A litil boke the whiche traytied and reherced many gode thinges necessaries for the infirmite a grete sekeness called Pestilence

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¶Here begynneth a litil boke the whiche traytied and reherced many gode thinges necessaries for the infirmite A grete sekeness called Pestilence the whiche often times enfecteth as made by the most expert Doctor in phisike Bisshop of Arusiens in the realme of Denmark Ac̈

AT the reuerence (and) worship of the blessed Trinite (and) of the glorious virgyn saynt Marye (and) the conseruauation of the comyn wele of alle cristen people, as wel for them that ben hole as for remedie of them that been seke, I the Bisshop of Arusiens in the royalme of denmark doctour of Phisique wille write by the moost experte and famous doctours auctorised in Phisike somme thynges of the infirmite of pestilence whiche dayly enfecteth, (and) sone soffreth us to departe oute of this lyfe

First I wil write the tokens of this īfirmite

The second the causes wherof yt cometh

The thirde remedies for the same

The forth comfort for the herte (and) the p̉cipal membres of the body

The .v. when it schall be season to be lett blode

¶First I sayde the tokens of this infirmite .vii. thynges ought to be noted in the same The first is whan in sommers daye the weder often times chaungeth, as in the mornīg the weder appereth to rayne, afterward it apperith cloudy (and) atte last wyndy in the south

¶The seconde token is whan in sommer the dayes apperith al derke (and) like to rayne (and) yet hit rayneth not And if many days so continue it is to drede of grete Pestilence

¶The thirde token is whan grete multitude of flyes ben upon the eerthe thenne it is signe the ayer is venemous and enfect

¶The fourth token is, whan the sterres semin ofte times to falle : then hit is token that ayer is enfecte with moche venemous vapours

¶The .v. token is whan a blasyng sterre is see in the element, thenne it sholde fortune soneafter to be grete manslayhter in bataylle

¶The .vi. token is, whanne there is grete lyghtnynge and thundre namely oute of the south

¶The .vii. token is whan grete wyndes passen out of the south they be foule (and) unclene therfor whan these tokenes appere it is to drede grete pestilence but god of his m̾cy wille remoue it

¶These thnges folowyng be the causes of pestilence

¶The Pestilence cometh of thre thinges, sō time it cometh fro the rote bynethe, otherwhise fro the rote above, so that we may fele sensibly howe the chaunge of the ayer appereth vnto be And somtyme it cometh of bothe to gider as wele fro the rote aboue as from the rote bynethe, as we sce a sege or preuy next to a chambre or of any other particuler thyng whiche corrupteth the ayer in his substance (and) qualite which is a thing may happe euery daye And ther of cometh the ague of Pestylence ; And aboute the same many phisicions be deceyued : not supposyng this axes to be a Pestilence, sōtime it cometh of dede careyn or corruption of standing waters ī diches or slouhes (and) other corrupt places (and) these thinges somtyme be vniuersall (and) somtime particuler : Fro the rote aboue it fortuneth the causes of the bodyes aboue in the ayer by whome the spyryte of lyfe ys corrupte in a man or in a beste In like wyse as Auycenne sayeth in his fourthe boke, by the forme of thayer above the bodyes benethe lightly be infecte. For thynp̒syons above corrupteth the ayer, and soo the spirytes of a man ben corrupte. This infirmite cometh also from the rote above (and) bynethe, whanne of thynp̒ssions above the ayer is corrupt and of the putrefaccion or rotyn careyn of the vyle places bynethe an infirmite is caused in a man And suche an infirmite sometime is an axes, sometime a postume or a swellyng and that ys in many thinges. Also the ayer inspired sometime is venemous and corrupt, hurtyng the herte that nature many wayes ys greued, so that he perceyueth not hys harme. for the vryne appereth fayer and sheweth gode dygestion, yet neuerthelesse the pacyent ys lyke to dye, wherfore many Phisycions seyng the vryn of their pacyents they speke su(pr)ficially and be desceyued ther fore it is nede, that euery pacient prouyde to hym selfe a gode and expert Phisycion These thynges wryton before are the canses of Pestilence : But above these thynges .ii. questions be meoued. the fyrst is werfore one dyeth (and) another dyeth not in a towne where men be dede in one hous (and) in another house ther dyeth none. The second questyon is : whether Pestihence sores be contagious. To the firste questyon I saye it may happe to be of .ii. causes That is to say of that thyng that doth (and) of that thyng that suffreth An ensample of that thyng that doth, the Influence of the bodyes aboue, beholdeth that place or that place more than this place or this place And the pacient ys more disposed to dye than another : Therfore it is to be noted that bodyes be more hote disposed of oopyn poorys than bodyes infect hauyng the poores stopped with many humours where bodyes be of resolution or openīg as men which abusen them selfe with wymen or vsen often times bathis, or mē that be hote with labour or grete angre : they haue their bodyes more disposed to this grete sekenes. To the second question I saye that Pestilence sores be contagious by cause of enfecte humours bodyes and the reek or smoke of suche sores is venemous and corrupteth the ayer And therfore it is to flee fro suche persons as be infect : In Pestilence time no body sholde stande in grete prece of people be cause sōme mā of them my be may be infect Therfore wyse phisicyens in visityng seke folke stande ferre fro the patient holdyng their face toward the doore or wyndowe And so sholde the seruaunts of seke folke stande. Also it is gode to a patient euery daye for to chaunge his chambre (and) often times, to haue the wyndowes opene ayenst the northe and eest and to spere the wyndowes ayenst the south For the south wynde hath .ii. causes of putrifaction The first is it maketh a man beyng hole or seke feble in their bodyes The second cause is as it is writon in the .iii. of Amphorismys the south wynde greuyth the beeryng (and) hurteth the herte by cause it openeth the poores of man (and) entreth into the herte wherfore it is gode to an hole man in tyme of Pestilence whan the wynde is in the south to bee within the hous al daye (and) yf it schal be nede a man to goo oute, yet lete hym abide in hys hous, tyl the sonne be vp in the Eest passyng southward.

