreviation of Katomas, the gold and green leaved Justicia.

Chomas, heard in Hanjuang chomas, a variety of Justica and is probably an abbreviation of Katomas.

Chomblang, a pimp, a procuress.

Chombrang, an unexpanded head- bud of the Honje, Geanthus speciosus.

Chomél, grumbling dissatisfied; to murmur.

Chomot, a lump, a pinch of anything taken in the fingers.

Chomplong, a small tin measure in which salt is retailed; considerably less than a gantang; of various sizes.

Chondong, inclined, tottering, about to fall.

Chongchot, said of rice cooked by steaming, and just as turned out of the bambu steamer. Rice which has not undergone the process of Akĕul which see.

Chonggang, deficient, as if something had been taken out or away.

Chongklang, to gallop, to trot, run away quickly as animals.

Chongkok, name of a plant, Curculigo latifolia.

Chongkok, some small kinds of tigers or panthers are also called Chongkok. (The machan chongkok is not larger than a wild cat.)

Chongkok, is also the name of a tree, otherwise called Hamběrĕuta.

Chong'o, the extremity of a branch; the branches or the small upper end of a tree or of a bambu, in contradistinction to the lower and thick end which is called Puhu.

Chonto, a muster, a sample, a pattern, a model.

Cho-o, to have in keeping, to give food and wages to servants or labourers. To keep and feed animals for use. To keep as a garden , or more properly the plants therein. To look after and keep in order. Kěbo kudu di cho-o, Buffaloes must be taken care of. Kěbon di cho-o deui, the garden is again kept in order.

Chop, the idiomatic expression of a thorn, needle or anything sharp running into any part of the body. Aduh chop loba chuchuk, mercy on us how the thorns prick.

Choplok, fallen out, displaced, separated from its usual position.

Chopong, having a hole through, open, gaping, not shut.

Chopot, fallen out, displaced; of the same meaning as Choplok but not quite so strong.

Choréham, the jaws, the chaps; the after teeth, the molars otherwise also called Charéham.

Chorét, to make a mark or streak; a mark made by way of a tally to daub in streaks.

Chorogol, a large tree; a variety of wild Rambutan or Tundem which later word see.

Chorok, to stick in or between, as a carrying stick into anything that has to be carried on the shoulders. Pachorok, taken by mistake, confounded.

Chorong, to pass through a funnel.

Chorongan, a funnel.

Chos, the idiomatic expression of shoving in, or inserting one thing within another. Chos di adukĕn, and he shoved them into one another.

Chowak, an opening cut in a forest orjungle, as where a road might pass through; a gap.

Chowéné, a young marriageable woman; a maidenhead. Yowwana, C. 578, youth, manhood; an assemblage of young women. The Sunda word looks like a corruption of this expression made feminine.

Chu, Chinese, ardent spirits , arrack.

Chua, not pleasing, not convinced, of no avail, disappointed.

Chuan, D'ont, be sure not to; also frequently used as Pachuan which see. Chuan aya nu nyokot, be sure that no body takes any.

Chubit, to pinch, to nip.

Chubluk, a pit fall; a hole dug in the earth and lightly covered over with branches &c. into which any wild animal will fall if he steps upon it, especially Rhinoceroses. Chuchuk, thorns, sharp spines on plants, or in the gills of some fish.

Chuchunduk, flowers or ornaments stuck in the handkerchief above the ear, when worn by men. See Wiraga.

Chuchung'uk, a cock-roach, a variety of the cock-roach insect.

Chuchurut, the musk rat, called in Malay Chinchurit. Chunchu, Cuchichundari, C. 200, the muskrat. (At Batavia Chrurut).

Chuchut, a shark, which are very large and very plentiful in the seas round Java.

Chuhchur, a variety of kuéh or native pastry.

Chuhchur, a bird which makes a loud noise, particularly on moonlight nights, sounding like a carpenter dubbing or squaring a piece of wood, to which the natives compare it. A Goat-sucker. Podargus Javanensis of Horsfield.

Chuka, vinegar. Chukra, C. 200, sour, acid; acid seasoning; also the Tamarind tree; sorrel. Chuka in Sanscrit is vinegar, Crawfurd's dessertation Page 117. (?).

Chukang, a bridge. Anything as a stick or bambu laid across running water or a gap, over which a man may pass.

Chukangkang, a liane in the forest. Hoya multiflora.

Chuk-chelok, first in one place and then in another; often removing or changing place of abode. Erratic.

Chuké, tax or toll paid to government. The proportion of the crop which a landholder gathers in kind, as the corp comes off the ground.

Chukit, to put or yoke an animal especially a buffaloe , to a cart or plough , and start him off.

Chukul, getting what one wants; abundantly rewarded, successful.

Chukup, sufficient in number, or quantity; complete-Possessing the means to accomplish any end.

Chukupkĕn, to supply all that is wanted, to complete.

Chukup-lumur, hushing up a story, or impleasant occurrence. Hayang ménta chukup-lumur bai, I am desirous of having the matter hushed up.

Chukur, to shave. Péso-chukur, a knife to shave; a razor.

Chul, the idiomatic expression of throwing away or abandonning; of letting go anything which we hold. Chul bai di picheun and away he ftung it.

Chula, a Rhinoceros horn, or any single horn projecting from the snout. An opprobrious name for a good for nothing fellow. Chula, C. 200, a lock of hair left on the crown of the head; a crest; a peacock's crest (35).

Chulak-chilĕk, staring about; peeping and peering every where. Confused and looking wildly in all directions without knowing what to do.

(35) Chûdâ (with cerebral d which in pronounciation resembles to l) has in Skr. the meanings given by Clough, besides that of top, summit etc. Fr. Chulak-tanggul, name of a tree which is often found parasitically growing upon some other tree. Aralia Kigida.

Chulaméga, the dregs of Cocoa nut pulp from which oil has been expressed or boiled out. (Megha, is a cloud, originally making water!?)

Chulan, Aglaia odorata, name of a shrub with bunches of small flower buds, which are laid amongst clothes. The plant is orginally Chinese who call it Chiulan, and is mixed with tea.

Chulanggok, lifting and darting forward the head, as a snake, bird or animal about to bite or start off.

Chulik, a fabulous or fancied animal or bird heard at night time in trees, and thought to forbode evil. It is no doubt some night- bird which has a sharp shrill cry. The natives have also an idea that the eyes of children buried in any dam or water-works will ensure their not giving way or breaking down , and men who go about the country for the sake of gouging children for this purpose are called Chulik. They are much talked about and much dreaded, but a real actual occurrence of the kind never came within my knowledge, even during a 12 years residence amongst the natives.

Chumah, of no use, useless, helpless.

Chumanggah, said of young growing paddy when it first gets two leaves.

Chumbu, to fondle, to caress, to pet. Chumbana, C. 200, to kiss, kissing. (Vide Chium.)

Chumi-Chumi, the cuttle fish, Loligo.

Chumplung, a Cocoanut which has been eaten by the squirrels, and is thus empty.

Chumpon, just sufficient for any purpose; sufficient and none over.

Chunduk, obeying, submitting to, reverencing. Chunduk ka ratu, sacha ka ménak, submitting to the king, cleanbreasted with the nobles.

Chunduk, arrived at, come up to the time. Geus chunduk ka bulan na we have arrived at the month.

Chungchurungan, the rump bone, the fundament.

Chunia, a variety of cargo boat. It is Chinese Shun a boat.

Chupang, name of a fish, found especially in pounds; it is somewhat like Gurami, but much smaller.

Chuplak-chéplak, smacking the lips in eating; enjoying what is eaten.

Chupu, a small metal vase or case with a circular lid fitting to it; often used for holding part of the siri engredients, as Tobacco &c. A casket.

Chupu, a variety of Mangga so called.

Chur, the idiomatic expression of pouring out water, grain, sand or any thing that will run; said also of rain; Chur hujan, and down the rain came. Chur di chichiken, and out he poured it.

Churi, to steal. Chowri C. 201. Stealing, theft. (36).

(36) Skr. Chur to steal; Chium and chur are two of the few words taken from the Sanskrit, which Churug, a water-fall, a cascade. A word compounded of Chai, water, and urug, to tumble down.

Churuk, the fore-finger; any finger of the hand.

Churuk bugang, the middle finger, literally the carcass finger. Also called Si Jangkung, the long chap.

Churuluk, the fruit bearing stem of the Kawung Palm tree, in contradistinction to the other fructication stem called Leungan or hand, which does not bring its fruit to perfection, but which gives abundance of toddy, which is with difficulty extracted from the Churuluk for the purpose of making Sugar. The small nuts which grow on the Churuluk stem are also known by the name of Churuluk. The Churuluk is thus most probably the female, and the lĕung'an the male part of the Palm.

Chut, the idiomatic expression of disappearing, of vanishing.

Chutak, a small division of a Country; the officer over such division.

Contents: Preface A B C D E G H I J K L M N O P R S T U W Y Errata


Dachin, the Chinese steelyard for weighing pikuls, catties and tails. It is on the principle of the steelyard of Europe, but made of wood.

Dada, the breast. Dada, C. 254 the belly.

Dadak, to do any work hurriedly, to improvise, to get up on the spur of the moment. Pagawéan ari ngarah pageuh ulah di dadak, If you want strong work, do not do it hurriedly.

Dadali, called in Javanese Kedhali; a variety of swallow which collect in flocks on sunny afternoons. It roosts in caverns of limestone rock, and is often mistaken for the Kapindis or the swallow which makes the edible bird's-nests. The nest of the Dadali is not eatable. It is also different from the Walét or house swallow.

Dadampar, a stand, as a tray for tea-things, the saucer of the cup, and the like. (Also a seat).

Dadap, a tree, the Erythrina Indica. This tree is planted in Java among coffee trees for the sake of its shade ; it grows quickly from cuttings.

Dadara, said of the female young of animals which have not yet borne young. Not said of human beings. See Dara.

Dadas, clean swept away, or taken away so as to expose the bottom of anything, or lay it bare- as earth cleared away from the surface of rock. Bendungan geus dadas sakali kadasar, the dam is swept clean away to the bottom.

Dadaulatan, to venture, to make an effort, to try. To trust one's luck. Derived from the Arabic word Daulat, prosperity, welfare, fortune.

are not Derivata (Substantiva) in that language, but the real roots. For tehe sake of pronounciation is of Chumb the b dropped (it appears again in chumbu, where it is not final) and an i inserted; in churi an i is added to the naked form of the Skr. Chur. It will bw not easy to find much more such roots in the Polynesian languages, but they show, what the people of India once attempted, when they brought their language into the Archipelago. Fr. Dadaun, that part of a kris sheath, which sits cross ways and holds the broad hilt of the kris; it is often curled up in an ornamental manner.

Dadawuhan, to have periods, or be subject to periodicity, as a tree which becomes bare when it changes its leaves. A period when any particular fruit comes into season. Said also of birds which appear to migrate, and are only seen at certain seasons, as snipe, or plover. (At Bali it means the measuring of time by a kind of clepsydra).

Dadu, Dice; Mata-dadu, Dice pattern, said of a cloth with pattern in small squares. Portuguese Dados, dice. Dadu is also Singhalese. C. 265, a kind of nut or large seed used as dice in playing a certain game. The Singhalese, no doubt, have the word also from the Portuguese.

Dadung, a thick rope for tying a buffalo.

Dadut, weighty, bunchy and large.

Daftar, Arabic, a list, inventory, register. (A word of Persian origin, introduced into Arabic. Freytag).

Dagang, to trade, to buy and sell. Tukang dagang, a merchant, a trader.

Dagangan, merchandise, goods for sale. Anything which we wish other people to take over from us, as to adopt our views &c. A choice of alternatives,

Dagangkĕn, to put up for sale, to expose for sale. To try to induce other people to join our views and do as we do.

Dagé, the fruit of any tree, as of Cocoanut, Pichung, or of the pulse called Kachang, which is set aside to mellow and soften or even to partly rot, as in the case of the cocoanut, that the oil, by such process, may be easily separated, Pulp.

Daging, flesh, animal substance. The grain of wood.

Daging, a variety of mangga so called.

Dago, to wait, to tarry, Di dago wat to datang, we waited but he did not come, Kami kudu di dagoān, you must wait for me.

Dagoan, to wait for any one

Dagor, hit, struck, rapped. Dagorkĕn, to rap, to strike.

Daha, name of an ancient kingdom of Java, of which the capital was in the province of Kĕdiri, called in Javanese Doho. It was one of the numerous petty states , into which Java was divided , on the death of Déwa Kasuma in the 9th century. Daha, C. 263 a lake or pond in which the lotus grows.

Dahar, to eat, to partake of; a fine expression and said of great men's eating. Kiai ĕukĕur dahar, the old gentleman is taking refreshment.

Dahdar, presents of clothes, of eatables &c, but not of money.

Daheuan, a brother or sister of our wife, who is older than her.

Dahi, as di dahi, to cut and trim the eyebrows, as young coquette native girls do.

Dahu, period, precise time, the moment when anything is to occur. Gens datang ka da-ku na, its time had come. (See above Dadawuhan).

Dahu, name of a tree, Dracontomelon mangiferum, formerly called Paupertia Dulcis.

Daik, to be willing, to wish to, to will. Daik ka mana, where are you going to? Daik balik, I am going back.

Daik-daik, malicious, willingly doing wrong, wayward.

Daik-kĕn, to be willing,

Dairah, ar: Circuit, region, province; district, jurisdiction.

Dak-děk, the idiomatic expression of being actively employed on any work. Dak also alone sometimes occurs.

Daki, scurf, dandriff, any dust or foulness about the skin, such as the foulness which collects in a currycomb after being used on a horse. The dust which adheres to rice or other grain after pounding or grinding.

Dalang, the man who recites the story at a Wayang. A Bard.

Dalapan, Eight; literally „two folded down", see lep. Dualěpan = Dalapan. (Another derivation is from dua and alapan „taking away two" (from ten); herewith corresponds salapan „taking away one", which is used in Sundanese for nine Fr.)

Dalapanblas- Eighteen.

Dalapanpuluh, Eighty.

Dalěm or dalam, a title of respect for a high native, such as a Regent, and as such is prefixed to their name of rank , as Dalem Adipati, DaLem Tumunggung. Such men of rank are also spoken of familiarly as the Dalem, and the word Padaleman implies the place where the Dalem lives. Dalem is no doubt the same as Malay Dalam, within as in the estimation of natives, inner arrangements or a withdrawal from public view is considered consistent with a great man's dignity.

Dalěm, as dalem, individually, distributively , within the compass of. Didalem sa orang kabagian sapatong séwang individually each man got a little bit. Didalem is also Malay, and in that language implies, in, within, as well as the meaning attached to it in Sunda, The Sunda people retain the word only in a sort of metaphorical sense, as given above, and use di jero for in, within.

Dalil, ar: proof, argument; guide, direction. This is not a word in common use, still it is not unknown. Many years ago a scoundrell who caused a disturbance in Bantam had himself called Pangeran Adipati Dalil, the Pangeran Adipati who is a Guide.

Dalima, the pomegranate, Punica granatum. Darima, C. 259 an kind of pome granate. (Dâlima, with cerebral d, is the Sanscrit word.)

Dalu, rotten with ripeness, over- ripe.

Daluang or Daluwang, paper. Probably originally the bark of certain trees macerated and used for clothing as in the South seas, or used as paper, as is still the case in a few places in Java, as in Madiun. Daluwa, C. 260 The young shoot of the leaf, a bud. Is this the young shoots of the Palm leaf used for writing on , with ng suffixed ?

Dalung, a copper cooking pot, short and round, not tall like the sé-éng. Damar, rosin, dammar. A torch, a candle, a bundle of split bambus used as a flambeau. Dummala, C, 77 a kind of resin.

Damaran, to throw light upon, to bring a damar to light up a place.

Damé, peace, tranquillity, friendly feeling between parties. To do anything with mutual understanding , of one accord.

Dampa, the munchang or kamiri fruit, when there are two stones in one fruit. See Géudul. A game of chance depending upon the number of stones in one fruit.

Dampal, the sole of the foot; the palm of the hand. Dampal suku, sole of the foot; Dampal leungan, palm of the hand.

Dampar, a throne, a royal seat.

Dampas, to cut off even with the ground, as the stump of a tree.

Dang, a designation for a young female attendant about great people. Heard only in Pantuns as Dayang Dang, a damsel who is a handmaid; a maid of honour.

Dang'ah, looking upwards towards heaven; resupine; with the head and eyes stretched upwards.

Dangdãnan, to construct, to build, to form in order; to dress, to put on accoutrements. Preparations. Pidangdaneun, materials.

Dangdang, to clear a space in jungle which has been felled, so as to prevent fire spreading, which may be applied to other parts; cleared up in order; to prepare, to get ready. (See the preceding).

Dangdang, is properly a cooking pot made of earthenware, but in shape like the copper Sé-éng. In Malay the copper pot of this shape is called Dangdang. Tukang dangdang in Sunda, however, is the man who makes copper Sé-éngs.

Dangdér, Janipha manihot; a shrub which gives an edible root, a variety of manihot; also called manihot utilissima.

Dangka, anything that attaches to people or times before the introduction of Mahomedanism; unenlightened; almost corresponds to our heathen or Pagan. There are also Dangka people , such as have not embraced Mabomedanism , as the Badui of South Bantam and Dangka mountains where some heathen superstitions are still in vogue. Dangka in Bali is the name of a petty village official under the Gaduh or Mandor, and are Sudras by birth. Bat. Trans. Vol. 23, On consulting Mr. Friederich regarding this word Dangka , he writes me „ Dangka is not Sanscrit, (37) nor can I find any word from which it could be corrupted. It can hardly be expected to be a corruption from Tangka, in these parts. Tangka, after all means- axe, crow, stone-cutters chisel; grief upon separation from a beloved object; fear, terror- root tax, to live in distress. To

(37) It does not occur in the Amara Cosha, in Wilson, and in Bopp's Glossarium. The other Sanscrit dictionaries are not at hand. Fr. Dangka I have further to add, that It appears in Javanese in the form Dangka (Dongko) and means according to Gericke Page 544 ,,the abode or dwelling of a Buta; a common miserable house, Hadadangka, to have an abode (of a Buta); to live in a bad house”.

Dantan, a female buffaloe which has not yet had a calf.

Danu, a lake , a large swampy lake in Bantam north from the Gunung Karang. (See the following Jay. ranu).

Danu, Prosperous, abundant. Tahun danu, an abundant year. (Danu, Skr. a donor, a giver. The lakes or tanks (in India) might certainly be considered as donors of the means of existence. Fr.)

Dapit, to fasten anything together by tying them between two sticks , slips of bambus so used , called in Malay Japit.

Daptar, ar: a register, an inventory, a written list of things. (See daftar).

Dapur, a kitchen, a cooking place, a fire place for cooking. An oven. A stool or bush, as of Bambus, Sugar cane or similar plants.

Dar, ar: mansion, abode. Only heard in the religious expression Dar-a1-Salam, the mansion of bliss, of peace.

Dara, a young woman who has just got her first child. Dara C. 266, a wife. See Dadara. (38).

Dara, a tame pigeon, columba, rarely used ; the ordinary word is Japati which see. Manuk Dara or wife bird no doubt alludes to the pigeon let fly by the wife who commits herself to the flames on the death of her husband, as is still the case in Bali. (Japati = Jagapati, victorious.)

Darajat, to obtain an encrease of title, rank or the like. To get riches, to obtain prosperity. Daradjat Marsden 131 is Arabic and means steps of a stair case, or ladder; a degree of honour; rank.

Darangdan, Ficus Heteropleura, one of the numerous varieties of wild figs.

Darapon, at random, any how, as long as you can get it; without selection, the first that comes.   Darat, land, in contradistinction to water, dryland, the shore. Dara, C. 258 the Earth. May be derived from Addara, C. 23, the edge, border, margin; and Rata, C. 581. a country, a district, and be thus the margin land. (Dharat, participle of dhri with ri vocalis; from the same root is dhara, which means also the earth. Fr.)

Dardur, the idiomatic expression of loud and successive claps, as of thunder, or the frequent discharge of cannon. Any other loud noise which is frequently repeated at short intervals. Violent disputing between parties attended with noise.  

(38) Dárá and Dáráh, in the plural form of the masculine gender means a wife; Dáraka, a Son; a child, an infant, or young animal (see Dádara); Dárikâ, a daughter, (also a whore). Dârakarman, marriage. Wilson. Daro, the ancient name of the Sultan’s Canal cut from the Chidurian by Sultan Tirta Yasa. Perhaps this name is the Sanscrit Daru, C. 267, a giver, a donor, one inclined to make gifts: a liberal and munificent man, thus conveying an idea of the munificence in causing such a work to he accomplished. (Dåru is Skr.)

Darurung, the rafters of a flooring, to which the planks are nailed , and in a native's house the round bambu rafters on which are laid the Palupuh or flooring of the house, and which are tied together by the sarang , or slips of split bambu. See Sarang.

Dasar, custom, habit, practice. Dasar na, because, for the reason that.

Dasar, bottom, the floor of any place; the lowest layer of anything. The bottom. The bottom of water, the bed of a river. The floor or ground under any water. To nepi ka dasar, It does not reach the bottom.

Dasar, name of the flat ground which surrounds the Bromo in Probolingo. The Bromo is the crater or central mount in this extraordinary Volcano. Probably it has its ori gin in Dahasara , C, 268 , from Daha, burning, Sara to go , a place where dead bodies are burnt, Dahasara would easily contract into Dasar. Offerings are still made in the Dasar by the Tenggerese to the ancient heathen gods of Java. In Hindu times the Bromo may have been looked upon as a natural burning place made by the gods.

Daster, Persian, a turban, such as worn by Hajis.

Dat, devine essence , substhnce, Properly zat which is arabic.

Datang, to come , to arrive. Unto, until. Geus datang, he has come, Datang ka anggeus, until it is done.

Datangkēn, to cause to come , to produce, to bring forward.

Datar, flat , in contradistinction to hilly.

Datu, chief, chieftain; used of foreign chiefs , not those of Sunda. Datu Palémbang, such a chief of Palembang. It seems to be a modification of the more usual word Ratu.

Daud, arabic. David.

Dauk, iron-grey , the colour of a horse.

Daulat, a r : Prosperity, welfare, fortune, wealth; Prosperons, fortunate. Crawfurd. See Dadaulatan.

Daun, a leaf; also sometimes heard as Dawon. The word is probably derived from Dahu, a period , a particular time , or season , and compounded with an is Dahuan, which by usual contraction would become Dahon or Dawon, and would then signify anything having a periodicity. This idea of periodicity has been applied to leaves from seeing them fall off and change , whilst the stem or tree remained permanently. Many trees in the tropics cast their leaves entirely before getting a new crop, though the usual rule is , that the change is made imperceptibly.

Daun aksara, the alphabet leaf, A small but very curious and pretty leaf which grows on a humble plant, generally on a lump of rock in a moist mountainous position. The marks are thought to represent the Alphabet. Dawa, ar. a lawsuit; a dispute carried before a court or authority to be adjusted.

Dawĕuh, a small variety of rattan, used for cords or whips.

Dawuh, period. Dawuh kiwari, at this present moment. The same as Dahu, Dadawuhan, to have periods, or be subject to periodicity.

Daya, to deceive, to persuade to anything under false pretences. Artifice, trick. Probably the same as Daya in the following word Dayang, and thus deceiving by a show of affection.

Dayang, damsel, maid of honour, This name is much applied to females in ancient story, as Dayang Trusnawati, The word is probably derived from Daya, C. 258 with a nasal twang to it. Tender, compassionate. Love, affection, tenderness.

Dayĕuh, a chief village, a chief town; a Capital,

Dayung, an oar, a paddle; to row.

Dĕdĕg, rank, position in life; stature, height of a man. Luhur na sa dĕdĕg, it was as high as the stature of a man.

Dĕdĕl, to press down, to force down, A post or piece of wood, a block, or chock jammed in so that it forces and holds some object down.

Dĕdĕr, to cast out seed on a seed bed; to raise seedling plants which have subsequently to be planted out. Dĕdĕran kopi, beds in which young seedling coffee plants are raised.

Dĕdĕrék, a kind of plover or large snipe-like bird, making its appearance in the wet monsoon; it frequents upland grasslands rather than swamps.

Dédés, a sort of musk cat which is plentiful in the jungles, and from which musk is extracted , when kept for the purpose in cages. Horsfiold has called it Viverra Rassé. Rassé being the Malay or Batavian name. The musk of the Dédés animal.

Dĕdéskĕn, to shove down; to stamp down.

Dĕdĕuyan, to repeat, to do or say again. Derived from Deui again.

Dĕdéwan, derived from Déwa, a pagan deity. A sort of deceptive trick or mystification practised by the Sunda people. It is in some respects analogous to Biology, only the operator pretends to be invested with the power of a Dewa. Kasurupan dédéwan, to be possessed of a divinity. A divinity has taken possession of his body. Di jampéan ka dédéwan, to use incantations so that a divinity may take possession of his body.

Dedogéran, to work hard at difficult work; to toil; said also of an animal walking or running through boggy land, where difficulty is experienced in pulling out the feet.

Dé-éng, raw flesh cut in strips and dried in the sun till it can be preserved without decomposition. Called in Malay Déngdéng.

Dé-ét, shallow, not deep.

Dĕgdĕg, occurs in „Batara Dĕgdĕg Buwana“, the name of an ancient supernatural power or divinity, but of which the natives can give no distinct account. It appears to mean: the divinity who encompasses the world, who has the world at his disposal, or who pervades the universe. Dégél, unhairy, beardless, short-cropped

Déhém, a hem, a suppressed cough to call any one’s attention.

Déhéman, to call any one’s attention by a hem.

Dék, the idiomatic expression of striking or cutting. Dek di kadék he gave a slap at with his chopper.

Dé1, the idiomatic expression of breaking or snapping as a rope. Dél bai tambang na pegat, and the rope snapped short off.

Dé1an, called in Malay Trasi; a native condiment prepared from rotten fish and shrimps.

Délég, a variety of the Gabus fish, but smaller.

Délés, the wick of an oil lamp or of a candle.

Dé1u, the zodiacal sign Aquarius.

Děmak, name of a district East from Samarang. The word is a contraction of Demalakan, (?) which in Javanese moans an extensive swamp. Raffles Vol 2. Page 124,

Děmang, a native district police officer; a petty district officer under a Regent. This word, like almost all other titles of rank, is probably of Sanscrit origin. The first part being an abbreviation of Adhi, C. 2, chief, superior; and Mang may be Man, an Elu form of Manushya, or it may be derived from Mana, C. 5 14, to know, to understand, the mind considered as the seat of thought or reflection. The termination is made in ng, in conformity with a frequent Polynesian predilection: and the whole word will then indicate a person who is chief, or who is conspicuous for reflection. The Děmangs were the leaders of their countryman , as instanced in the well known case of Demang Lebar Daun, who led the Malays from the interior of Sumatra. This clipping of the initial letter of Adhi in composition is heard in Diyêng; and adhipati is frequently heard pro- nounced Dipati.

Démi, by; as Demi allah, by God. Demi rasu1 a1lah by the Apostle of God, by Mohammad.

Děmpét, jammed, fast between two objects.

Děmpuk. squat and fat; obese.

Děmpu1, putty, lime and oil made to a paste.

Dénda, fine, penalty, mulet. Danda , C. 254, fine: forfeit , chastisement.

Déngdék, inclined, sloping, aslant. When said of the Sun, it implies some hour after noon, Mata-poi geus dengdek, the sun is aslant, it is past noon.

Déndéng, to cut the end off a bit of wood, or other object fair and square, so as not to be sloping. Cut off square at the end. Cha-ah déngdéng, a flood that comes down all at once, in a great mass of water all of a sudden, some two to four feet a breast; like what in Bangal is called the Bore, when applied to the tide.

Déngděng, repeatedly, for all that; notwithstanding some cause which ought to prevent it; nevertheless. Beunang oméan dengdeng to meunang di paké, after mending it, nevertheless it is not fit to use. Déngé, hear, listen, audible, To kadengé, I could not hear it. (39).

Déngékeun, to listen, to pay attention, to obey.

Děngki, envy, malice

Déngkléng, with the back curved inwards in a man or downwards in a beast.

Děungklěung or Děngklung, a tune in singing, especially with angkulungs.

Dénok, fat , in good flesh, in good case.

Děpa, reposing, crouched down as an animal when lying on the ground or asleep.

Děpét, a batten; the slips of bambu, or other substance used for securing anything together.

Děrěgděg, riving and tearing away. Slipping helplessly down a bank or any other steep place.

Dérék, relationship. Saderek, of one relationship, descent or family.

Dérép, a portion of paddy given to the reapers for their trouble in assisting to cut, which is of what they cut.

Dérigama, having suspicion; being awake to some occurrence. On the qui vive. The word is evidently Sanscrit. The nearest solution to be found in Clough is Dhairyya, C. 303 steadiness, firmness, strength, courage, boldness. Agama, C. 61 an approaching, a coming. An approaching with boldness (from being aware of deception). (40).

Děrma, benevolence, charitable feeling, liberality, moral propriety. Dharma, C. 299 of previous import. This is a great word amongst Buddhists and implies a variety of moral obligations, and the word very likely implied formerly, what it now implies in India but since the conversion of the natives to Mohammedanism , many of these obligations have become obsolete and forgotten.

Děs, the idiomatic expression of cracking or breaking, as when a thick piece of wood breaks or snaps. Des bai injén pedati, the pedaty axle broke slap in two.

(39) In Kawi exists the forms ꦝꦼꦔꦼꦴ꧈​​ děngě, and ꦉꦔꦼꦴ꧈​ rěngě; the tarung (ꦴ꧈) indicating that a letter is suppressed; this letter r, which occurs in Malay دڠر. deng’ar, and Javanese ꦝꦼꦔꦼꦂ꧈​ or ꦝꦺꦔꦼꦂ꧈​ děngěr, déngěr , in Kawi and Sundanese is suppressed because the first letter of the word is already an r or the cerebral d, which resembles in pronounciation (at least in former times) to r. The Javanese has also felt this, and we find there rung’u ꦫꦸꦔꦸ꧈​ and ꦩꦶꦝꦔꦺꦠ꧀꧈​. mi-dangět, to hear; in the first the r, is omitted in the second supplanted by t; ꦩꦶꦉꦁ꧈​. mi-rèng. is an abbreviation of Kawi ꦉꦔꦼꦴ꧈, With ꦫꦸꦔꦸ꧈​ corresponds in Kawi ꦉꦔ꧀ꦮ꧈​. rěngua. To the Sundanese déng'e is the next in form the Javanese ꦝꦺꦔꦼꦂ꧈. déngěr , but the last has got the meaning to understand , which is naturally derived from to hear , to listen. Fr.

(40) More probable is a derivation from dirgha, long, far, and ma (from ma) measuring, where with the meaning in Sundanese corresponds ; Jav. drigama or dirgama (see Gericke) , means to deny, to declare oneself faultless: also this meaning might be perhaps elicited from dirghama, but is much farther off, than the meaning attached to derigama in Sundanese. Fr, Désa, country, region, village-little used, and not applied to the villages as in Javanese. Desa, C. 288, a country, a region whether inhabited or uninhabited. Guru-desa, the village monitor, the constellation Pleiades. (In Bali this constellation, Kréttiká, Skr, is also the monitor for rural occupations. Fr.)

Děuděu1, a stanchion, a prop, a shore.

Děuděulěuhan, sight. See Děulěuh.

Děuděur, beaten as a path, worn smooth by frequently passing over.

Děuhěus, near, close, in proximity. Ngadeuheusan, to approach, to draw near to. Deuheus ka imah, near to the house.

Děui, again, more. Siji deui, one more. Sakali deui, once more. Deui di peupeuliken, again I told him.

Děukěut, near, close to, nigh. Deukeut ka lumbur, close to the village. (Malay děkat; Jav. (jav))

Děukěutan, to go near to, to approach.

Děukěutkěun, to bring close, to cause to come near.

Děulěuh, to see, to view ; behold! look! Deudeuleuhan, sight.

Děung'an, other people, strangers; no relation, not of our family. Di chachag deung'an, strangers have chopped him, or wounded him. Ka jéléma eta ma, děungan bai, to that man I am no way related.

Děung'děung'an, other folks, the rest of the people; some one else than ourself.

Děupa, a fathom; as much as a man can embrace with two arms extended. (Malay dépa).

Děurěus, seeing that, taking into consideration that; deureus ku anyar kénéh, seeing that it is so new. Also said of any improper act that is presumingly often repeated, Deureus teuyn sia laléwa you too often repeat your monkey tricks.

Déwa, a heathen god , divinity. Deities of the Hindu mythology. Dewa, C. 285, a deity, a god, a divine being. In old Javanese history Dewa, is often applied, as is still the case on Bali, to Kings or supreme rulers. Dewa kusuma, is the name of a King of Janggala, celebrated in Javanese romance, and Dewa Agung, is still the nominal supreme king of Bali, and ruler of the petty state of Klongkong.

Déwata, a heathen god, a deity; sometimes a demon, Dewata, C. 286 , a god, a deity, any divine person.

Déwék, I, mine. Using this word the person neither puts himself very high nor very low. It is thus a rather independent appellative of self.

Déwi, a goddess; the feminine of Dewa which see. Dewi, C. 87, the feminine of Dewa. Dewi Sri, the goddess Lakshmi , the deity of prosperity , Ceres.

Di , a particle prefixed to a verb , by which it becomes passive, in the same way as in Malay. Di béré, it was given. Di gitik, he was thrashed. Di buka, it was opened.

Di, the preposition at, in, upon. Di handap, below. Di imah, at home; Di jero, inside; Di luar, outside. By seeking in the dictionary for the word which follows di, the meaning will be traced. This particle Di is of extensive use and occurs in almost every sentence uttered. Di in Singhalese is used as a suffix signifying during, while. Lambrick’s Singhalese grammar, Ceylon 1834 Page 110.

Di atas, in consideration of, seeing that, as for, Di ataa sia budak ngora era, considering that you are a young man , you ought to be ashamed.

Di dahi, to shave and trim the eyebrows, so as to make them handsome in a native’s opinion.

Di dinyo, on that very spot; there with emphasis; at that critical period.

Di ditu, there, alluding to some spot at a distance.

Di diyo, here, in this place.

Diga, as, like as, resembling, like. Diga nu édan, like a madman.

Dikiran, to sing in praying, or in reading the Koran. The word is Arabic Dzikir and implies praise, thanksgiving to God. See Tahlil.

Dikso–Dikshā, C. 273 sacrificing, offering oblations, engaging in a certain course of religious austerities. NB. at the village of Dixo on the Progo river, Dipo Negoro made his first stand in the great rebellion of 1825/30, being considered a place of mystic authority and importance, which its name seems to indicate. (Dikshâ Scr. in the sense given by Clough. Very useful should be paying attention to the fact mentioned and similar ones. These fools and impostors remain the same always and every where. Fr.)

Di luar, outside, beyond, without.

Di luhur, above, on the top of.

Dim, an inch, a measure of length; the 12 part of a foot or kaki which see. Derived from the Dutch word Duim, an inch.

Di na, at, at any particular place. Di na gedong, at the chief dwelling house. Di na imah na, at his house. Di na chai, at the river. The na is the possessive pronoun, only placed before and not after the substantive.

Din, arabic, faith, religion, worship. Occurs constantly in the composition of proper names as Kamarudin, Samsudin, which see.

Dingding, anything perpendicular and flat, like a curtain, a piece of wall &c, Lancha dingding, the curtain or wall-spider from its weaving its web perpendicularly in front of caverns or other apertures, which it appears to wall up.

Dinyo, spot, place- time, moment. See Di dinyo and Ti dinyo.

Dio, and Diyo, here, this place. Di, at, Iyo, this. Ti diyo ka ditu, from this place to that.

Dipa, a word often occuring as a man’s name, or in the composition of proper names of places, or chiefs. Dipa, C. 270.an elephant. See Jambu Dipa. Adhipa, C. 24 a lord, a chief ruler. (41).[1]

Dipati, an abbreviated form of Adipati which see.

Diri, self, our own person. Diri na, your own self or person, his or herself.

Dité, the first day of an ancient Sunda weak of seven days, but derived from India. Dite is probably the same as Aditi, C 23 the wife of Kasyapa , which is one of the names of Aruna, the charioteer of the Sun. She was the mother of the gods, and also sometimes represented as the mother of the Sun. The following is a list of the names of the days of this ancient week. (42).

Dité is the present Achad or Sunday.
Senin " Monday.
Salasa " Tuesday.
Rěbo " Wednesday.
Khěmis " Thursday.
Jumahat " Friday.
Saptu " Saturday.

see each word voce. In Ceylon Sunday is represented by Irida the day of Ira, the Sun. C. 70. (Supra must be Sukra; Raspati is Wrihaspati. Cf. Transact. Bat. Soc. on Bali. 23. p. 51.)

Ditu, there, that place. Ti mana?' ti ditu, where do you come from? from that place.

Diya, you, thou; a milder and more friendly expression than Sia.

Diyem, properly Malay, but often heard as an order to be quiet; Silence!

Diyeng, the highest part of the Gunung Prawu , inland of Pakalongan , and where the chief monuments of Hindu antiquity in that range, are still found. The word is evidently derived from Adhi C. 24 , chief, superior , over , above and Hyang, divinity see voce. Adhi-hyang - Chief-divinity, in same way as Adhi-pati, chieflord, is formed.

Diyĕuk, to sit down, be seated. Diyĕuk di dinyo, sit down there. (43).

Doa, arabic, prayer, invocation, benediction. Ngirim doa, to invoke a benediction.

Dobol, with a bok in it ; in holes; burst out. (At Batavia it means also opened, where there ought to be no opening.)

Dodo1, a sweetmeat made of rice flour, brown sugar and cocoanut.

(42) Aditya, child of Aditi is the common name of the sun. In Dité the first syllable is cut and in the last the ya in the usual way contracted to ê. Another form is Réditi; where I am inclined to believe that the is only a misrepresentation of the independent commencing sound d. ( ; ) Fr.

(43) Diyeuk might be related to the Malay duduk; the Sundanese is the simple form with a prolongation of the vowel; dudok, seems to be a reduplication, and has not altered the vowel, just for reason of the reduplicating syllable. (Diyĕuk, shorter pronounced yet, than it appears from the writing, is rather monosyllabic. So (monosyllabic) are all "the idiomatic expression” of this dictionary, and they will turn out to be the real roots of the greatest part of the languages of the Archipelago. But this is no sign that these languages represent a broken Sanscrit. Fr. Dodol, a variety of mangga so called.

Doja, to tempt, to try, to lay temptation in the way of any one.

Dokdok, a kind of fishing net attached to two sticks; it is made of fine matting so as to retain small fry.

Dokom, a small stumpy fish found in swamps or stagnant water.

Dolog, a jungle tree with a good bark for rope. Trichospermum Javanicum.

Domas, Eight hundred; literally twice four hundred. According to an old fashioned method of counting China cash, Domas is equal to 32 Dutch doits. See Samas. Domas is dua-mas = Domas. See Mas. Domas seems to be employed to denote sometimes any indefinite great number, as Harcha domas the 800 images or gods spoken of in old Javanese history, (and shown on the estate of Gadok in Buitenzorg). Kawa domas, one of the craters of the Tangkuban Prahu.

Domba, Persian, a sheep.

Dompét, a small pouch of matting for holding the ingredients of Sěuréuh, especially tobaco and gambir.

Dongdang, a cage or contrivance made of bambu to carry out eatables with dishes &c; also to carry about boxes of clothing &c. to preserve them from sun and rain.

Dongdoman, a variety of grass which bears sharp seeds in abundance, which adhere to the trousers of a person walking amongst it.

Dong'éng, a story that is told, an amusing tale; to relate laughable occurrences.

Dongkap, accomplishable, within one’s reach, anything which we have in our power to do, To bisa dongkap ka anggěus I could not bring it so far as to accomplish it.

Dongkél, a kind of pick-axe for digging out roots of trees; a narrow strong pachul. To grub up roots of trees, stones &c. &c.

Dongkol, said of a buffaloe’s horns which are pendent on each side of the head; such horns look loose and shake but are nevertheless fast to the head.

Donglak, to have obtained some injury on the body, as to have put the leg out of joint; a nail torn from its place, or the like.

