A Hebrew and English Lexicon (Brown-Driver-Briggs)/Waw

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ו

T Waw, sixth letter; in modern Heb.= numeral 6; no evidence of this usage in OT times.

1, 1 demonstr. adv. and conj. so, 

then, and (Ph. Moab. Aram. 1; Ar. ^ ; Eth. (D As. u Dl w (but between vbs. the usu. con- nective is the enclitic ma K AT 2508 , Dl» "• m ). The use in Heb. shews that orig. 1 was not a merely copulative conj., but that it possessed a demonstrative force (cf. Dr 5122 ), which is often perceptible as such, though in other cases, from its being applied to denote mere juxtaposition or connexion [cf. Gk. r(, and Lat. turn .... turn = ' both .... and,' both properly demonstratives: As. ma has also a demonstr. force, D1 S79 ], it is less palpable) — ■ 1 before shwa' mobile or a labial is vocalized 1; often before a tone-syll., when the word itself has a disj. accent, 1 (as SVipj Gn 19 19 ; «1DJ 33 13 ; TOI44 9 ; :n;mExi 16 ; ."ib;i Josis 46 ; ^]2Si 3 26 ; H«J Is 26 19 ; Wfe 49 7 ; :nrim J e4 8'; initio' 5 ); esp. when it forms with the preceding word a pair, whether of parallel or opposed ideas (as nbi na Ex 2 1S , *JJ "V io 8 , f?sj jax Dt 25 13 ; nni n'n 32 7 + ; viai inn Gn i 2 , fcwj} ™?n 3 i 14 ,

ini aits 2 19 , ""i W 4 12 , n^Si Dvi'snhi n? s 22 ,
Tnj n[5 12 19 , :n^i n?Bt? i 4 19 , nn*i '3N 3 i«,

Kini i3« 41", 131^1 n3y Ex 32 s7 , crrj nn«  Nu 16 10 , ife} DVi^ 1 K 2 1 13 , tgi PJ Is 14 22 , 252 Tjg} 1B> 59'; and often: v. more fully Bb» M0 ); occas. also with a conj. accent (as SO^i*? 'OJ Gn 3 21 cf. Lv 18 6 , of unoj 2 K 7 4 , nsnn jn^J Is 65", Pr 25 s . &T| l3Bn 1W Je 48', cf. 32 s9 ).— 1 is used very freely and widely in Heb., but also with much delicacy, to express relations and shades of meaning which Western languages would usu. indicate by distinct particles. But in Heb. particles such as ^N, W, -IN, |3K, Dbw, Tap, ?ypb, $, etc., were reserved for cases in which special emph. or distinctness was desired : their frequent use was felt instinctively to be inconsistent with the lightness and grace of movement which the Hebrew ear loved; and thus in AV, RV, words like or, then, but, notwithstanding, howbeit, so, thus, tlierefcre, that, constantly appear, where the Heb. has simply . . And, connecting both words (v. supra), and sentences (Gn I 5 '31 VT> W^ n W). When three, four, or more words follow, the conj. may connect them all, as Gn 7 21 io 2 (6 t.) 24 s5 (7 t.) Jos 7 M (10 t.) 2 S i7 2st : often however it is prefixed only to the last, as Gn 5 s2 io 1 Dt 18 10 etc.; occas. even it connects only the first two, 1 K 8 47 Is i 13 V 45 9 Jo 42 9 - Remarkably, how- ever, ] as a mere conj. is, as a rule, not in classical Hebrew attached directly to verbs (esp. in the perf.), the construction with ) consec. (v. 2) being (as in Moab.) preferred : thus ft*! K£ is said, not .1331 «V. Exceptions in class. Heb. are (a) sts. where synonyms are coupled, as Nu 23 19 IST] . . . "Wf, Dt 2 30 Ju 5 s6 1 S 12 2 Is i 2 "naum vton 2 " 5" 8 8 19 6 29 20 ; !b) isolated cases, difficult to reduce to rule perh. sts. due to text, error), as Gn 28" 38 s Jud 3 s3 7 13 16 18 1 S i' 2 3 13 4" 5 7 io" I7 38 - 48 25 20 al. (in other passages, appar. similar, the pf. and 1 has a frequent, force (v. 2), as Gn 37 s EX30 29 '- Nuio 17 '-2i 1620 iS2 22 i6 14 i7 Mf - (v. Dr) 27" 2 S 16' 3 17 17 , perh. also Gen. 15 6 21 25 34 6 ). In later parts of OT, prob. through Aram, influence, the pf. with simple ) occurs more freq. : so esp. in Ec, where it is all but universal (e.g. 2 1 etc.). With the impf., the simple 1 is not so nnidiomatic, even in class. Heb. (cf. 3); v. Gen i 926 9 s7 i7 2 22 ,7 27 29 Ex 23" (freq.) 24 7 Nu i 4 12 Dt 17 13 30 1213 Jos 3 13

