An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter VII

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CHAPTER VII.




THE NUMERALS.


The numerals assume four forms in the Ainu language; viz.; first, the Radical form; second, the Substantive form; third, the Ordinal form; fourth, the Adverbial form.




§ I. THE RADICAL FORMS.


The radical forms of the numerals are as follows:—

Shine 1
Tu 2
Re 3
Ine 4
Ashikne 5
Iwa (n) 6
Arawa (n) 7
Tupe-san 8
Shinepe-san 9
[1]Wa (n) 10
Shine ikashima wa (n) 11
Tu ikashima wa (n) 12
Re ikashima wa (n) 13
Ine ikashima wa (n) 14
Ashikne ikashima wa (n) 15
Iwan ikashima wa (n) 16
Arawan ikashima wa (n) 17
Tupe-san ikashima wa (n) 18
Shinepe-san ikashima wa (n) 19
[2]Hot ne 20
Shine ikashima hot ne 21
Tu ikashima hot ne 22
Re ikashima hot ne 23
Ine ikashima hot ne 24
Ashikne ikashima hot ne 25
Iwan ikashima hot ne 26
Arawan ikashima hot ne 27
Tupe-san ikashima hot ne 28
Shinepe-san ikashima hot ne 29
Wan e, tu hot ne 30
Shine ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 31
Tu ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 32
Re ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 33
Ine ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 34
Ashikne ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 35
Iwan ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 36
Arawan ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 37
Tupe-san ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 38
Shinepe-san ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 39
Tu hot ne    40


Twenty, more literally a “score,” is the highest unit ever present to the Ainu mind when counting. Thus forty is “two score” (tu hot ne); sixty is “three score” (re hot ne); eighty is “four score” (ine hot ne); and a hundred is “five score” (ashikne hot ne).

Numbers may be framed by means of scores to an indefinite extent; but in actual practice, the numbers are rarely, if ever, met with. At the present day, the simpler Japanese method of numeration is rapidly supplanting the cumbrous native system.

In order to arrive at a clear comprehension of the Ainu system of counting, the student must carefully note the following two particulars:—

(a.)—The word ikashima commonly means, “excess,” “redundance;” but with the numerals it signifies, ”addition,” “to add to.” It is always placed after the number which is conceived of as added.

(b.)—The particle e signifies “to subtract,” “to take away from,” and follows the number which is supposed to be taken away. Care must therefore be taken not to confound the particle with the e which is used as a preposition, and which means, “to,” “towards.” Thus tu ikashima wa(n) is, “two added to ten,” i.e. 12; and shinepe-san ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne, is “nine added to, ten taken from, two score;” and so on.

Note also the following expressions:—E-tup, “one and a half;” e-rep, “two and a half;” e-inep, “three and a half.”

