A Hebrew and English Lexicon (Brown-Driver-Briggs)/Abbreviations

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ABBREVIATIONS

A = Alexandrine MS. of Septuagint.

ABA = Abhandlungen d. Berliner Akademie d. Wissenschaften.

abs. = absolute.

abstr. = abstract.

Abulf = Abulfeda.

Ac = Academy (London).

acc. = accusative (direct obj. etc.).

acc. cogn. = acc. of cognate meaning with verb.

acc. pers. = acc. of person.

acc. rei = acc. of thing.

acc. to = according to.

act. = active.

adj. = adjective.

adv. = adverb.

AE = Aben Ezra.

AGG = Abhandlungen d. Göttinger Gesellsch. d. Wissenschaften.

AGI = Assyrian & English Glossary, Johns Hopkins University.

AJPh = American Journal of Philology.

AJSL = American Journal of Semitic Languages.

Ak. = Akkadian.

al. = et aliter, and elsewhere; also et alii, and others.

Albr = K. Albrecht.

alttest(am). = alttestamentliche(r,s).

alw. = always.

Am = Amos.

Am.J.Sem.Lang. = AJSL, q.v.

AmRV = American RV.

Andr = Andreas. AndrM = Id., in Marti's Aram. Grammatik.

Aq = Aquila.

AR = Andover Review.

Ar. = Arabic.

Aram. = Aramaic, Aramaism.

Arch. = Archaeology.

ARSK = A. R. S. Kennedy.

As. = Assyrian.

Asrb. = Assurbanipal.

Asrn. = Assurnaṣirpal.

A.T. = Altes Testament.

Ath. = Athenaeum (London).

Av. = Avesta, Avestan.

AV = Authorized Version.

AW =Abu’l Walid.

A&W = Abel & Winckler, Keilschrifttexte, Glossary.

ÄZ = Ägyptische Zeitschrift.


B = Vatican MS. of Septuagint.

Ba = J. Barth. BaErkl. d. Jes. = Id., Erklärung des Jesaias; BaES = Id., Etymologische Studien; BaNB = Id., Nominalbildung.

Bä = K. C. Bähr.

Bab. = Babylonian.

Bacher = W. Bacher. BacherTerminol. = Id., Älteste Terminologie der jüdischen Schriftauslegung.

Bachm = J. Bachmann.

Bäd = K. Bädeker. BädEg. = Bädeker's Egypt; BädPal. = Bädeker's Palestine.

Bae = F. Baethgen. BaeRel., or BaeSem. Rel. = Beiträge zur Semitischen Religionsgeschichte.

Baen = B. Baentsch.

Bähr = K. C. Bähr. BährSymb. = Bähr, Symbolik des Mosaischen Cultus.

BAL = C. Bezold, Babylonisch-Assyrische Literatur.

B.Aram. = Biblical Aramaic.

BarHeb(r) = Bar Hebraeus.

BAS = Beiträge zur Assyriologie n. Semit. Sprachwissenschaft, edd. Dl. & Hpt.

Bau(d) = W. von Baudissin. BauRel = Id., Studien zur Semitischen Religionsgeschichte; BauPriest. = Id., Geschichte des Alttestamentlichen Priesterthums.

Bd. = Bäd, q.v.

BD = Baer & Delitzsch, Heb. Text.

Be = E. Bertheau.

beg. = beginning.

Behrm = G. Behrmann.

Belsh. = Belshazzar.

Benn = W. H. Bennett.

Benz = J. Benzinger. BenzArch. = Id., Hebräische Archaeologie.

Berggren = J. Berggren, Guide Français-Arabe Vulgaire.

BerlinerT.Onk. = A. Berliner, Targum of Onkelos.

Berthol = A. Bertholet.

BeRy = Bertheau's Comm., ed. by Ryssel.

Bev = A. A. Bevan.

Bez = C. Bezold.

BH = Biblical Hebrew.

Bi = G. Bickell.

Bl = F. Bleek.

Bla = J. S. Black.

Bloch(Gl.) = A. Bloch, Phönizisches Glossar.

Bmg = A. J. Baumgartner.

Bo = S. Bochart. BoHieroz. = Id., Hierozoicon.

Bö = F. Böttcher. Bö§, or Böi, il = Id., Lehrbuch d. Hebr. Sprache; BoÄ, or NÄ = Id., Ährenlese, or Neue Ährenlese; BöInf. = Id., De Inferis; BöProb. = Id., Proben alttest. Schrifterklärung.

Bondi = J. H. Bondi, Hebr. Lehnwörter in Hieroglyphischen .... Texten.

BOR = Babylonian & Oriental Record.

Br = C. A. Briggs. BrGen. Intr. = Id., General Introduction to the Study of Holy Scripture; BrHex. = Id., Higher Criticism of the Hexateuch; BrMP = Id., Messianic Prophecy.

Braunde Vest. Sacerd. = J. Braunius, Vestitus Sacerdotum Hebraeorum.

Brd = C. Bredenkamp.

Brock = C. Brockelmann, esp. Id., Lexicon Syriacum.

Bu = K. Budde. BuRS = Id., Richter u. Samuel; BuUrg. = Id., Die biblische Urgeschichte.

Buhl = Frants Buhl, esp. as editor of eds.12–14 of Gesenius's Handwörterbuch über das A. T.; BuhlG(eogr.) = Id., Geographie des Alten Palästina; BuhlEdom. = Id., Geschichte der Edomiter.

Bur = C. F. Burney.