Doraka, accursed, damned, vicious, malevolent, giving cause for trouble. Doraka eta jelema bang’or amat, that damned follow is very obstinate. Dur, C. 277 a prefix to words, implying bad, vicious, vile. Rakkhā C. 578. the Pali form of rakshá, to preserve, preserving, protecting. (Durâka a barbarian; cf. dhûrtta and dhûrttaka, a rogue, a cheat.)

Dosa, sin, crime, guilt. Dosa, C. 289, crime, guilt, sin, offence, defect.

Dosol, a lump or excrescence growing out from the body, particularly the belly, which often becomes an unhealing wound. Buffaloes frequently have them on the belly.

Doyong, inclined, threatening to fall.

Dramaga, an earthen dam to contain water; an earthen dam serving as an aqueduct. Probably derived from Druma, C. 294, a tree in general, and Ga from Gama C. 167 going, moving: thus Druma-ga going in a tree, slightly altered to Dramaga, passing along a hollow tree or a spout. I am indebted to Mr. Friederich for this suggestion.

Dua, two, Duwa, C. 280 the number two, Very likely derived from Ruwa , C. 597, an image , and modified to mean similarity, parity. In many Polynesian languages this word becomes Rua; it is even heard in Javanese in the word Loro, two. Rua is the word for two in the languages of the Lampungs, Makasar, Saparua, Timur; and Lemaire gives it as occurring in New Guinea, and the Isle de Moyse. Wilson and Keate found it in the shape of Oru at the Pelew Islands, Mariner gives Ua for the Tonga Isles , and Ua is heard at the Marquesas, and lua at the Sandwich Isles. Bourgaine-ville gives Aroua for Tahiti. (Rua might be the original Polynesian word ; but dua is certainly introduced by the Hindus, (duo, two), whose numerals are yet known in the more civilised part of the Archipelago. Fr.)

Duablas, twelve; also Dua wĕlas,

Duapuluh, twenty.

Duduh, to accuse, to impeach, to indicate as , to charge, to point out as having done any particular act. Di duduh maling, he accused him of stealing.

Duduk, seated, habituated, to become settled, accustomed, Di gawé éta geus duduk ayeuna, he has now become habituated to the work, Batu na geus duduk, the stone is seated fixed in its place. (See Diyĕuk. The meaning here given to duduk will not contradict to his being a reduplication. Fr.)

Dudukui, a cover for the head made of bambu, called in Malay Tudung.

Dudul, as Kuda si dudul, the war steed of Bagind’ali or His Highness Ali, the son in law of Mohammad.

Duduluran, to treat as a brother; to be on brotherly terms - see Dulur.

Dudur, a piece of wood in a roof which occupies the centre of tie beams, reaching from the apex to the middle of the base.

Dudut, a bird so called; the Centropus Bubutos of Horsfield.

Dudut, to pull the feathers off a bird, or the hair off an animal, as preparatory to cooking.

Dudutan, to put in order, to arrange.

Dug, the idiomatic expression of fixing oneself down to any place, of taking up one’s abode. Dug di imahan, and there he put up a house. Also of striking a drum or Bĕdug: Dug ngabedug, and bang he struck the drum.

Duga, to undertake, to reckon to be able; power or ability to do anything. To guess.

Duga-duga, to calculate the chances; to think to be able.

Dugal, a lump, a clod.

Dugĕl, a bundle of Paddy in some places, particularly in South Bantam.

Duhung, the bis of a great man. Duhung kiai Tumunggung the kris of his honour the Tumumggung.

Duit or Duwit, a doit Dutch, Duit, The word is used to express "Money” generally. To bogah duit, I have no money. Duka, sorrow; Duka, C. 275, sorrow, pain, misery, distress, affliction; derived from Du or Dur, C. 277, a prefix to words implying-bad , vicious, vile, and Kha, C. 743 an affection of the mind, an organ of sense. Duka, means also in a polite way, I do not know. (Skr. duhkha in the sense given; duh + kha, bad heaven, as if we would say bad weather; opposite sukha, good heaven, a fine sky. Fr.)

Duku, the name of a fruit tree and its fruit. Lansium Domesticum.

Dukuh, a grove, a small plantation of fruit trees: a dwelling in a grove apart from the regular village. A hamlet.

Dukun, a native doctor who is mostly an old woman. A midwife. A person, mostly a man, who says incantations for the success of any work. In Bali, a Sudra who has obtained some sanctity by fasting, and can cure disease, or do the village religious service. Tijds. voor Ned. Indié 1849. 3. Page 322 and 358.

Dulang, the wooden trough or bowl in which warm and fresh boiled rice undergoes the process of Akeul or kneading.

Dulhaji, the twelfth or last month of the Mohammedan year. The month in which at Mecca, the pilgrims to the Kabah become Hadji, which see.

Dulkahidah, the Eleventh Mohammedan month. This month is also more generally called Bulan Hapit.

Dulpakar, the Sword of Bagind'Ali, the son inlaw of Mohammad. Properly zu'l-fakar, Marsden 141, the famous double bladed sword of Ali.

Dulur, a brother or sister. Often used in a vague sense towards a person who is not really a blood relation. When they explain themselves the natives say- Dulur teměn sa indung sa bapa, a real brother of the same mother and father. Dulur may be derived from Di ulur. Ulur, to ease off, to slacken off, to let loose. The word also sometimes occurs as Sadulur, which will mean- „of one easing off”- or „of one letting loose”- in allusion to coming from a common parent. The Sudara of Malay for brother or sister is the Sodara of Clough Page 767. Sa with or common, udara, belly; a brother of the whole blood, a uterine brother.

Duminian, insect found in old forests which makes a loud screaming noise.

Dunak, a large rice basket, such as used in rice mills.

Dung'uk, to be seen in a heap; looming in a round heap; a slang expression for residing or living at. Di mana dung'uk na where does he hang out, or more literally where is he seen coiled in a heap? as the natives frequently are in their houses, folded up in their Sarungs.

Dung'us, a clump of trees standing by themselves.

Dunya, arabic, the world, in contradistinction to heaven. Earthly desires or goods. Geus to ngurus dunya, he no longer pays any attention to worldly matters.

Dupa, perfume, a composition of various sweet semlling materials, which are burnt in the houses as a perfume. Dhupa, C. 753, incense. Dupa, C. 277 smoke. (Dhûpa Scr.) Dupak, to kick down or away, to stamp on; to kick under foot.

Dupuh, ill, so as not to be able to get up. Stretched in sickness.

Dur, the idiomatic expression of the report of a gun; the clang of quarrelling; the dull report of any weight, as a stone rolled down a hill. (See dardur).

Durga, C. 278. A goddess of that name, also called Kali; the wife of Siva, and mother of Kartikeya , the Indian god of war and of Ganesa , the Indian god of wisdom. She is also called Uma, and Parvati &c. and as Durga she is a goddess of terrific form and irascible temper. Derived from Dur, difficult, Ga, going, or to be gone C. 278.

Durias, Telinga- coarse Muslin, lappels, stuff for bed curtains, open enough to admit air, yet close enough to keep out mosquitoes.

Duruk, to pile and burn. After a piece of fallen forest has been set fire to, the boughs are heaped together, and then burnt- this is Duruk.

Durukan, a place where wood has been piled and burnt.

Dusta, false, untrue. Dushta, C. 280, low, vile, wicked, bad, vicious. (Therefrom comes the Malay justa, to ly. On Bali the original form is used.)

Dusun, stupid, clownish. In Sumatra the villages are called Dusun, and no doubt the origin of the word Dusun in Sunda is derived from villagers being clownish, as compared with people from towns of larger places.

Duta. a messenger; occurs in Samudraduta, a character in old romance. Samudra, C. 711, the sea, the ocean; Duta, C. 281, a messenger, a carrier.

Du-ugan, a young cocoanut in which the pulp is hardly set, but of which the milk is fresh and pleasant.

Du-um, to divide, to portion out.

Du-uman, a share, an allotment.

Duwit, a doit, a small copper coin; money. Dutch Duit.

  1. (41) Dwipa, two times drinking; an elephant; an island. But Dipa a lamp, from dip, to shine, to have a lustre. Where the word means island, it is naturally a corruption of Dwipa. In the proper name of man it might mean the sun, or be the same as adhipa. Fr.
Contents: Preface A B C D E G H I J K L M N O P R S T U W Y Errata


Eang, very olden times, of which the memory has nearly passed from man. Alam éang, in very old times. See Éyang.

Éar, the shrill cry of an animal, as the neighing of a horse; the sound of the splash of a waterfal.

Ébég, the weather cock tail of a Kolechér, which see. The Ebég or tail acted on by the wind keeps the koléchér in the wind's eye.

Ébréh, visible, what can be seen, manifest.

Ébréhkĕn, to produce, to cause to see.

Échag, to set down as a weight or load; to let go; let fall.

Échék, scanty, few and far between.

Échéng, a broad leafed, succulent weed in Sawahs, the presence of which indicates good soil, well watered.

Édan, foolish, mad, infatuated.

Édan-édanan, playing the fool, making a fool of oneself.

Édég, to shake or swing the legs about while sitting.

Éh, Eh! aye! Éh ulah, aye d'ont.

Éhé, to have a stool, to have an occasion of nature. Said of a child.

Éhéan, to take a wife, to marry. A quaint term.

Éka, a festival made for the dead, by killing a buffalo, or goat, under the idea that at the day of judgment, the dead person, in whose memory the Éka is made, will have the animal to ride on. This is a Mohamedan institution which the Arabs also observe.

Ékék, Psittacus, a parroquet; the bird is only of the size of a thrush. It and the still smaller Seréndét are the only two birds of the Parrot tribe in Java. (At Batavia and in Javanese bétét, ꦧꦺꦠꦺꦠ꧀).

Éksél, poor, thin, having no flesh or eatable matter upon it. Said also of water which is in a very scanty stream. Buah iyo éksél jasah owoh ěusian, this fruit is very poor, there is no eatable matter about it. Chai na eksel, the water is scanty.

Éla, a species of the genus Cardamoraum growing wild in the jungle. It is remarkable that Éla is the Sanscrit name for the Cardamum of Malabar. (See Wilson s. v. and As. Researches vol. 11. p. 355. Elá.)

Éléh, cowed, worsted in a fight, beaten, overcome.

Éléhkěn, to overcome, to worst in conflict; to place in the wrong.

Éling, to remember; to have consciousness, to know what one is about. Maka Eling, keep your senses about you.

Élingan, to cause to remember.

Élingkěn, to put in mind, to cause to remember.

Éllo, European, an ell. A measure for cloth. The usual ell measure used by cloth dealers is the ell of Amsterdam

Containing English inches 27.079
The Netherlands Ell or French metre Containing English inches 39.371
and the English Ell Containing English inches 45._

Élmu, arabic, science, knowledge doctrine, art, artifice, cunning, device; Élmu kitab, the doctrine of the Book, (Koran). Sia loba tèuyn elmu na, you have to many artifices.

Éman, often also aspirated Heman, to have an affection for, to feel love or regard for.

Embah, a grandfather or grandmother.

Embé, a goat. See Wědus.

Emboh, a weed in the mountain humahs called also Sayaga and Tésbong.

Émbohan, to add to, to augment, to increase.

Embol, to make appearance, to come in sight.

Embul-ěmbul, to come crawling into sight, to show up; Jélěma to embul-embul? is there no appearance of the people. See umbul-umbul.

Embun-ěmbun, the fontanella; the soft place on the top of the head of a new-born child; the crown of the head. Embung, unwilling, I won't; not being disposed to do anything. (The ĕ is rather not heard).

Émés, a climbing plant found in gardens, or planted about the huts in humahs; a cucurbitous plant. Luffa Foetida.

Émpang, a fish pond. Any pond of water artificially made.

Empét-ĕmpétan, a child's trumpet made of Paddy straw, something after the fashion of a Clarionet, and played by sticking one end in the mouth. See olé-oléan.

Emplék, a piece , a small bit.

Empuk, soft like a pillow; giving way to pressure.

En, only. En kari siji deui, there is only one left. En dua only two.

|Éndah, good, proper, fit, excellent

Éndahan, to be friendly with, to respect, to treat courteously, to be good to. Nu gedé kudu di éndahan, great men must be respected.

Endĕuk, to have a mind, to purport. (Cf. daik.)

Endog, an egg. This word is of Sanscrit origin. Anda, C. 17 an egg. (Jav. idem. It is possible that this is formed from andaka; compare tandak with tandaka Scr. Fr.)

Endog, a variety of mangga so called.

Endogan, to lay eggs.

Éng'ang, a sort of wasp among the forests in the mountains, which gives a very painful sting. It is as large as the Tiyuwan, but quite black without yellow marks.

Enggon, place, spot; a place to live in. (Jav. idem).

Enggonan, to make room for, to give place,

Éngké, to limp, limping.

Enjot, to jirk, to move with a jirk.

Enjot-ĕnjotan, moving by jirks, lifting by bit and bit, first from one place, then to another, as a heavy weight which can just be moved.

Éntél, a small skein or hank of thread.

Énténg, moderate, light in the sense of not oppressive- not in that of not heavy , which is hampang. Di pénta pajeg sapuluh gédéng paré, énténg, he demands a rent of 10 bundles of Paddy which is light or moderate.

Éntép, arranged in regular order , as bricks in a wall &c. laid in layers. Especially said of anythings which are piled up, as Paddy &c. Éntép seureuh, piled like sĕurĕuh leaves. This is a simile which the native often employs to denote anything which is piled up in apple-pie order , as sĕurĕuh leaves when gathered for use are always neatly piled together.

Entod, keeping in constant motion, always moving, never quiet.

Entod lĕunchang, a bird, a sort of water- way- tail which keeps moving its body even when it stands.

Entol, a petty epithet of distinction for a man; a petty rank of birth. Éong-éong, to mew as a cat.

Épok, a sĕurĕuh ċase made of rattan. A platted case for Sĕurĕuh. A small bambu basket worn by paddy-cutters for collecting the heads which have no stems.

Éra, ashamed, shamefaced, bashful. Modesty. Sia to bogah éra sakali, you have not a particle of shame about you. Awėwė ngora éra-an, young women would be ashamed would be too modest.

Éraha, when, at what period, Éraha datang na, when did he come.

Érang, a variety of palm tree, with stem studded with sharp spikes. Oncosperma filamentosa.

Érang-érang, the lintel of a door; a window sill.

Éréd, to haul as a drag net in water, to haul along, to pull along, to collect together.

Érég, the ram-rod of a gun.

Érétan, a ferry, a rope or rattan stretched across a river by which a raft is hauled backwards and forwards for conveying passengers, horses, carriages &c.

Ésé, piece, number, an expression used in counting certain articles especially fish &c. Corresponds somewhat to our „individual”, but is not said of men.

Éséng, to doctor Radang or the yaws with lime juice, lemon juice.

Éstu, subjected to, following orders. Obeying with alacrity and to the purpose. Also heard as Ustu. (Cf. Jav. éstuken, to give effect, truth to a thing; to obey. Both and more certainly yet usta to be derived from Scr. wastu, thing, matter, substance ; essential property, nature, essence Fr.)

Éta, that, the demonstrative pronoun. Eta jelema, that man. Ta, C. 836. That. At all events in composition.

Ėtaun, an expression used in doubt or thinking of something, thingumy, what do you call it!

Éték, full grown and old Sĕurĕuh leaves. Become so, by allowing them to hang long upon the trees, as when growing in the jungle or in an old paddy humah, and not in gardens near a house.

Étém, the small blade fastened to a bit of wood, and which being held in the hand serves to snap the straw of paddy when reaping it, which the natives always do straw by straw, about 8 or 10 inches below the grain. It answers purpose of our sickle, in as much as it is the instrument with which paddy is reaped, but is a very different thing from a sickle. It is called in Malay- Pengatam, which name would seem to have a similarity of origin with the Sunda Etem. It is called Ani-ani, by the Javanese.

Eujĕurĕug, right and in order; acting honestly, correct.

Eukĕur, about, in the act of doing something, whilst; taken in hand. Euheur naun sia, what are you about. Eukeur nyato, in the act of eating.

Eun, a particle the same as en which see above, and, only It is also much used in making compound words, and occurs at the end of the word, when such is preceded by Pi which see. As Chagak, a stake. Pi-Chagak-eun, wood to make a stake of. Imah, a house. Pi-imah-eun, materials for building a house. (Probably the same as the formative suffix- an).

Eŭndĕuk-eŭndĕukan, said of a bird, butterfly &c. which is perched upon a branch or rope and swings to and fro with it. The act of clinging to a rope when shaken.

Eŭndĕur, shaking, quivering; said of any great mass in a state of tremulation. Bumi eundeur, the earth shook, as in an earthquake.

Eŭntan, a handful of Paddy as it is fresh cut: half a ranggion.

Eŭntĕung, a looking glass, a mirror.

Eŭntĕup, perched as a bird, seated on. The plural of this and some other words, beginning in same way is made by prefixing eur-eureunteup, they were all perched. Eureureun, they all stopped.

Eŭnyeuh, fallen down, tumbled as a tree, a house, or any high matter. The plural becomes eureunyeuh, they all fell down.

Eŭrad, to drag water with a net in order to catch the fish.

Eŭrih, the long grass called in Malay Alang-alang; Saccharum Koenigii or Imperata Kunigii. See Palang.

Eŭrihkĕn, to pour over; to pour from one vessel, bag &c. into another.

Eŭsi, contents, anything which is held within another, as liquor in a bottle. To inhabit or occupy a country, village or district, a house, a hole &c. The flesh on an animal; the edible part in a fruit. Eusi beuteung, the contents of the stomach, the guts, the intestines. (Malay Isi. Bĕutĕung is the Balinese batang, the belly).

Eŭsian, to put into, to place in; to fill up; to load as a gun. Makes in the plural eureusian.

Eŭtĕun, a running weed which soon shows itself after the jungle has been burnt off; called Areui-euteun.

Éwa, having an aversion or hatred of; detesting; bearing malice against. Said of any subject with which we are disgusted, and will hear no more of it. Makes in the plural Hararéwa.

Éwé, a wife. Éwé sia geus kolot, your wife has become old.

Éwéan, to take a wife. Said of a man who marries. (See éhéan).

Éwuh, confounded, confused, troubled in mind.

Éyang, the same as Éang, very ancient, olden times. It is a refined expression for grandfather, É or eh, and eya, C. 85 — 87. the pronoun he. Éh is a Singhalese demonstrative pronoun appropriated to represent a person or thing spoken of before. Lambrick’s Singhalese grammar 1834 Page 21. In conjunction with Hyang will be- He the divinity that one who has become divine; as in early times ancestors were thought to become divinities. Néné Éyang, ancestors, progenitors. The same as Néné moyang. See Hyang.[1] Éyor, moist, watery, sloppy.

  1. Jav. Héyang, grandfather or grandmother; also title of honour given by the native princes
Contents: Preface A B C D E G H I J K L M N O P R S T U W Y Errata


Ga-ak, a crow, the common black crow. Cornix, corvus. (Batavian and Balinese Go-ak or Gowak.)

Ga-ang, a variety of cricket, gryllus. An insect so called.

Gachong, a portion of paddy given to the reapers for their trouble in assisting to cut, which in this case is only 1/10 of what they cut, whereas when 1/5 is given, it is called Derep.

Gabag, a disease resembling measles.

Gabél, a fish found in stagnant water, has no scales.

Gabiag, said of Paddy when the whole crop of ears has shot out and show themselves.

Gablĕg, to own, possessed of; a coarse and sneering word. Naun sia to gableg pokék, what haven’t you such a thing as a pair of short breeches.

Gablug, falling with a heavy sound; falling helplessly and heavily. Buah kadu gablug bai ragrag, the Durian fruit fell with a heavy bang.

Gabras, the idiomatic expression of stabbing; to launch at and stick; to hit with something sharp pointed. Gabras bai di teuweuk, slap into him he stuck him.

Gabrul, to slash and cut the top off grass; not to cut off short by the ground. To cut and clear away grass and brush wood roughly.

Gabug, said of any fruit which does not fill, especially Paddy- said of man or animal which has not the power of procreation. Paré gabug, empty paddy. Jélema gabug, a person who has not the power of procreation.

Gabus, a fish found in stagnant water, and in the still parts of streams. He is ravenous and eats other small fry. Ophicephalus striatus. There is a wood called Kayu gabus, with soft, spongy texure found near the sea shore.

Gadang, to tie or secure anything with a bit of string. To tie temporarily. To tie anything as it were with a Martingal.

Gadé and Gadékĕn, to pawn, to pledge, to mortgage.

Gadil, to butt as a goat.

Gading, ivory, the tusk of an elephant. A variety of Bambu so called.[1]

Gado, the chin.

Gadog, name of a large forest tree, called also Gintung. Bischoffia Javanica.

Gaduh, and gaduhan, pledge, pawn, a deposit for mutual benefit. Ngala gaduhan, to take in pawn. (See gadé.)

Gaduhkěn, to give an animal, especially a female buffaloe, to another person to keep and look after; the person having such charge, has for his trouble, a share of the calves born , or interest in the hire of the buffaloe when let out to plough sawahs or the like.

Gadung, the name of a plant with large bulbous root. Dioscorea triphylla. Much used at certain seasons of the year when rice is scarce. It requires to be rasped and soaked well before cooking or else it is deleterious.

Gadur, talking at random. Chattering.

Gagabah, careless, heedless: not observing necessary ceremony or respect.

Gagajah, the main body of a natives house; that part which is under the roof which rests upon the chief frame work of a house. The centre of the house.

Gagak, a crow, the same as Ga-ak.

Gagal, doing wrong, inadvertently wrong, doing wrong by mistake. Not doing what is expected. Tilok gagal, never wrong, you may always count upon it or him.

Gagaman, attendants, followers, people brought to help at any work- also Soldiers. Gagaman in Javanese, both weapons and men armed with weapons, derived from Gaman, a weapon. (Gamana, march of an assailant. ? Fr.)

Gagang, the handle , the shaft of any implement; the stalk or stem of a plant or flower.

Gagaruan, to scratch in the earth, as a dog or other animal. (Cf. garuk, Malay and Batavian.)

Gagasah, to rub the body against anything; as an animal, say a horse or buffaloe, against a tree.

Gagébér, the dewlap. The thin piece of flesh hanging along the throat of a cow. See Gébér.

Gagu, stammering, stuttering.

Gahar, sweet and pungent-denotes a taste of sweet mixed with pepper or pungency.

Gahil, disappointed, not getting one's wish; one of the numerous names for a pig.

Gairu, perplexed, confused, not knowing what one is about.

Gajag-gajig, running and skitting about without doing any real work.

Gajah, an Elephant. See Liman. Gaja, C. 162 an Elephant. The Elephant is not found wild in Java, but exists in that state in Sumatra. Elephas sumatranus. The word Gajah occurs in a certain form of Jampé , and means a great man. See Suku.

Gaja mada, the second general of Majapahit who with Ariya Damar conquered Bali. Gaja C. 162, an Elephant. Mada, C. 510, joy, pleasure, delight, the juice which flows from an Elephants temples when in rut. The Elephant rut.

Gaji, pay, salary, wages; the word is the Dutch Gagie.

Gajih, fat on animals or man, fat, tallow.

Gakang, savage as a dog; fierce.

Gala, a pole; a piece of wood, but mostly of bambu used for propelling a boat in shallow water: a boathook. Galadag, to floor with sticks; to lay down sticks in even order to serve as a foundation of anything, as of Paddy, grass &c. To lay down sticks on a muddy road so that a cart may be able to pass along. To make what the Americans call a corduroy road.

Galadag, a hack-horse, a pack-horse. A horse got from the authorities to perform a stage of a journey; often heard pronounced Gladag.

Galagar, cross sticks or beams used in any rough work made of wood, as in a bridge &c.

Galai, to mix, to knead, to trample down.

Galak, fierce, furious, savage as an animal, daring, venturesome at any work or enterprise. Orang galak, fierce people. Anjing galak, a fierce dog. Awéwé galak, a women who makes overtures to a man. Galak meuli na ari murah, people will buy venture somely when it is cheap. See Lak.

Galang, a chock or block placed under any object to keep it from the ground.

Galangan, the partition or small earthen embankment between the different divisions or pétaks of Sawahs.

Galar, a cross piece of wood in a timber framed house.

Galar-gilir, to come frequently to any place; to keep walking round; to frequent much.

Galék, a variety of Chaw or plantain; it is the same as is sometimes called Chaw Tanduk.

Galéong, to turn round.

Galér, a piece of split bambu tied transversely on other bambus or pieces of wood, so as to hold them at proper distances a part, especially on roofs of houses.

Galih, the heart wood of trees which is generally hard and enduring. The heart and hard part of any substance, wood, stone or other object.

Galing, curled, crisped, said of young paddy which grows luxuriantly, which throws out abundant leaves which spread out and soon cover the ground. Curly hair.

Galinggěm, a shrub planted about fences of roads and gardens. Bixa orellana.

Galu, name of a district in the interior of the residency of Cheribon, from whence Chiung Wanara and Raden Tanduran, the founders of Pajajaran and Majapahit were descended. Raffles Vol. 2 Page 99/100. Galu in former times appears to have been a place of some note, and held sway even over the eastern part of the Prianger Regencies.

Galuga, another name for Galinggem, Bixa orellana.

Galugur, the trunk of a tree fallen on the ground. Galugur kawung the palm kawung fallen on the ground, blown down.

Galunggung, name of a volcano south of Bandung which had a great eruption in 1822.

Galur, the beaten path, or even, only trace of a wild beast in the forest, or through jungle. Any jungle or grass beaten down by an animal passing.

Gamah, frightened, disturbed, on the qui vive; as a man at an improper act, or a wild animal in the jungle.

Gambang, a native musical instrument, being a wooden trough, across which bars of hard wood, mostly teak, are laid, longer at one end than at the other. When such bars are struck with a small mallet, they give out musical sounds. Another variety of gambang has brass bars instead of wooden ones.

Gambar, a picture, a representation. An historical table or account.

Gambir, Nauclea Gambir, a shrub, the leaves of which are boiled down and yield an inspissated juice which dries, and is then cut into small cakes. This material is also called Gambir and is eaten every where in the Archipelago along with the Sĕurĕuh or Siri, which see. It is produced in large quantities at Singapore and Rhio.

Gambos, soft and yielding; not hard and firm; said of softish vegetable materials.

Gamĕlan, a set of native musical instruments, of which the Gambang and Go-ong form part. A native band.

Gamĕlan Saléndro, a full assortment of native musical instruments is so called.

Gampang, easy facile. Éta gampang, that is easy.

Gampangkĕn, to make light of any matter; to trifle with.

Gamparan, a wooden sandal or sole of thick wood, held to the foot by a peg with a round knob, which passes between the toes.

Gamplĕng, conceding or giving way; doing something rather unadvisedly. Gampleng bai di jual, he threw it away in a sale; he slapped it off at a sale.

Gamudra mupu, a main receptacle; a place where every advantage exists. Quere is Gamudra a wrong expression of Samudra, C. 711. the sea, the ocean? Mupu is togather up, and would then mean- „the sea which gathers up or acts as a receptacle“. The sea being large receives all rivers and all they bring down into it.

Gana, C. 164. One of the names of Ganesa. The troops called Gandharwa, a kind of inferior deities considered as Sivas attendants, and under the especial command Gane'sa , the Hindu god of wisdom.

Ganchang, quick, fast. Ganchang lumpat na, he ran fast.

Ganda, shalots, a kind of small onion grown in the humahs amongst the mountains Ganda, C. 165. smell, odour, perfume. Whether om Sunda word has any more than resemblance of name to boast of, it is hard to tell, as the shalots are not particularly noted for smell. (Gandha, smell; means also Morunga hyperanthera; Aloewood; and the bud of the Champaka flower; a diffusive fragrance).

Ganda rusa, a fruit resembling a mangga. (Rûshaka is a plant, Justicia Ganderussa).

Gandasoli, name of a plant growing among grass with a small yellow flower. The word sounds Sanscritical. Ganda, C. 165 smell, odour, Suliya C. 755. the curve or groove of a screw; mischief, deceit. It is a variety of Hedychium.

Gandéng, making a noise or disturbance; boisterous, noisy.

Gandĕt, cut but not quite through; cut with a notch. A notch or catch of any kind. A ridge or impediment.

Gandol, to carry anything, as a bundel or the back folded up in the Samping or Sarung. Gandol, one of the names for Rhinoceros. Ganda and Gandaka C. 162 are both, a Rhinoceros, and have much resemblance to Gandol.

Gandola, a weed found in mountainous situations. It has a feathery flower which helps to blow about the seeds, whereby it propagates itself very rapidly and makes it difficult to eradicate. (Gandholi is a fragrant grass, Cyperus rotundus).

Gandu, name of a tree in the jungle, the astringent fruit of which is eaten by women who have been in childbirth.

Ganesa, the god of wisdom. C. 165. derived from Gana, a troop, Isa a lord or chief. The Hindu god of wisdom ; he is represented in the temples as a short fat man , with the head of an Elephant ; he is the son of Siva and Parvati, and is considered the remover of obstacles; hence in the commencement of all undertakings , and in the opening of all composition , he receives the reverential homage of the Hindus; he is considered as the chief of the various classes of subordinate deities, who are regarded as Siva's attendants.

Ganggang, to leave brush- wood, felled forest, cut grass &c to dry and wither in the sun, preparatory to burning.

Ganggang, a kind of grass growing under water, especially in ponds, and amongst which ducks are fond of grubbing.

Ganggarangan, an animal of the ferret or squirrel kind climbing up trees. (Cf. Sanggarangan.)

Ganggawang, ajar, gaping a little, just open.

Ganggong, ancient, primeval. Leuweung ganggong, primeval forest, where the trees are large.

Ganggu, to annoy, to molest any one; to be troublesome to any one.

Gangsa, a goose. Hansa- C. 784. a goose.

Gangsa, the metal of which Gongs or Go-ongs are made, and of which copper is the chief ingredient. Bronze. Also filings of such metal which is given to people as a slow poison, said to take effect upon the throat and causes at least loss of voice. The husky cough caused by this poison.

Gangsal, of uneven number , an odd number as 3. 5. 7. 9. (Jav. and Balin. five).

Gangsor, said of an animal's belly which is so large that it trails on the ground; one variety of the Rhinoceros has especially a belly of this kind, and is hence called Badak gangsor.

Gangsor, to shred or cut up yams or other roots with a sharp bambu instrument called Panggangsoran.

Ganitri, name of a shrub the seeds of which are much used for rosaries. Elaeocarpus Angustifolia. Crawfurd. (Cf. The Guduha gĕnitri or Bali.)

Ganjaran, reward, recompense, especially as given by chiefs in reward of services done by inferior people. Clemency of God for good deeds; happiness hereafter; grace.

Ganjĕl, to support or lift up by placing a chock, block or other object underneath. Ganjil, of oneven number, odd, not corresponding. (See Gangsal.)

Gantang, a measure for rice and any other grain. About ten gantangs of rice weigh one pikul. The gantang is a trifle short of one English Imperial peck.

Gantar, a piece of bambu or tick stiff rattan on which clothes &c are put, especially in the sun to dry.

Ganti, to change, to exchange, to take one thing or person in place of another; to shift; to repair by using fresh materials. A substitute, a successor.

Gantung, to hang as a person who is executed; to hang as an object suspended; to suspend from an office or service; withheld as payment. Relatives high. Said of a water way which wants deepening to allow the water to flow along it.

Gap, the idiomatic expression of biting at, of snapping at, as a dog does. Gap bai ku maung, and the tiger snapped him up.

Garaha, an Eclipse. Grahana, C. 187 literally taking, seizing, an Eclipse of the sun or moon , because of the idea which Indian astrologers have of an Eclipse. Rahu , one of the inferior planets , having in consequence of certain unfair actions committed against him both by the sun and moon conceived an eternal hatred against them, at certain seasons takes the advantage of laying hold of them with his mouth , or hand , threatens them with destruction , and the darkness is caused by his gripe. Clough voce. Eclipse. (The word is in Scr. Graha, eclipse; also Rahu himself; we find in several Sundanese words the tendency of placing a vowel sound between two consonants followiug each other; see above dĕrigama. Fr.)

Garai, to gammon a rope, viz. after twisting a round and round, to lash those strands again at the middle, so as to draw them still closer and faster together.

Garang, as di garang, to fry or roast on hot embers.

Garanggang, a bambu sharpened at one end, and thrown as a spear. The tamiang is especially used for this purpose.

Garap, to speak quickly; speaking so fast that the words run into each other.

Garĕmbul, eating more than common; voracious.

Garéték, vexed, boiling with anger, enraged.

Garing, dry, perfectly dried, desiccated. Garing expresses a higher degree of dryness than Tuhur or Tu-us.

Garinjĕl, any surface which is not perfectly smooth; having small inequalities.

Garintul, having knobby projections; Garintul is in a higher degree what Garinjĕl represents in a smaller one.

Garis, a mark, a scratch; to make a mark with a pointed instrument. A limit assigned. Ulah ngaliwat garis, do not exceed the limits assigned.

Garisul, high and low places adjoining each other. Deep and shallow places, side by side in a river.

Garombol, small thick- set bushes. Thickets. Garotan, old, ancient, primeval; said of an old forest. Leuweung garotan, a primeval forest.

Garu, a harrow, an implement of agriculture, a large rake. To harrow, to rake.

Garu, the name of a kind of perfumed wood called generally Lignum Aloes. Agaru, C. 7. the name of a plant, Dalbergia Sissoo- Aguru C. 8. from a privative, and Guru heavy- the name of a fragrant wood- Aloe wood.

Garuan, to scratch any part of the body; to harrow. (See Garuk.)

Garuda, the Griffin, C. 168, the bird the Vehicle of Vishnu, he is generally represented as being something between and a bird, and considered as sovereign of the feathered tribe.

Garuk, to scratch with the nail, to scratch any part of the body.

Garung, said of cultivalion which is not taken proper care of, not weeded. Said also of fallen forest which cannot get burnt for wet weather, or some other cause, and thus the ground cannot be cultivated or planted.

Garungsang, steep and rugged, precipitous.

Gasal, an uneven number, 3. 5. 7. more usually Gangsal.

Gasik, quick, expeditions; be quick!

Gasir, to undermine: to sap a house or wall for the purpose of getting in to steal.

Gatapan, afraid, shying as a horse.

Gatěl, a portion of Paddy levied as tax, given to the village chiefs for their trouble in collecting revenues.

Gatét, name of a tree, Inocarpus edulis.

Gati, difficult, causing trouble, intricate. Unwilling, unless on hard terms to comply trouble, intricate. Unwilling, unless on hard terms to comply with our wishes.

Gatoh, that part of a white ants nest which contains the Queen ant. The Queen ant herself, who is vastly larger than her subjects, being an inch an a half long and ⅜ of an inch thick and very helpless. The natives eat her Queenship as a delicacy.

Gatrah, trace, mark of. The trace of something commenced and then abandoned for some cause as a bad job. The mark on the ground of some work begun and then abandoned as a slokan which is not carried through. Gatra, C. 172 the body, a limb, a member.

Gauk, to cry out in a rage: to roar; to bellow.

Gaul, a long drum like tube of wood, set in dams in rivers to catch fish.

Gaur, to scramble for, the confusion made by scrambling. Paré na di gaur bai, they quite scrambled who should have the paddy (by buying).

Gawé, work, occupation, trouble. To work. Gěrrah di gawé set to work. Quickly to work. Gawé sia to hadé, what you are about is not right. Matak gawé éta, that will cause trouble.

Gawé, is also a grand feast or jollification such as natives get up on occasions of marriage or circumcision, which they thus appear to consider as labour or a piece of work. Daik bogah gawe, I mean to hold a festival. (In the same way used as Balin. Kârja; makârja is originally to work, but employed to denote festivals of the natives.) Gawing, hung up, suspeuded, swinging clear of the ground.

Gawir, a steep bank, a precipice.

Gayĕm, to chew, to chew the cud.

Gayot, swinging backwards and forwards.

Gayung, a ladle made out of the segment of a Cocoa nut shell with a wooden handle fixed to it.

, an expression of remonstrance or taunting; see there! what now! an expression which often occurs in sentences but is difficult to translate, as the sense will often read intelligibly without it. Siji bai gé hadé even only one will do. Perhaps even, only, is the nearest approach to its meaning.

Gĕbah, to frighten away; to drive away cattle or birds from cultivation, or the like.

Gĕbang, name of a Palm tree as a Cocoanut. Its young leaves are pulled in shreds and made into Kadut or bagging. Name of a variety of Paddy. The Palm is Corypha Gĕbanga.

Gĕbĕg, to fan, to cause a current of air to move.

Gĕbĕng, included in, belonging to.

Gébér, to wiggle waggle about; to flap backwards and forwards. Gageber, the dewlap of a cow.

Gĕbiug, all together; working simultaneously.

Gĕblĕg, a fool, a stupid fellow; foolish.

Gĕblig, stamping on the ground; springing up so as to come down with force upon the ground.

Gĕbluk-gĕbluk, frequent knocking or striking. An intensitive from of gĕblig.

Gĕbog, a fold of shred tobacco as put up for sale, called in Malay Lémpéng. A fold or piece of Cotton cloth or prints.

Gĕbrĕgan, a short but hard tug at any work; a tussle at any thing. Sagĕbrĕgan, for a short period , while an effort is made.

Gĕbug, to thrash with a stick or whip.

Gĕbur, said of the flaming up of a torch; the blazing up of a large fire. Lambent as flame.

Gĕdag, to shake, to cause to move.

Gĕdang, a tree with a fruit called in Malay Papaya. Carica Papaya.

Gĕdé, large, big, great.

Gĕdé, as Awi gĕdé, the large bambu; a most useful variety, splits up for palupuhs, and is in universal use about house building.

Gĕdĕbog, the pliant stem of a Plantain torn in strips to envelop anything. The stem it seld of Plaintain when cut down for any use.

Gĕdĕbong, a plant with largish heart-shaped leaves, rough with veins. Leaf used as a medicine for worms in children.

Gĕdĕbus, ganmes in which are exhibited feats of address with various sharp weapons, as stabbing the body with krisses or knives &c, but which are merely clever sleights of hand. These games are mostly practised by men who pretend to be great proficients in the knowledge of the Mohammedan religion, and thereby to have attained their skill.

Gĕdég, a flooring of split bambus wattled together, and used in any way on bridges, ferries, any passage or road &c. &c.

Gédéng, a bundle of paddy consisting of two smaller bundles tied together and of a certain weight. The most usual size is of 16 catties weight. Each half of this gendeng weighs 8 catties and is called Sapochong.

Gédéng, steep, precipitous.

Gédéngĕun, on the side of, near the side. Said of men of high birth. When said of common people it is gigirĕun.

Gĕdĕr, the noise of a quarrelsome dispute; a continuous noise.

Gédér, startled, frightened, discomposed.

Gĕdig, a big chap, a big person; any person or thing which is large and makes much pretension.

Gédog, to shake together, to joggle together, as grain or any other loose material in a basket or measure.

Gědogan, a stall for a horse, a native stable which consists of a kind of cage under a roof, into which a horse is turned in loose and then barred in.

Gédong, a mansion, a great man'shouse; the houses of Europeans are called Gědongs, especially in the country. Gědong Běchara the Town Hall the Mension House, where public business is conducted.

Gědor, to strike, to hit, to hammer at; to strike with a heavy mallet

Gědubus, to put a man to work to pay off his debt by his labour.

Gědug, occurs as a name as Gědug Leng'ur- a designation of some ancient Mythological character. It is not otherwise heard in Sunda. Gericke's Javanese Dictionary gives- Gědug, in order that, entirely; the extreme, the last; and Gěgědug, the pre-eminent, the first in rank; chief, leader. Lěngur has not been traced. Friederich.

Gěduk, shaking, agitated; thumping on the ground or on any other object.

Gěgading, the horizontal bars in a wooden building, to which are nailed the planks or attached the bambu pagars. Gading-gading in Malay are the floor timbers of a ship.

Gěgah, mighty, valliant, spirited, full of activity as a young horse &c. active and pleased.

Gěgandén, a mallet, a large hammer made entirely of wood. A maul.

Gěgandět, a mark as of a cut or notch. A ridge or impediment See Gandět.

Gěgasah, to rub the body against any object, as a tree, a wall &c. Said of a horse or animal which rubs itself against a tree, a post or the like.

Gěgědén, Big folks, great people. Derived from Gědé, great.