J Ju7 3 i 3 8 Is 5 a 
10 ; oft. also in Je Is 2 Jb ty, 

e.g. Is4O 30 4i 20 (Dr» 116 : contrast 28"). Vid. more fully Dr * 130 " 1 Ges * " 2 - 6 . Special senses: — a. it %ta. = and specially, Gn 3 16 1K11 1 many strange women, and specially the daughter of Ph., Is i" Judah and (=and particularly) Jerusalem, 2 1 9 7 ^ 18 1 . b. and in particular ('und zwar'), and that (explicative), Gn 4* Ju f 1 S 17 40 W^S», 28 s in Bamah, and that in his city (unusual : text suspicious), 2 S I3 !0 nDCBh and that desolate, Is 57" I have been silent D?iyt31 an j, ^ tt ; f rom f ] ( j ) j s ^ 2 j Je 15 13 Am 3 U (si vera 1.), 4 10 Zc 9 9b Mai i" ^ 68 10 Pr 3 12 La 3 M Ec 8 2 Dn i 3 8 10 g av Ne 8 13 1 Ch9 27 2Ch8 13 29 27 (but'even'fon, beforehand inf., e.g. in IS44 28 Jei7 10 19 12 , is wrong; v. Ew

  • sslc , Dr' 206 ). c. sts. it introduces an idea

which so exceeds or adds to what has preceded, that it is nearly equivalent to also, 1 S 25' 13 1 K 2 s2 ask also the kingdom for him ; un- usually Ho 8 6 mm btfkfiO <3 for of Isr. is it also, Ec s 6 D^am (v. De) 2 Ch 27 s (but v. ©). Or it may be rendered yea: so esp. in the ascending numerations 3-4 Am i 3 - 6 - 911 - 13 2 1 - 4 - 8 p r30 i8. 2 i.» 6 _ 7 p r6 ,6 Jb5l9) 7 _ g Mi g4_ the first number being aggravated, or augmented, by a higher. In one idiom -^33', occurring in geogr. descriptions, it is used peculiarly, seemingly = a< the same time: tNu34 6 and as for the W. border, b»Op biiari D»n D3^> rrrn the great sea shall be to you also (Germ. ' zugleich ') a border, Dt 3 16 ^M i>n|n Tjin the middle of the stream being at tlie same time the border, v 17 Jos 13 2327 i^' 2 -" 7 (but these, exc. Nu 34 6 , might be cases of 5 c y). d. it connects alternative cases, so that it = or; Ex 20 1017 21 16 he that stealeth a man 1T3 KXD31 hjW and selleth him, and (=or if) he be found in his hand, v 17 Lv2i" 22 23 - 24 Pr 29 s (Fl Ew RV : whether ... or) Jb 31 131626 , etc. e. it connects contrasted ideas, where in our idiom the contrast would be expressed explicitly by but; in such cases prominence is usu. given to the contrasted idea by its being placed immed. after the conj. : Gn 2 17 but of the tree of the knowledge . . . thou shalt not eat, 4" 6 8 17 21 3i 10 etc, 1 K 2 26 io 7 n 33 - 34 15" Pno'- 2 - 3 - 4 + oft.; even after s6 (where 1 or DK "3 might be expected), as Gn 42 10 Ex 21 18 LV26 45 Dt 11" Ju 19" 1 K 3 11 . f. it introduces a contrasted idea in such a way as to suggest a question, esp. before a pron., Ju 14 10 1 told it not to my father or my mother, "V5N ^b) and shall I tell it unto thee? 2S11 11 Je25 29 ' ! ip3n npan DM and shall ye be guiltless? 