Burckh = J. L. Burckhardt, esp. Id., Travels in Syria, etc.

Bux = J. Buxtorf.

Bz = C. Bezold.


c. = circa, about; also cum with.

Ca = C. P. Caspari.

Calv = John Calvin.

Cappad. = Cappadocia.

Castell = Edward Castell.

Castle = Castell. caus. = causative.

CelsHierob. = O. Celsius, Hierobotanicon.

cf. = confer, compare.

1 Ch, 2 Ch = 1 & 2 Chronicles.

Champoll = J. F. Champollion.

Che = T. K. Cheyne. CheFounders = Id., Founders of Old Testament Criticism; Che(Heb.) Hpt = Id., Isaiah in Hpt.'s Sacred Books of the O.T. (‘Polychrome Bible’), Eng. Trans., and Heb. Text; CheIntr. Is. = Id., Introduction to Isaiah; CheOP = Id., Origin and Religious Contents of the Psalter.

ChGn = G. Smith's Chald. Genesis, Germ. ed.

Chron = Chronicles; also Chronicon (e.g., EusebChron.).

Chr-Pal. = Christian-Palestinian Aramaic.

ChWB = J. Levy, Chaldäisches Wörterbuch.

Cilic. = Cilician (Aramaic).

CIS = Corpus Inscript. Semiticarum.

CIGann = Clermont-Ganneau.

Co = C. H. Cornill.

coll. = collective.

Comm. = Commentary, Commentaries, Commentators.

comp. = compare, compares, comparative.

concr. = concrete.

conj. = conjecture(s); also conjunction.

consec. = consecutive.

constr. = construction.

contr. = contract, contracted.

Cook = Stanley A. Cook.

Cooke = G. A. Cooke.

COT = The Cuneiform Inscr. & the Old Test. (Eng. Trans. of KAT2, by O. H. Whitehouse).

Cowley = A. E. Cowley.

cp. = compare.

cpd. = compound, compounded.

CR = Comptes Rendus.

cstr. = construct.

Ct = Canticles = Song of Solomon.

Cuche = Id., Dictionnaire Arabe-Français.


D = Deuteronomist in Dt., in other books Deuteronomic author or redactor.

D (in BAram. Appendix) = G. Dalman, usu. Id., Aramäisches-Neuhebräisches Wörterbuch; D§ = Id., Grammatik des Jüdisch-Aramäischen (2nd ed., 1905).

Da = A. B. Davidson. DaSynt. = Id., Hebrew Syntax.

Dalm = G. Dalman. DalmWB = Id., Aramäisches-Neuhebräisches Wörterbuch.

Dan. = Daniel.

DB = Dictionary of the Bible, ed. J. Hastings.

De = Franz Delitzsch. DeCompl. Var. = Id., Complutensische Varianten zum alttestamentlichen Texte; DeHL und Koheleth = Id., Comm. über das Hohelied und Koheleth.

del. = dele, strike out (also delet, delent).

Derenb = (usu.) H. Derenbourg; sts. J. Derenbourg; DerenbÉtudes = Id., Études sur l'Épigraphie du Yémen.

DeW = W. M. L. De Wette.

DHM = D. H. Müller. DHMBS = Id., Burgen u. Schlösser Süd-Arabiens; DHMEpigr. Denkm. (Ar., or aus Abess.) = Id., Epigraphische Denkmäler, or Epigr. Denkm. aus Arabien, or Epigr. Denkm. aus Abessinien; DHMHofmus. = Id., Inschriften des Hofmuseums; DHMSendsch. = Id., Inschriften von Sendschirli; DHMStud. = Id., Südarabische Studien; DHMSMB = Id., Sab. Alterthümer in d. Kön. Museen zu Berlin.

Di = A. Dillmann.

Dict.Bib. = Smith, Dictionary of the Bible.

Dietr = F. E. C. Dietrich, esp. Id., Abhandlungen für semit. Wortforschung.

Diod = Diodorus Siculus.

Dioscor = Dioscorides; Dioscor De Mater. Med. = Id., De Materia Medica.

div. = divinum, divinitatis.

Dl = Friedrich Delitzsch. Dl§ = Id., Assyrian Grammar; DlH = Id., Hebrew & Assyrian; DlHWB = Id., Assyrisches Handwörterbuch; DlK = Id., Sprache d. Kossäer; DlL = Id., Assyrische Lesestücke; DlPa(r) = Id., Wo lag das Paradies? DlPr(ol) = Id., Prolegomena; DlS = Id., Assyrische Studien; DlW = Id., Assyrisches Wörterbuch.

DLZ = Deutsche Literatur-Zeitung.

Dn = Daniel.

Door = A. van Doorninck.

DoughtyArab. Des. = C. M. Doughty, Travels in Arabia Deserta.

Dozy = R. Dozy, (usu.) Suppl. aux Dict. Arabes.

DPV = Deutscher Palästina-Verein.

Dr = S. R. Driver. Dr§ = Id., Hebrew Tenses; DrIntr. = Id., Introduction to Literature of O.T.; DrPsalt = Id., Psalter; DrSm, or Sam = Id., Text of Samuel.

Dr-Wh = Driver and White, Leviticus (Hpt.).

Dt = Deuteronomy.

Du = B. Duhm.

dub. = dubious, doubtful.

Dvd = David.

DWAk = Denkschriften der Wiener Akademie d. Wiss.

Dy = J. Dyserinck.


E = Elohist.