Shine ikashima, tu hot ne 41
Tu ikashima, tu hot ne 42
Re ikashima, tu hot ne 43
Ine ikashima, tu hot ne 44
Ashikne ikashima, tu hot ne 45
Iwan ikashima, tu hot ne 46
Arawan ikashima, tu hot ne 47
Tupe-san ikashima, tu hot ne 48
Shinepe-san ikashima, tu hot ne 49
Wan e, re hot ne 50
Shine ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 51
Tu ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 52
Re ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 53
Ine ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 54
Ashikne ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 55
Iwan ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 56
Arawan ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 57
Tupe-san ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 58
Shinepe-san ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 59
Re hot ne 60
Shine ikashima, re hot ne 61
Tu ikashima, re hot ne 62
Re ikashima, re hot ne 63
Ine ikashima, re hot ne 64
Ashikne ikashima, re hot ne 65
Iwan ikashima, re hot ne 66
Arawan ikashima, re hot ne 67
Tupe-san ikashima, re hot ne 68
Shinepe-san ikashima, re hot ne 69
Wan e, ine hot ne 70
Shine ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 71
Tu ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 72
Re ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 73
Ine ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 74
Ashikne ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 75
Iwan ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 76
Arawan ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 77
Tupe-san ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 78
Shinepe-san ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 79
Ine hot ne 80
Shine ikashima, ine hot ne 81
Tu ikashima, ine hot ne 82
Re ikashima, ine hot ne 83
Ine ikashima, ine hot ne 84
Ashikne ikashima, ine hot ne 85
Iwan ikashima, ine hot ne 86
Arawan ikashima, ine hot ne 87
Tupe-san ikashima, ine hot ne 88
Shinepe-san ikashima, ine hot ne 89
Wan e, ashikne hot ne 90
Shine ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 91
Tu ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 92
Re ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 93
Ine ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 94
Ashikne ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 95
Iwan ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 96
Arawan ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 97
Tupe-san ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 98
Shinepe-san ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 99
Ashikne hot ne 100
Shine ikashima, ashikne hot ne 101
Wan e, iwan hot ne 110
Shine ikashima, wan e, iwan hot ne 111
Iwan hot ne 120
Shine ikashima, iwan hot ne 121
Wan e, arawan hot ne 130
Shine ikashima, wan e, arawan hot ne 131
Arawan hot ne 140
Shine ikashima, arawan hot ne 141
Wan e, tupe-san hot ne 150
Shine ikashima, wan e, tupe-san hot ne 151
Tupe-san hot ne 160
Shine ikashima, tupe-san hot ne 161
Wan e, shinepe-san hot ne 170
Shine ikashima, wan e, shinepe-san hot ne 171
Shinepe-san hot ne 180
Shine ikashima, shinepe-san hot ne 181
Wan e, shine wan hot ne 190
Shine ikashima, wan e, shine wan hot ne 191
Shine wan hot ne 200
Ashikne hot ikashima, shine wan hot ne 300
Tu shine wan hot ne 400
Ashikne hot ikashima, tu shine wan hot ne 500
Re shine wan hot ne 600
Ashikne hot ikashima, re shine wan hot ne 700
Ine shine wan hot ne 800
Ashikne hot ikashima, ine shine wan hot ne 900
Ashikne shine wan hot ne 1,000
The radical form is always placed before the noun to which it refers; e.g.
Shine itangi, one cup.
Tu ai, two arrows.
Re kuiop, three wild geese.
Ine retat’chiri, four swans.
Shine isepo, one hare.
Tu ichaniu, two salmon trout.
Re nok, three eggs.
Ine yaoshkep, four spiders.

The radical form shine is also often used as the indefinite article a or an. See Chapter IV. The Article.




§ II. THE SUBSTANTIVE FORM.


The substantive form of the numeral is two-fold. For persons it is formed by adding niu, in some of the numbers abbreviated to the single consonant n. For things and animals it is formed by adding pe, be, or the letter p alone. Niu means “person,” and pe means “thing,” e.g.

Niu, “a person”

Shinen, one person.

Tun, two persons.

Ren, three persons.

Inen, four persons.

Ashikne niu, five persons.

Iwa niu, six persons.

Arawa niu, seven persons.

Tupe-san niu, eight persons.

Shinepe-san niu, nine persons.

Wa niu, ten persons.

Shinen ikashima wa niu, eleven persons.

Tun ikashima wa niu, twelve persons.

Hot ne niu, twenty persons.

Wa niu e tu hot ne niu, thirty persons.

Shinen ikashima wa niu e tu hot ne niu, thirty-one persons.

Ashikne hot ne niu, one hundred persons.

Pe, be, p, “thing.”

Shinep, one thing.

Tup, two things.

Rep, three things.

Inep, four things.

Ashiknep, five things.

Iwanbe, six things.

Arawanbe, seven things.

Tupe-sanbe, eight things.

Shinepe-sanbe, nine things.

Wanbe, ten things.

Shinep ikashima wanbe, eleven things.

Tup ikashima wanbe, twelve things.

Hot nep, twenty things.