45 s Ez 20 31 3 3 25i Jon 4". So the 1 consec. and pf. (see 2 a), Ex 5 s DfiaB'rrt and will ye make them rest from their burdens? Nu 16 10 DriE^a* and seek ye the priesthood also? 1 S 25" Is 66" V. 50 21 and shall I keep 253 silence ? Jb 32 16 (cf. Dr' ""). g. attaching a fresh subj. (or obj.) to a clause already gram- matically complete, it = and also, Gn 2 9b Nu 1 6 218 and they stood at the entrance of the tent of meeting, pnNl ilB'DI and Moses and Aaron (stood also), v 27 Ex 35" Ju 6 6 ; Gn i ,6b 12 17 44' 46 15 Ex2Q 3 Je 32 s9 (cf. T> r sm.i.».v,t T .my when the idea thus attached is subordinate, or not logically embraced in the principal pred., it approximates to the Arab. J^j^JT .YL or 'waw of association' (foil, by an accus.: ■yVAonnr^ Est 4 16 disk -nnyai >3K I will fast (sing.) and ( = with) my maidens, Ex 2 1 4 1 S 25 42 2g wb (but insert here nnK with ©) 2S12 30 (but read PI3J, as 1 Ch 2 o 2 ) 20 10 Ne 6> 2 ; Gn 4 20 IS42 5 JeiQ 1 (but read MpTO PftJfl with ©) 2 Ch 2 3 13"; cf. Je 22 7 (vbl &ti), Jb 41 12 . "Whether Is 48 16 inVll belongs here, is dub. h. 1 repeated = both . . . and (but 03 • • • D3 is more usual in this sense) ; Gn 34^ Nu 9 14 J0S9 23 2S5 S (txt. dub.), Isi6 5 38 15 Je 13 14 21 6 32 14 (txt. dub.) v 20 40 8 ^76 7 Jb34 29 Dn8 13 Ne 1 2 ffl . i. a repetition of the same word with 1 interposed expresses (a) diversity (rare), Dt 25 13 I9?J J-? a weight and a weight, i.e. different weights (explained by i"l3l3pl HT13), v 14 Pr 20 23 ; ^ 1 2 3 3JJ 3?3 with a heart and a heart = with a double heart, 1 Ch 12 33 3$J 3$ &6a ; (6) distribution (exc. in "HJT) Dt32 7 IS13 20 + oft. exclusively a late usage : cf. Dr Intr ' 605 ) t^8? 5 iCh 2 6 13 nyn iytyi> = for ewry gate, 28 1414 2 Ch 8 14 34 13 35 15 Ezr io 14 "*fl TJ >?.pi elders of every city, Ne 13 24 , Est i 8 - 22 - 22 2 12 3 412 -' 21212 8 99 ; strengthened by "73 2Chn 12 1*5)1 "fjf "Ol in euery several city, 19 5 28 25 31 19 32 s8 Est2 n Dl'l DV-ba, 3 14 4 3 8 11131717 9 21 - 2728 ^ 45 18 145 13 (common in postB. Heb., esp. with 73). j. it is used in the formulation of proverbs (the Vav adaequationis, HKVIB'ri 11) as Pr 17 3 25 32025 cold waters to a thirsty soul and good news from a far country (i.e. they are like each other), 2 6 3 - 914 - 20 27 21 Ec 5 2 7 1 8 8 cf. 9"; ijf I9 5 I25 2 Jb I4 1 "- 19 (cf. in Arab, 'every man and his cares [accw*.],' ' every thing and its price,' i.e. they go together : ' merchants and dogs [accws.] of Seleucia,' i.e. they are like one another: v. Fl K, - 8chr - , "- M5t ). More rarely in the opp. order, Jb 5 7 12". But 1 S I2 15b cannot be thus explained: rd. with © DpSpCQl, and v. Dr. k. in circumstantial clauses 1 introduces a statement of the con- comitant conditions under which the action denoted by the principal verb takes place : in such cases, the relation expressed by ) must often in Engl, be stated explicitly by a conj., as wlien, since, seeing, though, etc., as occasion may require. 80 very often, as Gn 1 1 4 let us build a tower 0)02 Smr and its top in the heavens ( = with its top in etc.), i8' 2 shall I have pleasure, |PJ ^'"INI and my lord is old ( = my lord being old)? Ju 16 15 How sayest thou, I love thee, "PIX px f^>) and ( = when) thy heart is not with me ? and esp. with a pers. pron., Gn 15 2 what wilt thou give me 'aJKl , T"!J| 'H.?'" 1 and I ( = the case being that I) am going hence childless? 18 13 20 3 lo, thou wilt die because of the woman thou hast taken