Eb = G. Ebers. EbAgM = Id., Aegypten u. d. Bücher Mosis; EbGS = Id., Durch Gosen zum Sinai.

EB(i) = Encyclopaedia Biblica, edd. Black and Cheyne.

Ec = Ecolesiastes.

Ecclus = Ecclesiasticus; Ecclus, Oxford ed., = Heb. Fragments of Ecclesiasticus, edd. Neubauer and Cowley.

Eg. = Egyptian.

elsewh. = elsewhere.

EMey = Eduard Meyer, EMeyEntstehung = Id., Entstehung des Judenthums, = Id., Entstehung J., etc.

Enc.Brit. = Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 9th ed.

Ency(cl).Bib. = EB(i), q.v.

Eng.Tr(ans). = English Translation.

Ephr. = Ephraimitic source.

Ephr(em) = Ephrem Syrus.

Esar. = Esarhaddon.

Esdr. = Esdras.

esp. = especially.

Est = Esther.

E.T. = Eng. Trans.

Eth. = Ethiopic.

Eut = J. Euting. EutK = Id., Sammlung Karthag. Inschriften; EutNab = Id., Nabatäische Inschriften; EutSin. = Id., Sinaitische Inschriften.

E.V. = English Version(s).

Ew = H. Ewald. Ew§ = Id., Heb. Gram.; EwG(esch.) = Id., Geschichte d. Volkes Israel; EwH = Id., History of Isr. (Eng. Trans. of EwG(esch.)); EwJBW or EwJahrb. = Id., Jahrb. d. bibl. Wissenschaft; EwBTh = Id., Biblische Theologie; EwAnt = Id., Antiquities.

Ex = Exodus.

exc. = except.

exil. = exile.

Ez = Ezekiel.

Ezr = Ezra.


f., f. = feminine.

f, or ff = and following. F.B. = F. Brown.

fem. = feminine, feminae.

FFP = Flora and Fauna of Palestine (Survey).

Fi = Frederick Field, esp. Id., Origenis Hexaplorum quae supersunt.

fig. = figurative

fin. = finite, finitivum.

FJB = F. J. Bliss.

Fl = H. L. Fleischer. FlKl. Schr. Id., Kleine Schriften.

Flora = Post, Flora of Syria.

fr. = from.

Fr. = S. Frensdorff. FrMM = Id., Massora Magna.

Frä = S. Fränkel, and (usu.) Id., Aramäische Fremdwörter im Arabischen.

Frankenb(erg) = W. Frankenberg. FrankenbSpr = Id., Comm. Sprüche (ed. Nowack).

Frey = G. W. Freytag, Lex. Arab.; FreyProv.Ar., or Prov. = Id., Arabum Proverbia.

fs. = feminine singular.

Fü = J. Fürst.


G = Greek Version of the LXX. GL = LXX of Lucian (Lag.).

GACooke = (usu.) G. A. Cooke, North Semitic Inscriptions; = GACookeInscr.

Gal = Galilee

Gann = Clermont-Ganneau.

GASm = George Adam Smith. GASmG(eogr.) = Id., Historical Geography of the Holy Land.

Gei = A. Geiger. GeiUrschr. = Id., Urschrift u. Übersetzungen der Bibel; GeiNachgel. Schr. = Id., Nachgelassene Schriften.

gent. = gentis, of a people, gentilicum.

geogr. = geography

Gerber(Verb. Denom.) = W T. Gerber, Verba Denominativa.

Ges = W. Gesenius. Ges§ = Id., Heb. Gram. ed. by Kautzsch; GesLbg = Id., Lehrgebäude d. Heb. Sprache.

Gesch. = Geschichte

Gf = K. H. Graf.

GFM = G. F. Moore.

GGA = Göttingsche Gelehrte Anzeigen

GGAbh. = Gött. Gel. Abhandlungen.

GGN = Gött. Nachrichten.

Gie = F. Giesebrecht.

Gi(nsb) = C. D. Ginsburg.

Gl(as) = E. Glaser; GlMSI = Id., Mittheilungen über Sab. Inschriften; GlSkizze = Id., Skizze der Geschichte u. Geographie Arabiens.

Gloss., gl. = glossary, rarely = a gloss.

Gn = Genesis

Gr = H. Grätz.

Gray = G. B. Gray. GrayProp. N. = Id., Hebrew Proper Names.

Gu = H. Guthe, rarely Stan. Guyard. Gu§ = Guyard, Notes de lexicogr. assyrienne.

Guérin = V Guérin, Description géographique de la Palestine.

Guidi = Ignazio Guidi; GuidiDella Sede = Id., Della Sede Primitiva dei Popoli Semitici.

Gunk = H. Gunkel. GunkSchöp = Id., Schöpfung u. Chaos.

Guy = Stan. Guyard.


H = Hebrew (Consonantal Text).

H = Code of Holiness

Haev = Haevernick

Hal. = J. Halévy. HalM = Id., Mélanges; HalDR = Id., Documents Religieux; HalMA = Id., Mission Archéol. dans le Yémen; HalÉS, or Et. Sab. = Id., Études Sabéennes.

Ḫamm = Ḫammurabi, esp. Id., Code of Laws.

HartmPlurilit.-bildungen = M. Hartmann, Pluriliteralbindungen in den semitischen Sprachen.

Hast = James Hastings. Hast(ings)DB, or Dict. Bib. = Dictionary of the Bible, ed. James Hastings.

Hb = Habakkuk.

Hbr = Hebraica.

HDerenb = H. Derenbourg.