¶Here after folowen the remedies for the pestylence

¶Now it is to wete by what remedies a mā may p̒serue him selfe fro pestilence, first see the writing of Ieremy the (pr)phete that a mā ought to forsake euyl thīges (and) doo gode dedes (and) mekely to (con)fesse his sinnes, for why it is the hyest remedie ī time of pestilence, penaunce (and) cōfession to be p̒ferred al other medicynes Neuerthelesse I (pr)mitte you verely it is a gode remedye to voyde and chaunge thynfect place But somme may not proufitably change theire places Therfore as moche as to them is possible it is to eschewe euery cause of putrifactiō and stynking and namely euery fleschly lust with wymmen is to be eschewed, Also the sothern wynde which wynde is naturelly Infectyf Therfore spere the wyndowes ayenst the southe ī like wise as it is syd beforetil the first houre afther the middes of the daye thenne opene the wyndowes ayenst the north. Of the same cause euery soule stynche is to be eschewed, of stablyl, stynking feldyes wayes or stretes and namely of stynkyng dede careyn and most of stynkyng waters where in many places water is kepte, ii, dayes or, ii, nyghtes ; Or ellyes ther be gutters of water casten, vnder theerthe which caused grete stynke and corrupcion And of this cause sōme deye in that house where suche thynges happen, and in another hous dye none as it is sayde afore Lyke wyse in that place where the wurtes and cooles putrefyed it maketh a noyfull sauour (and) stynkying For in lyke wyse as by the swete odour of bawme the herte and the spyrites haue recreacion, so of euyl sauours they be made feble wherfore kepe your hous that an infecte ayer entre not in ; for an infecte ayer moost causeth putrifaccion in places and houses where folke slepe Therfore lette your house be clene (and) make clere fyre of wode flamyng, Lett your hous be made with fumigacion of herbes that ys to saye with leuys of baye tree Ieneper vbesoreth of another (and) Also of infecte ayer a mās eyen be made dymme yf he bere not these forsyade thinges in hys hande ; also it is holsom that ye wasche your mouthe, face, eyen and handes often times in the daye with rose wat medled with vynegre And yf ye haue noo rosewater take vinegre : And so these thynges vsed ye may goo surely emonge the people Also a naturall laxe of the bely is a grete remedy ellys (pr)uoke a laxe by a suppositorye craftely use pipelles pestilenciales for they be gode they be in thappoticary shoppes Also kepe fyre alle waye in your hous For it letteth moche the Impressions of the bodyes aboue and clarefyeth the ayer. Also it is proufitable as wel for hole (and) seke folkes to drynke Tryacle Therfore take it .ii. times a daye with clere wyn lym phat or or with clere rose water or with clere ale Take a quātite of Tryacle (and) .ii. sponefull of clere wyn or rosewater or ale, dissolue the tryacle in the cuppe and drynke it and dyne not tyl the myddes of the day so that the Triacle maye haue his operation, thenne chese a gode disshe with mete and drynke clere wyn, and often times drinke in the daye but not moche to gyder for moche habondaunce of drynke putryfieth the humours, Also be ware hote thinges in metes as Pepyr and Garlik, though peper purgeth the brayne from flewme and specially the membres fom viscous humours, yet it maketh moche hete, and hete falleth īto putrifaction, bitternes only is more to plese than bote odour or sauour Also garlik though it purgeth fleame (and) putte oute euyl humour and (pr)uoked an appetite to ete, and suffreth no drie ayer to entre, yet it troubleth the eyen and maketh the hede hote therfore it ys not good to ete garlyk The Pestilence groweth often times of an hote cause, therfore alle metes the more they be of light digestion : so moche they be the better. In the morning ete boylled mete, at euyn rosted, forbere broth and potage withoute they be eygre In the time of this sekenesse of Pestilence eygre metes be moche better than other metes, Also forbere alle frutes but if they be eygre, as cheryes or pomrgarnates or a litall of a pere or a lytill of apple by waye of Medicine by cause all frute riorgani it is in thapothicary shoppes wormwode, rewe, nugwort (and) of the tree of aloes whiche is beste but it is dere, Suche a sume taken by the mouthe (and) eerye openeth thynward partes of the body. Also it is teschewe all grete replecyons by cause full bodyes be lightly infecte As auycenne sayth in the fourth canon They that chargen their bodyes with replecciō shorten their lyff. Also comyn bathys are to be eschewed, for a lital crust corrupteth al the body. Therfore the people as moch as is possible is to be eschewed, lest of īfect brethys som man be inect; But whan the multitude of peple may not be eschewed, thenne use the remedyes folowyng. In the mornyng whan ye ryse, whesshe a lytil rewe (and) one or two fylberd nottes clene with salte (and) ete them and yf that can not be had than ete brede or a tofte soppyd in vynegre namely in troubelous (and) cloudy wedyr. Also in the tyme of pestilence it is better to abyde within the house, for it is not holsom to goo in to the Cyte or toune, Also lette your hous be sprenklyd specially ??sdmer with vynegre and roses and with the leuys of vyn tree : Also it is gode to wasshe your handys ofte times in the daye with water and vynegre and wipe your face with your handys (and) smelle to them Also it is gode alwaye to sauour aygre thynges. In the mount of Pessulane I might not eschewe the company of people for I wente fro hous to hous by cause of my pouerte to cure seke folkes : therfore brede or a sponge sopped in uynegre I toke with me holdyng it to my mouthe and nose be cause all egre thynges stoppen the wayes of humours, and suffreth no venemous things to entre in to a mannys body (and) so I escaped the pestilence my felowes supposing that I sholde not lyue, These forsayd thīges I haue (pr)ued by my selfe