^3 npjJS Mi} = seeing she is married, 24* 2

2B" Nini = since or for he was dwelling (different from 2&? = and he proceeded to dwell), 26 s7 D£M seeing ye hate me, Ju 13 9 and came to her rOB* N^ill — a g she was sitting, 1S18 23 iKi9 19 + oft. Of a more except, type are V'72 12 the afflicted "flflTpW v and ( = when) he has no helper (cf. Jb 29 12 ), 104 25 1SDD J'Nl, 105 34 Jb 5 9 . Vid. more fully Dr» 166 ' 60 'Ge8«' ,41 ' B2 . (The analogous use of the JliM JJ is very common in Arabic: "W"'" 83 .) Introducing an appeal to a fact confirmatory of some statement or promise, it almost = as truly as (cf. Ew* 3400 ) Ho 1 2 6 and J. is God of hosts, J. is his name ! Jo 4 20 Am 9 5 " 6 Is 5i 15 and I [who promise this] am J. thy God, who ! Je 29 s ^S 9 3Sb (comp. in Qor. the freq. 'And God is ... . [the mighty, the merciful, etc.] '). . The 1 consecutive (formerly called the Waw ' conversive');— a. with the impf. (•1 with foil, daghesh; before N, J), as ""?«>! prop. = and he proceeded to say, chiefly in contin. of a preceding perfect tense (so Moab.); b. with the perf. (1, — in 1 & 2 sg., the tone, with certain exceptions [v. Dr ' no ], being thrown forward to the ultima), as 935^1 prop. so [viz. as limited by a verb, or other term, preceding] hadst thou sat, chiefly in continuation of a preceding imperfect tense, in its various senses of future, jussive, or frequentative. The further analysis of these idioms belongs to the grammar; see on a Dr Ch,TL , Ges im , and on T> Dr "-" 11 - Ges'" 2 . Here it must suffice to note — (a) 1 consec. (esp. with the impf.) freq. couples two Verbs in such a manner that the first, indicating the general character 254 of the action, receives its closer definition in the second : in such cases, the first may often be represented in Engl, by an adv., as Gn 26 18 19rM 3B»>1 and he turned and dug cs and he dug again; so oft.; and similarly with I'pin Gn 25 1 , "VI? 24 ">, ^Xin Jos f, etc.; more exceptionally, Gn 30 s7 Est 8 6 , and (not consec.) Gn 47 6 Jb 23 s Ct 2 s La 3 M (v. Ges* 120 - 2 "; cf. in Syr. Nii ,DM . In Arab, the stronger form of the ccnj. i_» here corresponds: W"" 40 ). (6) "1 with the impf. sts. expresses a contrast = and yet, Gn 32 31 I have seen God face to face ?3991 and yet my soul is delivered, Dt 4 s5 2 S 3 8 19 s9 Is 5i ,s ^ 73 14 144 3 Jb io 8 + (cf. Dr ,7 **). (c) there is a tendency in the later books of the OT to use the pf. with simple 1, where the classical language would employ the impf. with - 1 (cf. supr. 1); so esp. in Ec, where • occurs thrice ouly, i 17 4 17 . (d) a double pf. with 1 consec. is sts. used, informally but neatly, with a hypoth. force ; thus («) in past or present time Exi6 21 • D1 -^} W?$? &r) and the sun uEed to be warm, and it used to melt = and if (or when) the sun was warm, it melted, 33'° 1 K 18 10 Jei8 48 -nonai 3B»i — and if it turns, I repent, 20 9 (v. EV) ; (&) in fut. time, Gn44 ffl noi TOK 3TJI1 and he will leave his father, and he will die = and if he leaves his father, he will die, 33 13 42 s9 Ex 4 14 i2 13 1 S 16 2 19 3 Ez 33 3 39 15 etc. (Dr ' 147 - Ges t 1W. S e . With a voluntative (cohort, or juss.) ) expresses an intention, that or so that (an elegancy by which the too frequent use of jypp or "A3S>3 is avoided) : Ex io' 7 entreat God, "<p*l so may he remove (=that he may remove) this death, Gn 2? 4 ar.d bring it me y?-^) 80 ? et me ea * (=<Aa< I '" na y e »t); and without the modal form being externally indicated, Ex 14 1 speak . . . "fflW that they return, v 15 ; and oft. Sts. even of past time, as