Wanbe e tu hot nep, twenty-one things.

Shinep ikashima wanbe e tu hot nep, thirty-one things.

Ashikne hot nep, one hundred persons.

[N.B.—Note carefully the repetition of the noun after each numeral.]

With the numbers two and three, quadrupeds and sometimes even inanimate objects are counted with the word pish, e.g.

Seta shinep, one dog.

Seta tup pish, two dogs.

Seta rep pish, three dogs.

Seta inep, four dogs.

Niu, pe, and pish may be considered to correspond in some degree to the so-called “classifiers” or “auxiliary numerals” of Chinese, Japanese, and many other Eastern languages; but no further trace of such “classifiers” exists.

The radical form can never be used in answer to a question. In such a case one of the substantive forms must be employed.

Some nouns are excluded by their nature from both the above categories. The following are a few such words. Kamui “god or gods”; To, “a day;” Tokap “day;” Kunne “night,” “black.”

Kamui is counted as follows:—

Shine kamui, one god.

Tu kamui, two gods.

Re kamui, three gods.

Ine kamui, four gods.

Ashikne kamui, five gods.

Iwan kamui, six gods.

Arawan kamui, seven gods.

Tupe-san kamui, eight gods.

Shinepe-san kamui, nine gods.

Wan kamui, ten gods.

Shine kamui ikashima wan kamui, eleven gods.

Tu kamui ikashima wan kamui, twelve gods.

Hot ne kamui, twenty gods.

And so on.

To is counted as follows:—

Shine to, one day.

Tut ko, two days.

Rere ko, three days.

Ine rere ko, four days.

Ashikne rere ko, five days.

Iwan rere ko, six days.

Arawan rere ko, seven days.

Tupe-san rere ko, eight days.

Shinepe-san rere ko, nine days.

Wan to, ten days.

Shine to ikashima wan to, eleven days.

Tut ko ikashima wan to, twelve days.

Rere ko ikashima wan to, thirteen days.

Hot ne to, twenty days.

Wan to e tu hot ne to, thirty days.

Tu hot ne rere ko, forty days.

Wan to e re hot ne rere ko, fifty days.

Ashikne hot ne to, one hundred days.

Tokap is counted as follows:—

Tokap shine to, one day.

Tokap tut ko, two days.

Tokap rere ko, three days.

Tokap rere ko ine rere ko, four days.

Tokap rere ko ashikne rere ko, five days.

Tokap rere ko iwan rere ko, six days.

Tokap rere ko arawan rere ko, seven days.

Tokap rere ko tupe-san rere ko, eight days.

Tokap rere ko shinepe-san rere ko, nine days.

Wan to, ten days.

Tokap shine to ikashima wan to, eleven days.

Tokap tut ko ikashima wan to, twelve days.

Tokap rere ko ikashima wan to, thirteen days.

Tokap rere ko ine rere ko ikashima wan to, fourteen days.

Hot ne to, twenty days.

And so on.

Sometimes tokap is counted thus:—

Tokap to shine to, one day.

Tokap to rereko, three days.

Tokap to tutko, two days.

And so on.

Kunne is counted as follows:—

Shine anchikara, one night.

Tu anchikara, two nights.

Re anchikara (also kunne rere ko), three nights.

Kunne rere ko ine rere ko, four nights.

Kunne rere ko ashikne rere ko, five nights.

Kunne rere ko iwan rere ko, six nights.

Kunne rere ko arawan rere ko, seven nights.

Kunne rere ko tupe-san rere ko, eight nights.

Kunne rere ko shinepe-san rere ko, nine nights.

Wan anchikara, ten nights.

And so on; i.e. adding kunne and kunne rere ko wherever tokap and tokap rere ko would be added to express “day.”

Sometimes kunne is counted thus:—

Kunne to shine anchikara. One night.
Kunne to tu anchikara. Two nights.
Kunne to re anchikara. Three nights.

And so on.




§ III. THE ORDINAL FORM.