Gěgěl, to bite, to layhold of with the teeth; also to lay hold of in general.

Gěgělang, ancient name of a place in the district of Pranaraga in the residency of Madiun.

Gěgěndhir, a long stout staff, as long as a man, carried partly for support and partly for a weapon of defence. Called at Batavia Limbuhan.

Gégép, pincers, a forceps; a blacksmith's vice.

Gégéréntélan, having curly hair, curly locks. Said of anything which is put in small round bits or in pellets.

Gěgěroan, roaring, crying, bellowing. Di gegeroan, to roar at a man to call his attention.

Gěgětuk, to mash up taleus, or the fruit seeds of the Nangka Beurit; this being mixed with Jaggory Sugar and cocoanut is eaten as a delicacy or treat.

Gěgolak, to boil up as hot water, to be in a state of ebullition.

Géhéng, burnt clean up; said of fire which makes a clean sweep and consumes all it comes against, as in the humahs.

Géhgér, giving the alarm, crying out; showing discontent. Uproar, tumult. Géhgéran, the sensitive plant. Mimosa Pudica.

Géjég, attendants at a native feast; servants at a festival.

Gék, the idiomatic expression of sitting down. Gék bai diyeuk, and down he sat.

Gěladag or Gladag, as Kuda geladag, a hack-horse: a horse used for carrying goods or other rough purposes. A Pack-horse.

Gělap, contraband, what cannot bear the light of day; unlawful, forbidden.

Gělap, a thunder bolt, a stroke of lightning.

Gělas, a glass, a tumbler. Derived from the Dutch word Glas.

Gělatik, the Java sparrow. A pretty little bird so called, with red bill and legs. The general colour of the body is a pretty slate colour, with white spot on breast. Fringilla oryzivora.

Gělatik mung'ut, perhaps originally Pung'ut which is in Malay to gather up. A sort, of game in which the players of the Angklung bambu music pick up with their mouths money or other objects thrown to them by the bye standers.

Gělěběg, a pedaty wheel made of one disk of wood. A small cart on such wheels. Pansmat gelebeg, those Spanish dollars which bear two circles or spheres on them, which are taken for representations of Pedaty wheels, and not as indicative of authority over the two worlds.

Gělédég, Lightning. The flash of light attending thunder.

Gělěděg, indicative of the impetuous rush of fire, of water, or of a flood. Said also of people or animals running off hastily in numbers. Geledeg bai cha-ah, down rushed a flood. Seuneuh geledeg bai ka imah, kahuruan, and the fire rushing up the house in a lambent flame, burnt it. Kebo na geledeg bai lumpat, and off the buffaloes ran with impetuosity.

Gěléntér, to spread out one by one in the sun to dry. Said especially of new cut paddy so treated. Gélgél, the name of the ancient capital of the island of Bali, destroyed upwards of 100 years ago by the people of Karang Asam. It was the capital of the Déwa Agung or Supreme Lord of Bali when Europeans first became acquainted with the country. Friederich, Bat. Trans. Vol 23 Page 26.

Gélo, foolish, stupid, giddy, heedless.

Gělong, to swallow, to bolt down the throat. Di gělong bulěd, he swallowed it whole.

Gělung, to top-knot of a woman's hair. To dress the hair of women when of low degree. Vide Sanggul.

Gělut, to roll or tustle playfully as children. To struggle and roll together in fighting; to hug, to wrestle.

Gěmbong, a variety of Bambu with long joints.

Gěmbor, a variety of Chaw or Plantain.

Gěmbréng, a metal dish or plate struck by a public crier to call attention or to give notice of a public auction about to take place.

Gěměs, vexed, irritated, gnashing the teeth with rage.

Gěmpar, prostrated, cast down, especially by sickness. Fallen ill.

Gěmparan, wooden sandals. A wooden sole with a peg in the front part to pass between the toes, whereby to hold it to the foot.

Gěmpél, to cut paddy close below the ear, and thus without any of the straw to act as a handle; this is done especially with bad paddy, which is then collected in a basket, and not tied up in bundels.

Gěmpur, to cut down small jungle, bambus &c; to clear a bit of ground of bushes, long grass &c.

Gěmuh, having plenty, getting abundantly, especially something to eat or for personal use; exuberant.

Gěn, an argumentative or remonstrative particle; well! hew comes it? Gen to datang, he's not come.

Genanan, an argumentative expression of remonstrance or expostulation, as- well after all! nevertheless! and then. Ari chur hujan, genanan minggat, and when the rain came on, then away they ran.

Gěnap, six. This word is probably derived from Ganapang, the imperative of Ganinawa, to add up, to count, to reckon, Clough 165. and as such indicates a step in the native method of counting, when the five fingers of the hand had been used up, and thus Genap would mean- a counting, a score. In Malay Genap means complete, full, even in number.

Gěnapblas, Sixteen.

Gěnappuluh, Sixty.

Génchét, to tie together with a bit of string, to tack together. In conjunction.

Gěnděng, to be peevish, to find fault with, to chatter in a rage.

Gěnděs, longing to get at any one to thrash him. See Gemes. Gěndul, the fruit of the Kamiri or Munehang tree, when only one and thus a large stone contained in one fruit When there are two stomes, they are called Dampa. Games or chances are taken upon these stones.

Génggaing, a variety of the Durian or Kadu tree, Durio Zibethinus. The fruit of the Génggaing is smaller than that of the real Durian, its thorns softer and longer, and its fruit much more stinking.

Génggé, small round bells or brass castinets, worn by children round their ankles.

Génggéhék, a river fish resembling the Rěgis. At Buitenzorg the Rěgis is called Génggéhék.

Gěnggěm, to carry in the hand, to clasp in the fist, to clench, to clasp hold of, as if about to give a stick or thrust. Ngagenggem péso, to carry a knife in the hand.

Gěnggěrong, the thrapple, the main duct of the throat.

Génggong, uneven as a bit of land; rough with stones or stamps of trees.

Génja, a variety of Paddy which comes soon to perfection, but is not so nutritive as sorts which require longer time to grow.

Génjé, a variety of hemp, the leaves of which can smoked like opium. It is imported from the continent of India, and used to adulterate opium.

Génjělong, top heavy, crank, heavy in the upper part so as to cause to totter.

Gěnta, brass bells carried tied to front part of pedaties or carts. A bell in general. Ganta, C. 165. a bell.

Génténg, a tile, more frequently Kénténg which see.

Géong, the circular flight of birds when in flocks.

Gěpéng, flat and thin; flattened by treading or pressing on. Ari di tinchak to daikkěn gěpéng, when you tread on it, it does not flatter.

Gěpok, Two quantities or two lots made into one, as when two baskets of Tobacco are put face to face and lashed into one package, such package then becomes one Gěpok. Also said of two lots of bambus, each lot generally consisting of a dozen sticks fastened in a row, lashed one upon the other, for the purpose of easily floating them together down a river.

Gěr, the idiomatic expression of doing anything with energy. Gěr bai paséa, they turned to and had a fight. Gěr bai lumpat, and away they scampered off. (Cf. seger)

Gěrěděg, indicates quick and impetuous motion. Running rapidly. Gěrěděg bai lumpat, and off he ran with all his might. Kréta geredeg bai datang, the carriage drove rapidly up.

Gěrěman, to growl at, to snarl, as a wild animal does in the forest; to pretend to snarl at a young woman when wishing to call her attention for purposes of love.

Gěrět, to make a mark or scratch, as with a knife on a bit of wood. To scratch a mark. This word appears to be a sort of diminutive of Gurat.

Gěrgaji, a saw. To saw wood. (Skr. Krakacha; the tenues commuted into mediae.) Gěrimis, drizzle as rain, slight rain. (Jav. and Batav. idem.)

Gěring, ill, sick, out of health. (Balin. idem. In Javanese it means the pest.)

Gěrrah, be quick, look sharp; to proceed to do any act. Gerrah di taburken, now proceed to pour it out. (Probably Skr. Çighra(m), quickly swiftly; the çî, si, having been misunderstood, and considered as the Sundanese word si. Fr.)

Gěrrahěun, as if its likely. Most assuredly not. Gerraheun di béré, most assuredly he will not give it.

Gěrro, to scream, to roar. (Jav. The roar, for instance of a tiger.)

Gěrtak, to make afraid, to threaten. (Jav. To show oneself angry.)

Gěrus, to collander cloth, to rub cloth with anything smooth so as to give it also a smooth polished appearance; for this purpose the Cyprea sea shell is used. (Jav. id.)

Géséh, moved, altered, displaced. Geseh poi na, the day is changed. (Jav. id.)

Gěsěng, black with burning, grimed. (Jav. Gosong and Gěsěng, id.)

Gěsěr, to file the teeth, as is done with those of all Javanese, by taking the enamel off, and rubbing in some preparation to make them black.

Gětah, gum, sap, the milky or gummy exudation from trees when the bark is cut.

Gětah Pěrcha, known only as a foreign product on Java. It is the gum of the Isonandra Gutta. Getah Percha is found on Sumatra, Borneo and Adjacent isles. It is found, apparently as the gum of various trees, of which the Balam or Isonandra is the most prominent.

Gětapan, frightened, shy, skittish as a horse. (Jav. Gětappan, id.)

Gětas, fragile, brittle. (Jav. id.)

Gětěk, notch, mark to come up to. Said also figuratively, Liwat getek, he has gone further than he ought.

Géték, a raft of wood, of bambu, or other light materials, either kept for crossing water, or a river, or for easily transporting the materials by water, lashed together. (Jav. id. ꦒꦺꦠꦺꦏ꧀)

Géték, to tickle, a sensation of tickling.

Gětih, blood- gore. (Jav. blood.)

Gětol, active and persevering at any work; hardworking, energetic.

Gěugěuh, as di gěugěuh, to protect, to render assistance. Often applied to supernatural protection, or the favour of some genius.

Gěugěus, a bundle of paddy.

Gěuingkěn, to shake or rouse up.

Gěulang, rings of gold, silver, brass, ivory or other material worn about the wrists. (g'lang.)

Gěulěuh, bearing malice to any one, vexed at, provoked against, said of a person in whom ill will is festering.

Gěulis, pretty as a woman, handsome. Not said of a man who is Kasep which see. This seems to be the root of the Malay word Majellis, beatiful. Elegant. Marsden Page 320.

Gěuněuk, swollen as from a contusion; said of any part of the body which has been hurt. Gěuntak, to work with impetuosity for a short time; to make an effort. To frighten by making a sudden demonstration. Sa geuntak, for a short time, viz. so long as a Geuntak or effort lasts.

Gěurěuh, chattering, much small talk.

Gěurěung, a worm, the common earth worm. Name of a variety of Rattan which is thin and used for lines in houses to hang clothes on.

Gěus, the short for Anggeus, which see. Geus anggeus, it has been completed or accomplished. The abbreviated form Geus is of very frequent occurrence.

Gěus aing, an expression of doubt, of not believing. Geus aing sia to lumpat, you would most undoubtedly take to your heels. Geus aing hadé as if I can believe it is good.

Gěus-an, in order to, for the purpose of. Answers often to the Malay word Buat. Geusan diyeuk, something to sit down upon. Geusan jamang, fit to make a jacket of it.

Gěutah, the same as Gětah, which see. Gum, sap of a tree.

Géyot-géyot, swinging to and fro, pendulons.

Géyotan, a tandu or sort of sedan chair to carry a person in.

Ghaib, arabic, concealed; not within the ken of man. Said of futurity and such like. (غيب)

Ghâlib, arabic, victorious, overcoming, prevailing. (غالب)

Giatkěn, to hurry on, to expedite. (Cf. Kagyat Kawi, and Kaget, Jav. Batav.)

Gigih, half-boiled rice, which is then taken off the fire, undergoes the process of akeul or kneading, and is then boiled again till fully cooked.

Gigir, side, edge. Nyimpang ka gigir, to step on one side. Gigiran imah, along side the house.

Gigirěun, on the side of, near the side of a person.

Gila, to have an aversion, to abhor anything, to make the flesh creep, to loathe, to nauseate.

Gilang, to shine, to glitter; Batu gilang, a glittering stone, the Diamond &c.

Gilěr, to turn the head aside and cast sheep's eyes. To look at slyly, as at a woman; to ogle.

Gili, an earthen bank put up on each side of the road. An embankment so called when on a road side.

Giling, to turn round as a wheel, or mill. To revolve, to grind.

Giling Wěsi, the name of an old empire in Java; situated some where near the Gunung Sméru. Raffles vol 2. Page 72/73.

Gilir, to turn, to change, to take by turns; to take first one and then the other.

Giliran, a turn, an opportunity to do anything, a change. Giliran kami ayeunah, it is now my turn.

Gilirkěn, to give a turn, to change, to take in turn. To cause to take or do by turns. To turn over, to twist round. Gimbal, large graind, round, rotund- said of grain, as paddy.

Ginding, proud, overbearing.

Ginggang, Gingham; a variety of coloured cloth with pattern in stripes.

Ginggěung, in a state of trepidation.

Gintung, name of a large forest tree, called also Gadog.

Girang, up the river, higher up a river than the place where we are, or of which we speak. Elevated in spirits, pleased, selfsatisfied. (In the last meaning at Batavia.)

Girang Puhun, the chief of the Badui tribe in South Bantan. Girang in this sense means chief. There is an old and ancient idea prevailing among the Sunda people that dignity is associated with not having any one living higher up the same river than yourself. Some years ago there was an old man who lived in this way on the Chidurian, and who would not allow any one to live higher up the river than him-self. If his self- imposed law was violated by others he deserted his home and removed higher again than the intruder. Vide Puhun. To laku kagirangan, you must not live higher up the river than he does.

Girang Sěrat, the second man in among the Badui; he has charge of super-intending the Humah Sérang, or common field on which is planted the Paddy made into rice for the yearly offerings, and must at the stated intervals take care that the people perform their acts of heathen worship. See Sarat.

Giras, wild, skittish- as a young horse. (Jav. shy.)

Giri, a mountain, a hill. Used in the composition of proper names. Thus in old pantuns or ballads, the Gunung Gědě of Jasinga is known as Mandala Giri. Girikh, C. 174 a mountain, a hill. Giri is the name of the range of hills which terminate at Grisse near Sourabaya. (Skr. Giri a mountain.)

Girik, to bore, to pierce. A native boring instrument.

Girik, a tally; a bit of wood or bambu given to people at work to keep count of what they do.

Giring, to drive, to chase, to run after, to drive cattle. (Jav. and Bat. id.)

Girintingan, name of a variety of grass.

Giruk, vexed, enraged, pettish, peevish, having an abhorrence of, having a malicious feeling towards any one.

Gisik, to rub the head or body; to chafe, to rub. (Cf. Gosok.)

Gitik, to strike with a stick, to thrash. To levy contribution. To impose an award. (Jav. Bat.)

Giwang. an ear- ring with only one stone or ornament. (Batavian.)

Gladak, a hack- horse- see Galadag.

Glam, name of a forest tree, with red soft spongy bark, by which it can easily be distinguished; it grows only among elevated mountains. The Malays have also a kayu glam, Gordonia, the epidermis of which is used for caulking- Crawfurd : but it may be fairly doubted whether the two glams are the same tree.

Goah, the cooking place in a native house; that part of a native house where cooking is carried on, and may thus be generally translated Kichen, though not a separate room. (Perhaps Skr. Guhâ, a cave, a cavern; a pit, a hole in the ground. Fr.)

Goarkěn, to stir up, to stir round any liquid.

Gobang, a native sword like instrument carried only as a weapon of defence. Called in Malay Golok.

Gobiog, a kind of bambu fence or wainscotting, made of palupuhs fixed together with other bambus. (Jav. Gěbiog the same; a polished plank.)

Gobiog, working all together. Doing any thing smartly with a lot of people.

Goblok, stupid, dull, wanting sense. Si-goblok, a stupid fellow.

Gobrah, wide, as trousers or the sleeves of a jacket.

Gocho, to strike with the fist, to box, to cuff.

Goda, to deceive, to tempt, to entice to do something wrong- to seduce from duty. (Jav. id.)

Goděn, a large copper coin formerly in use, of value of eight doigts, of size of an English penny- not now in use.

Godog, loose, shakey, not fitting tight; figuratively, unrestrained, having the choice of an alternative. Godog pikir, easy in thoughts.

Gog, the idiomatic expression of a rencounter or meeting. Gog bai kapananggi, and they suddenly met, or they came face to face.

Gogodan, to entice to do something wrong; to lead astray. Sprites or evil genii which seduce holy men from their devotions, especially at Kramats. (See goda.)

Gogog, to bark as a dog. Di gogog anjing, dogs barked at him. See Gonggong.

Gogol, to move any thing with a lever; to prize up. To move by inserting a stick or other object as a lever.

Gogomplokan, in a heap, showing in a mass; hanging in clusters.

Goji, to milk, to press the teats of cows or sheep &c. to get milk.

Golébag, tumbled down, thrown down, stretched out.

Golénchéng, to fling down.

Golér, tumbling, or lying down any where; kicking about, laid out, laid down, laid flat.

Golérkěn, to lay down any thing. To put down on the ground.

Golétrak, to fell or plump down.

Golondongan, whole, entire- said of fruit or seed which has to be ground before using, as coffee beans.

Golondongan- as Kolot golondongan, old and without manners; a rough old bear. Said of a rude old man, as if the husk had not yet been taken off him.

Golong, a roll of rope or Rattan &c; anything made up into a round parcel. A bundle or piece of Palm Sugar rolled up in Pandan leaves. (Compare guling.)

Gombong, a variety of bambu, resembling awi gedé.

Gomplok, in clusters as fruit; said of bunches of fruit growing from a common insertion on the tree. Gompong, name of a tree, wood bad and much eaten by Bangbara.

Gondang, a large fresh water slug fish in a shell. Ampullaria.

Gondok, a wen on the throat, a goiter, frequently met with amongst the mountaineers. Daik gondok, may I get a goiter. A common asseveration when a person perceives himself disbelieved. (Jav. ꦒꦺꦴꦟ꧀ꦝꦺꦴꦏ꧀ id.)

Gondok laki, the pomum Adami, or projection on the fore part of the neck of a man.

Goné,a gunny bag. This word is from the continent of India where the gunnies are made.

Gonggong, to bark like a dog. See Gogog. Anjing Sapeupeuting ngagonggong bai, the dogs kept barking the whole night through. Puyu gonggong, literally the barking quail, Perdix Javanica. See Puyu.

Gongséng, name of a creeper, from which is got a juice for the stomach ache.

Gontang, Jugglery. Certain ceremonies performed in order to ascertain the cause of disease.

Go-ong, a Gong; a circular musical instrument made of brass and beaten with a soft mallet.

Goréng, bad, vicious, spoiled, no longer fit for use.

Goréngkěn, to speak evil of, to make as wicked.

Gorogol, a fenced inclosure with a spring door to catch wild pigs, tigers or other wild animals.

Gosé, an oar for a native boat, a paddle.

Gosok, to rub, to wipe; to polish by rubbing. To rub clean, to scour. Figuratively- to find fault with, to keep worrying at, to egg on.

Gosong, to run ashore as a ship, stranded.

Gotong, to carry by two or more people, by means of the weight resting on the shoulders. Mostly, however, to carry by two people, with the weight suspended from a pole resting on each man's shoulders.

Gotrah, agreement, common fortune.

Gowat, quick, speedy; make haste! This word can also to Singhalese roots. Gosgohingohila are absolute participles of the verb Yanawa to go, and mean thus—„having gone." Wat, C. 618 is an affix to words implying possession - having - and Gowat would thus imply - „having the property of having gone" having made haste.

Gowok, a variety of the kupa tree. Called often kupa gowok.

Gowowok, gobbling up, tearing to pieces and swallowing as fast as possible; said especially of tigers and dogs.

Goyang, to shake, to move, to agitate.

Gréja, the church, the Christian place of worship. It is the Portuguese Igréja or Iglesia.

Grisé or Grisik, name of a place in the straits of Madura, noted for its ancient trade, and as having been one of the chief places where the early Mohammedan Missionaries established their religion- derived from Girikh, C. 174, a mountain, a hill- and Sikha, C. 731, a point, top in general. Grisé is situated at the extremity or point of the range of hills called Gunung Giri, where it projects into the strait of Madura. The natives not being philologists enough to know that Giri in Sanscrit is a mountain, use the tautology of calling the range Gunung Giri, both words having the same meaning, only Gunung is strictly Polynesian. There is also a Gressik, 28 miles up the Moar river in the Malay peninsula, on high banks, but apparently not mountainons. The mouth of the Moar river is 25 miles south of Malacca. Singapore Journal 1855 Page 104.

Grobogan, a district in the Eastern extremity of the Residency of Samarang, anciently called Kuripan.

Gubĕlan, the act of a woman seizing some part of a man's dress who has laid with her, in proof of such act; such article produced as proof to the priest necessitates the man to marry the woman. ( Jav Gubĕl, to entangle something, to desire ardently from somebody.)

Gubĕrnĕment, Government-Dutch and European in general.

Gublĕg, shaking or rattling, as the contents of a rotten egg.

Gubrug-gubrug, to shake with force, especially a post stuck in the ground, or the like.

Gudang, a store, a magazine, a warehouse.

Gudĕg, shaking, as water in a bottle or any vessel which it does not fill.

Gudél, a calf.

Gugula-an, a shrub bearing a beautiful pure white and sweet scented flower. Tabernaemontana divaricata.

Gugulingan, to roll about, to wallow.

Guguntur, to wash away earth with water; an easy way which the natives have of removing earth or cutting trenches. A stream of water is conducted to the spot to be dug out, and the earth being loosened is thrown into the water, and so carried away.

Gugur, to crumble and fall down, as earth on a cut bank after exposure to the sun. To crumble away.

Gugurah, to purge, a medicine taken to clear the belly and the voice. Young native lads take Gugurah in order to have a clear and sonorous voice either for singing to their loves, or for the purpose of reading the Koran or tapsir with a clear voice.

Guguru, to learn from a Guru or teacher; to take lessons. Beunang guguru ti gunung, to have been taught it among the mountains; what has been learnt amongst the mountains.

Guha, a cavern, a cave, a hole in the ground, or more commonly in limestone rocks where the edible bird's nests are found. Guha, C. 178, a cavern, a cave.

Gula, Sugar. Gula, C. 178 food; juice of the sugar cane; raw or unrefined sugar.

Gula-batu, Sugar candy - literally stone - sugar.

Gulang-gulang, attendants of native chiefs. Runners or errandmen in attendance on native chiefs.

Guling to roll over, to roll and turn like a wheel; to roll about when laid down.

Gulingkĕn, to cause to roll - to roll anything.

Guludug, the rumbling sound of thunder. Loud and heavy thunder.

Gulung, to roll or fold up. To furl as a sail by rolling it up. To be rolled up in a heap; to get entangled and rolled together in a heap. (See Guling and Golong)

Gulunggung, name of a mountain in the Prianger Regencies, S. E. from Bandung. The word implies rolled up in a heap, being a kind of duplication of gulung.

Gumuling, not yet fledged; said of young birds which have not yet got feathers- Callow. Probably derived from guling to fall about, and thus not able to fly, with the peculiar um inserted in the word.

Gumunda, said of paddy when it covers the ground; when it has so far grown as to hide the ground, especially in Sawahs. It may be the word Gundra with the peculiar um inserted in it. Gundra, C. 177, a kind of grass, Sacharum Sara.

Gumuruh, having a loud thundering sound. Derived from Guruh with um inserted in the word.

Guna, worth, use, purpose. Guna, C. 176, virtue, a quality, an attribute or property in general.

Gundal, an attendant, a follower.

Gundam, to speak in the sleep.

Gundik, a concubine.

Gundil, paddy without awns, any object without a usual appendage or projection.

Gundrum, wheat, the grain of which bread is made, called also Tarigo. Gundum in Malay also wheat, is Persian.

Gundul, bald, without any hair on the head. A clean shaved head.

Gundulan, to shave the hair off the head, often by way of punishment or disgrace.

Gunggung, to add up, to ascertain the total.

Gunggurung, a drain under an embankment of earth. A drain under a road.

Gunggur-utu, a kind of wild grape. Cissus Arachnoidea. Of the family of Ampelideae. Often given to ducks.

Guntangan, to hold by some support overhead, as a rope or hook.

Gunting, scissars; to cut with scissars; to clip.

Guntur, an impetuous torrent, a flood. Chai na guntur the river came down in a flood.

Guntur, name of a Volcano in the Prianger Regencies south east from Bandong. Gunung Guntur would indicate a Volcano which poured out floods of lava. (Guntur in Jav. id.; but means also the loud (thundering) sound of water — and of thunder.)

Guntur gěni, a flood of fire; name of one of the old pusaka or heir-loom guns on Java. Geni is fire in Javanese.

Gunung, a mountain. The Sunda people call themselves Orang gunung, mountaineers, and their language Basa gunung, the mountain language, this is of course on account of the mountainous nature of the country which they inhabit.

Gunung Kěndang, the Kěndang mountains, which extend the whole length of Java; wherever the mountains run in ridges they are called Kěndang - vide voce.

Gunung Sari, name of a place in the environs of the town of Batavia. Here we have a pure Sunda word associated with what appears to be a Sanscrit one. See Sari. The mountain of flowers, of beauty.

Gupai, to beckon to come to; to call with a motion of the hand.

Gupak, to wallow as buffaloes in mud.

Gupakan, a mud hole where buffaloes wallow.

Gurami, a species of fish much reared and kept in ponds, often sent about in tubs as presents. The word may perhaps be the Javanese Grami, Trade and Lauk Gurami would then mean „the fish of trade," as it is reared in ponds for use or for selling. Or Gurami may be derived from Gramaya, C. 188, a village, a hamlet-implying fish, kept in the villages, in contradistinction to fish which swims at large in the rivers or in the sea. The word is often heard pronounced Grami. Ophromenus Olfax.

Gurat, to make a mark on any hard substance as by engraving. To mark, to engrave. This word has a sort of diminutive in Gěrět, which see.

Gurat Batu, literally engraven on stone, means figuratively any fixed tax or contribution, especially a fixed tax on Paddy lands.

Guriang, the mountain genii; the spirit of the mountains. Derived from Guru, C. 177, a preceptor; a religious teacher; one who explains the law and religion to his pupils. Hyang — See in voce — Divinity. I am indebted to Mr. Friederich for this solution. A designation evidently derived from Budhist or Brahminical times, though the wild fanciful idea may have been of a still earlier date. The name still lives among the Sunda mountaineers, and considerable supernatural importance is often attached to it. Beunang nanya ti guriang, to have enquired after it from the Mountain Spirit.

Guriling, the act of rolling over and over again, as a stone down a hill. The plural of guling from the repetition of the act.

Gurinda, a grind stone.

Gurnita, known to all the world. Publicly known. (Seems to by the participle of ghûrn, volvi, circumagi, volutari. Fr.)

Guru, a religious teacher, as well in olden and heathen, or Hindu times, as now adays amongst Mohammedans. A model to go by, a muster to work by. Guru, C. 177 a teacher, a schoolmaster; a religious teacher who explains the law and religion to his pupils. See Batara.

Gurudag, a rattling noise. To arrive with a fuss. The fuss of attendance about a great man. Gurudag bai datang, He arrived with much fuss.

Guru Désa, the village Monitor. Called also Kěrěti which see. The constellation Pleiades by which the villagers are guided in their yearly Paddy plantings. Guru, a teacher, Děsa, village. Vide voce.

Guruh, a thundering noice; a dull heavy roar. The noise of an impetuons torrent of water, or of many people or animals in motion. Giguru, C. 173, thunder.

Gurumutan, said when work is to bedone by many people, every man just a handful of work. A simultaneons onset at work. Gusi, the gums of the mouth. (Mal. Javan. id.)

Gusti, Lord, a very high title of respect, now adays almost exclusively applied to God, as Gusti Allah, the Lord God. On Bali it is still a title of distinction for man, viz chiefs of high rank, as many of the chiefs have the word prefixed to their names. The word is evidently of Sanscrit origin, but is not to be found in Clough. Mr. Friederich reports in Bat: Trans: Vol. 23 Page 15 that Gusti on Bali is a title of the Waisya caste, who on Bali are the kings of the country. The name is not Indian, at least not clearly so. In India, the third caste — the Waisyas — are of no great note, and it is therefore not to be wondered that they have no particular distinguishing title. The case is and was otherwise on Java and Bali wither few Kshatriyas appear to have come. Here the Waisyas became kings, and some title was required for them, though even on Bali they rank inferior to the Déwa Agung of Klongkong, who is of Kshatriya descent. The Balinese restrict the title of Gusti to the Waisya caste. On Java it is still retained as a designation of the Almighty, Gusti Allah, and is also applied to the two native sovereigns, the Susuhunan and the Sultan. That, however, the princes of Solo and Yogyakarta are called Gusti is a strong presumption that also their families were originally of the Waisya caste. They preserved the title whilst the name of the caste was lost through the influence of Mohammedanism[2].

Gusur, to drag along the ground, to trail.

Guwis, an expression in preparing Jagory sugar; to stir and whip it up when it is nearly sufficiently boiled.

Guyang, to bathe as brutes, especially as buffaloes in the rivers; by rolling and submerging themselves in the water.

    to the Governor General; themselves being the children, the Resident the father and the Governor General the grandfather. Any derivation from the Ceylonese is very improbable. Fr.

  1. Gading means yellow at Bali. On Java is known bambu gading and Kalapa gading a yellow kind of Coconut. It is remarkable that the ivory, which is white, but with a yellowish hue, should be called gading. Fr.
  2. Goshtî, Skr. an assembly, a meeting; family connections, but especially the dependant or junior branches. Wilson. The Waisyas appear thus by this title as having been received and considered as adoptive junior members of the higher caste, the Xatriyas. We can see in this case, which is,at least apparently (perhaps by falsified laws of more modern times,) unheard of in India, that this mixture was possible on Java and Bali. Buddhism might have had some influence upon this condescendance of the Xatriyas. But there might be also some doubt as to the time, when first the strict distinction was introduced even in India. At Bali Dewa's (Xatriyas) and Gusti's (Waisyas) intermarry. — Fr.
Contents: Preface A B C D E G H I J K L M N O P R S T U W Y Errata


Habĕk, to strike with violence, with a will, with all one's might.

Habéssi, arabic, Abyssinian; an Ethiopian.

Habot, heavy, rarely used, but sometimes it occurs. It is properly Javanese. The word is heard compounded with Para, Parabot, tools, implements: with which our word has evidently a common origin — things which are heavy[1].

Hadangan, a noise among the guts; a disease in the bowels. A grumbling in the belly. Crawford gives as common to the Malay and Javanese, Adang, intercepted, stopped in the way, way-laid, which seems to be the etymon of our word.

Hadar-al-maut, arabic, the Region of death. That part of Arabia facing the Indian Ocean, and from which come most of the Arabs who are found in Java. (The Arabs themselves give the explanation حَضْرَةُآلْمَوْتِ Hadrat-ul-Maut, presence of the death, because they consider themselves and have shown sometimes in India, that they are brave fellows. حَدْرُآلْمَوْتِ; Hadr-ul-maut, means the place of death. But so as stated derive the Arabs the word otherwise, and translate it in this sense into Malay.)

Hadé, good, right. Hadé ning paré, it conduces to the success of Paddy. Mohal hadé to di bèrè, it will never be right not to give some.

Haharéwosan, to whisper, to speak in a suppressed voice.

Haja, to do intentionally. Lain di haja, not done on purpose. In Malay it is
Sangaja, Marsden P. 170, on purpose, wilfully.
Sahaja, Marsden P. 194, purpose, design.
The word may probably be some form of the Singhalese word Hadanawa C. 785, to make, to form, to build; the final nawa is only constructive.

Hajat, a feast, to make a festival, as at a marriage or circumcision. The word is probably Arabic, and means necessity, necessary use or occasion: a feast being considered indispensable at a circumcision or marriage. (From the Ar. root حَاجَ hâja, to be obliged. Fr.)

Hajĕli, a variety of Panicum, a gramineous plant bearing a hard seed, which can be steamed and eaten. Called in Malay Jali.

Hajéré, somewhat resembles the foregoing, and is thus a Panicum. It has very hard blueish seeds which are sometimes strung as ornaments for bed curtains.

Haji, arabic. A person who has made the pilgrimage to Mecca, and is always distinguished by wearing a white turban. Bulan Haji the 12th. Mohammedan month, and the one in which the pilgrimage at Mecca must be accomplished. (حَاجُّ, hâjj; he wears a turban in contradistinction to the common Javanese, who wear only a handkerchief on the head. Fr.)

Hak, arabic, right, equity, justice, law, rule. Lĕungit hak, lost his right. Hak mutĕlak, arabic, the pure truth, the absolute right. (حَقُّ الْمُطْلَقُ ;حَقّ)

Hakan, to eat. Quere from Hakka, the jaw, C. 784. Kanawa, C. 103 to eat; the latter part of the word is only constructive. In Malay it is makan, the ma being evidently a usual verbal prefix.

Hakan-hakanan, eatables, provisions; whatever is served up at table.

Hakim, arabic, learned, erudite, a Doctor, a philosopher. (حاكم.)

Hal, arabic, state, situation, business, affair, circumstance. (حال.)

Hal na, rightly, from its circumstance, considering that. Hal na buruk, the matter being that it is rotten. Hal na lain sia nu bogah, rightly it belongs to you.

Halabhab, famished, very hungry.

Halal, arabic, lawful, legitimate, permitted, clean; blessed, not forbidden, in opposition to Haram, interdicted, accursed. Lauk na halal, the meat is lawful, may be eaten. (حلال.)

Halalkěn, to make lawful, to legalize.

Halangan, impediment, intervention, any circumstance which prevents a person doing any act. Ari to bogah halangan, if nothing comes in the way. (Cf. Mal. lârang and rârang.)

Halimun, mist, haziness hanging about mountains. Gunung Halimun, the mountains of mist — name of the range between Jasinga and the Prianger Regencies.

Haling, placed between like a curtain, intercepting view. (Jav. idem.)

Halir, a shout of irony.

Halis, the eye brow. (Mal. Javan. idem.)

Haliwu, disturbance, uproar, a great noise. Confusion in arrangements.

Halokěn, to designate, to speak of, to consider as.

Halu, a pestle, particularly for pounding out paddy. It is a long straight staff of hard wood, about 5 or 6 feet in lenght, and as thick as a man's wrist. (Mal. Javan. idem.)

Halur, a furrow, a trench, a groove. The beaten track of animals in the forest. See Waluran.

Ham, the idiomatic expression of biting at, of snapping at, as a tiger or dog would do. The act of pouncing at with the mouth.

Hama, any thing which is prejudicial, disease, complaint, indisposition. Hama běurěum, the red disease. Hama putih, the white disease, two diseases which attack the blades of young growing paddy. (Ar. حم humma, laboravit febri?)

Hama-an, troubled with some disease.

Hamat, a designation for a quantity of paddy, of a weight varying in different parts. The people inland of Batavia do not count by Hamats.

Hambal, the rundle or step of a ladder.

Hambar, tasteless, insipid.

Hambaru, post and plank driven in to contain an embankment, to prevent the earth from slipping down.

Hambérang, the name of a tree which is a variety of fig. Ficus nivea. It has been named Nivea, the snowy, because when the wind catches and turns the large leaves, the under part which is white comes into view. The leaves are given to horses where grass is scarce. Hamběrěnta, name of a tree, otherwise called Chongkok.

Hamběrichin, an inferior variety of Duku or Lansium.

Hambirung, name of a tree, Eupatorium Javanicum.

Hambur, of nouse, useless, grod for nothing; any artide of which many or a great deal is used for any particular work; not going far; soon used up. Di Batawi kara hambur duwit, you must remember that at Batavia money will not go very far (where every thing has to be bought.) Hambur gawé sia, your work is good for nothing.

Hamburasut, scattered about in confusion.

Hamdulillah, arabic. God be praised. (الحمد لله, praise be to God.)

Hamham, uncertain, not defined, not definite; neither clearly yes nor no.

Hamo, no, it w'ont, d'ont be afraid, no fear. Hamo ngégél, it w'ont bite. Hamo, mohal di charékan, D'ont be afraid, I will not scold you.

Hampal, name of a river fish; famous for jumping up out of the water.

Hampang, light, not heavy. Easy to be done. (Mal. Gampang see above.)

Hampas, the residue of anything from wich the valuable part has been extracted, as cane-thrash after it has passed through the mill. Ampa in Malay, empty, void, hollow.

Hampos, not of agreeable taste, unpleasant- said of tobacco which when smoked has a bad flavour- of sugar cane which though externally good, is bad when eaten- and the like.

Hamprau, the gall, the bile; the gall- bladder, the gizzard, the maw. In Malay it is called Ampadu or Ampadal. (Ampadu, the bile; Ampadal, the gizzard. Jav. ampěru the bile.)

Hamprau badak, name of a tree- literally Rhinoceros bile.

Hampura, to give pardon. Pardon, grace. (Jav. Hapura, idem.)

Hancha, a row or direction to work in; division or .

Hanchang, said of fish. Lauk hanchang, fish which swim near the surface of the water, and cast their spawn by Mija. Vide.

Hanchér, slow, backward, devoid of energy. To work with indifference.

Handam, a creeping trailing plant very common in the jungle. The stem is seldom thicker than a quill and it grows fast into thick bushes. Paku handam, a variety of fern. It is found only high up on the mountains and resembles the brecons of Europe.

Handap, low, lowly. Tangkal na handap, the tree is low. Di handap, below. (Jav. idem.)

Handaru, echo; resonant. Anda, C. 17. Voice, sound- Dharuna, C. 299. one of the names of Brahma; Swarga, the paradise of the gods. It may thus mean literally the voice of Brama, or of Heaven” — from being repeated constantly afresh. Daru, in Malay, Marsden 132 is roar, to make a loud noise (as the waves of the sea.) In Sunda, see voce, Dar-dur, is making an uproar. Thus Handa dar-dur, the sound which is repeated again and again, elided into Handaru. (Jav. Daru, lustre, resplendence.)

Handarusa, also sometimes called Gandarusa, Justicia Gendarusa. Name of a plant common in fences about houses. Anda, C. 17. an egg, a testicle or the scrotum.

Rosha, C. 600, anger, wrath- but in Sunda Rossa means strong. It may thus mean strength to the testicles, under the idea of manly vigour or power residing therein. Ganda is also a form in the conjugation of the verb ganawa, to take, and would thus be giving strenght or taking strenght. In Ceylon they have a plant called Atarusha the Justicia Adhenatoda. C. 61. The Sunda people use the leaves of the Handarusa worn in the belt under the idea of strengthening their loins, when they carry great loads.

Handéong, name of a small tree, Guazuma tomentosa.

Handĕu-ĕul inwardly vexed; provoked; vexed without giving vent to your rage.

Handëulĕum, a shrub with a dark crimson- coloured, or purple leaf. Justicia picta. It is often planted over the after birth.

Handiwung, Areca Rubra or Globulifera, name of a Palm tree found on the South coast of Bantam, and covered along the stem with needle- like prickles.

Hanĕut, warm, not quite hot, which is Panas.

Hanggasah, a plant, a variety of Geanthus.

Hanggasah gĕdé, a plant. Amomum maximum.

Hangkĕut, a short bit, a little bit left; nearly done. A short distance; short. Evident, clear, not profound.

Hangseur, of an oftensive smell, stinking of urine.

Hang'u-hang'u, to try to get what belongs to others; hankering after.

Hangyir, smelling of corrupt meat. The smell accompanying the commencement of rottenness. Tainted.

Hanja, name of a tree.

Hanjakal, vexatious, provoking from some little circumstance not being in order.

Hanjat, to come up from, to ascend, to get upon, to climb.

Hanjawar, a variety of Palm tree, Pinanga Javanica.

Hanjéré, name of a tall gramineous plant. Coix lacryma, or Job's tears. Called in Malay Jali. (See Hajĕli and Hajėré.)

Hanjuang, name of a plant , Dracena terminalis.

Hanjuar, longing to eat anything, yearning after.

Hantam, to strike with violence; to put oneself in forcible possession of; to seize upon; to attack. To have illicit connexion with a female.

Hantap, name of a tree- Sterculia.

Hantimun, Cucumis Melo. A cucumber; a variety of the cucumber. (Bat Katimun.)