K 1 3 s3 whom he would, he consecrated fp] 

that there might be priests of the high places,

K 19 26 Is 25" La I™. After a neg., ^ 51 18 

thou desirest not sacrifice, njRNl so [=in that case] would J give it (or, that I might give it), 55 13 N^*?1 so could I bear it (or, that I might bear it),' Is 53 s RVm Nu 2 3 ' 9 Je 5 s8 EV. Sts. also before an imv., Gn 12 2 and be (=that thou mayest be) a blessing, 2S2i 3 +. See more fully Dr tMWB , Ges* 108 - 5 ' m ■*> m (In Arabic >_i with the subjunctive is used simi- larly : W "-"".) A volunt. is also sts. attached by ) to a preceding volunt. or imv., so as to form a virtually hypothetical sentence, as Gn 4 2 18 Vm toy. nkt = ,/ you do this, you shall live, 30 s8 34 1 ' 2 Pr 3"- 4 4 - 8 Is 55 s : v. Dr » 1S2 . . It expresses often an informal infer- ence, or consequence, so, then, esp. at the beginning of a speech: Gn2 7 8 jr 2 10 and often ilPljn now, therefore; HQ?1 and JJI'TO} why, then? Gn 29 s5 Nu 12 8 i6 3 +; Ex 2 20 H) where, then, is he? Gn 34 21 1 S 15 14 26 s2 I33q let, tlien, . . . come over, 2 S 2 4 3 2 K 4 41 ni?j? inp} then bring meal, Ez 18 32 . So the ) consec. and the pf., as Dt 2 4 B$jgft take heed, therefore,

1S f ?V*P- know > therefore, 30 19 1 S 6 5 1 K 2 6 

RU3 9 ; Josi5 19 Is49 6b (Dr* I19 ' ! ). . 1 introduces the predicate or apodosis: viz. a. ) consec. and the pf. — in answer to DK or '3 constantly, as Ex 19 5 23 s2 if thou heaikenest to my voice, , R3!5$1 then am I ( = 1 will be) enemy to thy enemies (v. Dr s 1S6_8 ); after the casus pendens, Ex 1 2 4 " 1 every servant that is bought for money, nriijpi thou shalt circumcise him, etc. Nu 14 31 24 s4 1 S 25 s7 2S 14 10 he that spake unto thee, ^>N VlK3m so hast thou brought him (=thou shalt bring him) unto me, Is 9 4 56"-+; Ex 12 15 31 14 Dti7 12 + ; after various time-determinations, as Gn 3 5 in the day of your eating from it inpDJI then shall your eyes be opened, Ex 1 6 6 Dfjyn 3Ty at even, then shall ye know, v 7 32 s4 2 S 15 10 i'K 13 31 "Tlk DJTOpi ^ntoa when I die, so ye shall bury me, etc., -f- oft.; after conjs., as '? Gn2 9 15 , |5?! 1 K 20 28 Is 3 16f -, nnn 60 15 , etc., (v. Dr' 123 ). b. -1 consec. and the impf. (but much less frequently than the pf.), as Gn 30 30 the little that thou hadst, ps'l it hath in- creased, Ex9 21 2 S 4 10 1 K 9 20 ' i5 13 + ; after time-determinations, Gn 2 2 4 on the third day KfjfJ} then Abraham lifted up his eyes, 19'* 27 s4 37 18 1 S 6 6 12 8 Is 6 1 Ho 11 1 when Isr. was a child, VQl]K} then I loved him, + ; occas. after conjs., as "18*8? Ex 16 34 , T. 1 S 15 23 , fypi> Is 4 5 4 , at f ^59 16 (Dr H27 ). c. in other cases (not ' consecutive ') — all more or less uncommon : viz. a. ) closely joined to the impf. Gn 13 9 if to the' left, WD'NI then I will take the right (cf. 2 S 12 8 ) Ex 12 3 on the 10th of the month W^J) then let them take, Nu 16 6 IS43 4 H <> 4 6 io 10 V6 9 s3 Jbi5 17 ; 2S22 41 Pr2 3 24 Kt(Dr f125 ); 0. separated fr. the vb., Ex S 22 Lv7 lfi rnrop* - , ?8.' 1 . "V^ 3 01 and on the morrow, then the remainder shall be eaten, Jos 3 1 iK 8 32 Is 8 7 p