Heb. = Hebrew

He(ngst) = E. Hengstenberg.

Herod(ot.) = Herodotus.

Hex = Hexateuch.

Hg = Haggai.

Hi = F. Hitzig.

Hilg = A. Hilgenfeld.

Hilpr = H. V. Hilprecht.

Hirz = L. Hirzel.

Ho = Hosea.

Hoffm = G. Hoffmann.

Hollenb = W. A. Hollenberg.

Holz = H. Holzinger.

Hom = F. Hommel. HomAA, or A. u. A, or Aufsätze = Id., Aufsätze u. Abhandlungen; HomChr, or Chest(om.) or Südar. Chrest. = Id., Südarabische Chrestomathie; HomNS = Id., Namen der Säugethiere.

Houb = C. F. Houbigant.

HP = Holmes & Parsons, Septuagint.

HPS = H. P. Smith.

Hpt = Paul Haupt. HptC = Id., Akkadische Sprache; HptD = Id., Über einen Dialekt der Sumerischen Sprache [GGN. 1880, Nr. 17]; HptE = Id., E. vowel; HptF = Id., Sumer. Familiengesetze; HptL = Id., Beiträge z. Ass. Lautlehre; HptN = Id., Nimrodepos; HptProl As. Gr. = Id., Prolegomena to an Assyrian Grammar; HptS = Id., Sintfluthbericht; HptT = Id., ASKT, Akkad. & Sum. Keilschrifttexte; Hpt, or Hpt (CheHpt, &c.) usu. = Sacred Books of the O.T., ed. Hpt (Polychrome Bible).

HSch = H. Schultz.

Hultsch = F. Hultsch, Griechische u. Römische Metrologie.

Hup = H. Hupfeld. HupRi, HupRiNow, Hup-Now = Id., Psalmen, edd. Riehm, Nowack.


Idiot. = Idioticon

Impf. = Imperfect.

Imv. = Imperative.

ind. = indirect.

indef. = indefinite.

Inf. = Infinitive.

infr., infr. = infra, below.

Inschr. = Inschrift, Inschriften.

inscr. = inscription(s); Inscr. of Carpentr. = Inscription of Carpentras.

intr(ans). = intransitive

i.q. = id quod, i.e. the same with.

Is = Isaiah


J = Jehovist.

JA = Journ. of the Royal Asiatic Society.

Jacob = G. Jacob. JacobAr(ab.) Dichter = Id., Studien in Arab. Dichtern; Id.Bed. Leben = Id., Leben der vorislamischen Beduinen.

J. Aram. = Jewish-Aramaic (Jüdisch-Aramäisch).

JAs = Journal Asiatique.

Jastr = Marcus Jastrow, Dict. of Targummim, Talmud, etc.; also Morris Jastrow, Jr.; JastrRel. Bab. = M. Jastrow, Jr., Religion of Babylonia and Assyria.

JAT. im Licht d. AO = A. Jeremias, Das Alte Testament im Licht des Alten Orients.

Jb = Job.

JBL = Journal of Biblical Literature.

JBTh = Jahrbücher f. deutsche Theologie.

JDMich = J. D. Michaelis.

Je = Jeremiah.

Jen = P. Jensen. JenCosmol. = Id., Cosmologie der Babylonier.

Jer = Jerome; also Jerusalem.

Jerem = A. Jeremias.

Jerus. = Jerusalem.

Jes = Jesaias.

JHC = Johns Hopkins Univ. Circulars.

JHMich = J. H. Michaelis.

JLZ = Jenaer Lit.-Zeitung.

Jo = Joel.

Jon = Jonah.

Jos = Joshua.

JosAnt, JosBJ = Fl. Josephus, Antiquities, or Bell. Jud.

Joseph = Fl. Josephus (sts.).

JosKi = Joseph Kimchi.

JPh(il). = Journal of Philology (Engl.).

JPTh = Jahrbücher für Prot. Theol.

JQ = Jewish Quarterly.

Jr = A. Jeremias, Leben nach dem Tode.

JThS = Journal of Theological Studies.

Ju = Judges.

Jud. = Judæa, Judæan.

Jüd. Zeitschr. = Monatsschrift für Gesch. u. Wiss. des Judenthums.

juss. = jussive.


K = E. Kautzsch (in B. Aram. Appendix). K§ = Id., Gramm. d. bibl. Aram.; KAram. = Id., Aramaismen im A.T.

1K, 2K = 1 & 2 Kings.

Ḳam. = al-Ḳamus (Arab. Dict.), by al-Fīrūzābādi.

KAT2 = E. Schrader, Keilinschr. u. d. Alte Testament. KAT3 = Id., 3rd ed. by H. Winckler and H. Zimmern.

Kau = E. Kautzsch; Kau§ = Id., Gram. d. bibl. Aram.; KauAram(aismen)(im AT) = KAram.; KauAT = Die Heiligen Schriften d. Alten Testaments, ed. Kau.; KauMN = Id., Mittheilungen u. Nachrichten d. DPV, 1904; Kau (SoKau, etc.) = KauAT.

Kay = W. Kay.

KB = E. Schrader, Keilinschriftl. Bibliothek.

Ke = C. F. Keil.

Kenn = B. Kennicott.

Kennedy = (usu.) A. R. S. Kennedy.

KG = E. Schrader, Die Keilinschr. und die Geschichtsforschung.

kg. = king.

Kgs. = Kings.

Ki = David Kimchi (Qamchi).

Kiep(ert) = H. Kiepert.