Hanto, no, not- and often by contraction simply ' to, as To hadė not good. To urus that will never do. Hanto nyaho, I do not know. (Kawi Tan, not. Han appears to be prefixed. The most simple form will be ta. There is also a form tar in Kawi; cf. tar-âda Fr.)

Hantu, a disease in the muscles. A ghost Hantu, C. 786. death from Hana, to kill.

Hanuman, C. 786. from Hanu the jaw, and matup affinative. The monkey chief of that name, the ally and spy of Rama against Rawana. Hapa, not having any contents, as grain which does not fill. Barren, sterile.

Hapa éman, partly empty as grain; only so far empty as to be sorry to throw it away. Eman or héman, to have a love for. See Voce.

Hapĕuk, foisty, frouzy, having a bad smell, fetid. Figuratively no go! you w'ont get it! Hapĕuk amat pakéan sia, your clothes are very frouzy. Ari di pénta, hapĕuk, and when I asked for it, it was no go- (he would not give it.)

Haphap, a kind of flying lizard, Draco volans, 5 or 6 inches long including tail- otherwise also called Orai Pĕpéték. It appears to be known in Malay by the name Kubin. Marsden Page 272.

Hapit, name of a part of the native hand loom. The Hapit is the stick in front of the weaver, round which is rolled the cloth as it is woven.

Hapit, the 11th Mohammedan month of the year, otherwise called Dzul Kahida or Dul Kahidah.

Hapur, a trifling whitish defect which makes its appearance on the skin of natives, called in Malay Pano. Not lampang which see also. Supak in Malay. Marsden P. 192.

Haraghag, a variety of wild Pandan growing among the mountains, the leaves of which are used for tying up Java sugar.

Harak, greedy, particularly about eatables. Having more than one can eat and still unwilling to give to any one else. Greedy like the dog in the manger.

Haraka, stuff to eat or guttle, as fruit, or odds and ends of vegetables. (Skr. Ahára, food.)

Haralog, collapsed, fallen together; shrunk into a smaller compass.

Haram, arabic, unlawful, forbidden, interdicted; accursed; sacred, in the sense of its not being allowed to meddle with it. (حَرَامْ, interdicted.)

Haram jadah, arabic, literally accursed child, a bastard. This word is of very frequent occurrence, and means scoundrel, vagabond. (See the preceding; jâdah is the Persian zâdah, child.)

Haramai, a sort of hemp made from the stem of a plant of the nettle kind, Urtica Diversifolia. Fishing nets are made of Haramai. Called in Malay Ramé.

Harang, charcoal. Kayu harang, ebony, thus literally charcoal wood. The Ebony of Madagascar and of the Isle of France is produced by the Diospyrus Ebenum.

Harangasu, grime, lamp black; the black stuff which sets itself on the bottom of cooking pots.

Hararéwa, the plural of éwa, which see. Batur na hararéwa ka mandor, the people have a great aversion to the Mandor.

Harasas, a fine variety of Pandanus, often used for covering Dudukuis, or roughly made native hats.

Harcha, Idols, objects of pagan worship. Archa, C. 47 worship, honor, salutation. Archana, C. 47 worship, homage paid to the gods. The Badui people in South Bantam call the rude stones which they worship, or which are set up in their places of worship or offering- Harcha. (Archâ, Skr., means also an image.)

Haréan, of the same age or standing. Haréan kula gěus pararaih, the people of my standing are all dead.

Harěmis, a small bivalve shell fish, with yellow shell. It is found in the rivers where sand accumulates: it is a Cyrena.

Harěn, full of hope, in good expectation. Eagerly expecting.

Harěnai, said of paddy advancing towards ripeness; turning yellow.

Harénang, name of a bushy shrub, with flower bunches terminal to the branches.

Haréndong, a small shrub growing plentifully in open cleared country, and generally well set with pink flowers. Melastoma Malabathricum. It grows a small black berry which children are fond of eating, and which stains the mouth black, hence the Greek name melas, black, stoma, the mouth. Called by the Malays Si Kaduduk.

Haréno, a wood growing in jungle, much used for carrying sticks. It is called Daruwak near Batavia. Grewia Paniculata.

Harěudang, close and warm, suffocatingly warm, not a breath of air. Figuratively-provoking restrained.

Harěu-ěus, a kind of wild raspberry, common not only in Java but throughout the Archipelago. Eubus Moluccanus, and Kubus Sundaicus.

Harěuga, a weed frequent among the mountains, and growing with great obstinacy. It has a white flower which is succeeded by numerous short black needles of seeds, which adhere to the trousers of a person passing through amongst them. It is called in the West Indies and Ceylon- Spanish needles.

Harěup, front, in front, foremost. Di harěup, in front. Harěupan, to be in front of anything, to face. (Jav. Harěp, Haděp. ꦲꦉꦥ꧀꧈​ꦲꦢꦼꦥ꧀꧈ Mal. Hâdap.)

Harěup, to expect, to wish for, to long for, to desire. Di harěup datang his arrival was expected. Di harěup-harěup, to be in expectation of; to look out for earnestly. (Jav. Harěp, ꦲꦉꦥ꧀꧈ it seems to have connexion with the preceding word.)

Harga, price, value. Argha, C. 47. price, cost, value.

Hari is a designation of some sort of deity or supernatural person, and as such is still in use among the Badui. Hari batang see Batang. Hari, C. 787 from hara to take. A name of Krishna or Vishnu; Yama; Indra. (Hari as adjective moans green; tawny.)

Hari raya, a festive day, a day kept as a holiday. Properly Malay but still very frequently heard.

Hariang, a Begonia, a shrubby herb, the leaves and stem of which are sometimes used as an acid in cooking when Honjé fails.

Hariang, a name used in Jampes to designate some supernatural personage. It is probably derived from Hari, vide supra and Hyang; divinity. The Divinity Krishna, Jama or Indra. Hariang Sanjaya, is such a personage- divine Krishna convictorious.

Hariěum, partly sweet and partly sour, as is the case with some fruits, as with the Kranji, Dialium Indicum.

Harigu, the breast bone.

Haring'in, name of a tree. Cassia exaltata.

Harita, formerly, some time ago- former time. (Riti, Skr. usage, traditionary observance. Rita, might be a participle of the same root , to go, with the meaning gone. Ha as often added. Fr.)

Hariwayat, arabic Riwayat, a narrative, history; amusing tale.

Harraranggé, the red ant which is found much on fruit trees, near houses; it bites very hard.

Harta, goods, property, effects. Artha, C. 48. Property, riches, wealth.

Harti, understanding, intelligence, meaning. Artha, C. 48. meaning, signification. Art-thya, C. 48. wise.

Haru-haru, to molest, to disturb, to stir up.

Haruhuh, a bird among the mountains so called. It cries „Kong-kong-kong."

Harun, arabic. Aaron.

Harupat, round the Kawung Palm is a vegetable substance called Injuk, see this word. Amongst the Injuk are prods of stiff black woody matter called Harupat , which are made into native pens for writing.

Harus, loud, aloud, audible, shrill: harus chěluk, loud in his shout, loud-voiced.

Harus, proper, fit, suitable, necessary, expedient, requiring, deserving.

Harus, a current in the ocean, or in any large body of water.

Haruyan, as Batu haruyan, a sort of gritty dark coloured sandstone, used for making Paisans or head stones for graves

Hasēum, sour, acid. Buwah na hasĕum, the fruit is sour. (Mal. Asĕm.)

Hasĕup, smoke; steam rising from boiling water. Kapal Hasĕup a steamer, a smoke ship. (Mal. Asĕp.)

Hasĕupan, a conical bambu basket in which rice is steamed.

Hasup, to enter, to go in. Entering. To hasup, It won't go in. See Sup. (Batav. masup and másuk. Malay másukh.)

Hasupan, to enter, to go in oneself. Lĕuwĕung di hasupan ku orang we went into the forest.

Hasupkĕn, to put in, to cause to enter. Hasupkĕn ka jero liang na put it into its hole.

Hata, a kind of creeper which being split, is used for binding fine bambu work, espe-cially Dudukuis or native hats.

Haté, the heart; the mind, the organ of sensibility and intelligence; the liver. (Anatomi-cally). The inner part of bambu as contradistinguished from hinis or the epidermis. Mati, C. 508 understanding, intellect, inclination, wish.

Hatĕup, thatch; the roof or covering of a house. Called in Malay Atap. Mostly made from the leaves of the Kirai or Nipah palm tree. Hatĕup ĕurih, thatch made of long alang-alang or ĕurih grase. Atta, C. 20. a branch. Polatta, from Pol, C. 424, a cocoanut, and Atta, C. 20. a branch. Cocoanut leaves so called in Ceylon, made into Ataps for thatch. (Jav. atěp, ꦲꦠꦼꦥ꧀)

Hatĕupan, to cover with ataps; to thatch.

Hatur, to put or set in order, to arrange- to make a proper distribution of work. Aturanawa, C. 20. to spread, to scatter. (Mal. idem. Jav. to offer, to relate to a higher person.)

Haturan, arrangement, a setting in order. Report on any subject.

Haturkĕn, to make a report; to bring to the notice of.

Hauk, grey, a dirty white colour. Discoloured from any cause. (Batav. dâ-uk.)

Haung-haung, to roar as a tiger; to howl as a large beast of prey. Hence Maung, a tiger.

Haur, a variety of Bambus, with very thick wood. The haurs are more used as posts, than for splitting.

Haur China Bambusa Floribunda, the thin Chinese Bambu.
"Chuchuk "Blumeana, the thorny variety.
"Géulis or Héjo "Viridis, the green sort.
"Konéng "Agrostis or Striata, yellow sort.
"Tutul "the spotted variety.

Hawa, arabic, breath, air; affection, desire, lust; inclination, will, wish. Hawa, C. 791 any feminine act of amourous pastime, or tending to excite amourous sensations; coquetry, blandishment, dalliance, (هَوًي, hawan, amor; affectus, cupiditates; هَوَاءٌ, hawâon, aer.)

Hawa, arabic, is the name by which, in Java, Eve, the first woman, is known. (حَوَي)

Hawara, early, coming soon to perfection; said of plants, paddy &c. Early, premature. Paré hawara, early paddy, which soon ripens. Hawara amat datang, how early you have come. (Awara in Scr. is rather oppositely hinder, posterior!)

Hawhĕn, a tree- Elæocarpus glaber.

Hawu, the native fire place, used in their bambu houses. It is a stand made of clay mixed with several ingredients, usually about a couple of feet long by 1½ foot broad, fitted with openings above to set cooking pots over the fire made underneath (Jav. ꦥꦮꦺꦴꦤ꧀ pawon from ꦲꦮꦸ awn (abu) ashes.)

Hayam, a fowl, the domestic fowl- Gallus. Anak hayam, a chick, a chicken.

Hayam-ayaman, a wild fowl found in swamps. (What likes upon fowls).

Hayang, to desire, to long for, to wish. Hayang ka hilir, I wish to go down the river, to visit the sea board. Hayang holodo, I hope it will be fair. (ꦲꦪꦼꦁ Jav. hayĕng is to go round about, to stroll). Hayo, a word of encouragement; heigh ho! come along! be quick! (Jav. Mal. id.)

Hé-éh, a word of astonishment, and at same time of interdiction. Hellow!

Hé-és, to sleep, asleep. To bisa hé-és, I can not get to sleep.

Héh, an exclamation of surprise. How so! now you see!

Héhéotan, to whistle.

Héjirah, arabic — „the Flight” — is the name of the Mohammedan era, and dates from A. D. 622, being the period of the flight of Mohammed from Méka to Medina. (هِجْرَةٌ, hijrat.)

Héjo, green. (Bal. Ejo; Mai. Jav. Ijo.)

Hélok, I am astonished, it is strange, wonderful, worthy of admiration.

Héman or Éman, to have an affection for, to love.

Hénchér, thin and watery in substance. (Batav. Énchér.)

Hěněk, pain in the pit of the stomach, cramp in the belly, a spasm in the heart; inwardly distressed, perplexed, feeling remorse. In Malay Sěněk. (Batav. Envk Jav. Éněk, Jav. ꦲꦼꦤ꧀ꦤꦼꦏ꧀ ěnněk, to have an inclination to vomiting.)

Héong-héong, to mew as a cat- hence méong, a cat.

Héran, arabic, astonished, amazed, confounded, (حَيْرَانُ)

Hěrěmis, a small yellow oval bivalve shell fish, found burrowing in sand near water. Cyrena; also Harěmis.

Hěrit, a fear of tigers; when tigers are known to be prowling about.

Hésé, difficult, hard to be accomplished.

Hěuaikěn, to bend round gently.

Hěuběul, old, ancient, former. Jalan heubeul, the old road; Geus heubeul, it is a long time ago.

Hěuchak, incomplete heads of paddy which cannot be tied up in bundles. Paddy which breaks off from the bundles. We should perhaps call it Sweepings.

Hěula, first, preceding in time or place. Chokot étá heula, take that first. Gěus ti heula, he has gone on first, or ahead. (Cf. Mal. Hulu, da-hulu.)

Hěula-an, in the first instance. To do something before another person, to precede, to anticipate.

Hěulakěn, to do first. To do or carry into effect in the first instance.

Hěulang, a kite, a falcon. Falco Pondicerianus. (Batav. Ulung-ulung. Jav. Wulung or Ulung.)

Hěulěung, evil-disposed, wicked; Jélěma kěulěuny, an evil-disposed man, a good for nothing fellow.

Hěulěut, an interruption, a space between; a boundary, a limit. Maké hěulěut, there was an interruption. Hěulěutan, to divide, to separate, to work at only here and there.

Hěumpas, overlapping, where one part sticks out, over or beyond another.

Hěuncheut, Pudendum muliebre.

Hěurap, a long casting net to take fish.

Hěuras, stiff, firm and hard. Unwilling to bend. (Cf. Mal. Kras. Jav. Kĕnas. and Kras.)

Hěurin, in the way, inconvenient. Héurin usik, so much in the way that you cannot move; said especially of a crowd of people.

Hěurĕui, troublesome, importunate, vexatious. Meddling where you have no business.

Hiakĕn, to set to work, to encourage others to do something, to egg on.

Hiang, to disappear, to vanish. The act by wich the wonderful men of old made themselves scarce. They did not die but became invisible, and from this circumstance the Priangĕr Regencies are called Tanĕuh Priangĕn, from Para of the order of, of the number of — Hiangĕn, those who vanish. See Hyang which is evidently the true original of Hiang. There is a tree called Ki-hiang, Adenanthera falcata, from the circumstance of its casting all its leaves at once and becoming thus bare before the new leaves show themselves.

Hiangkén, to keep off evil.

Hibat, to divide a man's property during his life time among his children, in order to be sure that each gets what is meant for him, and not leave it to an uncertainty after death. Heibat, Marsden Page 866. Arabic, meaning fear, timidity- Timorous, fearful, and perhaps our Sunda acceptation is derived from a fear which a father might entertain regarding the eventual distribution of his property. (It seems to be هِبَةٌ, hibat, donation, from the Arabic root وَهَبَ, wahaba, dedit, donavit. Fr.)

Hibĕr, to fly. (Javan. idem.)

Hidayat, most likely arabic, Prosperity, good luck. (هِدَايَةٌ, Hidayat from the Arab. هَدَي, hadâ means directio bona, institutio recta. Also the name of treatises on law.)

Hidĕng, comprehend, understand. To hideng, I do not comprehend it.

Hidĕung, black, of a dark colour. Awi hidĕung, or Awi wulung the black bambu- Bambusa nigra. (Jav. irĕng, ꦲꦶꦉꦁ꧈​ idem.)

Hidi, to spear fish; a man dives in the water, watches the fish, and spears them with an instrument adopted for the purpose. The spear so called.

Hidi! an exclamation of astonishment or fear. Oh dear!

Hihid, a fanner made of split bambu, with which a fire is fanned into a blaze, or fresh boiled rice is fanned whilst undergoing the process of Akěul or kneading. The hihid is about a foot square, made of fine matted bambu, with a stick to hold it by tied along one edge.

Hihirian, to shirk orders; to shove upon others what we ought to do ourselves.

Hikayat, arabic, history, tale, story, fable. Hikayat Iskander Zulkarnain, the history of Alexander the great. (حِكَايَة)

Hikĕuh, a fish found in mountain streams; in size it is intermediate between the Kanchara and Soro, which it resembles in shape, and excellence of taste.

Hilĕud, a caterpillar.

Hilĕudĕun, having a swelling about the nails of the foot or hand. A whitlow.

Hiling, to get out of the way. Clear the road!

Hilingkĕn, to tell to get out of the way; to drive out of the way.

Hilir, down the river, with the stream, in contradistinction to Girang up the river. People among the mountains speak of the sea-board generally as Hilir. (Mal. Jav. Milir; Opposite Mudik, to go up to the higher country. Fr.)

Himi-himi, name of a short of scaly fish in the sea, of a peculiar formation.

Hina, common, mean, of low birth and manners. In Malay it is also used, and Marsden gives the example of Hina dan dina the mean and low. Hina, C. 794. deficient defective, bad, vile. Dina, C. 275, poor, indigent, needy. Ina, C. 75 mean, low. Ino, in Sandwich Isles, bad. (Skr. Hina, defective; vile, bad; abandoned. Wilson.)

Hindés-an, the small hand mill, consisting of a pair of wooden rollers revolving in opposite directions to clean cotton of the seeds. Derived from Nindĕs or Tindĕs, to press, to crush, which words are not, however, Sunda, but are Javanese and Malay, from one of whom we must thus suppose that the Sundanese learned how to clean their cotton. The cotton passes through between the rollers, but the seeds are arrested and drop in front of the machine.

Hinggu, assafoetida. Hingu, C. 792. Assafoetida.

Hingkik, the owl.

Hinis, scrapings of bambu; before bambu can be split fine, the epidermis is scraped off, and this refuse is called Hinis. The outer part of bambu, the Silicious epidermis of bambu as contradistinguished from Haté or the inside and soft part. Hinis takes a sharp edge, and is sometimes used for temporary knives, as some varieties of bambu when property sharpened will cut flesh.

Hintan, Diamond.

Hiras, to induce one's neighbours to give assistance, by making some trifling present, giving a chew of betle, or something to eat.

Hiri, or hiri-hiri, an exclamation of fear, or of frightening some other person- As oh for God's sake d'ont!

Hirian or hihirian, shirking orders, shoving what is to be done upon the shoulders of a neighbour. (See Hihirian).

Hirian, to offer for, to make overtures to buy.

Hiri-děngki, hating and envious; said of a malicious and evil disposed person. See Marsden Page 26 Iri, to hate- and Page 133 Dangki, envy, envious.

Hiri-haté, hate, a malicious feeling against any one.

Hiris, a shrubby plant with a pod containing a pea, much planted in the humahs. Cajanus flavus. Called in Malay Gudéh.

Hiru-hara, confusion, uproar. (Mal. id. Jav. ruhara, haruhara. Kawi, according to the Mss. hârohara; according to the Javanese harahura and hurahuru.. Seems to be onomatopoëtical Fr.)

Hirup, alive, to live. (Mal. Idup. Jav. Balin. urip. Balin. also Idup. Fr.)

Hitut, to fart, which is perhaps not heard but nevertheless very offensive. (Malay Kěntut.)

Ho, yes- as Atuho, well yes! an asseveration acknowledging anything.

Hoalkěn, to move with a lever applied under any object; to prize up. The act of pulling back the lever which has been applied, so as to raise the object.

Hoghag, battling the watch in disputing, disputing a matter on which no agreement can be come to.

Hoih, Rattan, Calamus, of which the following are distinguished:

  1. Bubuai, thick, of little or no use; has long sharp thorns.
  2. Dawěuh, small, used for cords or for whips.
  3. Gěurěung, thin, used in houses as cords to hang clothes on.
  4. Kěssur, large and serviceable; used at ferries to pull boats over by.
  5. Korod, low, Rattan short and fit only for whips; very prickly.
  6. Lěuléus or Lilin, the pliant or waxy, good for splitting and using as ropes or shreds to tie with.
  7. Minchěk, a small variety used for whips.
  8. Muka, very brittle and worthless.
  9. Omas, a small variety, of no particular use.
  10. Pahit, resembles Kessur.
  11. Pélla, one of the most useful sorts in house building &c.
  12. Sampai, like Sampang, only is a little smaller.
  13. Sampang, a thick, stiff, unbending sort, good for spear handles, walking sticks and the like.
  14. Sé-él, in universal use when split up for lashings.
  15. Sěgé, much used for whips.
  16. Simpang, looks like Sampang, but is not much used as it is brittle.
  17. Těrětěs, good for lashings, stands in water; used for whips.
  18. Tinggal, a fine spotted and mottled variety, in repute for walking sticks. Said to grow only on Jungkulan or on Bantam Head, and on Princes Island.
  19. Wallat, the common rattan of commerce, very scarce in the forests of Java, but Borneo abounds in it. Holodo, fair, fine weather, dry, not wet, when speaking of the weather.

Honar, assumed importance, unnecessary trouble, a fuss about nothing.

Honjé, a Scitameneous plant, formerly called Geanthus speciosus, but now adays called Elettaria. The fruit grows on a stalk by itself and forms a large round collection of nuts or pulpy seeds. Used by the mountaineers in cooking in place of Tamarind, for the sake of its acidulous properties.

Honjéwat, to seize upon, to grasp.

Ho-oh, yes, truly.

Ho-ok, pity, concern, to have a regard for, to feel affection for, to feel an aversion to do any act. Ho-ok ka banda, to have a concern about one's property.

Horéam, a sensation of fear experienced by looking from a height, as when a man is up a high tree, and feels fear on looking down.

Horéng, as it turns out, after all. Sugan sia lĕumpang, horéng hanto, I thought you went, but now it turns out you did not.

Horénganan, as it turns out, as the event proves.

Horloji, the Dutch horlogie, a watch, a clock, a timekeeper.

Hormat, arabic, honour, reverence, respect. Compliments of ceremony. (حُرْمَةُ)

Horu, name of a fish; it is very scarce, and found only in some mountain streams.

Hos, the idiomatic expression of dying. Hos paih, and dead he went.

Hoya, a division of the fruit of the plantain. Each small separate assemblage of fruit. Every bunch of plantains consists of several Hoyas. Called in Malay Sa Sisir.

Hras, name of a tree called also Laban. Vitex leucoxylon.

Hu, arabic, properly Hua or Huwa, He- he is. Allah hu akbar, God is great. Humah also frequently occurs attached to Allah, as Allah humah which is probably — God who is He. (Hu is هُوَ huwa; Allahumma is one word, O God; ألْلَّهُمَّ)

Huapan, to feed by stuffing into the mouth of another, as a child is fed by its mother. Used figuratively — to stuff a man with anything he wants, to put it into his mouth — to bribe him. (Batav. Suap, Suappin; Cf. Mal. سواب suâb and سواق suâp Marsden.)

Hudang, to get up, arise. Tachan daik hudang, he has not yet got up.

Hudangkĕn, to to get up, to rouse up.

Huit, to whisper.

Hujan, rain. In Javanese Udan is rain. Uda, C, 76. water- uda-anudan. The word is aspirated in Sunda and the middle d changed into j.

Hujan-Anginkĕn, to expose to rain and wind; to expose to all weathers, to leave in the open air.

Hujan-buwah, Hailstones, literally Rain in fruit. Hailstones occasionally fall in Java.

Hujankĕn, to expose to rain, to put out in the rain.

Hujan-lĕbu, a rain of dust or fine ashes. A shower of volcanic ashes or dust.

Hukum, arabic, sentence, judgment punishment. In Sunda it is used to mean more particularly to punish according to law. To pass sentence on. (حُكْمً Hukm (on), judicium, arbitrium.)

Hukuman, a punishment awarded for any offence. Law. Hukuman Kumpani, the law of the company or government. Hukuman Islam, the law of Islam- Mohammedan law.

Hukur, to measure. Tukang hukur, a man who measures; a surveyor. (Mal. Jav. idem.)

Hukuran, a measuring stick; anything to measure with. Measurement.

Hulu, the head, of the body — of a Kris or weapon — of a river, its source. A piece of the number of anything round or bulky. Batu sa hulu, a big lump of a stone. Kalapa sa hulu, one cocoanut. Bonteng tilu hulu, three cucumbers. Hulu Chai, river head, where a river has its source. Oluwa, C. 91, the head. (Mal. Kawi, idem.)

Huluan, having substance, something that can be felt in the hand. Not like water which eludes the grasp. Having a head.

Hulu-haté, the pit of the stomach; the part at the division of the ribs: the sternum.

Humah, a piece of forest cut down, and burnt off, and on the ground so cleared, a plantation of Paddy is made by dibbling in the seed. The word is probably derived from Huah for Buah fruit, and Mah, spot, place. A humah is called in Batavian Malay, Gaga and on Sumatra, Ladang.

Humbut, the heart or Cabbage of Palm trees or Rattans.

Humoai, to yawn.

Huni, name of a tree which bears a black berry. Antidesma Bunius. (Batav. Buni.)

Huntu, a tooth, of man or of animal. Coggs of a wheel. (Jav. idem.)

Huntu gĕlap, a thunder- bolt, literally- tooth of the lightning, old stone axes, which must have been used by the natives before they knew the use of iron are frequently found, which resemble those found by Cook in use among the Savages of the Pacific, and the natives of Java now adays are convinced that these are „teeth of the lightning”, and they also call them huntu gĕlap.

Hunyur, an ant hill.

Hurallĕng, dizzy; excessively hot and knocked up by the heat of the sun, on exposure.

Hurang, a shrimp; they are found in plenty in the rivers and in pounds in the interior of the country. (Jav. id.)

Hurang-watang, a large variety of shrimp- a prawn. Shrimps in Malay are called Udang.

Hur-bating, in case of emergency. Hur-bating sia lĕumpang sorangan, lamun ku maung saha nu nulungan, in case of emergency if you go alone, if a tiger attack you, who is to help you.

Hurip, living, thriving, prosperous. It occurs in a form of Jampé, where it is said to represent the Earth; see Sèri. (See Hirup.) Huru, to burn, to set fire to. Huru, C. 797. the Sun.

Huru, a tribe of trees, of which there are many varieties, many of them good as timber for house-building. They belong to the genera Laurus and Litsæa.

Huruhara, in confusion, always in a fuss without getting through work. Tumult, uproar, disturbance. Hara, C. 787 to take: who or what takes or seizes, carries or conveys. Huruhara is probably a duplication of this word Hara. The first word made Huru to show a diversity of taking, and will thus imply- snatching, seizing, and thereby denote the confusion which the Sundas attach to the word. (See Hiru-hara.)

Hurun, to tie up in a bundle anything coarse and large, especially firewood.

Hurunan, a bundle of firewood &c.

Hurung, glowing, blazing up, kindled as fire.

Hurup, to attack in numbers; to overpower with many.

Husen, vide Ariya Damar.

Hut, the Zodiacal sign Pisces. (Arab. حُرتّ).

Hutang, debt, loan, credit. To borrow. Hutang sia sa braha? how much is your debt? Bĕunang ku hutang, to get by a debt, to borrow.

Hu-ut, fine or coarse bran, chaff. Ki-hu-ut name of a tree often covered with white flowers, as if dredged with bran or flour, hence the name, which has also partly been transferred to the Botanical name- Geunsia Farinosa.

Huwap, a morsel, a mouthful. Sa huwap kéjo, a mouthful of boiled rice. (See Huapan.)

Huwapan, to feed by putting into the mouth of another; to stuff.

Huwi, a potatoe, a yam, any farinaceous or esculent root, of which there is a great variety, belonging chiefly to the genera Dioscorea and Conrolvulus. The following is a list of those known to the Sunda people

1. Bahung, a large sort.
2. Boléd, the same as Mantang, wich see.
3. Butun, probably the yam of Butun, an island off the S. East corner of Celebes. It is planted by the Chinese about Tangĕrang and Léngkong. It is the Dioscorea alata. Alata, introduced into Java? which would denote its being originally a stranger there.
4. Buwah.
5. Dudung, small and round grows wild in forest.
6. Gĕdé, a large variety.
7. Jahé, a small sort.
8. Kalapa, a large sort.
9. Kamayung, resembles Toropong only shorter.
10.Kĕntang, the common potatoe, Solanum tuberosum.
11.Kĕtan, large sort.
12. Kiara, large and branching out like the fingers, or the root of the Kiara tree.
13. Kumĕli, a small round yam, the bulb of the Plectranthus Tuberosus. Vide voce.
14. Lampuyang.
15. Lilin, nearly the same as kalapa.
16. Manis, large sort and sweet.
17. Mantang, the sweet potatoe, a small native yam called also Boléd, Convolvulus Batatas, called in Javanese and Malay Katéla, and ubi Jawa. It is said that the Malay name is also sometimes heard as Kastilla, as if of Castille and thus idtroduced by the Spaniards, but its having two pure Sunda names Mantang and Boléd pleads for its being indigenous.
18. Orai, long and crooked.
19. Sabut , grows of itself in the forest- a poor variety barely eatable.
20. Tapak.
21. Toropong, the telescope, long and straight in yam- and very good.
22. Tunduk.
23. Wolanda, Dutch or Holland’s yam , the name given to the Cassave or Ja-tropha Manihot, from which we must conclude that it was introduced into Java from the West Indies though now every where very common.

Huwis, grey-headed, grey-bearded, anything that is hairy and grey, thus there is a variety of Tundun or Rambutan, which is called Tundun huwis from the hairy projections on it being grey.

Hyang, usually pronounced Hiang in compound words. It means Divinity-- Godhead as used in the Buddhism or Brahmanism of ancient Java, and of wich traces still remain in the language. The word Hyang in the sense of Divinity occurs constantly in conjunction with Sanscrit words, but Clough’s dictionary does not appear to contain simply this word for a godhead , unless it can be traced in the following roots. Yanga, C. 567 , pleasure, joy, happiness , enjoymeut. Yanya (Yajña) C. 568, from Yaja to offer worship, a sacrifice, a ceremony in which oblations are presented. Yaja, C. 567. A root signi- fying- to offer, to worship, to present, to endow. The following words may each be consulted in voce, into the composition of which Hyang appears to enter- viz- 1 Biang, 2 Diyëng, 3 Eyang, 4 Guriang, 5 Hariang, 6 Indi Hiang, 7 Ki Hiang. 8 Kuriang, 9 Moyang. 10 Ngahiang, 11 Parahiang, 12 Priangĕn, 13 Séngyang, 14 Turiang, 15 Rumbayang voce Puachi Rumbayang Jati, 16 Réyang, 17 Tai-hiang, 18 Wayang, 19 Wayu-hyang, 20 Sakiang Santan. On the Bolang Estate near Gunung Handarusa occurs a small pool of water on an upland plateau, which is called Situ Hiang or Situ Hyang, which may be interpreted - ,,Divinity pool" from the unusual position it occupies on a hill, where no rivulet can run into it. It is supplied by rain water, and may originally have been the wallowing hole of the Rhinoceroses. Similar Situ hiangs may probably be found elsewhere in the Sunda districts. The native explains the word by saying Ngahyang means to disappear, to vanish, as the water in these pools probably dries up when unusual drought occurs. See Ngahiang. Hyang on Bali is still retained as a designation for the Deity for which reference can be made to Mr. Friederich's „Voorloopig verslag va het eiland Bali,” in the 22 vol. of the Batavian Transactions. Kahyangan, is still in Bali, the name for a temple, or place for a Divinity. Hyang or Hiang is also still in use among the Badui of South Bantam in the composition of the proper names of some of their divinities, as Dewi Kincha Raja hiang, which in this case appears to be a female deity.

  1. Habot, Jav. is the same as hawral, Mal. brat; the r being elided as in many cases (or perhaps added in brat, hawrat, — but this is not so likely!), cf. orang, Jav. wong y Bal. wwang; bras, Bal. ba-as , Sund, béas; kring Balin. king and many others; the ha, rather a alters nothing. — Parabot or prabot I should derive from buat, to do; for the purpose or use of; prabuat, all what is for the purpose of doing, of working. Fr.
Contents: Preface A B C D E G H I J K L M N O P R S T U W Y Errata


Ibadah, arabic, pious works, good actions. (The same as the following word.)

Ibadat, arabic, divine worship, adoration. (عِبَادَةٌ ibâdat, servitus, obedientia; probitas.)

Ibarat, arabic, like, resembling. Means also properly- explanation, interpretation. Ibarat na, after this fashion, in this like. Kula ibarat runtah di pichĕun bai, I am like filth which is thrown away. (عِبَارَةٌ ibârat, explicatio, interpretatio.)

Ibas, off by any particular mark or limit. Sa ibas tanĕuh off by the ground.

Ibing, to dance to, to dance in company with another. Ibing ronggéng, to dance in company with dancing girls. (Jav. and Batav. ngibing ꦔꦶꦧꦶꦁ꧈​ idem.)

Iblis, arabic, one of the names of the devil. (إِبْلِيسٌ)

Ibn, arabic, the son of- heard in arabic proper names. Sech Ibn Mulana, name of the man who was chiefly instrumental in introducing the Mohammedan religion into the Sunda districts. (إِبْنٌ)

Ibrahim, arabic, the Patriarch Abraham.

Ibu, mother, a refined expression. (Mal. Jav. idem.)

Ibun, dew. (Jav. Bun, Ebun. Batav. M'bun. Mal. Umbun.)

Ibunan, to put out in the dew, expose to the dew.

Idah, the time by Mohammedan law which a woman must have been divorced from a former husband before she can marry again, which is three months and ten days or say 100 days, in order to see if she proves with child by her former husband. (Arabic عِدَّةٌ, iddat, status mulieris quo cum ea rem habere ex lege nefas, sc. ob defuncti mariti luctum, vel ob repudium, vel ob menstrua. Freytag.)

Idĕr, to go round, to encompass, to revolve. A turn, a twist. (Jav. Mal. idem.)

Idĕr-idĕr, round about in a circle, circuitously.

Idin, permission, leave, licence. Idzin, arabic, of same import, (إِذْنٌ idzn (on).

Idris, arabic, the prophet Enoch.

Iga, ribs, a rib of the body. (Jav. Batav. idem.)

Igĕug, crawling about, crawling down from a person"s house. Kakarak ĕukĕur bai igĕug, he just begins to crawl about, said of a person who has been laid up with sickness and who begins to be able to get about again. Igĕng-ĕugĕug, to begin to crawl about again after sickness.

Ihil, one of the many names for a pig.

Ijab, a request to the Almighty- a prayer for success in any undertaking. [jab kabul, our prayer granted. (إِحَابٌ, arabic, exauditio.)

Ijĕrah, period for dying, appointed hour. Geus datang ka ijĕrah na, his appointed hour had come.

Ikal, curly, as the hair of the head. (Mal. idem.)

Ikal-ukal, curly, frizzled.

Ikat, a head handkerchief- literally- a tie. (Mal. Ikat, to tie.)

Iklas, the arabic word Khalas, free, liberated, candid, sincere, freedom from restraint. Kula gĕus iklas, I am entirely freed of it, you have my full permission. (Arabic, إِخْلاَصٌ, ikhlâç, sinceritas.)

Ilat, name of a coarse grass growing in swampy places especially, and also on hills under shade where moist. The stem is quadrangular, and sharp on the edges, so that if carelessly handled it cuts. In Malay Ilat is to cheat in gaming, fraud, Crawfurd. Perhaps our grass has got its name from cutting the unwary. Though the word does not occur in Sunda in this sense, yet it may have become obsolete.

Ilik, look, see; seeing that. Ilik batur to mĕunang, seeing that my companions got none.

Ilikan, to look at, to regard.

Illahi, arabic, of or belonging to God; divine. Oh God! (Perhaps اَلَّهِيّ, Allahi.)

Ilok, sometimes, as if by chance. (Jav. ꦲꦺꦭꦺꦴꦏ꧀꧈​, Elok, wonderful. Mal. id. excellent, beautiful.)

Ilokan, to happen sometimes. Ilokan jélĕna, there are such people sometimes.

Ilu, to follow, to go after. Accompany. Along with. To imitate.

Imah, a house, a dwelling. Imah tilu roang, a hous with tree divisions, or with four posts on a side. (Jav. Umah. Mal. Rumah. Cf. Humah.)

Imahan, to make or buy a house for any one. To set up a house in any spot.

Imah chĕblok, a house the posts of which are stuck into the ground, and not being carefully timbered together, is made in a hurry, and likely to be soon eaten by the white ants.

Imah tangga. a fixed and properly made house. Tangga is properly Malay for steps or ladder, yet as applied to a house is in use. This is thus a house with steps- a frame timberhouse which reguires steps to get up to it.

Imam, arabic, a high priest of the Mohammedan religion. (إِمامٌ)

Iman, arabic, faith, the theoretical part of religion; belief (إِيْمَانٌ)

Impas, done, finished; cleared off as a debt. (Dutch.)

Impi, to dream. Naun ngimpi tah sia, what, are you dreaming? (Jav. id. and ngimpi. Mal. mimpi.)

Impun, the name of a fish in the rivers of the South coast of Bantam, supposed to be the small fry of the Ménga fish. Aplocheilus Javanicus.

Imut, to smile, to smirk.

Inakĕrtapati, name of one of the princes celebrated in Javanese romance, also called Panji. Ina, C. 69 the Sun. Kĕrta see voce, accomplished. Pati, Lord. The accomplished lord of the Sun. He was the son of Ami Luhur, Sovereign of Janggala. His lady- love in the Javanese romance was Chandra Kirana Beam of the Moon, which see. (48)[1]

Inchék, a name of compliment applied to a China-born Chinaman. (49)[2]

Inchi, a master, a mistress. A Malay word applied to foreign natives, especially Malays.

Inchit, Chintz, a piece of printed Cotton cloth. (Called Chit at Batavia.)

Inchu, a grand child.

Indalas, a mythic name sometimes given to the of Sumatra, Crawfurd. Perhaps derived from Hind, Hindu; and Alas, vide voce, a forest, a district; thereby indicating the resort of the Hindus in early times.

Indi-hiang, name of a place in the Prianger Regencies, to the South East of the Jalaga Bodas. The word Indi is probably an abbreviation Indirā, C, 69, a name of Lakshmi, the wife of Vishnu. Indiya, Indila, Inding, and more similar words are parts of the conjugation of the verb Innawa C. 69 to sit, and as such may indicate her who sits by Vishnu or his wife. Indima, C. 69, the act of planting or fixing anything. Hyang vide voce. (The meaning is not clear, but might be Indu, the moon, or Indra (?) the known deity. Fr.) Indit, to start, to set off, to move away. To indit dĕui, he did not move again.

Indra, a Hindu deity of whom the Sunda people have only a very confused idea. Indra, C. 69 , the name of a Hindu deity presiding over Swarga , and the secondary class of divinities; he is more particularly the god of the atmosphere, and regent of the east quarter, and corresponds in many respects with the Grecian Jove.

Indra Kila, name of one of the tops of the Arjuno mountain in Sourabaya. Indra, vide voce. Kila, C. 69 a pin or bolt. The fabulous mountain Mandar, with which the ocean was churned by the gods.

Indramayu, name of a district on the north coast of Java, between Krawang and Chiribon. Indra vide voce. Mayu, C. 538 a multitude of Mayas, of Mayu is the plural form, delusions. Vide Maya, and the word thus means- the delusions of Indra, the delusions of heaven. (Mayu Skr. is a Kinnara or chorister of heaven , belonging thus to the house- hold of Indra. Fr.)

Indung, mother, dam. Matrix, nidus.
Indung, mother, almost tempts one to trace it to Indu one of the imperative forms of Innawa to sit. To Indu has been subjoined the Polynesian final ng and made Indung, the person who sits, is confined to the house, made sedentary by taking care of offspring. In Malay, Crawfurd shows that the word is not only Indung but also frequently simply Indu.

Indung lĕungan, the mother of the hand, means the thumb.

Indung madu, honey comb, the nidus of honey.

Indung suku, the mother of the foot, means the great toe.

Indung sutra, the nidus of silkworms, a cocoon.

Ing, a constructive and possessive particle used in the formation of sentences. It has often the power of, of, for. After words terminating with a vowel, this word becomes Ning or King which see. Goréng ing paré, bad for paddy. Luhur ing gunung on the top of the mountain. Barat ing lumbur, to the west of the village.

Ing'at, to recollect, to be mindful of; to give a caution.

Ing'atan, recollection, a caution, a warning.

Inggih, yes, a very humble expression.