aw

7 Jb 14 7 20 18b 23 12 25 s 32 u + ; y. without a 

vb., Gn40 9 nani ^JJB i n my dream, JeAoW, a vine was before me, v 16 2 S 23 s '- Pr io 25 , and the extreme cases 2 S 1 5 s4 thy father's slave, H*8 ^! I was </ia< of old, — but now TFJ? *?$ weM, I will be thine, IS34 12 (si vera l.),Jb4 6b V?n D ™. I™,?? thy confidence— 1« i« the , uprightness of thy ways, 36 28 "ij?n t6l VJB> 13DD Ges. seine Jahre, da ist kein Zahlen (cf. Dr » ,24 - 5 ' l:8 " 9 ).— With 4, 5 comp. the Arab. 1», ■yyl. }380l,367eill. J187. J) r $185«~l IT' appar. n.pr.loc., only in JV1 I'll Ez 27 19 IFet/an amc/. Fauxm (cf. VB and reff.) but identif. wholly dub.; = Wadddn near Medina ace. to Glas skta.H.«> : @ om . t(Jxt prob corrupt) cf sta j.™».n«r. Da al ; Ew Hi rd _ ^ but ^ is in following v., and anticipation improb., cf. Sta 10 -; Cords, (for fn pi) f3rit«l, on the basis of Bub. & As. Aranabanim, Arnabani, n.pr.loc, following Hilbunim (ftabn) in lists of places whence wine was brought (cf. fi3!>ri p y 18 , & © Ka olvov for p>i; also COT Ez 27 18 ). T3H1, appar. n.pr.loc, HS1D3 3nrriN Nu 2 1 14 , obj. of a vb. now lost out of the text (cf. RV & esp. Di VB), situation unknown; ©Zcoofl, Zoo/3; so Lag BNM Say Ac - 0ct - »■ im (3ITJ). ' y] **.[m.] hook, pin or peg (etym. unknown) — pi. abs. D^ll Ex 38 s8 ; cstr. "ll Ex 27 ,0 + 5 t.; DTO Ex 2V 2 + 5 t. ;— only P, in description of tabernacle Ex 26 32 - 37 27 10111 ' 36 36.38 38 io.n.i 2 . 17 ..9. 2 3 ) tho ^^ or ^ of goW and silver, fastened on, or in, the posts of the tabernacle, to support the various hangings (curtains, screens, etc.) ITT (-/of foil.; cf. Ar.Jjj bear a burden, Otjfi be guilty, yet v. Fl in De Pr 21 8 ). MVI adj. criminal, guilty T>/1 n? 3 ? n . "JJJ B»K p r 2 1 8 crooked is live way of a guilty man (si vera 1.; txt. dub. ; possible dittogr. in THTff*2 n -Pr.m. (perhaps = Pers. n.pr.m. Vahyazddta Benfey ^OT •■ K '" ll,,Khr •« 8 "> 1 ' , • 93 cf. Spieg APK240 , who conjectures meaning given-of-the- Best-One (vom Besten gegeben)), — a son of Hainan Ett 9'. "fe "^ v - sub ■& T TVKl n.pr.m. one of those with strange wives, Ezr io 36 (text dubious; ©B Ovkxoxi, ti Ovicpfx<o, A Ovovvta, ©L Oiawo). •"•Ml n.pr.m. a man of Naphtali, in ^pSl-f3 >ara Nui 3 " (text dubious; © Na/3«  VtOS 'lfl/3fl). T^TOl ace. to MT appar. n.pr.m. son of Samuel, only noK ; i yfi nban x Ch 6 ;3 , but rd. rP3K ^,-1 typ nban c f. ©L, and || 1 S 8 2 ; v. Th Sm Be ch Dr 8m al.' t^rHlh n.pr.f. (=Pers. (Zend) vahista, best, c f.'j us ti Hdbdz "" 1 «'™'* - 272 ) queen of Aha- suerus (Xerxes) king of Persia, Est 1 »•"•"•«• 2 1 .17.19 ,1.4.17