Kirkp = A. F. Kirkpatrick.

Kit = R. Kittel. KitDi = Di, Jesaia, ed. Kit; KitGesch. (or Hist.) = Kit, Geschicthe der Hebräer (or Eng. Trans.).

Kit-Di = KitDi = Dillmann's Comm. (Isaiah), ed. by Kit.

Klo = A. Klostermann. Kls = Die Bücher Sam. u. d. Könige.

Kmp = A. Kamphausen.

Kn = A. Knobel.

KnudtzonAss. Gebete = J. A. Knudtzon, Assyrische Gebete an den Sonnengott.

Kö = E. König. Köi, ii, iii = Id., Heb. Gram.; KöSynt. = Köiii; Kö§ = Id., Heb. Gram.; KöEinl = Id., Einleitung in d. A.T.

Köh = A. Köhler.

Kohut-Memorial = Studies in Memory of A. Kohut; Kohut-Studies = id.

KostersHerstel = Het Herstel van Israël in het Perzische Tijdvak.

Kp = A. F. Kirkpatrick.

Krae = R. Kraetzschmar.

Krauss = S. Krauss, esp. Id., Griechische und Lateinische Lehnwörter im Talmud, etc.

Kremer = A. Kremer. KremerBeitr. = Id., Beträge.

Krochm = A. Krochmal.

KSGW = Königl. Sächs. Ak. d. Wiss.

Kt = Kethibh.

Kue = A. Kuenen. KueGes. Abh. = Id., Gesammelte Abhandlungen.


La = Lamentations.

Lag = P. de Lagarde. LagAgathang. = Id., Agathangelus; LagArm. Stud., or AS = Id., Armenische Studien; LagBN = Id., Bildung d. Nomina; LagM, or Mitth. = Id., Mittheilungen; LagNovi Psalt. spec. = Id., Novi Psalterii Specim.; LagOnom. = Id., Onomastica Sacra; LagOr = Id., Orientalia; LagPers. Stud. = Id. Persische Studien; LagSe = Id., Semitica; LagSy, or Sym(m.) = Id., Symmicta.

Landberg = C. Landberg. LandbergProv. = Id., Proverbes et Dictons.

Lane = E. W. Lane; usu. Id., Arabic Dictionary. Lane(Mod.) Egypt = Id., Modern Egyptians.

Lay = A. H. Layard.

l. c. = in loco citato.

LCB = Litterarisches Centralblatt.

Ldzb = M. Lidzbarski; usu. Id., Nordsemitische Inschriften.

Len = F. Lenormant. LenBeginnings = Id., Beginnings of History (Eng. Trans. of Origines de l'Histoire, I). LenOr(ig.) = Id., Les Origenes de l'Histoire.

(v.)Leng = C. von Lengerke.

Levy = Jacob Levy.

Lewy(Sem.)Fremdw(örter) = H. Lewy, Semitische Fremdwörter im Griechischen.

Liḥy = Liḥyanian (language).

LindbergVergl. Sem. Gram. = Lindberg, Vergleichende semitische Grammatik.

Linn = C. Linnaeus (Carl von Linné).

Littm = Enno Littmann.

Lo = R. Lowth.

loc. = local, locality.

Loft = W. K. Loftus, esp. LoftCS = Id., Chaldaea and Susiana.

LOPh = Literaturblatt für Orientalische Philologie.

Löw = J. Löw, Aramäische Pflanzennamen.

Lu = Martin Luther.

Luz(z) = S. D. Luzzatto.

Lv = Leviticus.

Lyon = D. G. Lyon.

Lzb = M. Lidzbarski (v. Ldzb). LzbEph(em). = Id., Ephemeris für semitische Epigraphik.

M, M§ = (in BAram, Appendix) K. Marti, Gram. d. bibl. Aram.

m., m. = masculine.

M-A = W. Muss-Arnolt. M-ACD = Id., Compendious Assyr. Dict.

Mal = Malachi.

Mand. = Mandean.

Marquart = J. Marquart. Marquart Id., Fundamente = Id., Fundamente israelitischer n. jüdischer Geschichte.

Marti = K. Marti.

Mas(s) = Masora.

MBAk = Monatsbericht d. Berliner Akad. d. Wissenschaften.

MDPV = Mittheilungen d. Deutschen Palästina-Vereins.

Me = A. Merx.

MeierWurzelWB = E. Meier, Hebräisches Wurzelwörterbuch.

Meinh = J. Meinhold.

Meissn = B. Meissner. MeissnSuppl. = Id., Supplement zum Assyr. Wörterb.

Mem. = Survey of W. Palestine, Memoirs.

metaph. = metaphor, metaphorically.

Mey = E. Meyer. MeyE. Jud., or Entstehung, or Enst. J., or Entstehung d. Jud., or Judenth(um) = Id., die Entstehung des Judenthums.

MGWJ = Monatsschr., q. v.

MI = Mesha-Inscription.

Mi = Micah.

Mich = J. D. Michaelis.

Min. = Minaean.

Mish(n). = Mishna.

mng. = meaning

Mo = F. E. Movers.

Monatsschr. = Monatschrift für Geschichte u. Wissen. d. Judenthums.

Mordt(m) = J. H. Mordtmann. MordtmHim. Inschr. = Id., Himjarische Ischriften.

mpl. = masculine plural ms. = masculine singular.

MT = Massoretic Text.

Müll = A. Müller.

Muss-Arn = W. Muss-Arnolt.