Inggis, tottering, likely to fall. Fearful lest something should occur, wavering with trepidation. Inggis bisi to hadé, fearful lest it might not be right. Inggis ti bĕurang, rémpan ti péuting, fearful in the day time, at night.

Inggris, English. Sėlla inggris, an English saddle.

Ingkĕun, let it alone. D'ont touch it. To leave unmolested.

Ingkrik, one of the many names for a wild pig.

Ing'on, food supplied to any one, where withall to eat.

Ing'onan, to feed, to keep supplied with all that is necessary in the way of eating.

Ing'us, the glanders; a disease in horses by which there is a discharge of pus from the nostrils. (Ing'us ايغُس, the excretions of the nose.)

Injén, the axle of any cart, carriage, water-wheel &c. &c. Crawfurd gives the etymon of this word, Engenho, Portuguese for axle.

Injĕum, to borrow. Mĕunang injĕum, got in a loan. In Malay Pinjĕm.

Injĕurakĕn, to lend, to give out on loan.

Injuk, a vegetable substance resembling horse hair, which grows round the Kawung Palm, which yields the Jagory sugar. It is used to lay with ataps on roofs which it preserves for a long time, and is twisted into ropes of various size, which are very lasting even in wet. It is called in Malay Duk.

Insallah, arabic, by the blessing of God; God being willing, (اِنْشاَءَاللَّه, if God will.)

Intĕlĕs, arabic, satin.

Intĕr, to granulate sago by making it revolve on a nyiru or flat rice basket.

Intip, to peep at, to watch what others are about, to espy. (Batav. id. and mintip. Jav. ngintip, id.)

Inum, to drink. (Jav. id. Mal. minum.)

Inuman, drinkables; wine, spirits &c.

Inya, a demonstrative word, it, that, him, her. Owoh nu bisa ngaranan inya, no body could give it (him or her) a name.

Ipĕka, the marriage fee paid to the priest.[3]

Ipis, thin, not thick; not much remaining. Ipis kulit, thin- skinned. Paré na gĕus ipis, there is not much more paddy remaining. (Mal. Tipis).

Irajim, accursed, execrable. Arabic rajim, accursed, pelted with stones, (رَجِيْمً rajîm, with the Article.)

Irik, to tread out with the foot; to tread out paddy for seed from the straw.

Iring, to follow, to go after. To follow or attend upon a great man. (Mal. Jav. Bal. id.)

Iris, leaky, allowing water to pass through, as the roof of a house or any vessel.

Iris, to shred, to cut fine. (Batav. id.)

Irung, the nose. (Mal. Idung. Jav. Bal. Irung.)

Isa, arabic, eventide, when it has become quite dark, which in Java is about 7 o' clock p. m. all the year round. Isa is a little later than Mĕgrib. (عِشاَءً; it is the time of the second daily prayer, to commence from the evening. Fr.)

Isa, arabic, Jesus. Nabi Isa, the prophet Jesus. (عِيسَي)

Isang, to use water to clean yourself after having obeyed a daily call of nature.

Isĕr, to move, to displace. Isĕr sahĕutik, move a little.

Isĕus, tame, gentle.

Isikën, to wash rice preparatory to boiling.

Isin, ashamed, abashed. (Jav. id.)

Ising, to ease oneself, to relieve nature. (Jav. id.)

Iskandĕr, Alexander. Arabic. Iskandĕr Zulkarnain, Alexander the Great, or Alexander with the horns, by which he is known in ancient Indian lore.

Islam, arabic, Mohammedan, Mussulman. Belonging to the faithful. Agama Islam, the Mohammedan religion (إسْلاَمً).

Ismail, arabic, Ishmael, the son of Abraham.

Ispala, for instance; in this, or that manner.

Istal, stable, being a corruption of the Dutch word Stal, stable.

Istambul, arabic, Constantinople.

Istan, to check, to hold at bay, said of any enemy or person to whom we are opposed.

Istanggi, incense. (Mal. id.)

Istiar, to seek, to make exertion to get.

Istiara, if only, provided that.

Istibrah, a wrong sentence of the priest; a term on religion matters.

Istijĕrat, evidently an Arabic word. Anything relating to persons or times before the Mohammedan religion was introduced; Pagan and supernatural.

Istinggar, a gun, a fowling piece. The word is a corruption of the Portuguese word Espingarda, a matchlock. Marsden. Page 6.

Istirahat, arabic, quiet, repose, ease, peace; Quiet, tranquil.

Istiwĕl, a boot, such as worn by Europeans. (From the German Stiefel, Dutch Stevel.)

Istiwir, a trifling present, or gift; something added out of good nature.

Istri, a lady, a woman of rank- used in pantuns or old history. Slri, C. 774 a woman, a female in general.

Isuk, to morrow, to morrow morning. Morning in general. (Mal. b-isuk. Jav. ĕsuk and bĕsuk. Énjing and bénjing.)

Isuk-isuk, early in the morning.

Iswara, C. 73, a chief, a lord, a master; name of Siwa and of Kàma Déwa.

Iswari, C. 73, the wife of Siwa, otherwise named (Lakshmi), Durga, or (Saraswati). (Lakshmi belongs properly to Wishnu, Saraswati to Brahma, but on Bali they are also in conjunction with Siwa, who is the one great god, combining the qualities and faculties of the two others. Fr.)

Itěuk, a stick, a walking stick, a staff.

Itil, the clitoris. (Batav. idem.)

Itong, a little child.

Itu, that distant one, pointing with force to some object at a distance.

Itung, to count, to reckon out, to calculate. (Jav. Mal. idem.)

Itungan, account, faculty of counting. To nyaho di itungan he does not know how to count.

Itungan nana, by his account; as they would have one believe.

Iw-at, to run away with a woman, to elope.

Iwing, hanging dangling, pendent; walked off with. Iwing bai di bawa, and he went off with it dangling.

Iwul, a variety of Palm tree, thicker than a Pinang and thinner than a Cocoa nut.

Iwung, the young sprouts or shoots of a Bambu tree, many varieties of are sought after as a tender vegetable, or are used for pickling.

Iyagésok, to morrow. In Malay it is called Bésok.

Iyah, oh! yes.

Iyahkěn, to say yes to, to give consent.

Iyo, this. Imah iyo, this house. Kuda iyo, this horse.

Iyuh, shelter, shade.

Iyuhan, to take shelter.

Iyuhkěn, to put under shelter.

  1. Inakĕrta is rather town of the sun, according to the use the Javanese make of the word kĕrta. Cf. Surakĕrta (or - karta) and Yogyakĕrta. This meaning is confirmed by the Persian. Fr.
  2. This word is the same as the following, and applied variously to persons of some distinction for instance to an aunt. The various application is explained by the word being Malay and relatively late introduced into Java. Mal. انچه, Jnchĕh. Therefrom Jav. ꦲꦼꦚ꧀ꦕꦶꦏ꧀꧈​ ĕnchik vide Gericke sub voce. At Batavia Jnchi or Jnché. Nearly all others titles are taken from the Javanese language Fr.
  3. Arabic, نَفَقَةً,nafakat; Jav. nipkah. Batav. nipekah and ipĕkah. The last is a corruption. The ipĕkah is rather the money paid by the man to his wife for daily express. After all the Arabic word means espense in general. Fr.
Contents: Preface A B C D E G H I J K L M N O P R S T U W Y Errata


Ja-at, a vegetable, a runner which produces a longish pod, with four sharp edges, and contains a very hard pea or bean.

Jaba, outside, beyond, without. Jaba imah, outside the house. Ka jaba, go out, get outside, outwards. Jaba saking lafal, outside the text, not to be found in the text; said of any thing which is not exactly allowed, especially by the Koran.

Jaběrjér, marks of signs on writing, on letters to indicate their sound. Diacritical marks.

Jabrug, a short casting net to take fish, heavily loaded with leaden rings, so as to be used where the stream is shallow and rapid.

Jadah, child, offspring; Persian Zadah. Haram jadah, an illegitimate child, a bastard. A great word of reproach.

Jadi, to be, become, come to pass, happen; be produced; to suit, to answer, to succeed; to be born, to come into existence; to come up as seed out of the ground, to sprout. Jadi édan, to become foolish. Jadi lĕumpang? does the setting out take place. Do you go? Batu iyo jadi. this stone will answer. Bibit na gĕus jadi, the seed has come up- is growing. (Jav. Dadi, which seems to be a reduplication of di [den, di-pun]. Jadi to Dadi as Ujan to Udan.

Jadi, the zodiacal sign Capricorn. Arabic. (جدي)

Jadikěn, to make, to create, to produce, to bring forth, to cause. To confirm any transactions.

Jaga, to watch, to guard, to be awake, be vigilant. To attend upon. This word is no doubt Sanscrit, and is marked as such by Marsden. In Clough the simple word Jaga does not occur, but he gives Jāgara, P. 208, wakefulness, vigilance, waking. The word often occurs in the formation of proper names[1].

Jaga Baya, a proper name. It occurs as the name of a village and surrounding lands, on the Estate Parungpanjang in the district of Jasinga, and was formerly attached to the court of Bantam. Jaga vide supra. Baya vide voce. Thus, the watcher for fear, alarm or mischief.

Jaga Bita, a proper name. It occurs as the name of a village and surrounding lands on the Estate Parungpanjang, formerly attached to the court of Bantam. Jaga vide Supra. Bita vide voce, thus the watcher of delight, pleasure; anticipating the wishes. Jaga Baya and Jaga Bita were, under the former government of Bantam's Sultans, villages called Abdi, or slaves, and were the dependents of some of the functionaries about the court.

Jagal, to slaughter animals for food and and for sale. Pajagalan, a butcher's shop, or rather the place where he kills the animals.

Jagat, land, country, district Jagat Bantan, the country of Bantam. Jagat, C. 203, the world, the universe, the earth.

Jagjag, to tread water; to go up to the neck in deep water and maintain oneself upright therein. To survey a country by going into it and examining it. To investigate. To Kajagjag, said of water of which the bottom cannot be felt by a man upright in it.

Jago, a daring man, a bully, a fellow always ready to fight; a Hector. Hayam jago, a fighting cock.

Jagong, Zea Mais, Maize, Indian Corn.

Jah, an exclamation of disbelief or of contempt.

Jahal, arabic, the planet Saturn. (زحل, Zuhal.)

Jahar, to sell a slave or bondsman.

Jahara, arabic, the planet Venus, (زهرة, Zahrat.)

Jahé, ginger, zingiber officinale.

Jahil, arabic, malicious, mischievous, disposed to do harm. See Maringkil. Jahil maringkil, maliciously disposed. (جَاهِلٌ, Jâhil, ignorant, stupid. Cf. mûdah Skr. and Bal. stupid. Jav. Mal. Young and foolish.

Jahir, unreasonable, unjust.

Jahudi, arabic, a Jew. Jewish. (يَهُوِي)

Jajadén, derived from Jadi which see. Persons or things which have become metamorphosised, a metamorphosis or transformation. As men who have been turned into Tigers or other wild beasts. In a certain degree, spectres, ghosts. The reincarnation of a dead person.

Jajah, to go about and examine, as a chief does his district, to inspect a country.(ꦗꦗꦃ꧈​ Jajah, Jav. to tread on the ground; to go over and through something, to go about to seek for something. Gericke.)

Jajahan, in the of, in the environs of. District, province, territory. Jajahan Bogor, in the neighbourhood of Buitenzorg. The district of Buitenzorg.

Jajal, to try, to test anything or weapon; to take a trial to see if anything answers its object. To make an attempt, test, trial or experiment. Gobang na di jajal ka na daging maung he tried his gobang on the flesh of a tiger; of course on a dead one, to see if the gobang would cut, as the natives believe that iron is like some men, afraid, and you cannot be sure till you try, whether it would cut such a fierce thing as a tiger. So also they are fond of trying their Krisses. (Jav. id.)

Jajantung, the heart (anatomically); the heart of a vegetable, the core. (Mal. Jav. id.)

Jajar, a row, rank, arrangement. Di jajar, to set in a row, to arrange. See Pajajaran.

Jajar, to put together to see if they fit; said of carpentry or other work in hand.

Jajaruman, to sprout, to begin to come up, as fresh planted paddy. To show like a Jarum or needle.

Jajawarikěn, extraordinary, surprising. (From ꦗꦸꦮꦫ꧈​ or ꦗꦮꦫ꧈​ Juwara, Jawara Jav. جوار Mal!)

Jaka, an unmarried youth, a name for a young man of good family. In little use now adays. Derived from Ja, birth. See Jata C. 209 born, produced; a child, offspring. Jataka, C. 209, born, produced; of which our Jaka appears to be a contraction.

Jakatra, a town in the island of Java, on the site of which the city Batavia was founded about the year AD. 1619. The district bore the name of Sunda Kalapa. Marsden Page 103. A part of the present old town of Batavia still retains this name.
Jakatra is compounded of Jaya, C. 206, victory, conquest, and Karta, which on Java usually means peace, but is a past participle of Karanawa, to do, and means thus accomplished, fulfilled. Or it may be from Gatra, C. 172 the body, a limb or member. It also in Sunda appears sometimes to mean, family, relationship, and will thus imply either the triumphant peace or triumphant and accomplished or the triumphant family. (It is yet sometimes pronounced Jakarta or Jakěrta, town of victory. For the derivation of Ja from Jaya plead several Javanese names, Jasingha, Jàjuddhå etc. Fr.)

Jaksa, the native fiscal at the courts of law for the natives.
Ja, C. 208, speedy, swift. Aksha, C. 5. the eye. A swift eye to detect the merits of the cases brought before him.
Jaksa, at Page 43 of 23 vol Bat: Trans: Mr. Friederich says in a note. „I write Diaksa in place of Jaksa (as the judges are usually called in Bali and Java) on the authority of a manuscript where the writing with the second D points to the origin of the word. Diaksa, which is also found in M. S. S. as Adiaksa is Sanscrit: Adhi, chief, Aksha, eye.”

Jakun, only heard in the expression Haram Jakun, accursed Jakun, wich is an expression of contempt for any man. Some wild heathen tribes in the Malay peninsula are called Jakun, and probably it may have had once the same import in Java, though now adays the only non- Mohammedan Sundanese are the Badui of South Bantam [2].

Jala, a hand-net, a casting net to take fish. Jala, C. 210, a net. See Hěurap. (Skr. Jâla.)

Jalabriah, a variety of Kuéh or native pastry. This childish stuft admits of a grandiose Sanscrit interpretation. Jala, C. 207. water, a kind of perfume. Abhriya, C. 41, belonging to the clouds, or produced from the clouds- and thus the water or perfume of the clouds.

Jalak, name of a bird, much seen about buffaloes, called also Kérak. Tapak jalak, literally the mark of a jalak's foot: it means- a rude cross cut on a tree, especially in forests, in order to be able to recognize the tree or place again, or for a guide in travelling.

Jalan, a road, a way, a path. This word is evidently compounded of the first part of the following word Jal, with the constructive an placed after it. It is very probably of the same root as Yanawa, C. 569 to go, to walk, of wich ya is the root[3].

Jalanan, to walk through. To walk about on or in.

Jal-jol, an idiomatic expression of frequently coming; coming again and again.

Jaling'er, active, nimble.

Jaliti, name of a tree, Wrightia Pubescens.

Jalu, the male of animals, said especially of buffaloes. Kěbo jalu, a male buffaloe, not castrated. (Kawi id.; Jav. Krámå, Jalér.)

Jalujur: to darn, to sew by running a needle in and out through the middle part of cloth, and then pulling the thread through. This is what is called technically — "to herring- bone."

Jam, an hour, a portion of time. Marsden says it is Persian for a bell, a clock, an hour. Jäma, C. 210, a period of time, a watch, four hours.

Jamak, fit, proper, usual, customary; middling or middle rate. Jamak na, what is usual. To jamak těuyn, that will never do, that can never be the case, (Jav. id. T. Roorda derives it from Arab. حَمّعٌ, pluralis numerus. But only the first of the significations given is certainly derived from the Arabic word. The others given by him and the Sundanese point to a word of Polynesian origin. Fr.)

Jaman, time, period. This is properly the Arabic word Zěman. Jaman harita, at that former period. Jaman kiwari, at this present time.

Jamang, a jacket, a native's coat. Jamang panghulu, a Priest's jacket or robe, which is long and hangs down nearly to the heels.

Jambaka, a plant the roots of which are burnt as incense, and plentiful in some mountain districts.

Jamban, a necessary, a place to ease yourself. (Jav. Mal. idem.)

Jambangan, the wooden frame work in which the Sangku or metal pot with holes is fixed in making laksa. See Sangku.

Jambangan, an iron plate with holes in it, to draw out wire.

Jambangan, a large water jar; a large earthenware jar for holding water.

Jambatan, a stone bridge; a pear, a quay projecting into the water. It is a pure Sunda word derived from Nambat, to reach to both sides, to span. See Chukang. (Mal. id.)

Jambé, a Pinang nut or tree; the Areka nut. Areca Catechu. (Jav. Balin. idem.) Jambia, arabic, a sort of knife or dagger wórn in the belt.

Jamblang, a cloth with large square pattern. A variety of cloth with large pattern worn by the Sunda people.

Jamblang, a tree called Syzygia Jambolana.

Jambu, name of a common fruit of which there are several genera and species. They are generally called in English the Rose-apple. Jambu, C. 206, the Rose apple. Jambosa of the family of Myrtaceæ.

Jambu ayěr, the water Jambu, Jambosa Javanica. Very poor and insipid.

Jambu ayěr mawar, the Rosewater Jambu. Jambosa Vulgaris, a fragrant variety and good eating.

Jambu bol, has large red fruits like apples. It is the Jambosa Macrophylla, from its large leaves and is the best of the whole tribe.

Jambu Dipa, a name given to India in ancient lore or tradition, but the natives now adays cannot tell to where it originally belonged. A place in the Priangěr Regencies is still so called. Clough at page 206 gives- Jambu Dwipaya, from Jambu the Rose apple, and Dwipaya an island or country. According to the geography of the Hindus, the name of the Central division of the universe or the known world; but according to the Buddhists it is the continent of India, or more strictly India proper, or India within the Ganges, it being generally reckoned by them as the scene of the labours of Buddha. (Dwipa not Dwipaya is the Scr. name for island.)

Jambu Médé, Anacardium Occidentale, of the family of Terebintaceæ. The Cashew apple. Also called Kaju.

Jambu Siki, the seedy Jambu; the guava. Psidium pomiferum, of the family of Myrtaceæ.

Jambul, a tuft of hair, a topping; a tuft of feathers. In shaving a lad's head, a tuft is often left on the back part of the head, and this is called Jambul. (Mal. Jav. id.)

Jami, the Paddy straw after the grain has been beaten off. See Jërami. Rumpak jami, harvest home, literally treading the straw under foot, as natives do when reaping. Crop time.

Jami, a humah made a second year consecutively. When a piece of aboriginal forest is cut down, a second year's crop can mostly be taken from it. Probably called Jamí from the paddy straw of the former crop, which has to be cleared away, before a second planting can take place.

Jampang, a district near the Palabuan Ratu in the Priangěr Regencies, derives its name from Si Jampang, a character in ancient Javanese history, See Raffles vol 2. P. 103.

Jampang, name of a variety of grass.

Jampang pahit, name of a variety of bitter grass.

Jampé, an invocation; a prayer muttered over any person, being or thing in order to produce some beneficial result. An incantation. The native method of administering medicine which is always done by, at the same time, muttering a prayer or incantation either over the medicine or over the person who is ill.

Mr. Friederich considers that Jampé is derived from Japya, in Sanscrit, what is to be muttered, from the root Jap to mutter prayers.
Japa, Clough 205 an offering to a demon, the muttering of prayers at offerings to demons; repeating in audibly charms, the names of gods and demons, on certain religious occasions: the practice of Hindu religious mendicants to count in silence the beads of a rosary.
The original word is thus much corrupted on Java, an m having been inserted in the middle, and final a transformed into é. The m inserted in the middle is not, however, without precedent and gives to the word or verb a somewhat modified meaning, and may also be traced in a similar way in the word Kampung, derived in all probability from Kapung, or as it is pronounced Kěpung, to surround, to enclose. See Sumihung, Jumarum, Tumumbak, Kumisi, Kamayangan, Kěmbang, Kěmbung, Kěmbu and the like: also uměusi from ěusi. Mr. Friederich, however, does not feel quite satisfied, with this interpretation, as he has written me — „Jampé might have been erroneously explained by me. After all, this is not yet certain, In Javanese there is Jamu, Ngoko , Jampé, Krama, medicament, medicine. Gericke's Dictionary Page 561. I add besides Tajap (ta + jap, the Sanscrit root I told you of (above referred to) from which are derived Japa and Japya.) A prayer which is immediately listened to; et contra, a poison which soon takes effect, this is rather in favour of my explanation.” (The alteration of ya into é is very common.)

Jamplěng, entirely, quite gone. Sapoi jamplěng, an entire day, as if the day had been thrown away. Jamplěng bai di juwal, and he slapped it off in a sale.

Jamrud, Persian, the Emerald, (زمرد Zumurrud and زمرد Zumurud. Freytag.)

Jamu, and Jamuan, medicine given inwardly, to doctor by giving a drink.

Jamuga, stupid, silly; unable to take any work in hand. Jélěma jamuga, a helpless foolish fellow.

Jandéla, Portuguese Janella, a window, especially in a European's house.

Janela, slippers. A shoe with the upper leather cut away at the heer.

Jang'ěn, only, nothing but. Jang'ěn Siji, there is only one. Jang'ěn karung na, there is nothing but the bag.

Jang'ět, buffaloe hide cut in strips and used as rope.

Janggala, some of the districts adjoining the town of Sourabaya are so called under the Javanese pronunciation of Janggolo. The country so called forms the delta of the Kediri river, and is flat and alluvial. Jangala, C. 204, a place, a firm spot, a waste, a desert, a Jungle. The place originally probably consisted of Swamp with firm land interspersed and hence the appropriate designation.

Janggot, the beard, a man's beard. Name of a variety of grass.

Jangjang, a wing, wing of a bird. A cant name for a man's arm.

Jangji, promise, to promise, to make an agreement. To stipulate, to engage.

Jangjian, agreement, promise, engagement, bargain, contract, treaty.

Jangka, a pair of compasses. In Malay Jangka is a step, a pace; to step, to pace, to stride—compasses. Hence the name of an instrument which opens and strides.

Jangkar, an anchor. The large roots of a tree which grow out at right angles. Hence probably by analogy the name of an anchor.

Jangkěp, complete in number, full up. Jangkrik, name of an orthopterous insect, a kind of cricket or gryllus, about an inch long with serrated legs, and with wings. The wings, however, are often seen in the embryo state. These Jangkriks are often made to fight for the amusement of the beholders. It is found in shallow holes and does not burrow deep like its congener the Kasir which see.

Jangkung, tall, high in stature, Jélĕma na jangkung, the person is tall. Si jangkung, the middle finger.

Jang-'o-jang'o, a pick-axe, an iron instrument for grubbing up roots and stones.

Jantra, a spinning wheel: more commonly called Kinchir. Any wheel or machine which revolves. Chi Jantrā name of a rivulet on Lengkong Estate. Yantra, C. 569 a machine in general, any implement or apparatus: a diagram of a mystical nature or astrological character.

Jantung, the heart (anatomically).

Jantur, a large but young cock, often devoid of feathers about the rump. A young but full-grown fighting cock.

Japara, name of a Residency in Java, of which the chief place is now Pati, as the old town of Japara on the sea coast in the bay of Samarang was found inconvenient. Japara was the seat of a great trade before the arrival of Europeans in the East. It will be derived from Ja contracted from Jaya, C. 206, victory, conquest, triumph, and Para, C. 387 a way, a road, a path; forming Japara, the triumphant way or road, as it may have been the seat of the Spice and other valuable trade, where the people of the continent of India came to meet the traders of the Archipelago, who brought their rich wares so far, as to a common emporium. It was probably the Ye-pho-thi, Yawadwipa of the Chinese voyager and Buddhist priest, called Fu Hian who visited it in AD 415 on his return from India to China. The Portuguese immediately erected a fort at Japara which of itself bespeaks the importance of the place in a commercial view. This fort is now in ruins, but traces of it still remain. It was visited by the Gov. Genl. D. van Twist in 1853 , see Java Courant 10 August 1853. (54)[4].

Japati, a pigeon, a dove; such doves as are kept in cots. Columba, Called in Malay Marapati Marsden 322. , C. 208, speedy, swift; victorious, triumphant. Pati, C. 355, a lord, a master, an owner, a husband. At the burning of widows upon the funeral pile of their husbands, it is still usual in Bali and no doubt was also the custom on Java in Hindu times to let fly a dove before the widow throws herself into the flames, and the dove may be the emblem of their „Triumphant husbands” who have preceded them to bliss.

In Malay they say Marapati, for a dove, Marsden 322 which name answers to the same office of the Dove being let fly at the funeral burning. Mara, C. 519, Māra, C. 1538. Death, dying. Pati, C. 355, Lord, master; and thus Mara-pati- Death's Lord, still emblematic of the sacrifice of herself which the widow is about to commit. Both the Malay and Sunda people appear thus to have given the Dove its name, from the fact of its being used at the Suttee or self-sacrifice of a widow on the death of her husband. The words have evidently been received from the Hindus. In the case of the Malays they adopted the word Marapati, Death’s Lord, and of the Sundas, they adopted Japati, the „Triumphant Lord.”

In Malay also the Dove is called „Burung Dara”, and in Javanese „Manuk Doro.” Dara, C. 266 is a wife, and thus the Malay and Javanese words mean „the wifes bird” — which still applies to the wife sacrificing herself at the funeral pile of her husband. The word Dara is still preserved in Sunda , and as can be seen means — „a young woman who has just got her first child” In Malay — Marsden 128 — it means — „a virgin, a maiden” — and Dara-dang, a damsel, so that in Malay the original meaning has been somewhat modified.

It is not a little remarkable that Indian and Sanscrit names should, in the Eastern Archipelago, have superseded Polynesian names, for neither in Malay, Sunda nor Javanese, does there now thus exist a pure Polynesian name for so common an object as the domestic Dove.

The name thus applied to the Dove is not in all probability, the common colloquial name in Sanscrit. Clough gives for Dove Parawiya, Paréyiya; wild pigeon Kobo, Kobéyiya. Lambricks Singhalese vocabulary gives Kobéyiya the small Dove, Parawiya, the Pigeon; Babagoya, the Dove; Mayilagova, the large Dove. So that the names which have been transplanted into the Polynesian languages from the Sanscrit, are the mystic names applied to the Dove when used at the Suttee of widows. In the Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, 1853 Page 2 of Berigten, Mr. Friederich explains the word Marapati for dove as the „Lord of Death” in reference to the custom still in use on Bali of letting fly a dove from the head of the widow at the moment she plunges into the gulf of fire, and explains that on Bali this bird is called Titiran, wich is the same as the Perkutut of Batavia and of the Sunda districts, and thus not the common domestic dove. Whatever may now be the case as to the bird so let loose, there can, from what has been said above, exist no doubt that that bird was originally the common domestic dove.

With respect to Mr. Friederich's interpretation of Burung-Darah a bird of blood, I must submit that my meaning tells better with the whole circumstance of the case. (55)[5]

Jara, an awl, a brad-awl. Arā, C. 815, a shoemakers awl.

Jarah, running wild in jungle, at large, not nightly penned up. Kĕbo jarah, a buffaloe that is left to take care of itself in the jungle. (Jav. idem.)

Jarak, name of a class of plants, as Jarak pagĕr, Jatropha curcas, much planted in hedges about gardens or on sides of the roads. Jatropha multifida, a variety introduced from America, and called simply Jarak. Jarak jitun, the olive jarak, used for making oil, and which is vulgarly called Palma Christi, Ricinus communis. The oli of the latter plant is much used in ship building , makes good putty etc. but is unfit to eat.

Jariji, the middle finger. (Jav. The first finger; or universally the fingers.)

Jariji manis, the ring finger.

Jaring'au, name of a dark green sedgy plant; much used in Jampĕ or incantations , called in Javanese Dringo, and Crawfurd gives for Malay- Daringgu, acorus terrestris. Clough gives two words for assafoetida- Jaratian, C. 206 and Hingu, C. 792 of which two words the Sunda word appears to be compounded, coalescing into Jaring'au. The Sundas may have heard both these words from the Indians, and joined them together to be sure of the article. It is much used by women in child- birth and is supposed to charm away evil spirits. From this circumstance it may be derived from Jarā, C. 206 a noted female demon, and Hingu y the hingu of such demoness. Or it may be a corruption of Jarayu, C. 206, the womb, the uterus, a foetus. To explain what Assafoetida is I cannot do better than give the article from Wailly's French Dictionary — Plante ombellifere de Perse, ou Merde du Diable, gomme, resine rougeâtre amère et à odeur d'ail, que donne sa racine; les peuples d'Asie la recherchent et en aiment Fodeur. — At Page 258 Clough says that Dara is the Eloo form of Jara, and this may account for the word occuring as Jaringau and Daringgu which latter Crawfurd gives and calls it acorus terrestris.

Jaro, a headman in the Bantam districts. A village chief who is elsewhere called Mandor.

Jarong, a weed with numerous hairy seeds along a stiff terminal spike.

Jarum, a needle. (Mal. Jav. idem.)

Jarumat, to darn, especially a gunny or gêbang bag. (Jav. Jrumat, ꦗꦿꦸꦩꦠ꧀꧈​ id.)

Jasah, very bad, exceedingly. It mostly implies exceedingly bad, but sometimes from its use you perceive that it also implies exceeding good. Imah na jasah goréng na, his house was exceedingly bad. Jasah hadé na, exceedingly good. Jasah, used by itself implies—shocking! very- bad! or perhaps only—„in an extreme degree”, which is mostly by implication—„very bad”.

Jataké, name of a tree and its fruit called in Malay Gandaria, mangifera oppositifolia. (The word is certainly Scr., but Wilson does not mention this meaning sub voce Jâtaka. Fr.)

Jati, the Teak tree. Tectona grandis. This is the name given to the Teak tree on Java and on other islands of the Archipelago where it occurs. The word seems to be of Sanscrit origin. Jati, C. 209 birth, lineage, race; family. Jatya, C. 210, wellborn, of good family. In Ceylon Jatya is the name given to what we call caste. This would lead one to suppose that the Teak originally was introduced from India, and brought with it, not its pure and simple Indian name, but received from the Indians who brought it to Java and the Archipelago the appellation of the „High caste wood.” Jati also means in Ceylonese, great flowered Jasmine; mace, nutmegs.

Jati, divine truth; essence. In this sense, it is very likely a modified meaning of the foregoing word. (Jav. id.)

Jauh, far, far off, distant, remote. This word has also , most probably, a Sanscrit origin, and may be a modification of a part of the verb Yanawa to go, which in the imperative is Yawa, go thou. (Mal. id.)

Jauhken, to remove to a distance.

Jawa, the Eastern portion of the island called by Europeans Java. Jawa extends from Tagal Eastward. A name, doubtless, originally given to the country by the people of India, as they appear to have called all distant countries Yawana, in the sense in which we speak of foreigners generally, or as the ancient Greeks called strange nations Barbaroi. But the name by frequent intercourse, attached itself permanently to the Eastern parts of the present island of Jawa. It very likely has its origin in the same verb Yanawa mentioned at the word Jauh. Clough at Pages 208 and 571 gives both Jawana and Jawana, as the name of a vague country distant from India, and as also meaning foreigner. The Hindus also applied Jawana to the Greeks and their Jawana Achayarya (Achârya) is supposed to be Aristotle, the Yawana teacher. Clough Page 571 gives Jawana, a country most probably Bactria, or it may be extended from that colony to Jonia or still further to Greece. By late Hindu writers it is most commonly applied to Arabia. Jawa was originally a general name for all the Eastern Archipelago generally, and chiefly for the Sumatra and Java of the present day. Marco Polo describes them as such, and Ptolemy, the Roman geographer calls them the Jabidii insulœ in the second century after Christ. In ancient times, thus, both Sumatra and Java of the present day were known as Jawa; and Marco Polo, at the close of the 13th century distinguishes them by Jawa Minor, and Java Major the Java minor being Sumatra, as nearer India, though larger in bulk than the more distant Java major or Java of the present day. At Singapore, they to this day, talk of an Angin Jawa as blowing from the Sumatra shore, and which assuredly can never be meant to come from the Java of Batavia, at a distance of eight degrees of latitude.[6]

Jawab, arabic, to answer, to reply. Answer, response, (جواب Jawâb, an answer.)

Jawél, to snap or bite at, as a dog or tiger does.

Jawér, a cock's comb. Jawér kotok, a cocks comb.

Jawér kotok, name of a plant, Plectranthus Scutellaroides of the family of Labiata. Very common in gardens- leaves red in the middle and green along the edges. Has a small blue flower. Scutellaroides- buckler shaped, perhaps from the leaves overlapping each other and presenting a dense even foliage. The leaves are sometimes entirely of a dark dull red.

Jawér kotok, name of a plant Celosia Christata of the family of Amaranthacerc. The leaves like those of the preceding plant, are also red in the center and green on the edges. It bears a handsome scarlet comb terminal to the stem, and is altogether a very ornamental plant.

Jaya, victory, victorious; successful. Jaya, C. 206, victory, conquest, triumph.

Jaya Baya, triumphant in troubles; name of an ancient King of Java, whose seat of government was at Daha in the province of Kadiri. Raffles 2 Vol Pages 80/81 assigns as the date of his accession Anno Javæ 800 = AD. 878; and Anno Javæ 701 = AD. 779. (Bhaya is fear, and frightful, horrible; so the name implies „feared by his victories.” Fr.)

Jaya Kusuma, the triumphant flower; the flower of victory, is another name in Javanese history for Panji or Ina Karta Pati.

Jaya ning Rat, a name of Arjuna in the Mahabarat, and the title with wich the sovereigns of Solo and Jugjo bedeck themselves—the triumphant in the Land.

Jayak, to accompany in procession, to escort a great man with ceremony. To support a person either walking or swimming in the water. (Cf. Ajak.)

Jayang Sěkar, the flowers of victory, a native soldiery so called kept in some parts of the interior of Java. (It is rather Jayéng sěkar, contracted from Jaya ing sëkar. Fr.)

Jayit, to take up out of water; to take out of water anything which has been put therein to soak.

Jěbléh, having the lower lip sticking out, or projecting outwards horizontally like a flat saucer. (Batav. idem.) Jĕblog, deep with mud- a soft muddy place into which man or animal sinks. (Jav. idem.)

Jěblus, the idiomatic expression of anything falling into water, and being buried in it; or of a stake or piece of wood flung with violence end- foremost into the ground. (Jav. ꦗꦼꦧ꧀ꦭꦺꦴꦱ꧀꧈​ Jĕblos, has the latter meaning.)

Jĕbod, a word expressive of striking, thwacking, thumping.

Jĕbrail, this word is the Arabic Azrail the name of the Angel of Death. The Arch- angel Gabriel. (Jav. ꦗꦧꦫꦲꦆꦭ꧀꧈​ Jabarail; Arab. جِبْرِيلُ or جبرايل, Gabriel, not Azrail. Fr.)

Jĕbrod, the idiomatic expression for a rope or string snapping. Jali na jĕbrod bai pĕgal, and the rope snapped in two. (Cf. Jav. ꦗꦼꦧꦿꦺꦠ꧀꧈​ Jĕbrét.)

Jĕbug, a dry pinang fruit, with the husk on, which has been kept some time in the house. (Jav. idem.)

Jěbul, springing up suddenly out of water, or out of any place of concealment. Kayu na jĕbul bai ngambang, the wood jumped up (from under water) and floated. Jélĕma na jĕbul bai ti lĕuwĕung the man suddenly popped out of the forest. (Cf. Jav. Jĕbul and Jĕbol, and Jav. Mal. Timbul. Fr.)

Jĕdak, the idiomatic expression of thumping, thwacking, striking violently or shooting. Jĕdak bai di gĕbugan, and he thumped him while he beat him. Jĕdak bai di bĕdil, and slap at him he shot

Jĕdéd, a word expressive of striking, thwacking, thumping, but in a more gentle de- gree than expressed by Jĕbod or Jĕdod. (Batav. Said of the firing of a fowling piece.)

Jĕding, having the upper lip turned upwards towards the nose v so as to make the mouth gaping. (Bat. idem.)

Jĕdod, a word expressive of striking, but in a heavier degree than Jĕdéd. (Bat. idem.)

Jĕdog, hanging lazily about a place. A vulgar expression to designate a person idling his time away at any place. To kick up your heels anywhere. Eukĕun jĕdog di lawang, he was idling about his door.

Jĕdur, thundering along, said of any impetuous rush, as a river in a state of flood. Chai jĕdur bai cha-ah , and the river came down in a roaring flood. Said also of men or cattle rushing, especially through jungle. Jĕdur bai lumpat, and they rushed impetuonsly along. (Batav. Said of the firing of a gun.)

Jĕg, an idiomatic expression of setting the foot to the ground, as of a deer or other animal which runs fast, and comes to the ground with a bound and immediately springs away again. Minchĕk na jĕg jĕlig bai lumpat, the small deer ran bounding away. Jĕg often occurs in composition indicating firmness, steadiness, as Jĕjĕg, Pajĕg etc.

Jégang, with the legs astride; standing with the legs apart.

Jégangkĕn, to distend, to pull out the under part of anything so as to enable it to stand of itself. Jégéng, a plant in the humahs growing innumerable small seeds, of the size of a pin's head, in clusters. It is called in Malay Jawa-wut. It can be steamed like rice and eaten. It is much given to cage birds. The Sunda people have a tradition that their ancestors lived on Jégéng before Paddy was known to them. The Malay word Jawa- wut is Sanscrit, composed of Jawa and But, C. 475 Eating (of Priests) literally Java- eating- See Jawa. (Jawawut might be Yawawat, resembling barley. Fr.)

Jégéng, turmeric, only used about Buitenzorg in this sense.

Jěgěr, stiff, inflexible, rigid. (Bat. idem.)

Jěgu, one of the many names for a wild pig.

Jěgur, the idiomatic expression of a person or animal plumping into the water; or of hurriedly running away with some noise. Jěgur bai turun ka chai, and splash he went into the water. Jěgur bai hasup ha lěuwěung, and dash he went into the forest. (Bat. Jěbur. Jav. Jěgur, the sound of thunder, or of a large gun. Fr.)

Jějak, to trample on; to stamp down with the foot. (Jav, Bat. idem.)

Jějalon, a lath or slip of barabu inserted lengthways in a gědég or wattling of bambu; the stick round which atap leaves are bent: derived from Jalu, the male of animals. Hateup sa jějalon, a single piece of Atap. (Bat. idem.)

Jějaluk, to go about asking alms, mostly under a religious pretext. (Batav. idem. Jav. Jaluk, to ask.)

Jějamu, medicine; medicine to be drunk. A medicinal draft. (Jav. idem.)

Jějangkung, stilts; pieces of bambu with pegs in them used as stilts. (Jav. Jangkung, to be in the air, like a bird of prey Batav. Jangkungan, the same as Jějangkung. Fr.)

Jĕjĕg, to stamp down, to trample down with violence with the foot: to stam pon. Asana jějěg amat di bilang téa, well I counted it perfectly correct. (See Jějak.)

Jĕjélěma-an, a puppet, a scare crow, a figure dressed up like a man. Picked men, not every man, a man selected from a number. Jějélěma-an daik kadatangan rějěki, it is not every man who has good luck. (See Jélĕma.)

Jĕjĕman, to superintend work, to oversee; to arrange, to put in order.

Jĕjĕritan, skitting about: a hopping run.

Jějuluk, a variety of grass in smamps of wich the inner fith is used as wicks for oil lamps.

Jĕkat, alms. Arabic Zakat. The Jěkat on Java is generally a portion of the crop given to the Mohammedan priests, and which properly is 1/10 of the crop. There is also a Jěkat of other property. (Arabic زَكَاةٌ, Zakâton.)

Jéké'ng, a sort of short, sharp edged grass, resembling Ilat.

Jélĕma, a person, a human being, a man, a woman. Aya jélěma di dinjo, is any person there? Jélĕma jangkung, a tall person. Jélĕma is probably a corruption of the word Janma, C. 205, born, nature, birth; nation, race, tribe, lineage. Mr. Friederich supposes our Sunda word Jélěma to be a corruption, so as to suit Polynesian organs, of the word Janma which is Sanscrit also, and means- Birth, production, according to Wilson's Sanscrit Dictionary. Calcutta 1819.