The ordinal numbers are expressed in two ways. The first is as follows:—

Shine ikinne, first.

Tu ikinne, second.

Re ikinne, third.

Ine ikinne, fourth.

Ashikne ikinne, fifth.

Iwan ikinne, sixth.

Arawan ikinne, seventh.

Tupe-san ikinne, eighth.

Shinepe-san ikinne, ninth.

Wan ikinne, tenth.

And so on; adding ikinne to the radical form wherever pe, be, or p would be placed for the substantive form.

The second way is as follows, but goes no higher than ten. Above ten the first method alone is in use:—

Shine otutanu, first.

Tu otutanu, second.

Iye e re ikinne, third.

Iye e ine ikinne, fourth.

Iye e ashikne ikinne, fifth.

Iye e iwan ikinne, sixth.

Iye e arawan ikinne, seventh.

Iye e tupe-san ikinne, eighth.

Iye e shinepe-san ikinne, ninth.

Iye wan ikinne, tenth.

The ordinals are rarely met with. When they are used, the noun is preceded by no an, e.g.

Shine ikinne no an ainu, the first man.
Shine tutanu no an chisei, the first house.

And so on.




§ IV. THE ADVERBIAL FORM.


The adverbial form of the numeral is formed by adding shui-ne to the radical, e.g.

Ara shui-ne, or a-shui-ne once.

Tu shui-ne, twice.

Re shui-ne, thrice.

Ine shui-ne, four times.

Ashikne shui-ne, five times.

Iwan shui-ne, six times.

Arawan shui-ne, seven times.

Tupe-san shui-ne, eight times.

Shinepe-san shui-ne, nine times.

Wa shui-ne, ten times.

And so on.

The word shui-ne is compounded from shui, “again” and ne, part of the verb “to be;” shui-ne would therefore mean, “to be again.”




§ V. MISCELLANEOUS.


The following miscellaneous expressions may be conveniently here noted.

Pairs of articles are expressed by the word uren, “both,” placed before the noun, e.g.:—

singular. plural.
Chikiri, the leg; foot. Uren chikiri, both legs or feet.
[3]Huyehe, a cheek. Uren huyehe, both cheeks.
Keire, a shoe. Uren keire, both shoes.
Kema, a foot; a leg. Uren kema, both feet or legs.
Kesup, a heel. Uren kesup, both heels.
Kisara, an ear. Uren kisara, both ears.
Kokkasapa, a knee. Uren kokkasapa, both knees.
Noyapi, a jaw. Uren noyapi, both jaws.
One of a pair is expressed by prefixing the word oara to the noun, e.g.:—
Paraori, insteps. Oara[4] paraori, one instep.
Patoi, lips. Oara patoi, one lip.
Raru, eyebrows. Oara raru, one eyebrow.
Shiki, eyes. Oara shiki, one eye.
Tapsutu, shoulders. [5]Oara tapsutu, one shoulder.
Teke, hands. Oara teke, one hand.
Tokumpone, ankles. Oara tokumpone, one ankle.

It may be found useful to note also the following phrases:—

(a.) Shinen shinen, one by one.
Tun tun, two and two.
Ren ren, three and three.
Used only of persons.

And so on.

(b.) Shinen range, singly.
Tun range, by twos.
Ren range, by threes.
Used only of persons.

And so on.

(c.) Shinep shinep, one by one.
Tup tup, two and two.
Shinep range, singly.
Tup range, by twos.
Used of animals and things.

And so on.

(d.) Chup emko e tu chup, a month and a half.
Chup emko e re chup, two months and a half.

And so on.



  1. But in counting fish 10 is earasamne no wan; while in counting animals 10 is shine atuita.
  2. In counting fish 20 is shine shike, i.e. one bundle, or “one load.”
  3. This word is often pronounced Fuyehe.
  4. Oara is from a which also becomes ara.
  5. Before t the final ra may be changed into t, thus making oat-tapsutu.