MV11 (10,9,8) = Gesenius, Handwörterbuch über das A. T., edd. F. Mühlau &. W. Volck.

MVAG, or MVG = Mittheilungen d. Vorderasiatischen Gesell­schaft.


n. = nomen, noun.

Na = Nahum.

Nab. = Nabataean.

Näg = C. W. E. Nägelsbach.

Nasar = Lexid. cod. Nasaraei, ed. M. Norberg.

NBab. = New Babylonian.

Nbr = A. Neubauer.

Ne = Nehemiah (rarely = E. Nestle).

Neb = Nebuchadnezzar.

Nes = E. Nestle. Nes§ = Id., Syriac Gram.; NesEg = Eigenna­men; NesMarg. = Id., Mar­ginalien u. Materialien.

NH = New (Late) Hebrew.

NHWB - Levy, Neuhebr. Wörterb.

NKZ = Neue kirchliche Zeitschrift.

Nö = T. Nöldeke. Nö§ = Id., Syrische Grammatik; NöBeitr(äge), or BSW = Id., Beiträge z. semitischen Sprachwissenschaft; NöM = Id., Mandäische Grammatik; NöNS = Id., Neu-Syrische Grammatik; NöUntersuch. = Id., Untersuchungen zur Kritik des A.T.; NöZur Gram. d. class. Ar. = Id., Zur Grammatik des classischen Arab. (in Denkschriften der Wiener Akademie, 1896).

no. = number.

nom. = nomen, noun.

nom. coll = nom. collectivum, collective noun.

nom. unit = nom. unitatis, noun of singular or individual meaning.

Nor = E. Norris, Assyrian Dictionary.

NorbergLexid = Nasar, q.v.

Norzi = J. S. ben Abrabam Norzi.

Now = W. Nowack. NowArch. = Id., Hebräische Archäologie.

n.pr. = nomen proprium, proper name.

n. pr. loci. = n. pr. loci, proper name of place.

Nu = Numbers.


Ob = Obadiah.

obj. = object.

OBaktr. = Old Baktrian.

Oehl = Oehler.

oft. = often.

OH = Old Hebrew (Inscriptions).

OIran. = Old Iranian.

Ol = J. Olshausen. Ol§ = Id., Heb. Gram.

OLZ = Orientalische Literaturzeitung.

Onk = Targum of Onkelos.

Oort = H. Oort.

op. cit. = in opere citato.

OP(ers.) = Old Persian. OP also (in CheOP) = Origin of Psalter.

opp. = opposite, as opposed to, or contrasted with.

Opp(ert) = Jules Oppert.

Or(elli) = C. von Orelli.

Os = E. Osiander.

OT = Old Testament.

Öt = S. Öttli.


P = Priests' Code or Narrative.

Pal(est). = Palestine, Palestinian, etc.

Pal(m). = Palmyrene.

PAOS = Proceedings of the American Oriental Society.

Pap. = Papyrus.

part. = particle.

pass. = passive.

PB = Proceedings of Soc. of Bib. Archaeol.

Pe = J. J. S. Perowne.

PEF = Pal. Explor. Fund, usu. Id., Quart. Statem'nt. PEFMem. = Mem., q. v.

Pei = F. E. Peiser.

Perles = F. Perles. Perles(Anal.) = Id., Analekten.

pers. = person, personae.

Pers. = Persian.

PESoc = American Palestine ExpIor. Society.

Pf. = Perfect.

Ph. = Phenician.

Phi = F. Philippi.

Pietschm = R. Pietschmann (also PietschmPhön(iz.), or Gesch. Ph.) = (usu.) Id., Geschichte Phöniziens.

Pinsk = S. Pinsker.

pI. = plural.

PlinHN = Pliny, Hist. Nat.

POS = Proceedings Am. Orient. Soc.

Post = G. E. Post. PostFlora = Id., Flora of Syria.

postB = post-Biblical.

postex = post-exilic.

post-pos. = post-positive.

Pr = Proverbs.

Prä(t) = F. Prätorius. PräAmh. Spr. Id., Amharische Sprache; Prä(t)Neue Beiträge = Id., Neue Beiträge zur Er­klärung der Himjarischen Inschriften.

PRE = Herzog's Prot. Real-Encycl.

Presb.Rev. = Presbyterian Review (New York).

Prol = Prolegomena.

PS = R. Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus.

Ps = Psalms, Psalmen.

Ps.-J = Targum of Pseudo-Jona­than.

ψ = Psallm.

pt(cp). = participIe.

Ptol = Ptolemy (usu. Claudius Ptolemy).

punct. = punctuation.


Qor = Qoran.

Qr = Qerê.

qu. = question.

q.v. = quod vide.

qy. = query.


R = Redactor (e.g. in Hexateuch). RD = Deuterono­mic redactor.

1 R, 2 R, 3 R, 4 R, 5 R = Cuneiform Inscr. of Western Asia (H. Rawlinson).

RA = Revue Archéologique.

Ra = Rashi.

rd. = read.

rdg. = reading.

Rd'A = Revue d'Assyriologie.

Re = E. Renan.

Reckend = S. Reckendorf.

refl. = reflexive.

RÉJ = Revue des Études Juives.

Rel = H. Reland.

RÉS = Répertoire d'Épigraphie Sémitique.

Rev.Bib. = Revue Biblique.

Ri = E. Riehm. RiHWB = Hand­wörterb. d. bibl. Alterth.

Rö = E. Rödiger.

Rob = E. Robinson. RobBR = Id., Biblical Researches.