Jĕlĕng, flung away, knocked away, pitched off, ass by the violence of wind, of a stream of water, or said of any object which rebounds and strikes against another. Get along! Be off!

Jélėr, name of a small fish in the rivers, 3 or 4 inches long. It has no scales but 5 cyrrhi or beards about the mouth. Cobitis Ilasseltii.

Jĕlig, an idiomatic expression of hopping or jumping. Jĕlig bai turun, he came down with a hop.

Jĕling'er, active, stirring about. Said of man or beast, who is full of energy and stirs about. In good health- well.

Jĕlot, dropping out, not as a liquid, but as any hard substance, as a tooth out of the head, a plug or nail out of a hole &c.

Jĕmjĕm. the holy well called Zĕmzĕm in the mosque at Mecca.

Jĕmblung, pot-bellied. A man with a large paunch. (Jav. idem.)

Jénari, the period just before dawn. Very early in the morning before daybreak.

Jĕnat, the late , — said of a person who is dead. Jĕnat na dulur kula, my late brother. Jĕnat na Dĕmang, the Demang (who is now dead). Jĕnnat, in Marsden Page 105 Paradise, in Arabic Jĕnnat, as gone to Paradise. (Jav. idem. Arab, جَنَّةٌ Jarnat, garden, paradise.)

Jéndral, European- a General- a Governor General.

Jĕnĕng, title, honorary designation. Name of honour. Di bérė jĕnĕng, they gave him a title. (Jav. Balin. To stand in honour, to govern. Fr.)

Jĕngkang, to set the legs astride or apart. To open the legs. (Jav. To be in danger to fall hindwards.)

Jéngkol, name of a tree and its fruit. Inga Bigamina. The fruit is a concatenation of large round beans in a black pod. The natives are very fond of it, though it is stinking stuff and is apt to give them severe fits of strangury.

Jéngkolan, suffering from strangury in consequence of eating Jéngkol.

Jepit, jammed between, nipped, pinched. Evidently derived from Apit which Crawfurd says is Sanscrit, close, side by side, pressed or squeezed between two bodies. (Jav. Mal. Batav. idem.)

Jĕpit and Jĕpitan, nippers, pincers, blacksmith's tongs.

Jĕrami, Paddy straw. The straw from which the grain has been cut off. (See Jami.)

Jĕrih, feeling hurt or sore at getting a smaller portion or allowance than other people. (Jav. Bat. Jĕrih or Jrih, is to be afraid.)

Jĕro, deep, profound. Di jĕro, within, inside. Jĕro corresponds to the Malay word Dalĕm, and implies Inner in the sense of refined or accomplished. Basa jĕro, refined or far- fetched language. Paré jěro, called in Malay Padi Dalěm. Paddy which is of the best description and requires full five months to grow. Orang jěro, people who attend on great men or ave about a court. Yet the Sundas do not say Jěro as applied to a native chief, but use the word Dalěm, which see. (Jav. Balin. id.)

Jěruk, orange, pumplemoos- Shaddock. Jěruk is the generic name for a great variety of Citrus- as

  • Jěruk manis, Citrus aurantium.
Jěruk Honje, Citrus Javanica.
Jěruk Ipis, a small thin skinned variety- limes. (Batav. Jěruk tipis.)
Jěruk Bali or Jěruk Machan, the Pumplemoos which is the Citrus Decumana.

Jěujěuh, the length of the foot, a foot mark long. As Jěungkal is the span of the hand, so Jěujěuh is the span of the foot.

Jěujěur, the shaft of a fishing net; a fishing rod.

Jěujěut, to plat, to interweave with the hands; to plat like matting. (Jav. ꦗꦼꦗꦼꦠ꧀꧈​, Jějět, to interweave bambu.)

Jěunah, the maiden stem, the first fructification stem thrown out by the Kawung palm, and which is, of course, the first stem beaten and tapped for Sugar juice.

Jěuněum, the lair made by wild pigs to bring forth in. It resembles a large hay-cock; is made of grass, straw and twigs, under the middle of which they creep to bring forth.

Jěung, with. along with. Kudu jěung aing, it must be along with me.

Jěungjing, a tree, a variety of Acacia, very common in the jungle.

Jěungkal, a span, a span of the hand, a measure so called.

Jěuntas, a stage of rude sticks or poles set against a tree, in order to fell it, at some distance above the ground, where it is thinner.

Jěunti, is the name of a tree growing amongst Alang-Alang or ěurih, and is found in Krawang and the Prianger Regencies; it somewhat resembles the Sumpur, but is not that tree. The Jěunti at the east end of Java is called Sumpu, which is odd, from its resembling the Sunda Sumpur so closely.

Jiad, to help, to protect in difficulties. (Jav. , Jiyad, coercion, violence.)

Jiat nika, preparatory arrangements; arrangements taken with care so that all may be in order.

Jiěun, to make, to construct. Lěuwěung dt jiěunan humah, that forest has been converted into humahs.

Jihénnēm, arabic, Hell. (Arabic, جَهَنَّمُ, Jahannam.)

Jijirih, shirking work, getting out of the way for fear of orders or incurring something unpleasant. (Cf. Jěrih, Jav. , cowardly.) Jilid, arabic, to tan, to make leather; a skin, a roll, a volume. The covering or binding of a book. (Arabic, جِلْدٌ, Jild, the hide; leather, مُجَلِّدٌ, mujallad, covered with leather, a book, a tome.)

Jimat, an amulet, a talisman; spell, written charm, an incantation. It is the Arabic word Azimat of same import (عَزِيْمَةٌ).

Jin, arabic, evil spirit, demon; the race of genii. (جِنٌّ, Jinn, demons, genii.)

Jingjing, to lift up with the hand, to carry away in the hand without tying to a carrying stick. To carry off as a tiger carries its prey. This appears to be a sort of diminutive of Jungjung, to lift up.

Jingjingan, the stick in the native weaving loom, used to raise the alternate threads, by means of pieces of string tied to the same and the woof.

Jinis, the original true article; the Simon pure; that from which others are derived. (Seems to be the Arabic جِنْسٌ, Jins, which is taken from the Greek γένοζ. Latin genus. Fr.)

Jintěn, cummin seed.

Jintěn, name of a plant with thick hairy crenulated leaf, often kept growing in a basket on the roof of houses and used in cookery. It is called in Malay Daun Kuching.

Jirak, name of a tree Dicalyt tinctorius, the bark is used in native dying processes.

Jirat, a noose with a limber stick bent down to it. A springe, a gin, a sliding knot. (Jav. ꦗꦶꦉꦠ꧀꧈​ Jirět idem.)

Jitun, olive. This word is Arabic- Zeitun. A variety of Jarak is called Jarak jitun, the olive atropha. Europeans call it vulgarly Palma Christi. (Arabic, زَيْتُوْنٌ‎.)

Jiwa, the soul, life. Jiwa, C. 212, life, existence; the sentient soul.

Jochong, sticking out stiff, rigid.

Jodo, a term applied to marriages where the parents on both sides give their consent, but the young people cannot made up their minds or agree. Jodo, Crawford- a pair, a brace, a couple, mate, match. (Jav. ꦗꦺꦴꦝꦺꦴ꧈​ Jódó, with the meaning given by Crawfurd.)

Jodog, the open landing place at the entrance of a native house, which is ascended by steps. The open balcony at a native's door.

Jogéd, a variety of fish trap for catching lélé fish. It opens downwards and the lélé has to make its way up.

Jogjěrog, to trot; to jolt and shake on horse back. In contradistinction to the native pas. A derivation of the following word. Jogjog, uneasy in motion, jolting; to keep moving. Jogjog di na kuda, jolting on horse back.

Joglo, a temporary accommodation shed: a canvass tent.

Jogo, to squat down on the hams, but not with the bottom touching the ground.

Jogor, stiff, unbending.

Johar, the planet Saturn. Béntang Johar, the star Saturn. (Cf. Jahal. Arab. زُحَلُ Zuhal)

Johor, name of a Malay state at the Southern extremity of the Malay Peninsula. Supposed to be so called from an Arabic word of the same sound meaning- Precious stone, or Pearl. It was founded by the Malay chiefs who were driven out of Malacca by the Portuguese. (Arabic, جَوْهَرٌ, Jauhar, from the Persian ݣَوْهَر, Gauhar, precious stones, pearls. Freytag.)

Jojong, keeping at one's work, or on our course, irrespective of what others are doing.

Jokjok, the place for putting rice in a native's house. The store place for rice. (Cf. Gericke s. v. ꦗꦺꦴꦏ꧀꧈​ meaning, to pour out, to fill.)

Jol, the idiomatic expression of coming. Jol bai datang, and pop he came; to pop suddenly upon any one; making appearance. Ti mana jol na, where did he pop from (come from). Chai na jol tijěro, the water oozes out.

Jolang, a wooden trough, a trough hollowed out from the stem of a tree. (Jav. ꦗꦺꦴꦭꦁ꧈​ Jolang, a chair for carrying people, hung round with clothes. Sund. Dulang, the same as our Jolang.)

Joli, a sedan chair, or any contrivance for carrying a person. (Jav. Balin. idem.)

Jolok, to probe at with a skewer; to poke at in a hole with any long thin implement,

Jombang, name of a violent current of wind passing through the country in one determined straight line and uprooting all before it. A sort of hurricane.

Jompo, disabled for work; not fit for work, from age or infirmity. (Jav. idem.)

Jompong, servants of nobles.

Jong, a Chinese junk; a ship. (Jav. ꦗꦺꦴꦁ꧈​ Jong, idem.)

Jongjongan; a short period of time, a short interval, say of about half an hour, particularly as applied to work going on. A jongjongan is also a designation of distance, as much as a man can walk in about half an hoar and will be thus about two or three miles. Might be translated — „a joggle on." —

Jongko, to sit on the rump on the ground, with the knees bent up under the chin. (Batav. Jongkok.)

Jong'or, a bit of forest projecting beyond the general line; a bit of land projecting or jutting out.

Jonot, a name for a wild pig. Jontor, a projecting point, any large rough thing which sticks out. A headland, a promontory.

Jotang, name of a plant, Spilanthes acinella.

Jotang, name of a plant, Eclipta erecta.

Jual or Juwal, to sell. Daik di juwal, will you sell it? Hanto di juwal, it is not for sale. (Mai. Jav. idem.)

Jubag, crippled, laid up with desease in any part of the body.

Jubung, a circle of platted bambu set in a pan wherein sugar is boiling, to prevent its boiling over.

Jubur, the anus.

Judah, Jeddah on the coast of Arabia.

Jugang, a cross piece of wood ar bambu to distend any thing and prevent its collapsing, as a cross piece between two sides of a roof or other construction; a distender.

Jugang-jarging, walking backwards and forwards, with a swinging gait.

Jugja, and Jugjakarta, name of one of the present native seats of government, viz of the Sultan, in the native provinces of Java proper. Jugja is a corruption of Ayudya, the name of the kingdom of Rama in the Ramayana. Crawfurd. Ayodya, C. 45, a neg. Yodya, war- not to be warred against. The modern Oude the capital of Rama. Karta auspicious, fortunate, accomplished.

Jugjug, to direct the course to; to wish to get at; to aim at, to steer at, to drive, to chase away.

Jugul, a bit of bambu with a notch slit in it, serving to show the distance at wich ataps may be regularly laid on a roof, generally about four inches apart.

Juja, arabic, the Zodiacal sign Gemini. (Arab. ڷڄۄڒٲ Al- Jauzâ; probably from Scr. Yujau, the twins.)

Jujul, a stake or piece of wood, which being to long for its use, projects unnecessarily- sticking out.

Jujung, a fresh water river and pond fish, something like Gabus.

Jukung, name of a variety of cargo boat, in use on rivers.

Jukut, grass, of which the natives enumerate a great many varieties, always prefixing the word Jukut to each name.

Jukut Bau, stinking grass, Ageratum conyzoides. A plant which grows very rapidly amongst the mountains, and without care chokes all other plants, especially young paddy. It is called in some places Babadotan.
The following are some of the most usual grasses known to the Sundaese , including those most sought after for cattle; Běuběuntěuran; Bibitungan; Girintingan; Jampang; Jampang pahit; Kalam měta or Lambeta; Pingping kasir; Těki; Tiké, a sort of grass on the sea shore, and Walingi.

Julang, a variety of the Buceros or Rhineceros bird, it resembles the Rangkung. Juluk, to poke into a hole under water, with a stick to try if there is any fish in it, preparatory to using the hidi or spear point.

Julung-julung, a variety of fish. Sphyraena Jello.

Jumadil ahkir, arabic, the sixth month of the Mohammedan year; ahkir, means latter.

Jumadil awal, arabic, the fifth month of the Mohammedan year; awal means first, former.

Jumahat, arabic. Friday. The Mohammedan Sabbath. A week.

Jumarum, like needles, said of paddy just sprouted; literally like a Jarum or needle.

Jumbrah, a ceremony performed at Mecca, consisting in casting stones at a supposed demon or the Devil. The Sunda word is probably a corrupted form of the Arabic word Jamrat, which means gravel, and is applied to the same ceremony.

Jumlah, arabic, the sum, whole, total, aggregate, collection.

Jumpalit, turned topsy- turvy; with the bottom upwards.

Jung; a measure of land consisting of four bauhs. (Perhaps Skr. Janghâ, leg. Bâhu is arm.)

Jung, get along, go with you; go along; be off. Jung ria pulang- go along back with you. The idiomatic expression of lifting up. Jung di jungjung, and up they lifted it.

Jungjung, to lift up, to raise, to elevate, to prop up. A prop, a support.

Jungkěd, upset, turned over.

Jungkědkěn, to raise an object at one end while the other still rests upon the ground.

Jungkěl, turn or time of any measure of length. Sabraha jungkěl, how many measures is it? How many times of the measure?

Jungkěl, upset, cast down, tumbled over. Jungkěl bai di bědil, he shot at and tumbled him over.

Jungkkělkěn. to turn over by placing a lever underneath.

Jungklang, precipitous, steep.

Jungkulan, Java head: the west end of the island of Java. Derived from the verb Tungkulan, to hang over and fondle, as the hills and rocks here overhang the Indian Ocean.

Juragan, a headman or leader in any way. A petty district Chief; the Chief native or Headman on the private Estates, who has charge of the police. A headman in a boat. Compounded of Juru, an overseer, one who presides over or acts in any department of business, and Agěng Chief, though in the compound word the final g is hardly ever heard.

Jurak, name of a fish in the rivers.

Juré, the corner ridge pole of a house.

Jurig, an evil spirit, a sprite, a goblin.

Jurjana, base, evil, wicked, brutish, sensellamess , cious. Durjjana, C. 279, vile, bad, wicked , malicious. Kéchap jurjana, malicious speaking.

Juru, corner; the inner angle of anything; corner of a room.

Juru, an overseer, director, one who presides over, or acts in any department of business.

Juru-basa, a linguist, an interpreter.

Juru-mudi, a helmsman, a steersman.

Juru-tulis, a clerck, a writer, a secretary.

Jurung, to assist; to come to the help of, to befriend.

Jut, the idiomatic expression of getting down, descending. Jut bai turun ti imah, and down he stepped from his house (always built on piles above the ground).

Ju-uh, much, as of flowing liquids; abundant in water or in juice. Said of the branch of a Kawung tree which yields much juice. Ju-uh tinggur, cha-ah sadapan said of the Kawung Palm — profusely flowing from the beaten stem, and sending forth a flood from the toddy tapping.

  1. The Sanscrit root is jâgri, with ri-vocalis. But this again must be a reduplication of a simple monosyllabic root, perhaps from grî, sonum edere; canere, laudare, from which also gal-lus (Cf. garrulus), the watchman, and singer of the night seems to have his name. In Jaga the ri-vocalis is replaced by a, the pronunciation of the ri at the end of the word being difficult. In the middle of words the ri is replaced by the sound nearest to it, but at the end this woud appear to be to weak. Fr.
  2. And on Java proper the inhabitants of the Tenggěr mountains. Jakun or Yakun is in other countries a corruption of Yaksha, a kind of demons, similar in Brahraanical Mythology to the more known Râkshasa's. The word Yaksha is known in the Archipel, and the corruption Jakun might have come over in later times, perhaps with the propagators of Mohammedanism. Fr.
  3. Mal, idem, but Jav. ꦢꦭꦤ꧀꧈​ dalan, which appears to be the original form. Cf. Ujan and Jadi. It is thus rather Polynesian, no Scr. root or word approaching to it. Fr.
  4. Japara like Jakĕrta, Jasingha, composed of Jaya, victory, and para, enemy: thus implying vanquishing the enemies. The way of composition shows that the Composition was not made by Hindus, but by Javanese, who had no clear idea of forming Sanskrit Composita, otherwise they would have called it Parajaya. The analogy of other words commencing with Jaya excuses the small mistake. Fr
  5. (55) The question about ,,Burung Darah" depends only upon the way of writing the word ,,Darah". Marsden sub voce Marapati gives ,,Burung Darah". The Javanese Dictionary gives ,,Burung Dårå". I am much inclined to follow Marsden, because he was the most judicious and careful man, who ever meddled with these poor languages. Darah, every body knows is blood-Dârâ, Jav. Mal. a maiden, but in Sanscrit a wife. Fr.
  6. In an Inscription of the year Saka 1216 (or 1215), see Raffles 2d. ed. Plate 83, the island is called Yawadwipa. Yawa is a kind of corn- barley. Jawa, as at present pronounced is thus a corruption—y becoming j is very common in all Indian languages. Fr.
Contents: Preface A B C D E G H I J K L M N O P R S T U W Y Errata


Ka, an inseparable particle used in the formation of derivative nouns, to which it is prefixed sometimes singly, but also, and that most frequently, the word to which it is prefixed, is followed by an, and by depriving the word of its initial Ka and affix an, the crude form of the word will be found and if necessary may be further sought in the dictionary. Kadua, the second, Katiga, the third. Kaburu, overtaken. Kangěunahan, delight, pleasurableness, derived from Ngěunah; Kaluhuran, height from luhur high.

Ka, a preposition in universal use; to, unto, towards. Ka mana, whither, or where are you going? Ka girang, up the river. Ka hilir, down the river. Kaluhur, upwards. Ka handap, downwards. It becomes often kang before a word beginning with a vowel. Bikun kadiyo kangaing, give it here to me.

Ka-adilan, justice, equity, righteousness. (Arabic, عادل, Adil, just.)

Ka-ang'inan, exposed to the wind; in a draft of wind.

Ka-angkat, taken away, removed.

Kababaran, overcome, outdone.

Kabadé, guessed, to know what a thing is, comprehended: to divine. Kayu iyo to kabadé, I do not know what is the name of this wood. Tachan di pupulih gěus kabadé, before he told me I had guessed it.

Kabadi, to be unwittingly overtaken by some evil or disease, which is supposed to be the work of evil genii, and for which a great variety of hocus-pocus incantations are put in requisition, to avoid the evil effects.

Kabah, arabic, the Kaaba. The temple at Mecca to which all good Mohammedans ought to make the pilgrimage. Close to the Kaaba is the celebrated well Zamzam. (ألكعبة, Al-Kâbot.)

Kabalik, upset, turned upside down, inverted.

Kabaya, Port: a loose robe, a dressing gown.

Kabaya-an, to be overtaken by some evil; to have met with a misfortune. See Baya. Kabayan, a person of the olden time, before the introduction of Mohammedanism, who was possessed of much supernatural power. Probably derived from Baya, C. 460, fear, terror, alarm. (Kabayan at Bali is a person, who executes the orders of the village-chief, Mandeça. Transact Batav. Society of Arts and Sciences. Vol. XXIII, p. 45 of the „Verslag van Bali.” Fr.)

Kabayar, paid, debt cleared off. To kabayar, I c'ant pay it.

Kabědag, to overtake; overtaken, come up with. Done in time.

Kabéh, all, every one, the whole. Probably compounded of the inseparable particle Ka which see- and Béh, the interjection of sight In Malagasi means numerous. (Kawi, Javan. Balin. idem. Seems to be a prolongated form of Kweh or Akweh, Kawi, Balin. of the same import, which exists in Javan. Keh. ꦏꦺꦃ꧈​ and in the corrupted form Kyéh ꦏꦾꦺꦃ꧈​ which the Javanese suppose to be Kawi. Gericke compares beh ꦧꦺꦃ꧈​ which means in composition thirty. Fr.)

Kabělějog, got into difficulties about any thing; done, cheated, swindled. Said of anything which we undertake and cannot fulfil.

Kaběněran, as it so turns out, as chance will have it; luckily. Anything that comes apropos.

Kaběsékěn, to have a husky cough caused by anything getting into the throat and sticking there, as dust or any small particle.

Kabět, distracted, attention drawn away by something else than what we ought to be attending to. Perplexed.

Kaběuběuhěulan, unable to void excrement.

Kaběuki, whatever we desire; the thing desired or wished for. Kaběuki na ha na lauk munding, Buffaloe flesh is just what he likes.

Kaběulit, entangled by a rope or string getting twisted round it.

Kaběurěuyan, said when a bone or other impediment sticks in the throat.

Kabias, to be cast away at sea; drifted from one's course: to lose oneself in a forest. See Bias.

Kabina, exceedingly, in a high degree, generally said of something bad. Kabina bina těuyn, that is excessively bad; that is to bad!

Kabirěung'o, espied, discovered with the eye, viewed, beheld, inspected.

Kabiri, gelded, castrated. Kěbo kabiri, a gelded buffaloe. Hayam kabiri, a capon. Kabiri is also said of trees and plants, the tops of which are nipped oft to make them grow more luxuriantly side-ways, as Tobacco, Coffee trees &c. &c. Biri, C. Page 473 is a woman, a wife. With the constructive Ka before it would imply womanized. If this derivation is true. we would be led to the conclusion that the Islanders learnt the art of gelding from the Indians of the continent.[1]

Kabita, pleased with, delighted at, taken with, captivated. Evidently derived from Ka and Bita. Bita or Bhita, C. 474 — 495, fear, alarm, apprehension, terror. From this we must conclude that Kabita expresses an alarm lest we should be deprived of the object of our delight; and is thus literally- „alarmed about it."

Kabolér, behind in work, not able to get through a job, a task unaccomplished.

Kabongěrěui, wishing, longing.

Kabubuwahan, the kidneys. (See Buwah.)

Kabudayan, knowledge, skill. (Derived from buddhi, Scr., wisdom.)

Kabuhulan, notable to swallow; sticking in the throat.

Kabukti, got, obtained, come in possesion of, appropriated. Kalapa éta tachan kabukti buah na, the fruit of that Cocoa nut tree has not yet been obtained. See Bukti.

Kabul, arabic, receiving what we ask for; a petition granted; acceptable, consenting, receiving. Favourably.

Kabulan, the ceremony of taking a portion of the boiled rice when praying at Sěděkah bulan Mulud, which each man reserves for himself or for his family. The word is derived from Kabul, granted, the petition conceded (at the prayer).

Kabuli, a preparation of boiling rice with meat, butter and sweetmeats.

Kabur, run away, fled, made off, escaped.

Kaburu, overtaken, pursued and taken. Having time to finish any work. To kaburu, we had not time to get it done. It could not be accomplished.

Kabut, thrown about in confusion, scattered, dispersed. Kalang-kabut, disrupted, scattered, said either of men or things.

Kabuyutan, compounded of Buyut, which see. Anything which is buyut or sacredly forbidden. The Great grand father or Great grand child.

Kacha, glass for glazing; a looking glass. In this sense more frequently called ěntěung. Kachaya, C. 118 a kind of silicious clay or earth from which glass is made. Or it may be derived from Chaya, bright, brilliant- Ch'hāyā, C. 203 radiance, splendour, but the Polynesian Ka prefixed, and the terminal ya elided, and will then denote the object of splendour, from its being transparent.

Kacha-kacha, a triumphal arch erected in honour of a great man. An arched gateway of ceremony, usually constructed of bambu.

Kachang, a pea, a bean, pulse. Dolichos and phaseolus of the species are very numerous.

Kachang taněuh, ground nut, Arachis hypogcea, so called from the seed vessels returning into the earth, and becoming a sort of granulous root.

Kachap, is difficult to translate- and then- did'nt he- Kachap ngarajang, did'nt he fly at him.

Kachapi, name of a tree Sandoricum Nervosum. Produces a round apple-like fruit, full of cloves.

Kachapi, a native musical instrument; a kind of guitar or lute.

Kacha-piring, name of a large shrub with pure white flowers. Gardenia florida. Called also Picha piring which see.

Kachembang, a climbing shrub. Ardisia Tenniflora of the family Myrsinea. It bears a little black berry like the Privet oa the Ligustrum in Europe.

Kachichian, having something poured out or spilt upon it Kachichiau chi haněut, having warm water poured upon it.

Kachida, excessively, seriously, beyond hope of recovery. Rusak Kachida, excessively spoiled, knocked to pieces. Gěring kachida ill beyond hope of recovery. (Might be from Scr. Ch'hidâ, cutting, dividing. Fr.)

Kaching, left in the lurch, behind hand. Said of an idle good for nothing fellow who is always behind hand, who can never keep to time.

Kachip, a forceps or for cutting the betel-nut.

Kachoa, a cockroach, when of large variety. A troublesome insect in store rooms; it gets amongst provisions and is especially fond of cheese. Blatta orientalis.

Kachokot, laid hold of, caught in the hand. Possible to be done. Said of work which can be got through. To Kachokot, I have no chance of getting through (that work). It is more thau can be got through.

Kachuali, except; with the exception of, unless.

Kachubung, Datura in varieties. Datura ferox, Datura metel. When the seeds of the Datura ferox are eaten, they cause a sort of frenzy or madness. These seeds are often mixed with bad opium to give it the appearance of being very efficaceous. A few of the seeds of the Kachubung are given to the Perkutut doves which cause them to warble a great deal. See Kuchubung.

Kachugak, wounded in the foot or lower leg by anything large, as the end of a sharp stake or the like. When wounded by anything small, as a thorn, it is called Kasura.

Kadaik, resolution, vigour of mind or body. The will (to do anything) Rossa Kadaik na, vigourous in will or determination. (See Daik).

Kadal, a ground lizard, found much near houses and in gardens.

Kadalé, a variety of pulse frequently planted. Kadala, C. 101, a kind of small bean, usually called gram, which is given to horses.

Kadal-moyan, a piece of bambu which goes along the ridge-pole of the corners of a house, to which the covering is made fast, and the pegs to hold down the secured. - the lizard sunning itself.

Kadancha, a wood pigeon. A large wild pigeon in old forests which gives a loud and lugubrious cry or cov.

Kadang-kadang, sometimes, at times.

Kadariyo, the plural of Kadiyo, and is thus- come hither all of you-come here collectively.

Kadatangan, to have come to us or to me. Kadatangan sémah, a stranger is come to me; that is I have got a stranger in the house. Kadatangan untung, to have got prosperity.

Kadaton, a Palace, the residence of a Datu or Rata.

Kadék, to cut or hack with a sharp instrument, as with a sword or chopper.

Kadéngi, heard. To kadéngi, I do not hear it I did not hear it Kadéngi ka jauh, heard a long way off.

Kaděngkék, troubled, in difficulties.

Kaděngkěn, to lay down flat, to prostrate; to lay anything down on the ground.

Kaděpér, a fruit resembling a mango.

Kadijah, the first wife of Mohamet; she was a widow when he married her, and set him up in the world. She died three days after Abu Taleb, aged 65 years, and was Mohammeds only wife till her death.

Kading, 'tis true; Yes even so; now that of it. Used as if calling any circumstance to memory. Ho hading sia geus mayar, oh, now that think of it, you have paid. Běněr kading, now that of it, it is right.

Kadiniyo, to, on or at that very spot: there, with emphasis.

Kadipatén, the place or dwelling where an Adipati lives.

Kadiyo, hither, to this place, the usual expression for our — Come here!

Kadogan, a native stable for a horse; generally a single separate stall, made of open barwork with a roof, into which the horse is turned in loose and baned in.

Kadongdong, name of a tree, Paupartia Dulcis or Spondias mangifera, somewhat resembling a small manggo.

Kadongdong China, a pretty shrub for the fences of garden plots. Panax Pruticosa.

Kădu , an inland residency in Java, in which stand the magnificent ancient ruined temples of Boro Bodur. Both Marsden and Crawfurd give Kadu as Sanscrit implying the Dragon's tail, one of the nodes of the moon. Kadu is also the short for Kaduwa, C. 101. a sword, a sabre, and may have had some allusion to the kshattriyas or military caste settled here, and at no great distance from the abode of the holy men in Bagalén, and among the Prahu mountains.[2] Kādu, the great and celebrated fruit of the Asiatic Archipelago called in Malay Durian, Durio Zibethinus of the natural family of Bombaceae.

Kadudukan, an employment, an office, a post of honour; rank. Kadudukan adipati, the rank of an Adipati. Tachan bogah kadudukan, he has not yet got employment or a situation.

Kaduga, to undertake, to take in hand; to reckon to be able. To kaduga, I cannot venture to undertake it See Duga.

Kaduhung, vexed, sorry for any act; inwardly regretting.

Kadut, a bag, bagging made of shreds of Palm leaves, especially of the Gěbang Palm, and much used for the sails of small native craft.

Ka-éntét, joined together, tacked or tied together. Adhering to each other.

Kagěduk-see Kakěduk.

Kagét, startled, put in trepidation. The more usual word is Rowas. It is also used in the construction of sentences as a word of apposition or contrast, what then, how if, suppose that, but if, but then. Kagét to di béré, but suppose he does not give to me. Kagét datang , but then he came. (59).[3]

Kagol, any thing which is out of place, out of season, not opportune. Unseasonable, occurring at a wrong time. Put out of your routine. Something being in the way which prevents your acting. Jadi kagol ku batur, I become disappointed on account of my neighbours. (Is known at Batavia).

Kagugu, tickled with an idea; having a mixture of surprise and indignation about any matter.

Kagung'an, Highness- derived from Agung, principal, chief, with the pre- and suffix Ka and an. Kagung'an Raden Adipati, His Highness the Raden Adipati. Kuda kagung'an, your honour's horse.

Kah, glue; the word is probably Chinese, as these people have it mostly in use in their handicrafts, and import the article from China.

Kahakan, eaten, consumed. Buah na gĕus kahakan, its fruit has been eaten. To kahakan ku aing, I did not get any to eat.

Kahalingan, shut out by, intercepted by. The view cut off. Gunung éta kahalingan ku gunung dĕui, that mountain is still shut out by other mountains — you cannot see it. (Jav. idem.)

Kahanan, place, residence, where -a man puts up. Subsistance, means of living. (From the Javanese hânâ, to be. Fr.)

Kahar, authority, rights. Most probably Arabic.

Kaharti, understood, comprehended. Understanding, comprehension. Meaning. (From Scr. Artha, Mai. Arti).

Kahayang, desire, wish; what we long for, longing.

Kahĕumpik, encompassed, hemmed in so as not to be able to move at liberty; in a dilemma.

Kahirupan, livelyhood, maintenance, sustinance; life, existence. (See Hirup.)

Kahkal, hard and firm as Dodol or any preparation of cookery.

Kahot, invulnerable; a person whom weapon cannot wound, as daring scoundrels or rebellious subjects always pretend to be. A brave daring man. (According to Gericke means Kahot in Kiwi, excellent, eminent; a brave warrior.)

Kahujanan, rained upon; got wet from rain.

Kahyangan, name on Bali for the abode of the gods. See Hyang. Also small houses where offerings are made to the gods. On Bali there are the Sad Kahyangan or six chief temples distributed among the petty states of that island, which are noted places of Hindu worship.

Kai, a term of respect for an old man- honoured Sir! a contraction of Kiai which see.

Ka-i, wood, especially wood which has been cut, planks, beams or teh like. (Cf. Mai, Kayu.)

Kai-akas, a small active crab on sea shore, which burrows in the sand.

Kain, cloth made of cotton especially. Kain meja, a table cloth.

Kairok, wrong, mistaken, confounded.

Kait, to pull towards one with a hooked stick; a hook or crook. Any weight which is weighed at once on the native or Chinese Dachin or steelyard; the quantity which is put upon the Kait or hook of the instrument, to be weighed is called Sa Kait.

Kaitken, to pull towards one with a hooked stick; to hang up to a hook. To put the bridle over a horse's head.

Kajagjag, said of water the bottom of which can be felt by a man standing upright in it As much as a man's depth.

Kajalikeuh, sprained in the foot.

Kajang, a large piece of stiff matting made of the unexpanded leaves of a Palm tree, which are tacked together with split rattan, much used to keep off rain or wet, and as such are in universal use in all sorts of boats and river craft. Finer varieties are used for lining sugar baskets.

Kajar-kajar, name of a plant, Colocasia macrorhyza.

Kajĕun, never mind, it matters not; Ingkĕun na, kajĕun tĕuyn let it alone, it matters not the least. Kajĕun to di béré never mind even should he not give any.

Kaju, name of a tree, Anacardium Occidentalc, called also Jambu médé y and in Malay Jambu Monyat; the cashewapple. Kaju, C. 98 the cashew nut tree.

Kaka, Elder brother; a term of respect in adressing a man older than ourselves. In Malay Kaka is elder brother or sister. See Marsden Page 249. Akkā, C. 4. Eldest sister.

Kakab, a piece of injuk, as it comes from the tree in the shape of a triangular bit of matting. Injuk sa kakab , a piece of injuk.

Kakabuĕun, the lungs; the part in the chest on which the breath of respiration acts.

Kakait, a stick with a hook to it, much used when cutting brush wood, or grass, both for the facility which it gives in the work, and from saving the hand from being poked amongst the grass where often the deadly Orai tanĕuh , or ground snake , lurks. (Cf.Kait)

Kakait bĕusi, name of a shrub, an Uncaria, the same as Kuku hĕulang. Also a separate variety.

Kakalén, a gutter, a drain for water, a ditch. Derived from Kali to dig, and thus is literally — „a dug out" — It is not derived from Kali a river, which word, in that sense , does not exist in Sunda. But Kali is the word for a river in both Javanese and Malay as spoken on the coasts of Java, and especially at Batavia. The Sunda people use for river, Chi, chai, waluran.

Kakang, elder brother, more frequently Kaka, which see.

Kakap, name of a fine large sea fish of excellent flavour.

Kakapa, a padded cloth used by natives by way of a saddle.

Kakara, now for the first time; never before; Kakara nyaho di hadé na, now for the first time we know of its being in order.

Kakarak, only now, just now, freshly; as yet; now for the first time. Kakarak datang sa orang as yet only one man is come. Kakarak lĕumpang, he has just gone away. Kakara and Kakarak are two distinct words, but there is only a slight shade of difference in meaning between them

Kakasih, see Kasih, affection, love.

Kakat, to lift up and take away, to remove. Kudu di kakat it must be taken away.

Kakatuwa, a cockatoo; used as applied to parrots imported from countries beyond Java, as the parrots of the Moluccos.

Kakawén, singing, songs. Derived from Kawih which see. Ornaments of speech, something in addition to the plain truth. (The original word is Scr. Kawi, a poet, or rather Kawya, a poem. The word is a contraction from the following. Fr.)

Kakawian, singing, in the act of vociferating a song. The subject of a song, Eŭkěur kakawian in the act of singing.

Kakayon, timber, wood in general, all kinds of wood which grow. Wood taken as a class apart from shrubs or plants which do not grow wood or timber. (From Kayu.)

Kakĕduk and sometimes Kagěduk, a bit of bambu set in a running stream, so that the water constantly jerks it, by which strings are pulled to frighten pigs or birds.

Kakěmběn, a sort of scarf worn by women round the waist or breasts. The same as Karémbong which see. (On Bali Kamběn means the common clothing of a women; the scarf alluded to is called kamběn chěrik, that is a small cloth or kain. Fr.)

Kakén, a foot rule. (From Kaki.)

Kakénchéng, an iron open cooking pan formed like a concave segment of a sphere. A large sugar pan. (At Batavia it is made of copper.)

Kakénda, elder brother or sister; used only among people of rank. Compounded of kaka vide, and éndah, good, proper. (See above Baginda.)

Kakényéd, a small rope used as reins to a buffaloe yoked to plough or cart.

Kakěplok, knocking stones together to make a noise, as is done with stones under water to frighten fish towards any nets or traps which may be set. A joint of bambu set in the sawahs, which Alls and empties itself regularly, and the end which is split knocking against a stone , frightens the wild pigs away. (Jav. Képlok, to beat in the hands.)

Kakěpuk, in a hurry and confusion. Overhaste at any work whereby it is badly done. The reverse of Rinéh which see.

Kaki, a measure of a foot, which the word implies in Malay.
The usual foot employed on Java is the

Amsterdam foot equal to ............11.146 English inches.
Rhineland foot equal to ............12.357 English inches.
The English foot is also in very general use . 12.000 English inches.

Kakiping, a wheel for a Pedaty or native cart, or a wheel for a Rice-mill, cut out of one disk of wood. Kĕping in Malay Marsden Page 260 flat (not convex). It is applied idiomatically in the enumeration of things flat and thin, as Kĕpingbatu a slate.

Kakituan, doing so, acting in that manner. Etymology kitu, thus, in that way.

Kakompongan, the flank of any four footed animal, as a horse or buffaloe or the like that part of the belly which adjoins the hind legs.

Kaku, stiff in expression or manner of speaking. Offended, vexed about anything without giving expression to it. (Malay also stupid; Javanese, Batavian stiff generally, even said from a dead body. Fr.)

Kakuprak, to knock about, to turn topsy turvy. To beat forest or jungle to drive out game. To knock people about and ill use them.

Kakurangan, deficiency, what is wanting. Dearth. (From Kurang Jav. Mal.)

Kala, a small scorpion. In Jampé it means the South; see Sěri. Kala, C. 111, a crab, the zodiacal sign scorpio. Kala, time, period. Bahéula kala, in former times, in days of old. Kala, C. 111. Time, a division of time. C. 120. Time, a name of Yama, the Regent of death, see Yama. Also a form of Siwa.

Kalabang, a centipede, a poisonous insect with many feet. Scolopendra. (Perhaps from Kala and bang, red, its colour being reddish. Fr.)

Kalābu, of a dirty or darkish colour, greyish. (At Batavia idem. In Malay it means the (greyish) hide or mark in a sick eye. Fr.)

Kalǎbu, upset, as a boat in water. (Labuh in Malay to let fall; in Javanese and Balinese to throw into the water or fire as a death punishment. Fr.)

Kalachés, name of a bird, also called Panyěusěup.

Kalachi, a wooden shovellike spoon for stirring dodol when boiling.

Kala gamarang, a character in the Manek Maya, who was transformed into a hog. (In Javanese Kala Gumarang; see Gericke.)

Kalahang, a very stinking kind of Durian.

Kalahiran, birth, time of coming into the world. (From the Arabic ظاهر thlâhir, apparens, conspicuus, thus the time of coming to the daylight. Fr.)

Kalakai, leaves and refuse vegetable matter collecting on the surface of the around, especially in forests or uncultivated ground.

Kalakuan, conduct, deportment, behaviour. For the reason that, seeing that: Kalakuan handap, for the reason that it is low. (From Laku, to go, to behave.)

Kalalén, forgotten, from lali to forget. Is used when addressing an equal. Lali is also Javanese for- to forget. (Lali is also Malay and Balinese. Fr.)

Kalam, Arabic, a pen, as used by Arabs and natives. It is made of the substance called Ilarupat, which see. (قلم, qalam calamus scriptorius.)

Kalam měta, or Lambeta, name of a variety of grass.

Kalamantan, Pulo Kalamantan, the native name for the vast island called by Europeans Borneo. Quere Kala, C. 120, a name of Yama, the regent of the dead, a form of Siwa. Manthana, C. 517. agitating, stirring, churning. Can this in any way refer to the Hindu legend of the world having been formed by a process of churning. With Borneo surrounded, as it is, by the other islands of the Archipelago, the idea might suggest itself, of its having been the churning staff of such an exploit. [4] Kalamari, yesterday. Kala, C. 111. Time. Mari, C. 538, killing; ruin; plague, epidemic; or Marita, C. 538. killed, slain, thus time which is dead.

Kalambu, curtains (of a bed).