Here foloweth the comfortes of the herte A of the principall membres

¶The comfortes of the herte be these, saffron Camfex Planteyn with other herbes, they opyn the inward spyrite and these be bode emōg the comyn people where lightly it happeth that one is infect of another, therfor beware the enduceth putrifaction. Ete conuenient spyces as gynger cynamum comyn macis (and)saffron : These be the best sause that may be made for riche people, For poure Take rewe sage fil bertes nuttes percelly with uynegre mynst to gyder These be gode (and) letteth putrifaction, To be mery in the herte is a grete remedie for helth of the body. Therfore in time of this grete infirmite beware ye drede not deth But lyue merely and hope to lyve longe

¶For the letting of blode

¶Letting of blode ones in the moneth may be made but aage or other thinges for forbede hit as pilgryms or feble persones which haue the flixe, suffre to be lette blode in the vayne called Basilica on the ryght or lyfte side, before eting and after incision of the Basilica be mery and drynke wyne or ale or bire temperately, slepe not that daye whan Basilica is cut yf ye fele you greued to be infecte than eschew sleep (and) be walkīg (and) moeuīg For by slepe thinward hete īduced poysō to the hert (and) to other special mēbres so that vnethe ony herbe may take a way suche poysō whiche sholde bot be if a mā wolde be moeuīg to (and) fro But sōme wold axe wherfore sholde slepe be eschewed. I say shortly that ī pestilence time anon after mete yf a body that list to slepe, thenne suche a lust ought to be forborne by a space walkyng in the gardyns or feldys, and thenne make a naturall slepe by the space of an houre after mete : and therfore Auycenne wreteth that if a man wolde slepe he must drinke a gode draught of ale or wyne afore, by cause a man beying a slepe draweth many humours (and) the euyl humours be putte doun by thumours of a gode draughte But somme wolde vnderstonde how may a mā fele whan he is infecte. I saye that a man whiche is infecte, that day eteth not moche mete. For he is replenyssed with euill humours (and) forthwith after dyner he hath luste to slepe (and) feleth grete hete under colde ; also he hath grete payne in the forhede, but alle these thinges he maye putte awaye by moeuyng of a space hyder and thider to ryde or to walke he may not for sleuthe of the body and the weyghte of the same, Also a man the whiche is infecte hath lust to slepe euery houe of the daye and night. For the venym beyng within the body troubleth the spiryte of lyff soo that allewaye he wolde reste and slepe And so of these tokenes a man schall knowe and fele him selfe infecte And yf a body wille not beleue thys A byde the middes of the daye and than anon he schalle fele a swellyng under the arme or aboute the share of aboute the eerys and therfore see an hye and a gode medycyne, forpere sleepe be cause of tho thynges afore sayde and reherced And it is playne that the spyryte of lyfe resteth in slepe and all the body here and there is venymed, Alle these thynges I have (pr)ued by my selfe These thinges knowen whan a man feleth hym selfe infecte as sone as he may lette him be lette blode plenteously tyl he be swoune thenne stoppe the vayne. For a lytill letting of blode moeueth or styreth venym And yf it be so that a mā wille not haue many vaynes