Rob-Ges. = Gesenius, Hebrew and English Lexicon, trans­lated by E. Robinson.

Roo = T. Roorda.

Rosenm = E. F. C. Rosenmüller.

Rothst= W. Rothstein.

RP2(1) = Records of Past, 2nd (1st) Series.

RS = W. Robertson Smith. RSOTJC = Id., Old Testament in Jewish Church; RSProph. = Id., Prophets of Israel; RSK = Id., Kinship & Marriage in Early Arabia; RSSem = Id., Religion of Semites.

RTr = Recueil de Travaux.

Ru = Ruth.

RV = Revised Version.

RVm = Revised Version margin.

RWB = Bibl. Realwörterbuch, ed. Winer.

Ry = V. Ryssel.


S = Syriac Version. SJerus = Chr-Pal. Evang. (Lagarde).

1 S, 2 S = I & 2 Samuel.

Saad = Arabic Version of Saadya.

Sab. = Sabean.

SabDenkm = Sabäische Denkmäler, edd. Mordtmann & Müller.

SAC = Stanley A. Cook; esp. Id., Aramaic Glossary.

Sam. = Samaria, Samaritan (rarely = Samuel).

Sarg = Sargon. SahoSpr = Saho Sprache.

SASm = S. A. Smith.

Say = A. H. Sayce. SayMonuments = Id., Higher Criticism and the Monuments; SayRel. Bab. = Id., Religion of Babylonia.

SB = SBAk.

SBAk = Sitzungsbericht d. Berl. Akademie der Wissenschaften.

S-CPap. = A. H. Sayce and A. E. Cowley, Aram. Papyri.

Sch = F. W. Schultz.

Scheft = Scheftelowitz, usu. = Scheft, Arisches im A.T.; ScheftMGWJ = Id., Monatsschrift für Gesch. u. Wiss. d. Jud. (1903); also pub. separately (Scheftii).

SchenkelBL = D. Schenkel, Bibel-Lexicon.

Schl(ottm) = C. Schlottmann.

Schr = E. Schrader.

Schröd, Schroed = P. Schröder, esp. Id., Phönizische Sprache.

Schu = A. Schultens.

Schü = E. Schürer, Gesch. des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi.­

Schulth = F. Schulthess. SchulthHom. Wurz. = Id., Homonymische Wurzeln im Syrischen; SchultLex. = Id., Lexicon d. Chr. Pal. Aramäischen.

Schw = F. Schwally. Schw(alIy)Idiot. = Id., Idioticon d. Chr. Pal.

SeetzenReise = Seetzen, Reisen durch Syrien.

seld. = seldom, rare.

Sen = Sennacherib.

Sendsch. = Sendschirli (Zinjirli).

sf. = suffix , or with suffix.

sg. = singular.

ShIm = Shalmaneser II.

SI = Siloam Inscription.

si vera l. = si vera lectio.

Siegf = C. Siegfried.

sim. = simile.

SK = Studien u. Kritiken.

Skr. = Sanskrit.

Sm = R. Smend (rarely = Samuel). SmRel. Gesch. = Smend, Alttestamentliche Religionsgeschichte; SmListen = Id., Listen der Bücher Esra u. Nehemia.

So(c) = A. Socin.

Spi = W. Spitta. Spi§ = Gram. d. arab. Vulg. Dial.

Spieg = F. Spiegel; SpiegAPK = Id., Altpersische Keilinschriften.

Spiegelb = W. Spiegelberg.

Spr = Sprache, or Sprüche.

sq. = followed by.

SS = C. Siegfried u. B. Stade, Hebräisches Wörterbuch.

st. = status, state, stative.

St = H. Steiner.

Sta = B. Stade; Sta§ = Id., Heb. Gram.; StaG(esch.) = Id., Geschichte des Volkes Israel.

Steind = G. Steindorff.

Steuern = C. Steuernagel.

Str = H. L. Strack. Str§ = Id., Gram. d. bibl. Aram.

Strassm = foIl.

Strm = J. Strassmaier. StrmAV = Id., Alphabet. Verzeichniss.

sts. = sometimes.

Stu = G. Studer.

Stud. Bib. = Studia Biblica.

subst. = substantive.

Sum(er). = Sumerian.

supr., supr. = supra, above.

Surenh = W. Surenhusius, Mishna.

Survey, SurveyWP = Survey of Western Palestine (PEF); SurveyEP = Id. of Eastern Palestine.

Symm = Symmachus.

Syr. = Syriac.


T = Targum.

t. (following a number) = times.

TA = TeI el-Amarna; also Taj­-al-'Arūs (Arab. Dict.).

Talm = Talmud.

Tariff = Palmyrene Tariff Inscrip­tion.

TB, TBA. = Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archae­ology.

TelAm. = TA, q. v.

Tg = Targum TgJer = Targum of Jerusalem, etc.

Th(e) = O. Thenius.

Theod = Theodotion.

Theophr = Theophrastus; TheophrHist. Plant. = Id., Historia de Plantis.

Thes = W. Gesenius, Thesaurus Linguae Hebraeae.

ThesAdd. = Id., Additions by E. Rödiger.

ThT = Theologisch Tijdschrift.

ThLB = Theol. Literaturblatt.

ThLZ = Theol. Literaturzeitung.

Tiele = C. P. Tiele.

Tiph. = Tiphel (rare conjugation).

To = Tobler.

TP = Tiglath-Pileser.

Tpg. = Topography.

Tr = Transactions.

tr. = translate (translated, translation); rarely = transitive.

trans(it). = transitive.