Kalampah, used, in use, made use of. Usual expression in conversation. Basa kitu tilok kalampah, such a word is never made use of. (Lampah in Jav. the same as Laku, see Kalakon.)

Kalana, name of a great rebel in the 18 century on Java, called Kalana Jaya, strolling about and triumphant See ngalalana.

Kalang, a sort of outcasts on Java, perhaps now not found anywhere in the Sunda districts. Can these be the outcasts of Hindu times? The word is probably the same as heard in the Sunda expression Kalang-kabut, scattered, dispersed. In Roorda van Eysinga's dictionary of the Javanese language we find „Kalang, name of a people on Java, who formerly wandered about, but who are now chiefly fixed at Kali Wungu, Demak and Kěndal, and who have partly retained their peculiar customs." The word Balang, both in Javanese and Sunda, is to throw or fling, and Ka-balang, or by contraction perhaps Kalang, would mean flung out, and thus an outcast In Sunda also the word Alang-alangan means to wander about at random, and from this we may have Ka-alang. The Kalang are olso known about the Straits of Malacca, and occupied the present site of party of the town of Singapore, See Singapore Journal 1847 vol. I p. 300—804.

Kalang, field of battle; a circle for ronggengs to dance in. (Jav. kalang a circle; ngalang, to surround.)

Kalangan, circle, ring for fighting in &c.

Kalangan bulan, a circle of haze, or halo round the moon.

Kalang dada, a protector, a safeguard; any person or thing used as a main matter of protection.

Kalang kabut, disrupted, scattered, dispersed, driven in different directions.

Kalangkang, shadow, shade; the shadow of any object on which the sun shines.

Kalantaka, a small cannon on wheels, such as kept by native chiefs to fire salutes. (From Kâla, death, and antaka, finishing Fr.)

Kalanti, want of food, famine, famished. Pa-ih kalanti, died for want of food. Loba nu kalanti, many were famished.

Kalap, a disease suddenly turning a person half mad, as if possessed of the devil, Hair-brained. (Jav. Becoming distressed, miserable, by an accident, or any unknown reason. At Batavia it has the meaning given by the Sundas, a person not knowing where and what he is about. Fr.)

Kalapa, a cocoa nut, the cocoa nut tree-Cocos nucifera. Quere, may not this fruit have its name of Kalapa from having its fruits hidden within so much husk and shell, and thus secreted, see following word. A more decidedly Polynesian name for the Cocoa nut in many of the languages of the Archipelago is Niyor. (In Kawi exists also the form Kat'lapa. Fr.)

Kalapa, a secret place; an out of the way place in the forest, or among the mountains; out of sight, see Sunda. Perhaps from the etymon lap or lěp, covered up, hidden.

Kalapa, a variety of mangga so called.

Kaiapa-chiung, name of a tree wild in the jungle; Myristica glabra, a variety of wild nutmeg but without savour.

Kalarung, overlooked, passed over by mistake.

Kalayar, Trichosanthes Pubera, a liane with a bloodred fruit, which is of size of a hens egg but not eatable.

Kaiayar-kaloyor, to go strolling about without appearing to do any business; wandering negligently about.

Kaldé, an ass. C. 114 Kaludawā, an ass. The ass is not indigenons in Java, but a few years ago the Dutch government caused a great many to be imported under the idea that they would make useful beasts of burden. The experiment failed and the animal is now again very scarce.

Kalěbu, upset, turned upside down, especially as a boat in water. (See Kalabu.)

Kaléhkér, a small worm or grub, a sort of mite or acarus which eats timber in houses, especially near the surface, and after it is well dried.

Kaléng, Tin plate, such as used for lining cases, or white-smith's work. (Batav. idem.)

Kalěng'ěr, fainted away: lost consciousness. (Batav. id.)

Kalér, the north. (Jav. Balin. idem.)

Kāli, C. 121. One of the names of Durga, the wife of Siva; see Durga.

Kali, to dig, to grub up, to turn over the ground.

Kali, time, times, periods. Datang tilu kali, he came three times. This word is also most likely of Sanscrit origin. Kali and Kaliyuga, the fourth age of the world according to the Hindus. C. 113.[5]

Kaliagé, Cudrania Pubesccns, a tall shrub with long and very sharp thorns.

Kalian, to dig, to dig at, to dig out.

Kaligung, confused in accounts; fancying that a debt is another figure than what it really is.

Kaliki, the castor oil plant, otherwise called Jarak jitun.

Kalilipa, the milt, the spleen, the liver.

Kalilipan, an involuntary twinkling of the eye.

Kalima, the fifth.

Kalima, as Kalima Sahadat, the Mohammedan profession of faith. La ilah illallah Mohammad rasul Allah, There is no God but God and Mohammed is the Prophet of God. Kalimat, arabic, a word, the word (of God), vide Marsden, Page 264. (كلمة kalimat; شهادة shahadat, testimony, thus the word of testifying the faith. Fr.)

Kalimborot, Castanea Javanica; wild variety of Chesnut. The fruit is not eaten, or very rarely, as it purges severely; it is covered with sharp spines like needles.

Kalipa, arabic, a vicegerent, a deputy, a caliph. A common name for a man. The word is mostly used when referring to religious matters, خليفة, khalifat.)

Kaliru, wrongly understood, mistaken, got into confusion. One thing taken for another. (Jav. liru idem, and to exchange.)

Kaliwat, in excess, excessively, exceedingly. Kaliwat rusak excessively destroyed. (Jav. id.)

Kaliwon, the fifth day in the old Javanese Pasar or week of five days. Vide Manis.

Kaliwon, a petty officer of the village administration in some parts of the country. He is an inferior native official in Java, the origin of which is not clear. On Borneo, in Ngadju or Pulo Pétak, a village or collection of houses is called Lewu (see Indisch Archief 1849. Eerste jaargang, vijfde aflevering) and the compound Kaléwon would imply an official presiding over such a village. The official's name may have been preserved in Java, after the Léwu, from which it had been derived, had become obsolete, and replaced by the Indian word Désa. Léwu is probably a continuous pile of buildings in which the people of Borneo usually live together. Such a Léwu may at one time have been usual on Java, till superseded by the Kampung or fortified enclosure, which the necessity of self-protection may have forced upon people. Some approach to a Léwu is still maintained by the inhabitants of the Tengger mountains in Pasuruan. (In Java it is the second in rank, following after the Toemenggoeng. Gericke.)

Kaloba-an, excess, abundance, more than required.

Kalong, a flying fox; a large animal of the bat kind. Pteropus Javanicus.

Kaloyor, strolling away, wandering about.

Kaluar, outside, without, excepting; go out! quitted an employment. Kudu kaluar, you must come out, you must leave your situation. Gěus kaluar, he has gone out; he has left his situation. Kaluar nu hadé, with the exception of those which are good. (Mai. id.)

Kaluarkěn, to dismiss, to turn out of an employment; to bring outside, to produce; to separate.

Kaluaran, literally „the outsiders;” among the Badui of South Bantem, those heathens who have been forced to leave the parent stock, in order that it may not exceed a fixed number are called Kaluaran.

Kaluhan, a bit of string or cord passed through the septum of the nose of a buffaloe, and the ends tied behind the horns. All working buffaloes have a tali kaluhan in their snouts, by which they are easily led or guided. (Jav, Kĕluh idem.)

Kaiuiah, the sap wood of a tree, the Alburnum.

Kalun, gone along with, included. To support in swimming; to float any object along water.

Kalung, a necklace, anything worn round the neck by way of ornament. (Jav. Mal. id.)

Kalung-dada, a bulwork; something to serve as a defence; a breast-place. An ornament hanging on the breast of young girls, by a string round the neck. This ornament is generally semicircular as a segment of the moon.

Kaluron, to bring forth before time; premature delivery; abortion.

Kalutuk, a poor variety of Plantain, of which the fruit is hardly eatable, see Kulutuk.

Kama, C. 119. The Hindu Cupid, or deity of love.

Kamal, Java acid; the juice of fresh Tamarind, which is used for cleansing metals, especially brass-work. (According to Gericke Kawi for the Tamarind-tree.)

Kamala hiang, words heard in Jampés. Kamalā C. 106 a name of Lakshmi. Hiang, Hyang, divinity; the goddess Lakshmi; see Laksmi. Laksmi is little heard in Java and probably she was more generally known by the name of Kamala-hiang. (And Srî)

Kamaloli, heart-sore, vexed.

Kamanjon, an hermaphrodite. (At Batavia Banji.)

Kamar, arabic, the moon; word used in the composition of proper names. (قَمَرٌ).

Kamarang, a wasp; name of a fly or wasp which stings severely; it is less than the Tijuwan, and also stings less severely.

Kamarudin, a man's name — the moon of the faith — Kamar, moon, uddin of the faith.

Kamas-an, a goldsmith.

Kamayangan, so much the better, that will give so much the more pleasure. Probably derived from Ka preposition, and hayang to desire, to wish, with the peculiar m interposed; see kampung.

Kambang, to float, gnerally heard in the shape of Nyambang, which see. (Jav. id.)

Kambangan, generally called Nusa Kambangan, the floating island, from some old fable. It is situated on the south coast of Java, and adjoins Banyumas; see Ngambang.

Kamboja, name of a tree with white flower, much planted abont burial grounds. Plumeria acuminata. Kamboja, C. 119 the name of a plant, a sort of white Mimosa. Kamboja is the name by which the plant is every where known in Java, both in the Sunda and Javanese districts. At the Eastend of Java, however, it is most frequently seen planted about the graves. With its name it no doubt came from the continent of India. In Ceylon the flowers are much used for placing on the altars before Buddha, where, however, it is called in the colloquial dialect- Ewĕriya.

Kaméja, Port Camisa, a shirt, a shift.

Kamél, ar. the Zodiacal sign Aries. (حَمَلٌ. khamal.) Kami, we, us, also I. A polite expression whereby the speaker does not put himself above the person addressed, which he would do by using the pronoun aing. Imah, kami, my house. Kami kabéh daik ka gunung, we are all going to the mountains. (Mal. and Kawi, I, me; we, us.)

Kam-kam, a Chinese weapon of defence, like the blade of a sword mounted with a spear handle.

Kampa, to express oil with a peculiar press used by the natives and called Kampahan. (Mal. id.)

Kampahan, a wooden press to extract oil. There are two uprights set in two horizontal pieces, and by forcing in wedges the two uprights are driven together and thus exercise a great pressure on any oil producing matter placed between them.

Kampak, an axe; an axe such as used by Europeans and Chinese in contradistinction to the native axe called Baliyung, which see.(Kampak Jav. a great axe without a wooden shaft. Fr.)

Kampil, a bag, a large bag for Rice, Coffee &c. (Jav. A bundle, pak, bag.)

Kampu, a large wooden bucket or tub, in which oil is kept or measured. Ampuh, in Malay to overflow.

Kampung, a village; is properly Malay, but is still from associating with Europeans and Chinese often used, especially to designate themselves as- orang kampung, village people, as distinct from foreigners. Kampung is probably derived from Kapung or Kepung to enclose, with the peculiar m interposed, giving it the sense of an enclosed place or village, as in rude states of society, every village was a fortified place. The usual word for village in Sunda is Lumbur. Kampung in Malay is not merely a village, but „an inclosure" a place surrounded with a paling; a fenced or fortified village; see Marsden in voce Page 267. The Etymon of Kampung signifying enclosure, is also heard in the Malay expression Kain běkampo which is another name for a Sarong. See Singapore Journal April 1849 Page 275.

Kampung, to mix, to associate.

Kampungkěn, to join together, to unite, to collect into a common stock, especially a number of small things or trading articles.

Kamudi, a helm, a rudder, an oar to steer by. (Mal. كمودي Kumŭdi; Jav. Kamudi, Kĕmudi, Kumudi.)

Kamuning, name of a tree common about towns and in cultivated places. It has a pretty white flower and yields a handsomely mottled wood. Murraya exotica of the family Aurantiaceae.

Kana, to become, for the purpose. Kana hadé mohal, It is not likely to do any good. Jadi kana goréng, It will turn out bad. This word is evidently compounded of the particle Ka which see, and na, his, her, its- possessive pronoun.

Kanang'a, name of a tree with its yellow flower, which is much sought after by the natives to stick in their hair, Unona Odorata.

Kanari, name of a tree, the fruit of which yields a fine esculent oil; Canarium Commune. Its native country appears to be the Moluccos, but it is now plentifully planted about the European towns in Java, and used for shading the public roads.

Kanas, a Pine apple. Name derived from the European word Ananas. It grows now very abundantly every where, but has always been planted by man. Bromelia Ananas.

Kanchana, golden, gold. Kāchana, C. 118, turmeric; also the name of several plants and trees, which they bear in consequence of the yellow colour of their flowers, as the Champaka &c. (Kȧnchana Skr. Means gold; it is very common word in Kawi; the Javanese called formerly the southern part of Borneo Nusa Kanchana, the island of gold. Fr.)

Kanchara, name of the largest and best fish of the mountain rivers. Called in Malay Tambra. (Perhaps called Tambra from the copper-colour of one species Fr.)

Kanchěuh, fallen ill again in sickness; having got a relapse.

Kanching, a button; a bolt, a peg of wood or iron driven in to hold same other object fast. (Jav. Mal. idem.)

Kanchingan, to fasten with a Kanching; to bolt, to bar, to button. To fasten by driving in a peg.

Kancholah, a Braggadocio, a swaggerer. Said of a man who wants to carry every thing with a high hand.

Kanchur, the metal of a cast iron pan worked up for an inferior kind of steel.

Kandang, a pen, a fold, inclosure, shed for cattle. (Mal. Jav. idem (Javanese characters)).

Kandang Wěsi, Iron cage. A place so called in ancient Javanese history, and most probably in Jampang of the Prianger Regencies.

Kandar, to drag, to pull along, to haul.

Kandas, aground, ashore, grounded. Cleaned out, all gone to the last article. Said of any article which was being distributed, but is now done.

Kandayan, part of the native weaving apparatus. The frame for holding the Kėrékans, when the pattern is given to the cloth, and then would round the Pihanéan.

Kandayang Tani, a female character. A sort of goddess presiding over agriculture. Kānana, C 118, a forest, a grove, and Dayang, vide voce. Tani in Sunda, industrious. Thus the „Forest-damsel who is industrious”. Agriculture began by felling the forest and making humahs.[6]

Kandé, a scrip, a wallet, a small bag slung over the shoulder and carried about by a man wherever he goes, containing Sěurěuh and many other small objects. Ngaitkěn kandé to hang up the bag- means to take up your quarters with any one; make yourself at home and allowed to hang up your bag. Or in some sense to be admitted as a courtier or lover, and thus to familiarly divest yourself of the bag. (Jav. Kandi, a bag. (Javanese characters))

Kanděl, thick- not as liquids but as solid substances- liquids when thick are called Kimpěl. Kayu nu kanděl, a piece of thick wood- Kanděl biwir na, thick lipped- telling arrant lies. Kuda éta kanděl awak na, that horse has a thick body, is stoutly built. (Kěntěl (Javanese characters) in Javanese and Batav. means thick, stiff, just when speaking of liquids. Kanděl (Javanese characters) Jav. has the same meaning as in Sundanese. Fr.)

Kandung, to carry anything on the back wrapped up in a cloth, or more generally in the folds of the Samping; to carry a child on the back so wrapped up. (Mal. idem.)

Kanduruan, a petty title of distinction, lower than a Rangga, in use about Buitenzorg and in the Prianger Regencies. The kanduruans have charge of the bridges and roads, and look after the watchmen. This word may perhaps be derived from Duruwa, Clough 278, a child, an infant with the Polynesian pre- and suffixes Ka and an, meaning thereby, young lads, the children of chiefs, employed to bring over the orders of such chiefs, by way of starting them in some useful employment. This however leaves the n between ka and Duruwa to be inserted Euphoniæ gratiȃ.

Kang, with, by, to; as Kang aing, with or by me, meaning I will take it. It is perhaps in this sense only the preposition Ka with ng suffixed before a vowel.

Kang, a familiar expression for Kaka, elder brother. A term of politeness addressed to a stranger, who is older than the speaker.

Kanjěng, is a title applied to high personages, invested with power, and is used when speaking as well of native chiefs on Java and Bali, as of the high European authorities, as the Governor General, or even the Residents. The etymon of the word may probably be found in the word Jěng which in a vocabulary of Kawi words in Raffles vol 2 appendix Page 169 is given as the Foot, in the same way as Paduka has the same meaning, and also applied to people of high rank; as if the speaker was unworthy to look higher or mention a more honourable part of the chief whom he adresses. It may in general terms be translated- illustrious. The Kang prefixed to Jěng is probably the Javanese Kang, who, which, that which, and placed before an active verb converts it into a substantive shape, as Kang nguchap, who speaks, the speaker. Kang patut, what is proper-proper, fit. R. van Eysinga's Javanese Dictionary 1835. Janghâ C. 208. The calf of the leg.

Kangjěng Sinuhun, a title addressed to an Emperor or king, and may be translated. "Your royal feet which are besought", or in general terms. "Your illustrious Highness".

Kangkaréng, a variety of Buceros bird.

Kangkong, a kind of frog or toad which makes a great noise in wet weather. Rather smaller than the Bangkong.

Kangkowak, any seed or fruit which has sprouted, but only as yet got seedling leaves.

Kangkung, Ipomaea reptans, a variety of Boléd, only it is smaller in both leaf and potatoe. It has a similar root. It can be dug in 4 or 5 months, whereas Boléd riquires much longer time to come to perfection.

Kangkurahan, to rince, to clean with water, especially a bottle. (Jav. (Javanese characters) Kurah, to rince the mouth. Also Kěkurah).

Kanigara, viz Kěbo Kanigara, a chief of Pajang, second son of Andaya ning rat, by one of the daughters of Browijaya and the princess of Champa. Khani, 158 the sun. Agāra, C. 61, a house. The house or abode of the sun.

Kaniki or Chikaniki, a river flowing from the Gunung Kendang over the Jambu Estate into Chidani river. The word Kaniki is not Sunda, but may be Sanscrit and the feminine of Kanika Clough 103 very small. Mr. Friederich supplies me with the Sanscrit word Kanika, a small particle. In the feminine, an atom, small, minute. The Chikaniki is only small in comparison with the Chidani into which it flows. Or the name may have originally attached to some of the upland branches of the stream The Chikaniki flows in front of the Passir Koléangkak on which is still found a rock fast in the earth bearing a Sanscrit inscription. Clough Page 158 gives Khanika from Khana, to dig, a miner, and also a rat, a house breaker; perhaps made Khaniki in the feminine for a river, and may have indicated the propensity of the river to undermine its banks, as nothing in the shape of a mine is known here. It may allude to the river having cut a deep bed in a narrow valley, as is the case in the upper part of its course. See voce Chikaniki.

Kanta, signs, gestures, such as a dumb man makes.

Kantéh, thread spun from cotton, twist, thread for weaving. Probably derived from Katinawa C. 99 to spin as thread.

Kantong, a pouch, a small bag of cloth which rolls up and in which are carried the Sěurěuh apparatus, a few doits or other trifles. The Kantong is worn stuk in the belt or Běuběur. (Bat. idem.)

Kantor, a government office. The Dutch word kantoor office; a place where public business is transacted.

Kanugrahan, in easy circumstances, in affluence, pleasant and easy. Anugraha, C. 29, favour, help, assistance, conferring benefits by promoting good and preventing ill.

Kanya, a virgin, occurs in the formation of some proper names in ancient history. Kanya, C. 104 a virgin, also one of the signs of the Zodiac-Virgo. Kanyaho, knowledge, understanding. Kula to bogah kanyaho have no knowledge (of the matter.)

Kanyahokĕn, to recognize, to acknowledge, to impart knowledge, to communicate.

Kanyanya- see kéniaya.

Kanyut, a bag, a sack, a purse.

Kapahili, taken by mistake; anything that is taken or done, under the impression of doing something else. Kapahili imah na mistaken in the house. (Jaw Hili, to give in exchange; ngilenni, to exchange, to indemnify. See Liru, which is the Ngoko-form.)

Kapahung, lost in the forest; cast away in the wilderness.

Kapaihan, swooned, fainted, lost consciousness. (Cf. Pajah Batav. Mal. exhausted , deadly sick, nearly gone. Fr.)

Kapal, a ship, a sea ship, a square rigged vessel. Marsden says that Koppel is the Malabar for ship. It is properly a Tulugu word. Kappara, C. 105, a ship, a sloop. Kapal api, a steamer or more literally a fire-ship. The words are Malay but always used to denote a steamer. Kapal prang, a ship of war. Kapal sudagạr, a merchant ship.

Kapala, a chief, a headman; the best of anything, as of rice, tobacco, &c. the prime part. The word in Malay implies the head, but in Sunda has this meaning only figuratively, as Hulu is the word simply for head. Kapāla, C. 105, the head, the skull. This resembles the Greek Kephale. , C. 117, the head, the body. Pala, C. 372 fruit, flesh. (Scr. Kapála means only the skull, the cranium.)

Kapalang, not worth while, inopportune, any act undertaken which is suddenly impeded. Kapalang amat daik di gawé dĕui, téréh burit , It is not worth while beginning to work again, as it will soon be night. Jadi kapalang. It will not be worth while (as something will intervene and prevent it.) (Jav. (Javanese characters) Ngalangngi, to impede; palang , impediment.)

Kapan, an idiomatic expression for confirming an assertion. Kapan gĕus di béré, now have not I given it you. Can be best translated by-now, as in the following example Kapan daik kaluar, now are not you going to leave your situation. (Kapan, Ml. Jav. at what time, relatif and interrogatif; derived not from apa, but from puan, pon, demonstrativ, the original form in Kawi being Kapuan Fr.)

Kapanasan, heated, overcome with heat.

Kapang, the Teredo navalis; the sea worm which bores so easily into wood and even into soft stone.

Kapang'êrod, said when the feet get entangled in a rope, string, or jungle-rope, so as to impede walking.

Kapanggih, to meet; met, come in contact with. Tilok kapanggih, I never met him. (Jav. Panggih, to find, to encounter.)

Kaparĕk, near, in proximity. (Parĕk Javan. id. Kr. Chakĕt = Mal. dĕkat. This word undergoes a great variety of alterations, which it is long to enumerate. From parĕk-parĕkkan, followers. Fr.)

Kaparĕk, serviceable, as a person who is in great request.

Kapas, Cotton. Gossypium arboreum, and Gossypium Indicum, two varieties, the former perennial and growing in the villages about the houses; the latter an annual shrub planted in gardens made for the purpose. The name is probably of Indian origin and a modification of Karpāsa, C. 110. Cotton. Vide kapuk.

Kapas Chindé, a plant with a red flower, which yields a pod, with cottony filaments. Asclepias curassavica.

Kapas mori, a good variety planted for its cotton. Most probably mori is meant for mouri, moorish, or from Mauritius, and has thus been introduced by Europeans.

Kapĕndak, met, encountered, stumbled on. (Pĕndak (Javanese characters) the revolving of a certain time; the coming back of the same time; after elapsing of (for instance eight days.) Jav.)

Kapĕng, sometimes, as the case may be. Kapĕng na hadé, it is sometimes good. (Cf. Jav. Balin. Kaping. (See beneath sub voce).

Kapérad, met, spoken with; caught, secured.

Kapidengklung, name of a tall tree in mountain forests bearing a small oblong- round fruit, consisting of a very hard stone covered with an acidulous pulp which is eaten. Often also wrongly called Kopi Dĕngklung even by natives, because the fruit resembles that of the Coffee, and the initial Kapi is very close to Kopi. The tree is also Suraléh.

Kapidĕrĕng, foolishly meddling with what does not regard us.

Kapikir, to have regret — on reflection to think otherwise. (Jav. Mal. Pikir. Arab. Fikr. فِكْرٌ cogitatio, attenta consideratio. Fr.)

Kapila, a designation applied to certain black buffaloes which by some mysterious process gradually lose the black colouring matter of the hide, and turn white in blotches, especially along the sides, on the neck and about the head. — (Kapila, Scr. means tawny.)

Kapilangan, having become unconscious from sudden illness or a fit, but come to life again. Fainted away. (From Ilang.)

Kapinang'o, name of a forest tree which yields the disks for Pedaty wheels. Epicharis Altissima.

Kapindis, the swallow which builds the „Edible birds nest”; also sometimes the house swallow, which builds its nest under the eaves of houses.

Kapinĕura, said of old and former seeds which sprout up after the land has been cleared of jungle; not intentionally planted,

Kaping, properly composed of Ka and Ping. Ka is the preposition to, unto- and Ping partakes of the nature of an expletive which admits of no translation. Ulah kaping harĕup tĕuyn, ulah kaping buri tĕuyn, Do not go too much in front, do not lag too far behind. (Kaping is principally used before numerals, and is related to ing, ring, in. Fr).

Kapinis, the same as Kapindis, a swallow.

Kapir, Arabic, an unbeliever, an infidel. One who denies the unity of the Godhead, and the divine mission of Mohammed. Marsden Page 248. (كَافِرٌ Kafir, infidelis.)

Kapiran, disappointment, anything done contrary to expectation or desire. Ulah sia jadi kapiran, D'ont you cause disappointment. (Known at Batavia).

Kapirang-pirang, how many, so very many. It is of the same etymology as the Javanese word Piro, how many, many- Piro-piro, multitude. Kapirang-pirang imah ĕunyĕuh, how many (or so very many) houses have fallen down.

Kapisěr, having become unconscious, but coming to life again; apparent death- the same as Kapilangan.

Kapitan, Captain. Kapitein, Dutch for captain. Kapitan-china, the Captain Chinaman.

Kapiting, a Crab, a sea-crab. Cancer. (Mal. Batav. idem.)

Kapo-ékan, overtaken by night; darkness closed in. Mad with rage, furious; dizzy, giddiness. The state of mind which precedes Amuk. (From Poë, night.)

Kapoi, exposed to the sun. To laku kapoi, it must not be exposed to the sun.

Kapok, disgusted with anything so that you will have nothing more to do with it. Discontinuing some act or offence in consequence of the penalty inflicted therefore. Maling kěbo éta to daiken kapok, they will not cease to steal buffaloes (notwithstanding the punishment inflictedf or the offence.) Kapok ayĕunah ngahĕurĕuian aing they now know better then to trouble me. — (Kapok, Batav. to become afraid, to get terrified from (doing anything) Kapok, Jav. to better, to amend himself. Gerick.)

Kapol, the soft husk of a young Cocoa nut which is eatable.

Kapol, Cardamums. Amomum Cardamomum.

Kaponakan, third cousins, children of mindo. (From anak, prefixed kapua? At Batavia and in the neighbourhood Kaponakan are the children of one's brother or sister; kaponakan misan, children of a cousin. Fr.)

Kaporod, stollen — a vulgar expression.

Kaprah, of the average rate or quality; something that every one does; universally admitted. Paré na kaprah, the paddy is an average crop- is fair. Kaprah lalaki éwéan, men as a rule take wives. Nu sugih kaprah bogah kawasa, Rich men are universally admitted to have power. (Kaprah, custom, usage. Jav. Batav.)

Kapuah, an excessive quantity, a glut.

Kapuah, used in Jampé and incantations, and seems to correspond with the Singhalese Kapuwa, a Demon priest, C. 105. (Might be the Kawi pronoun Kapua.)

Kapuk, the cotton used for stuffing pillows, mattresses &c. It is short in staple, and cannot be used for spinning. It is produced by the trees called Randu, and Randu lĕuwĕung, respectively Eriodendron Anfractuosum, and Bombax Malabaricum. See Randu.

Kapu, C. 105, the silk cotton tree; cotton.

Kapur Baros, Baros lime or Baros Camphor the produce ot the Dryobalanops Camphora. Baros is a place on the west coast of Sumatra where it is procured. Kapuru, C. 105. Camphor. (Scr. Karpûra, Camphor. Fr.)

Kara, an idiomatic expression hard to translate. Lain karagoréng éta D'ont you very well know that that is bad. It calls the attention of the hearer forcibly to some matter. Saha kara nu to datang, who, pray, is it who is not come. The word kara may be the crude part of the word Karanawa, C. 108, to do, to act, to make, to perform. See Perkara.

Karabu, an ear-ring with several stones or ornaments. Karabu-ros an earring with many ornaments. See Anting, which somewhat differs. (Ros is the Dutch word roos, a rose.)

Karak, pretty much of the same meaning as Kakarak, which see, and of which it appears to be an abbreviation. Only now, just now, freshly, as yet. Karak datang, just come. Karak siji, as yet there is only one.

Karaman, an idiomatic expression difficult to translate, but answers to- now that I think of it, now that I see it, &; it indicates surprise on the part of the speaker. Karaman luhur now that I see it, how high it is! Karaman ganchang, how quick it goes.

Karamat, Arabic, a place of offering, a holy place; an intercedence, a miracle. The graves of holy men are called Kramat, and here offerings and prayers are put up when the native is in difficulty. (كرامة, Karâmat, dignity, honour; plur. كرامات, karâmât, wonders edited by holy man, by their natural power. Fr.)

Karang, a wart on the body.

Karang, Coral rock, limestone rock in general found inland far from the sea. The coral rocks have no doubt obtained this name from exhibiting the appearance of a garden growing under the waves, consisting of branching corals, madrepores &c.

Karang, a garden, ground laid out, or set in order like a garden. The natives call the Bantam hill Gunung karang, which thus properly means, Garden mountain, from its having, no doubt from an early period, been laid out in gardens, of which the Pepper gardens still existed when Europeans first visited Java, and hence called by the Dutch the Peper berg. It is a volcanic mountain, and no limestone is to be found near it. In the Sunda language there is also the word Pakarangan for the enclosure round the house of a great man, which see. The Malays use the word terkarang, set in order, arranged when speaking of a book; and měngarang, to compose, to arrange either a book or other matter.

Karang-sua, a sea urchin, called also Sasalakan. Cidaris.

Karap, waxed threads used at the weaving loom.

Karara-an, ill, in bad health. Sickness.

Kararanggé, a red ant common on fruit trees in gardens which bites very hard. They cement the leaves of trees together to form their nests.

Kararas, dry plantain leaves, used for tying up various articles, as we would use coarse paper.

Kararawéah, Couhage; a fine slender liane bearing pretty looking pods of fruit in bunches, but which are covered with a fine hair or pilae, which sting and cause great itching. Mucuna pruriens, also Dolichos pruriens. Crawfurd gives Karawia as Arabic for Caraway, Carum carui, and our word looks like a plural of this word, though one night suppose that the Sundas would have au indigenous name for so virulent a native plant. Karasak, a scratching noise, like that of a rat. A moderate but sharp noise. Often used in the expression Karasak karésék, scratching and grating.

Karasan, to have a pleasure in; to be delighted with. (From rasa, Scr. flavour, taste; taste, sentiment).

Karatan, only heard in the expression lain karatan, something which is so bad that it cannot be endured; too bad to be put up with.

Karaton, the abode of a Ratu or native prince. A native palace.

Karawachi, Pica; name of a pretty little bird like a magpie in miniature, not much larger than a sparrow. It is found all over Java, and appears to exist on Sumatra, as Marsden at Page 340 gives the word Murei, a species of bird resembling a small magpie, commonly called the Dial bird. I saw it also in the garden of the factories at Canton. It is not known by this name at Jasinga, but by that of Manuk Haur, which see.

Karawang, lattice work. Name of a district and chief place to the Eastward of Batavia. It obtains its name from the mouth of the Chitarum being rent and torn in sunder, or divided into many embouchures, where it flows into the sea. Rawang expresses the state of being torn or split. See Rawang.

Karé-és, gravel, small stones- such as are laid down on a road or on a garden walk.

Karéhkél, gravel, small stones.

Karékéb, to eat, to munch, to gnaw.

Karémbong, a long piece of cloth worn by a woman round her chest and breasts; a sort of scarf. Called in Malay Saléndang.

Karěmi, small worms in children. Intestinal worms. (Scr. Krimi. Jav. Krimi and Kěrmi worms.)

Karěndu, crumpled as a cloth; folded or gathered in plaits.

Karépék, a wattled fence of split bambus set in a river to intercept the passage of fish, whilst the water can flow on as usual.

Karěpus, a cap, a night cap, a sailor's cap. The article and name are both Batavian.

Karésék, making a small noise, as of a mouse gnawing or the like. It is in a smaller degree, what Karasak is in a somewhat larger one. (Onomatopoetic word. Known at Batavia.)

Karěsil, shrivelled, small, diminutive; the remainder from which the larger ones have been picked out.

Karét, name of a tree; Ficus elastica. India rubber or Gum Elastic, which is procured from the Karét tree by tapping, when the sap runs out readily and soon coagulates into the gum which is seen in trade. Called also Kolélét.

Karěumbi, a tree, Omalanthus Lechenaultianus.

Kari, Curry. A common Indian dish made of fowl boiled up with several ingredients.

Kari, and only, no more than, it only remains to. Kari siji děui there is only one left. Kari ngahatěupan, only remains to put the ataps on (said of a house which is building and is otherwise complete) Kari in Ngoko — Kantun in Krama, T. Roorda Javanese Dictionary Page 172- to remain behind, to remain over; being left behind, remainder, remnant, residu.

Karia, a festival, a great meeting for eating and drinking. Kariya, C. 120, a matter, an affair. Is derived from Karanawa to make, to do; and would thus be- a piece of work, something done- as natives generally call festivals Pakarjahan a piece of work. (63).[7]

Karinding, a musical instrument made of a tube of bambu about one foot long and one inch in bore, at the end of which is held a small instrument with a tongue to it. This instrument is struck by the finger and blown upon, when a sound like a jew's harp is produced.

Karintil, the designation of a certain quantity of cotton threads: Ten karintil make one Tukěl or hank.

Karisik, a thin variety of bambu.

Karisut, wrinkles on face or skin. Said of a swelling which has gone down leaving the skin flabby.

Karok, a variety of wild plantain; the fruit is not eatable, only the leaves are used for tying up articles.

Karoya, a variety of the Ficus Benjamina. An ornamental tree resembling the Waringin.

Kartu, Dutch kaart. Cards to gamble with; a map, a chart.

Karuan, most assuredly, certainly; granted, conceded as in an argument; having a fixed idea or intention; decided. Pagawéan nana karuan, his work is decided, or has a useful tendency. To karuan, at random, without thought. Lamun gěus karuan, if it is decided, if the matter has assumed shape. See Rua. Karuan is most likely derived from Ruwa, C. 597, an image, with the prefix Ka and suffix an, indicating an object, something visible, and thus affording certainty. (It might be derived from rua Kawi, ro Jav. = dua, two; a thing which has a second, a consequence, which is not left undone. Malay كروان, karuwan, thought, ideas, thinking; which might be conciliated with my derivation. Fr.)

Karuchuk, stakes of wood used in a fence, in a dam in the river &c.

Karuhun, forefathers; those who are further back than grandfather or grandmother. (Karuhun in Kawi means formerly, before; the foremost. In Jav. exist different forms derived from ruhun or rihin.) Karumpak, trodden down, as grass, straw or small bushes.

Karundang, a variety of the eggplant: Solanum Involucratum.

Karung, a bag, a sack.

Karunya, grace, favour, indulgence, compassion. Karuna or Karunawa. C. 109, mercy, tenderness, compassion. (Scr. Kârunya and Karuna, compassion, tenderness.)

Karunya-an, to have mercy or compassion upon any one.

Karusuk, to make a heavy dull sound, as of a man or animal walking in jungle. To grope your way through jungle.

Karusukan, to grope or push your way through thick reeds or jungle.

Karut, to twist and twine rope about anything; to make a net-work of rope round anything. Tampayang di karut, a large water jar set round with a matting of rope to prevent its breaking. Batu karut, a stone envelloped in matting, or rather as seen in the jungle envelloped in a tangled mass of lianes.

Kas, Dutch, a case, a chest.

Kas, Arabic, the extremity of the law; law of retaliation; very rarely used. (Arab. قِصَاصٌ, Qiçâç (also qaçç) talio, vindicta. Fr.)

Kasab, work, value, good. Naun kasab, what is the good of it.

Kasaksian, witnessed by, borne evidence by, attested by. Kasaksian ku mandor, witnessed by the mandor, or village chief. (From Scr. Sâkshin, Nom. Sûkshî, a witness; sa, with, akshi, eye.)

Kasaktian, supernatural power, enchantment. (From Çakti, id.)

Kasampak, met, fallen in with, come upon, encountered.

Kasandung, stumbled, tripped up, run unintentionally against some low object on the ground. (Sandung, (Javanese characters) to stumble against a stone, or any object on the ground Jav.)

Kasang, curtains, screens. Panggo-ongan gĕus di kasangan the shed where the gong is played has been hung round with curtains. Kasang ratu, curtains for a prince.

Kasangsang, caught, hooked, arrested; said of a rope, clothes or any object which is caught against something else. Tali na kasangsang ka na ruyuk. the rope has caught among the bushes.

Kasantap, to get an attack of illness as if caused by some evil genius. Suddenly struck ill, paralyzed.

Kasap, sharp and rough to the feel, harsh, biting like a file. (Kasap and Kasab Jav. id.; rough, not smooth.)

Kasar, rude, uncivil. (Batav. Malay كاسر Kâsar, rough, used also of cloth or other matters. Fr.)

Kasarang, as when a man or woman wants to get married and is refused; jilted. (Sarang Jav. to have a dislike, to be not inclined to.)

Kasarikat, see Sarikat.

Kasaru, to mistake, to take the wrong one from two or more objects which are very much alike; not recognize, as a person heard of but never seen. Kasarung, probably the same as Kasaru with the nasal and final ng suffixed, and may then imply- travestied, disguised. The word occurs only in the history of Pajajaran as Lutung kasarung, see Raffles Vol. 2 Page 102. „Guru Putra then gave Chiung Wanara a black monkey skin jacket, which the latter forthwith put on and immediately became in appearance like that animal. He, at the same time, gave him the name of Guru minda sida tanda Prabu Lutung Kasarung”.

Kasasar, gone astray, wandered till lost, lost the way, bewildered, embarrassed, perplexed. (Jav. Batav. id.)

Kasěbét, a small bit cut off, just touched, grazing upon. (Jav. (Javanese characters), Sěbit, torn in pieces, a piece torn off.)

Kasěděk, pinched for time, in a great hurry; jammed in difficulties, ((Javanese characters) S’děk in Kawi is the same as (Javanese characters) s’děng, which occurs also in Jav. and Malay, but means only at the time that, when. Fr.)

Kaséndal, work finished in proper time, got through early. (Sěndal (Javanese characters) Jav. to be prosperous in an undertaking.)

Kaséntor, to come and meet.

Kasép, handsome, good looking, said of a man, but not of a woman who is gěulis, which see. Said also of some things but rather ironically. Kasép amat perkara na, his adventure (or his story) is very handsome. He has got a very pretty adventure!

Kasěpuhan, the old gentleman; a respectful designation for an oldman. (Sěpuh, Jav. old.)

Kasěrahkěn, delivered up, handed over. (Sěrah, Mal. id.)

Kasiat, for the reason that, seeing that. Kasiat sasari na to daikkěn for the reason that ordinarily he will not.

Kasibat, overcome by dizziness in the head, from exposure to the sun. Struck by the sun.

Kasih, affection, love, compassion. Kasih na gědé nakěr ka nu Iěutik, he has great compassion on humble people.

Kasihan, compassion, mercy, consideration. Ménta kasihan tuan bai, I entreat your mercy.

Kasikěp, to be able to manage, to be master of, to have within one's power. Pagawéan éta to kasikěp, that work cannot be managed. Kasikěp ayěunah kabéh, we are now master of the whole.

Kasimah, terrified, afrighted, overcome by sudden and great terror, Paralyzed, frightened out of his wits. Ari ngadeng’i soara maung těulěui kasimah, as soon as he heard the roar of the tiger he became terrified, or frightened out of his wits.

Kasingsal, overlooked, missed.

Kasintu, a variety of wild jungle fowl of which the cock is small and red with black tail. Different from the Changgėhgar.

Kasir, name of an orthopterous insect, a kind of large cricket or Gryllus. It is full 1 1/2 inch long and thus a good deal larger than the Jangkrik, which it otherwise resembles. The kasir burrows deep in the ground, whereas the Jangkrik is generally about the surface, or in shallow holes. Kasmaran, a Jampé so called, the tendency of which is that no one will take offence at us. Also a Jampé by which one person is made to fall in love with another. This is derived from Kama the god of love who is also called Sang Hyang Smara. Bat. Trans: Vol. 22 Page 42. A philtre, a love charm.