cutte to gyder, then lett hym suffre the vayne cutt to rēne til the blode withdrawe For a lytill bledyng meueth strongely the venym as it ys sayd afore. Also a man whether he be infect or not yf he be lette blode. let hym forbere slepe al that daye tyl midnyghte folowyng. and alwaye lette blode that veyne vpon that syde of the body where the swelling appereth Therfore yf a swelling appere vnder the right arme lette blode in the middes of the same arme in the vayne called Medyana, yf it appere under the lyft arme lette hym blode ī the myddes of the same or in the vayne of the lyuer whiche ys aboue that lityl fyngre. and yf it be aboute the share, lete him blode aboute the hele vpon the same side, yf the swellyng be in the necke, lette hym blode in the vayne called Cephalica aboute the thombe in the hande of the same syde. or in the vayne the whiche is called Medyana of the same arme, or in the hand of the same syde aboute the lytill fyngre And ouermore yf the swellyng appere aboute the eeze lette hym blode in the vayne called Cephalica of the same syde Or in the vayne whych ys betwene the longe fyngre and the thombe, lest many venemouses thynges goo into the brayne, or lett blode the vayne whyche is aboute the lytil fyngre that ys named by the phisicions basilica And if a swellyng appere in the sholdres lette it with ventosite and first lesse the vayne called Mediana, y̒f the swelling be on the backe, lesse it apon the vayne called pedica magna (and) all these thīges be made yf a man slepe not before the knowleche of the swellyng But and yf he fele suche swelling after slepe, thenne on the contrarie parte the lettyng of blode must be made, As yf the swelling appere in the right arme lette him blode in the lifte arme in ??pate or basilica or mediana And yf a swellyng appere vnder the lyfte arme, lette him blode in the right arme in lyke wise as yt is sayd of the lyfte arme And so of other places of the body, lete blode on the contrarye parte of such swellyng And if the lettyng of blode be verray litill and feble then lette the pacyent slepe after the myddes of the daye and alwaye in the middes of the daye he must be in contiuell meuyng ridyng or goyny moderatly : And afterward yf the swellyng growe lette hym not be aferde of dethe by cause such a swellyng putteth oute alle euyll and maketh a man uerray hole And that the soner a swellyng may be made rype, take this medicyne as foloweth : Brose the leuys of an Elder tree (and) putte therto grounde mustard, (and) make a playster therof and putte it vpon the swellyng : Somme surgeons will put Tryacle upon the swelling, but doo not so for triacle putteth out venym Therfore drynke Tryacle for that putteth oute the same. Also there is another medicyne Take sengrene hylwore otherwyse called wilde tyme maudelyn grasse plantyn and a lityl rye floure and bresre all these to gider tyl ye see water come out therof Medill that water with womans milke (and) gyue it to the pacient fasting before slepe (and) it will werke to better for to remeue the swellyng : Also for the swellyng whan hit ap(pr)ed Take filberd nottes fygges (and) rewe, Bruse them to gyder (and) laye it upon the swelling

¶These remedyse be sufficient to eschew thys grete sekenesse whith the helpe of god To whom be eu̾lastastyng laude (and) praysing world with outen ende

¶A M E N