Tristr = H. B. Tristram. TristrNHB = Id., Natural History of the Bible ; TristrFFP = Id., Fauna and Flora of Palestine (Survey, Memoirs).

TSBA = TB, q. v.

TSWt = Theol. Studien aus Württemberg.

TTijdschr = ThT, q. v.

Tu = F. Tuch.

txt. = text.

txt.err. = textual error.


Univ.Pa.Exp. = Bab. Exped. of the Univ. of Pennsylvania.

usu. = usual, usually.


V = Vulgate.

v = verse; v. = vide, see.

van d. H. = E. van der Hooght, Heb. text of O.T.

var. = variant reading.

VB = Variorum Bible.

vb. = verb.

vdVelde = C. W. M. van de Velde; esp. Id., Reis door Syrie en Palestina; E. T., Narrative of a Journey through Syria and Palestine; vdVeldeMem(oir) = Id., Memoir to accompany Map of Holy Land constructed by C. W. M. van de Velde.

vid. = vide, see.

vir. = viri, of a man.

Vog = C. J. M. de Vogüé, Syrie Centrale. VogPalm. = Id.

VogelstLandwirthsch. = H. Vogelstein, Landwirthschaft in Palästina zur Zeit der Mišnâh.

VOJ = Vienna Oriental Journal (= Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes).

Vrss = Old Versions.

Vulg.Ar. = Vulgar Arabic.

Vullers = J. A. Vullers, Lexicon Persico-Latinum.


W = W. Wright. WAG = Id., Arabic Gram.; WSG, or CG = Id., Comp. Semit. Gram.

Wahrm = A. Wahrmund, esp. Id., Arab. Handwörterbuch.

WAW = W. Aldis Wright.

wd. = word, also would.

We = J. Wellhausen. We.Bl.Einl. = Id., Bleek's Einleitung in d. A.T.; WeComp. = Id., Composition des Hexateuchs; Wede gent. = Id., De gentibus et familiis Iudaeis; WeHeid. (or, Arab. Heidenthum) = Id., Reste Arabischen Heidenthums (= WeSkizzen iv. 2nd. ed.); WeHist. = Id., History of Israel (trans. by Black); WeProl. = Id., Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels; WeSkizzen = Id., Skizzen und Vorarbeiten.

Weissb =F. H. Weissbach.

Wetzst = J. G. Wetzstein.

wi. = with, construed with.

Wied = A. Wiedemann. WiedSamml Id., Sammlung Altägyptische Wörter.

Wild(eb) = G. Wildeboer.

Wilkinson(Anc.) Egypt. = J. G. Wilkin­son, Ancient Egyptians.

WisdLt = Wisdom Literature.

Wkl = H. Winckler.

WMM = W. Max Müller. WMMAs. u. Eur(op.), or Asien = Id., Asien u. Europa.

Wr = C. H. H. Wright.

Wü = A. Wünsche.

WZKM = VOJ, q. v.


Xen(oph). = Xenophon.


Z = Zeitschrift.

ZA = Zeitschr. für Assyriologie.

ZAW = Z. f. alttest. Wissenschaft.

Zc = Zechariah.

Zehnpf = R. Zehnpfund.

ZEthnol. = Zeitschrift für Ethnologie.

Zim = H. Zimmern. ZimBP = Id., Babylonische Busspsalmen.

Zinj. = Inscriptions of Zinjirli (N. Syria).

ZK = Z. für Keilschriftforschung.

ZKM = Z. f. Kunde d. Morgenlandes.

ZKW, or ZKWL = Z. f. kirchl. Wiss. und kirchl. Le­ben.

ZLuth.Th. = Z. für Lutherische Theologie.

ZMG = Z. d. deutsch. MorgenIänd. Gesellschaft.

Zö = O. Zöckler.

Zp = Zephaniah.

ZPV = Z. d. deutsch. Pal.-Vereins.

ZVölkerpsych. = Z. für Völkerpsychologie.

ZWTh., or ZWiss.Th. = Z. für Wissenschaftliche Theo­logie.


< over a letter, indicates the ac­cented (tone-)syllable.

† prefixed, or added, or both, indicates 'All passages cited.'

> indicates that the preceding is to be preferred to the following.

< indicates that the following is to be preferred to the pre­ceding.

‖ parallel, of words (synonymous or contrasted); also of passages; sometimes = 'see parallel,' or 'so also in parallel.'

= equivalent, equals.

+ plus, denotes often that other passages, etc., might be cited. So also where the forms of verbs, nouns, and adjectives are illustrated by citations, near the beginning of articles; while 'etc.' in such connexions commonly indicates that other forms of the word occur, which it has not been thought worth while to cite.

[ ] indicates that the form, etc., enclosed, is not actually found, or that the Hebrew offers no positive proof; e.g. n. [m.] denotes that the noun is presumably masculine, though the gender is not clearly exhibited in Hebrew.

√ = root or stem.

׳ = sign of abbreviation (in Hebrew words).

א׳ often = אֱלֹהִים, Elohim.

וגו׳ = וְגֹמַר = et caetera (in Hebrew quotations).

י׳ = Yahweh.

֑ beneath a Hebrew word represents any accent that occasions vowel change.

Note. Scripture citations in small superior letters and figures, following n.m. or n.f., refer to some passage where the gender is exhibited. Small inferior figures following Hebrew words, names of conjugations, etc., denote the (approximate) num­ber of occurrences of such words, conjugations, etc.