Samāra, C. 710, having the passions unsubdued. See Asmara.
Samara, C. 709, a name of Kama, the deity of love; with the Polynesian prefix ka, and suffix an = Kasmaran.

Kaso, called in Malay, Glaga, Saccharum glaga; a reed which grows very luxuriantly, and to the height of tenor a dozen feet, forming almost impenetrable bushes. Though a variety of the sugarcane, the Kaso contains no saccharine matter, and is not thicker than a man's finger, Kasa, C. 122, a kind of reed or long grass (Saccharum Spontaneum).

Kasongkét, an arěui or liane with a thick stem from which project a series of small pedicles 1 1/2 à 2 inches long, which are covered with small flowerlets.

Kasongket, is also the name of a tall reedy grass, with long terminal hairy or feathery spike which is white and looks like a hairy cats tail.

Kasturi, musk, such as procured from animals—from the civetcat. Kasturu and Kasturyya, C. 116. musk, civet. (Skr. Kastûrî, Kastûrikâ and Kasturikâ, musk, the animal perfume so called. Wilson.)

Kasugihan, riches, wealth, opulence. (Sugih, Jav. Balin. Rich, opulent.)

Kasuhur, renowned, celebrated, famous. Arabic Mashur, Marsden P. 324. (مَشْهُوْرٌ Mashhûr; our word is rather derived from the substantive شُهْرَةٌ Shuhrat, divulgation, fame, with the Polynesian Prefix ka. Fr.)

Kasumba, and also kasumba-jawa, safflower. Carthamus tinctorius. Kasumbha, C. 134 Carthamus tinctorius (Scr. Kusumbha. Wilson.)

Kasungka, name of a liane in the jungle which gives an edible bean. Gnetum latifolium.

Kasur, a mattress, a bed made of cloth stuffed with cotton. (Jav. Mal. id.)

Kasura, to get a small spine or thorn stuck in the foot. Wounded in the foot by any small sharp thing.

Kasurupan, to become impregnated with to be possessed of; absorbed, sunk into; set as the sun. Kasurupan dědéwan, to be possessed of a supernatural spirit, of some evil genius. Kasurupan mata poi di jalan, the sun set while I was yet on the road. (Surup Jav. To get into, to get through; to go under, said of the sun.)

Kasusahan, in trouble, in difficulties, perplexed, down cast, afflicted. (From Susah.)

Kasut, embroidered slippers, such as worn by Chinese women of note.

Katagian, to have an involuntary longing for anything to which we are accustomed, and which we cannot resist, as the longing of a drunkard for liquor, of an opium smoker for opium, and the like. Derived from the word Tagi to dun, to bother for payment or performance of any duty. (Jav. (Javanese characters) Nagih, from Tagih with the same meaning as here Tagi. Katagian is used at Batavia, Fr.) Katalang, replaced by, to have got a substitute. Derived from the word Talang, a spout, and the idea implies—as water is carried over a hollow by a spout, so we are carried over a difficulty by the aid of some one else. Katalang ku minantu, relieved from some public duty by a son in law. The son in law performing the the public duty relieves his father in law from the obligation. A custom common at Jasinga and many other parts of the Sunda districts. The son in law relieves the father of his wife, but not his own father from the performance of feudal service. (Talang in Jav. has the same meaning; Nalang'ng'i, to order somebody to relieve ones self in the performance of a duty; also to give orders to buy. In the last acceptation tâlang is found in Malay Fr.)

Katalimbĕng, lost in a forest so that the person cannot find his way home. The natives pretend that this is in consequence of stepping over a liane called arĕui Bandĕng which in a manner charms thein. (From a root Timbĕng; al infixed.)

Katambahan, augmented, increased; something in addition. (From Tambah, to add.)

Katang'én, known, seen, evident (Tangi, Jav., to become awake, to rise.)

Katapang, name of a tree bearing a fruit like an almond. Terminalia katapang.

Katara, visible, clearly seen, manifest, espied. (From Scr. Tara, radiant, shining; clean, clear. Jav. Balin. Batav. idem.)

Katé, dwarf, small in stature, diminutive. (Batav. id. Jav. A small cock or hen. Gericke.)

Katéla, of nearly the same import as katara. Visible from a distance, clearly seen.

Katélah, called after, named from. Katélah ku anak, called after a child. The Sundaese have a practice which is the reverse of what is usual among Europeans. The father and mother are called after the eldest child. Thus if that child is called Hamat, the father will be Bapa Hamat add the mother Ambu Hamat, the father or the mother of Hamat But the word father or mother is often dropped, causing much confusion as to identity. This is an affectionate way of always acknowledging a child, which however, at same time conveys the pride of parentage.

Katépa, infected with any disease; infected by contagion.

Katépéng, a shrub producing a largish bright yellow flower, called also Daun kurap, or ringworm leaf. Acacia alata.

Katétésan, to get a drop; to have a drop fall upon you. To be implicated in any matter. (Jav. (Javanese characters) Titis, to drop.)

Kati, a catty, a weight so called; the 100th part of a Picul, which see.

Katia, a bark used fordying black. Imported, not found in the Sunda Jungles.

Katib, Arabic. A clerk, a priest's assistant; a preacher. (خَاطِبٌ, Khâtib, the priest who reads the Khutbat or the sermon of the Friday. Fr.)

Katiga, the dry season, from June to September. It is a remnant of the old Javanese method of counting the seasons, of which the other terras are not retained in the Sunda language. Katiga means- „the third" (Season). (On Bali and Java the third month.) Katimang, the oval ring of iron resembling an elongated O, which fixes into the splinter bar of a Chinese plough, by which the buffaloe drags it. The Katimang hooks the splinter bar upon the Chantél, which is a crooked bit of iron fixed to the end of the pole of the plough. (Timang Jav. A hook.)

Katimpahan, struck, knocked down, overwhelmed. (Batav. id.)

Katimun, more usually Hantimun, a Cucumber, which see.

Katindihan, covered up by, buried under, placed under. Katindihan ku kayu ěunyěuh, knocked down by a tree falling. (Malay Batav. id. Jav. (Javanese characters) Nindih to lay over.)

Katiněung, to feel a delight at seeing or meeting any one; also at the mere remembrance of any one to whom we are attached; bearing affection. In the language of Poggi, on the west coast of Sumatra, Ténung is the heart, and our Sunda word looks as if it were this same word with the constructive ka before it, and would thus imply, heart-felt or having relation to the heart, the seat of the emotions.

Kating’ali, beheld, seen, observed. A refined expression. (Ting’al, Jav., as a verb ning’al, to see; Balin. ting’hal id. Fr.)

Katinggalan, left behind, lagging behind on the road. Deserted. Jauh kénéh katinggalan nana, he was left a long way behind. Katinggalan nana, its remainder, what is left over. (From Tinggal.)

Katinggang, see Ninggang; under the influence of; fallen to the share of.

Katir, outriggers of a boat; arms distended on each side of a small canoe to prevent its upsetting.

Katiwasan, overtaken by some serious injury. (Tiwas, Jav. unlucky, unfortunate. Balin. poor, wretched. Fr.)

Katog, strong, of great strength. (Jav. Full grown.)

Katon, visible, within sight, seen. (From Ton, Non, to see. Jav.)

Katomas, name of a handsome variety of Justicia. The leaves are mottled yellow and green, or gold and green; it is an ornamental shrub.

Katrajang, overtaken by, suffering under, attacked by. Katrajang Cha-ah, overtaken by a flood. Katrajang nyěri běutung, suffering a belly ache. Katrajang ku nu ngabégal, attacked by banditti. (Jav. Trajang, attack in battle; Nrajang, to attack.)

Katukang, Ka to, with Tukang, see behind.

Katumbila, a stinking louse found about old bambu flooring, in native houses. Cimex.

Katumbiri, the rainbow. Apparently compounded of Kata, C. 101 a woman; lustre, effulgence, a ray of the sun; and Biri, C. 473 a woman, a wife. The two words being connected by the peculiar Sunda um which see, and is thus- the effulgence of woman. The natives have an idea that the rainbow is caused or happens whenever the Badiyadari or celestial nymphs are bathing.

Katumpuhan, being answerable for, liable for; anything lost or destroyed which has to be replaced by the person destroying it. (Jav. Těmpah, Tatěumpuh, Tatěmpah, replacing, indemnification.) Katunchar, Coriander seed. Coriandrum sativum.[8].

Katung, a joint of bambu tied up to the Pager or wall of a native house, in which small valuables are kept.

Katunggu, watched, guarded, to be kept in order, properly superintended.

Katungku, said of a buffaloe which appears to be ailing, and which it is thought prudent to kill for fear of its dying, whereby the flesh would be lost, if the animal was not killed according to Mohammedan rites.

Katut, going in at the bargaiu; sold along with something else. Béas di juwal katut jĕung karung na, the rice was sold along with the bag.

Katuwon, inward sorrow, regret.

Ka-ubĕr, roused up, stirred up, put to rout.

Kaul, arabic. Marsden. A written agreement, contract, engagement, (قَوْلً, Qaul, a saying, word.)

Kaula, I, I myself. A humble designation of self, whereby the speaker places himself below the person whom he . It is still more humble than Kula, of which it seems to be a modification.

Kaulkĕn, to make a promise or engagement.

Kaum, arabic, an assembly of priests or men met for the purpose of prayer. (قَوْمً Qaum, people.)

Kaur, having time, having leisure. To kaur, I have no time. (Kahur Jav. time, leisure.)

Kaus, a stocking, such as worn by Europeans. It is the Dutch word kous, stocking.

Kawa, the Crater of a Volcano. Kawa, C. 115, a circle. Perhaps the name was applied to the craters of Volcanoes from their being generally circular openings on the tops of the mountains. (Perhaps a derivation from the Scr. root ku, to sound. Fr.)

Kawa Domas, name of one of the craters on the Tangkuban Prahu.

Kawah, a large cooking pan, a sugarpan. This and the precending word appear to be distinct, though so nearly allied in both sound an sense. The latter word, however, is always aspirated at the end which the other is not.

Kawai, the Baju or jacket of a native nobleman.

Kawalahan, overdone with work; having more trouble and work than can be got through; overtasked.

Kawalu, and Kawalu tutug, are great festivals of the Badui heathens in South Bantam. This Kawalu sounds like a Sunda form of the Javanese Wolu, Eight, and thus kawalu, would be the Eighth. Perhaps originally these festivals were kept in an eighth month.[9].

Kawan, five nyéré of thread; and expression among the weaving women.

Kawan, a companion, an associate. Rarely used, being considered Malay, nevertheless the word occurs in Pandakawan which is a good Sunda expression, which see.

Kawas, as, like, resembling, as if, to bear the appearance of. Kawas na to daik mayar, he looks as if he did not intend to pay. (Perhaps from Awas Jav. clear, manifest.)

Kawasa, having power, or authority; able, capable; might, ability. Probably derived from wasa, C. 630, authority, mastership; with the constructive ka placed before it to give it an adjective form. (Jav. Mal. Kawasa and Kuwasa.)

Kawat, wire, fine drawn thread of any metal, but without a qualifying noun, generally means Iron wire. 'Kawat tambaga, brass wire.

Kawatir, to have any anxiety about, doubt, distrust. To be troubled with uncertainty how a matter will turn out Ulah kawatir, you need not be in trouble about it (Jav. Kuwatir, afraid, fearing danger.)

Kaw-auw-oh, a liane, the bark of the root of which is used to prevent Kawung toddy from turning sour.

Kawawa, to bear, to endure. To kawawa, I c'ant endure it. It is more than I can carry. (Jav. Kuwawa, to be able to do, to be in state of doing anything.)

Kawawĕuhan, acquaintance, any person with whom we are acquainted. (Jav. Wawuh, to have acquaintance, to be friend of.)

Kawayah, intermittent. Muriang kawayah, the intermittent fever.

Kawěl, to tie or fasten by twisting and turning round with string. (Jav. Kuwěl.)

Kawih, to sing, to warble. Kawi, C. 115. Poetry, songs &c. a learned or wise person. Kawiyama, C. 122, a poem, poetry. Kawya, C. 122, a poetical composition, a poem. Kawi, without the final aspirate is no doubt the same word and implies the old language of Java, in which the Hindu literature is preserved, and which was in use as connected with the Hindu religion. (Kawi Scr. a poet.)

Kawin, Persian, to marry, to wed, to espouse. The usual term for to marry in both Sunda, Javanese and the Malay of Java. Ngawin in Sunda and Javanese is to carry spears in procession, and Pangawinan are the people who so carry the spears. May not this have arisen from carrying spears in procession when the men (the intended father and son- in law) go to confirm the marriage. See Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indié Oct. 1852 Page 275 where mention is made of „4 aween pieken” four awin spears, and of „2 awinans” or attendants as occurrying at Grissée. In the Sunda districts you still see the intended father in law, with a spear in his hand, go to the priest, followed by his intended Son in law, when the legal form of the marriage takes place. See Nikah.

Kawinkĕn, to cause to marry, to marry out.

Kawini, a variety of mangga, mangifera. A true Terebintacea being very turpentiny.

Kawista, name of a large tree which yields a gummy matter used in making native ink.

Kawul, a sort of tinder procured from scraping the root part of the leaf branch, or frond, of a Kawung Palm. A spark of light struck from a steel is caught upon it, when fresh fire is made.

Kawung, name of a Palm tree so called, which yields sugar. Saguerus Saccharifera or Borassus Gomuti. Called Arén or Anau in Malay. The Sugar is boiled down from the toddy which exudes from the stems of fructification, on being beaten and sliced oft every day.

Kawung Parasi, a poor ill grown kawungpalm which yields little or no Sugar.

Kayang, some of the wild varieties of Quercus trees are so called.

Kayangan, the abode or temple of a Hyang or divinity.

Kayu, wood, timber; sometimes used for a tree in general. Kha appears to be wood in Burmese. See Singapore Journal Vol 4 Page 59 where Theet-Kha is given, a bitter wood. Theet is evidently the Singhalese Titta, C. 231, bitter, pungent. Au nunu, the name of the Waringin tree at Letta and Kissa of the Serwatti group, east of Timor. Au signifies tree- Singahore Journal Vol 4 Page 181. Now the word kayu appears to be a compound of these two words, Kha and au y inserted euphoniae gratia. Or it may be simply au with the idiomatic ka prefixed.
Kayu is an idiomatic term for counting certain substances which fold up flat like a board, especially piece goods. Chita sa kayu, a piece of Chintz.

Kayu-putih, literally- white wood. The tree grows in the Moluccos; and on Java the words kayu-putih, as in Europe, mean the essential oil derived from the tree. It is the Cajeput of Europe. Melaleuca Cajeputi.

Kéak, to chirp like a bird; to make a small chirping or squeaking sound.

Kěbat, straight on without divergence; in a due straight line. Kěbat bai ngidul went South in a due straight line.

Kěběl, a long time, a good while. Undur na geus kěběl, it is a good while since he went away. Sa kěběl, as long as.

Kěbo, a buffaloe, in Malay Karbau. This animal is also called munding in Sunda. Bos Bubalus. Karabha, C. 108, a Camel, an Elephant, probably derived from Karanawa, C. 108. to do, to act, to make, to perform-, and thus a working animal.[10]. Kěbo, a title given anciently to Javanese chiefs, and is the same as Maisa, meaning Buffaloe. Munding another word for Buffaloe was also formerly used to designate the chiefs. Lembu a bull or cow, also occurse in a similar way in the composition of the names of ancient chiefs. Kěbo has had also extensive application in this sense on Bali. See Bat. Trans. Vol 23 Page 24. It occurs in the history of Java, see Raffles Vol 2, Page 105 in the name of Kěbo Mundarang, the minister of the king o Kèdiri, and again Page 135 in the person of Kěbo Kanigara, the chief of Pajang. The word Kabu given in Raffles is no doubt meant for Kěbo.

Kěbo-grang, name of a fish at Jasinga; the same as Sanggaringan.

Kěbon, a garden, a plantation, a cultivated bit of ground. The same word is also Malay. It might have been expected that the islanders would have had a pure Polynesian word for such a thing as a garden, or bit of planted land, but nevertheless Kěbon seems to have borrowed its root from the Sanscrit Bu the Earth, the world, Clough 477, and with the constructive Ka before and an after , would make Kabuan , the u and a, by a very common rule coalesce , and form O , making thus Kabon or Kěbon, a bit of earth, a bit of land- a garden.

Kěbut, to be blown about by the wind. To fan, to blow up a fire.

Kěbutan, to fan, to cause a current of wind to pass over anything by waving some instrument by way of a fan. To dust, to blow away the dust.

Kéchap, Catchup, a dark coloured sauce prepared by the Chinese.

Kěchap, to speak, to utter a word. Sa kěchap, a word. :(Mai. Jav. Kawi Uchap, word, tale; Kochap, spoken. Kěchap, Jav. the act of opening and clossing the mouth when pronouncing a word. The following article is certainly the same, the time for pronouncing a word being no more than the twinkling of the eye. Fr.)

Kěchap, a twinkling of the eye; any short space of time; immediately.

Kechěrik, a small variety of hand fishing net.

Kěděngan, to lie down upon. Meja di kěděngan, he laid himself down upon the table.

Kěděngkěn, to lay down, to place in a recumbent position. Kěděngkěn di na meja, lay it down flat upon the table!

Kědėr, fearful, uneasy in mind, startled.

Kědih, firm in character, not to be talked over.

Kědiri, name of a residency at the east end of Java, and the supposed site of the ancient kingdom of Daha. It was here that a remarkable woman, called Kili-Suchi, lived,

would neither pretend, that karabha is our karbau, notwithstanding that in a similar way the Western nations called the Elephant "Indian ox" (Aleph Hindi, Pott.) the Romans even "bos Lucanus" because they had seen the animal first in Lucania in the war with Pyrrhus: nor that the word karabha or karbau is derived from the root kri, to do, to work. The buffaloe is known in India and his principal name is mahisha, which is well known on Java and Bali. We might leave the karbau (kebo) to the Polynesians, even as the word Munding. Fr. vide voce: and with reference to her failing, the natives of the country say that the country obtained its name, as Kědih in their language means- the stoppage, or rather non-appearance of the menstrual flux. Hiri or iri is envy, and thus that Kědiri implies the stoppage above alluded and envy of others at the same time. Hiri, C. 794 is also shame, confusion, and Kedih-hiri would express-shame at not having the flux. Clough Page 158 gives Khadiri, a sensative plant, mimosa pudica, which would not be a bad emblem of Kili Suchi in her distressing position. Kili Suchi was not allowed to sacrifice herself on the funeral pile of her parents, in consequence of which, she is said to have borne great ill will , and thus may account for the iri or hiri in Kědih-iri. (Khadirî, mimosa pudica. Wilson. Jav. (Javanese characters) Kědiri, wherein the (Javanese characters) (dh) seems to indicate, that the Scr. word contained an aspirated letter. Fr.)

Kědokan, a muddy hole that a buffaloe wallows in any ground or road kept muddy and cut up by the constant passage of buffaloes or other animals.

Kěduk, to pull towards you, either with your hands, or with some instrument, as with a pachul, to scrape aside. Lěutak na kudu di kědukan, you must scrape the mud on one side.

Kéh, an interjection. Do you see! look now!

Kéhéd, glans penis.

Kéhkél, name of a small fish in rivers.

Kĕjëp, a twinkling, a wink of the eye; usually Sa kejep, any very short space of time. Jav. Kĕjĕp and Kĕjép id. Vıde Kĕchap.)

Kéjo, boiled rice, rice boiled fit for eating; called in Malay Nasi.

Kĕk, the idiomatic expression of laying hold of- seize hold! lay hold! Kĕk bai di chĕkĕl, and laying hands on him he seized him.

Kékéb, a variety of Sĕurĕuh found growing wild in the forests. It is used when the true leaf is scarce or not to be had. Chavica Blumei.

Kékéd, having the fingers cramped or drawn together by disease. Daik kėkéd, may I have my fingers cramped — a serious but common expression when a man wishes to insist upon the truth of what he says. (Jav. Kékét, to stick to each other.)

Kĕkéjoan, the white frothy juice which first flows from the fruit stem of the Kawung palm, when cut for gathering the toddy to make sugar. This will not boil down to sugar and is thrown away. It is soon succeeded by more pure juice from which the sugar is made.

Kĕkĕng, the bit of a bridle.

Kĕkĕng rang'ah, a bit set with iron points, called in Malay Tom duri, used much by the natives. (Tom is the Dutch toom, bridle. Fr.)

Kĕkĕng chaching, literally- a worm bit, and thus smooth, A smooth bit such as used by Europeans.

Kékés, a variety of small squirrel, Sciurus; found in the jungle. It resembles the Bu-ut but is smaller. Kěkětěg, the pulse, the beating of the blood. (Jav. Kětěg id.)

Kěkompongan, the flank of either man or beast. The side of lower part of belly. (Jav. Kěmpong, the milt, the bladder; Kěkěmpongan, would be the side, the place about the milt or bladder. Fr.)

Kělalén, forgotten, Compounded of Ka-lali-an. The word lali however, is of rare occurrence in Sunda for- to forget, which it more especially implies in Javanese. The common Sunda word being Poho.

Kělang, dry, desiccated.

Kělar, to have an affection for. Kělar ka Pajajaran to feel affection for Pajajaran. (Jav. To have sufficient power, to be able.)

Kělat, to connect with a bit of string; to tie lightly with a bit of string to fix to anything by tying down. A string used as a brace. (Jav. A ring, a string etc.)

Kélé, a bit of bambu, as much as is contained between two joints, used for holding water. Kélé's are always seen about the doors of native houses, to hold water to wash the feet with. Kalé C. 114- a water pot.

Kélék, the armpit. Di kélék, to carry under the arm.

Kělěm, sunk under water, covered by water, inundated. (Jav. id., also to sink under the sand. Batavian Tangk'lěm.)

Kělěngar, swooned away, fainted; in a fit and not recognizing people. (Jav. Mai. id.).

Kělětik, to extract oil from Cocoanuts by rasping the pulp and then boiling it down, as contradistinguished from di kampa, to procure the oil by squeezing in a press.

Kělěwěk, Pichung nuts prepared for cooking by drying over fire and then burying in the earth for a couple of months, or else they are poisonous.

Kělid, toward off, to parry.

Kělinchi, a hare, a rabbit; derived from the Dutch word Kleintje, a little one.

Kélong, Satan, the devil, evil spirits or genii.

Kělor, name of a tree Moringa Pterygosperma. The bark of the root of this tree rasped in shreds looks like and tastes like horse- radish, and is sometimes eaten with roast beef in same manner.

Kěmang, an inferior variety of mangga, Mangifera foetida.

Kěmat, to influence, to be will disposed towards others. An incantation to induce others to marry you.

Kěmbang, a flower, blossom, the choice of anything. Gunung kěmbang flowery mountain. Kěmbang or kambang may be derived from ka, the preposition, and Bang or abang, red.

Kěmbang ang'in, literally- the flower of the wind, means private information, secret notice.

Kěmbang pala, mace; literally —— the flower of the nutmeg.

Kěmbang Sapatu, the shoe flower, Hibiscus, Rosa- Sinensis. The red flower rubbed on leather serves as blacking, hence the name. It is properly Malay and called more usually in Sunda, Wéra. Kěmbar, twins, two children at one birth.

Kĕmbu, a large standing pannier used in boats to collect and retain fish, as it is caught with the casting net. Derived in all probability from Buwu with the preposition ka.

Kĕmbung, swollen up, inflated, blown up, distended.

Kěmbung, a small sea fish so called.

Kĕméja, a shirt, as worm by Europeans. Camisa, Port: a shirt. (See Kaméja.).

Kĕmĕndur, a commodore, a title given to some petty native chiefs about Batavia. Is the Dutch word Commandeur.

Kĕmit, a watchman about a dwelling house or store. A watchman in general, and especially at night. (Jav. Kěmit, to watch at wigth.).

Kěmpés, small in volume, in a small compass. Said of a swelling which has gone down; reduced as a swelling.

Kĕmpis a small pannier to collect fish in as caught. It has a wide bottom and narrow neck, like a bottle.

Kémpolkĕn, to bend aside; to turn away or aside.

Kěmudi, a helm, a rudder; a paddle or sweep to steer with. (See Kamudi.)

Kěn, a particle placed after a word, which then becomes a transitive verb; as goréng, bad, goréngkĕn, to make bad. Suka, pleasure, sukakĕn, to grant, to have pleasure in

Kěncha, left, the reverse of right. Lĕungan ti kéncha, the hand on the left, the left hand. Ka kéncha, to the left.

Kéncha-an, to stretch out a rope in order to mark out work, where to cut the ground. To line out ground for a garden bed or the like.

Kénchang, fixed, fast, firmly set in, tight. Quick, expiditions, smart. Severe, strictly adhering to regulations.

Kénchangan, to set fast, to tighten. To hurry.

Kénchéng, money down; for ready money, for cash.

Kénchérkěn, to turn out cattle from the Kandang, stable or place of confinement. To turn out to graze.

Kéndak, a paramour.

Kĕndal, name of a district in the residency of Samarang. In a country where so many remains of Hindu antiquity are found, it is not unreasonable to suspect a Hindu origin in all names of places which are not evidently Polynesian. Crawfurd gives Kěndalisada, name of the country of Hanuman in the Ramayaua; name of a mountain in the province of Samarang in Java and from this probably our Kĕndal is derived.

Kěndang, a roll or large package of anything. A roll of merchandise.

Kěndang, a long narrow native drum only covered atone end, and often carried suspended under the arm.

Kěndang, viz. Gunung Kèndang, the name of a ridge of mountains which extends the whole of Java, and is found of various elevations, from a few hundred to several thousand feet. It is, as it were, the backbone of the Island of Java. It forms the boundary ridge between Jasinga and the Prianger Regencies, and is there about 5000 feet high. In the residency of Sourabaya, there are also Gunung kĕndang which are a few hundred feet above the sea. It is probably derived from Kanda, C. 104, a hill, with the Polynesian ng added to it; in the same way that it is supposed the Malay word Padang, a plain, is derived from Pada, C. 357 meaning a place, a scite. Khandha, C. 158, a multitude, the trunk of a tree- and hence the multitude of mountains, or the mountains in ridges like the trunks of trees. Mr. Friederich writes me—„Khanda (masculine and neuter Khandam) means, a piece, a part, a fragment, a portion, a chapter, a section (Kĕndang?). The root is Khad, to , to tear, to break off; a part, apiece. Khanda, Clough Page 157 has precisely the same meaning, word for word.

Kĕndi, a water goglet, an earthenware jar with along narrow neck for holding drinking water. Kéndiya, C. 136, a water goglet. Kundhi is the water pot carried by Siwa, as represented in images of this god, at the old Hindu temples in Java. Marsden gives this word as Kundi, Gundi and Gindi (Kondu in Greek, Poculum barbaricum, Persicum, certe asiaticum) a water-pot, Earthenware bottle, ewer. (Scr. kundí.)

Kĕndit, a piece of string which is worn round the hips by way of a charm. Most native women wear a Kĕndit under their clothes.

Kĕndor, slack, wanting in tightness; remiss, negligent, slow.

Kĕndoran, to ease off, to slacken, to be less severe.

Kénéh, still, in continuance. Hadé kénéh, it is still good. Tahan kénéh, it will still hold out.

Kéngkérang, the shoulder blade, the bone which joins the shoulder to the neck.

Kéniaya or Kanyaya, to oppress, to ill use, to tyrannise over; to persecute. Aniya, C. 29 a common word for violence or power, to which is thus prefixed the Polynesian Ka, and an ertra ya put at the end.

Kĕning, as di kĕning, to cut and trim the eyebrows, as young coquette native girls do. See di dahi.

Kĕnjĕng, a title for high personages invested with power, and is applied as well to native chiefs on Java and Bali, as also to the European authorities, such as the Residents. Jĕng in the Kawi of Java means foot, and thus the great man is designated by a part of his body not higher than the foot, as inferiors are considered unworthy to look higher.

Kĕnong, a small round and convex metal musical instrument, belonging to a gamĕlan.

Kĕntang, Potatoes, any tuberous root of the Solanum kind.

Kĕntang, Chinese Cash, being a mixed metal, of which copper is the chief ingredient, with a square hole in the middle to string them by. Probably in common use in Java before the arrival of Europeans, as it is still to this day on Bali and Lombok. Called also Pichis and kupang.

Kénténg, a tile, a roofing tile.

Kĕntrung, the dull hollow sound of the stampers in the rice block. Any dull sound. Kényang, to pall at, to lug, to tug.

Kényéré, name of a tree with tough clastic wood.

Kêong, shape of snail's shell, coil, or spiral; a small shell fish found in swamps; a variety of Ampullaria. A snail; any small land molusk in a shell.

Képang, a peculiar kind of bambu platted work (Bilik, which see), which is the best and most substantial sort which is made.

Kepék, a sort of bambu basket with cover, the sides and top of which are covered with the cuticle of the branches of the Sarai palm, and which are impenetrable to water. The natives use Kėpéks, as we use portmanteaus for carrying about their clothes and other personal effects.

Képéng, any small copper coin, which is not a Dutch doit; any trilling value. Hagang nyiar pikulihĕun sa képéng, I want to seek work as a cooly, if it be but for a trifle.

Kĕpél, a young foal, with long shaggy hair.

Kĕper, generally called Ki-kĕper, a large forest tree. Or properly the bark of the tree which is stringy, and taken off in large pieces to be used as a kind of boarding in the rough houses of the natives.

Képés, to knock a side, to ward off by a gentle blow- to give a slap.

Képét, to eat one's own ordure under a foolish idea that we shall soon grow rich.

Kĕplék, toss- penny or toss-duit: any wager whether heads or tails will fall uppermost.

Kĕpluk, indicative of anything falling heavily to the ground, a heavy plump in a fall.

Kĕpluk-kĕpluk, to make a clashing noise, as in clapping the hands. To clap the hands.

Keprak-Kĕprik, to knock about, to toss about to move frequently and injure; to ill use.

Képrét, to sprinkle with water or any liquor, to throw water in drops on anything. Water shook from the hands on any object.

Képrik, to set after, to rouse up, to bustle at.

Kĕpuk-kĕpuk, to pat or strike gently.

Kĕpung, to encircle, to circumvent, to surround.

Kĕrai, name of a fish, found especially in caverns where there is water.

Kĕrak, in boiling rice, that part which is next the pot, which adheres to it and gets done brown. The brown crust of boiled rice.

Kérak, name of a bird much seen about buffaloes, perched on their backs, and pecking about their hide. Called also Jalak. The bird is black with a little white in the wings.

Kerèbĕk, the noise made by water entering a bottle or bambu kélé, when immersed therein, caused bij the escape of the air. The bubbling noise of air in water so escaping.

Kérék, to snore, to make a snoring noise, to breathe heavily. Ngorok, is to snore from the bottom of the throat, and expresses a more strenuous action than kérék.

Kérékan, small reeds round which threads are wound, and afterwards placed in the tropong or shuttle, when in the act of being wave into the web. The instrument is probably called Kérékan, the snorer, from the sound made when winding the threads upon the reeds, in the native spining whedl.

Kërĕng, severe, rigorous.

Kĕrĕp, set close together, crowded, thickset; frequently occurring.

Kĕrĕpan, to set close together- to bring nearer to each other.

Kĕrépék, split bambu fastened together so as to make a temporary fence, and set in rivers to enclose and catch fish.

Kĕrĕti the constellation of the Pleiades, called also Guru Désa or the village monitor, as the Paddy cultivation is regulated by its rising. Karttika, C. 120 the month Asala (Oct and Novr.) when the moon is full near the Pleiades. Karttikéya, C. 120, the Indian god of war , ansevering to the Grecian Mars. (Krittikâ, the Pleiades , who were considered as the nurses of Karttikéya, who is named after them. Fr.)

Kĕrĕwĕk, to lay hold of a man and bind him; to pounce upon.

Kĕri, growing slowly, stunted.

Kĕrid, to turn out a population to work corve'es; a general turn out of the population for public work. Kĕrid batok , a general turn out for work ; all available hands turned out to work.

Kĕridan, people turned out to work corvées. Di gawé kĕridan, to work by corvées.

Kĕrik, to scrape with the edge of knife. To scrape gently in general. To scratch, to scratch out or efface.

Kĕrna, for the reason that, because. (Scr. Karana, cause, motive. Kârana id.)

Kérok, to curry-comb, to scrape roughly. To strike off grain even in any measure — as in a gantang.

Kérong, to twist a rope round any object, so as to bind it securely; entangled. See Pangérong. Sungut anjing di kerong, the mouth of the dog is bound (by a rope twisted round and round its mouth, so that it cannot open it to bite.)

Kĕrta, peace, peaceable, in a state of repose, tranquil. Appears to be a participle of Karanawa, C. 108, to do, to act, to perform. Kĕrta or karta is often met with in the composition of proper names , both of persons and places , and means then- auspicious , fortunate. (Karta, means on Java in the words Surakarta, Ngayogyakarta, rather town. How krĕta, made, can mean peace, I have not yet been able to understand. Fr.)

Kĕrtas, Arabic, paper- Wang kĕrtas, paper money. Sa kĕrtas one guilder in paper money. The more usual word for paper in general is Daluang. (كُرْظَاسٌ :كَِرطاصٌ :كَِرّطَص Arab, but a vox peregrina, Freytag. Latin Charta.)

Kĕrta-Sura, name of the Residency and Capital of Java, near the present Sura-kĕrta or Solo. The name of the Capital was inverted when removed. Karta, accomplished, perfect in all that is done.

Kĕrud, a tiger, but not the Tiger royal, which is called Maung. There is a great variety , in the Sunda districts, of which the Black Tiger, Felis niger, is one.

Kĕruk, to play as children by putting earth in half cocoa nutshells, and turning it out as from a mould. Kërung, hollow, concave, bending inwards.

Késang, perspiration, sweat. Késangan or Bijil késang, to perspire. (Bijil will be Jav. midjil, to come outside.)

Kĕsat, a dryness in the throat impeding articulation. Rough, not smooth.

Kĕsĕd, astringent in taste, tart like unripe fruit. Said of any fruit which has a harsh rough taste.

Késér and Késérkĕn, to hand round, to shove rouud, to distribute. To move sideways as people standing or sitting in a row.

Kĕsur, a large and thick rattan , always used to stretch across rivers in order to haul ferry-boats or rafts across.

Kĕtan, a variety of Paddy, Oryza glutinosa. It is of a clammy nature and used for sweet meats and Kwéh.

Kétan-nadin, such grains as look like common rice, but are said to grow on the same ear with kĕtan.

Kétél, Dutch ketel- a kettle.

Kéténg, in retail; anything sold in retail, or in small quantities.

Kĕti, one hundred thousand. 100.000. Koti, C. 145, a number, 100 lacks or ten millions- so that in Sunda, and the same is the case in Javanese and Malay- a wrong interpretation has been given to this word.

Këting, a kind of fish in the sea.

Kĕtok, to strike gently, to tap.

Kĕton, name of a piece of money; an old Dukaton of the value of about three guilders.

Kĕtrok, to knock, to tap, to strike, To strike somewhat harder than Kĕtok.

Kĕtruk, to knock, to bray, to strike, but in a somewhat harder way than when Kétrok is used.

Kĕtug, a noise heard occasionally among the mountains, of which the people tell many marvellous stories. The sound is like that of cannon, where no cannon are known to be. A superstitious idea regarding any sound, heard among the hills, of which the cause is not known.

Kĕtug, a small round brass musical instrument belonging to the Gamĕlan. It is smaller than the Kĕnong.

Kĕu-ĕum, to soak in water, to put under water to Soak. To run water on Sawahs or other ground which is to be inundated for purposes of cultivation.

Kĕu-ĕung, afraid, timid, timorous.

Kĕu-ĕus, the fruit of Kolé or wild plantain.

Kĕuhĕul, impatient with waiting; vexed by delay. Tired out.

Kĕukĕupan, to cuddle, to embrace.

Kĕuna, hit, struck, as anything which is shot at, or aimed at in any way. To incur, to be subjected to, as Kĕuna di béwat, he iucured a fine. Di bĕdil to kĕuna, it was shot at but not hit. (Kĕna Batavian, Malay, Jav., Kawi id. In Kawi it has also the same meaning as the Malay âkan to, in the dative case. Akan after all seeins to be of the same origin, cf. aku, I, with Jav. Kawi kua, Batavian gua. Fr.)

Kĕunĕung, the heel; the knuckles.

Kĕupat, airs, pretensions. To kawawa ku keupat na, there is no enduring his airs. Hayang karareupat, they want to give themselves airs. Karareupat, is plural.

Kĕupĕul, the clenched fist when holding anything; the clenched fist. Sa kĕupĕul, as much as can be clenched in the fist. (Jav. Batavian , Kepel id.)

Kĕurĕung, a small packet of any stringy matter tied together. Tuwa sa kĕurĕun, a small packet of Tuwa or Tuba, a root with which fish are stupifyed.

Kĕurĕut, to pare off, to slice off with a knife, to slash ; to cut by drawing the knife steadily through any mass, not by hacking at it.

Kĕusik, sand.

Kĕuyang, oppressively warm; close and warm without any air moving.

Kĕuyĕup, a small land crab, it burrows in earth on the edge of water, and is very troublesome in all earthen embankments made for the purpose of conducting water over hollows.

Kĕwĕuk, a mono valve sea-shell. Cypraea.

Khali, a high priest of Mahomedanism. (قَضٍ Qadhi the judge. On Java and Celebes it is also pronounced Kali; at Batavia (and in Malay) Kadhi. Fr)

Kharap, inclination, pleasure. Kumaha kharap sia do just as you like; follow your own inclination.

Khĕmis, Arabic, Thursday. (خَامِسْ Khâmis, the fifth, خَمْس Khams, five.)

Ki, a sort of honorific designation placed before men's names or titles; also placed before the names of many plants or trees. In the first instance it is probably a contraction of Aki, grandfather, and in the latter of Ka-i, which is sometimes though rarely heard for wood. Before titles as- Ki Tumunggung, Ki Demang- before proper names as- Ki Jaman, Ki Saman- before names of trees- Ki Cha-ang, Ki Julang, and more others, for which see below. (Ki corresponds with Si, Ni and Hi, used as a kind of article, but with different application; from all of them Pronouns are derived, as kita, I, si-ya, si-ra he (and you), ni-a, possessive, Hi-da, Bal. he (you). It is here not the place to explain this further. Fr.)

Ki-ai, a term of respect for an old man; a term of respect to designate a father in law. Compounded of Ki, a honorific designation, and Aya father. (Ki-ai (or-ahi) is another derivation from Ki, with ahi added, Ki-ahi, Ni-ahi (Nyai, a respectable female), Priy-ahi, I think, derived from priya, Scr. friend, a term of endearment; the name of Priyahi is given to certain inferior officers, who are for instance to superintend the koolies of Government, supplied by the native chiefs; who accompany strangers etc. Fr.)

Ki-ajag, name of a tree growing among the mountains, from which a Geutah or viscous gum is obtained , used to rub on scabs or on persons troubled with the cutaneous diseases called Ragét and Rodėk.

Kiamat, Arabic, the resurrection, the final dissolution of things at the end of the world. An expression indicative of matters having gone sadly wrong. Kiamat bĕrod, things are in a miserable plight. Poi kiamat, the day of judgement. (قِيَامَةٌ Qiâmat.)

Kiara, Ficus Procera, a large and spreading variety of the fig tribe. There are several varieties of Kiara, which is used a generic name. Kiara Payung, Umbrella kiara. Ficus terminalis. The Ficus Procera is more definitely called Kiara lawang, the door way kiara, from the stem, near the root dividing and forming a kind of porticoes.

Ki-asahan, Tetracera Dichotoma, a liane much used for tying fences &c.

Kiblat, arabic, the quarter towards which Mohammedans, of all countries, turn the face in prayer, which must be towards Mecca, (قِبْلَةٌ Qiblat.)

Kiboma, name of a tree, otherwise called Pĕutag, Pingko, Kadĕpėr. Helittophyllum Javanicum.

Kicha-ang, name of a tree called Cha-ang , clear, clean, from the leaves being beaten up in water, when they form a white lather which is used for cleaning the head.

Kichĕp, a twinkle of the eye. Sa kichĕp, a moment, a twinkling. (See