An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language/F

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F

fa, under, Ir. fa, E. Ir. fa (as in distributive numbers); a side form of fo, q.v., used in adverbial expressions.

fa, was (past of is), M. G. fa (D. of Lis.), Ir. fa, fa h- (Keat.), M. Ir. fa h-, E. Ir. ba h-, *bât, *(e)bhu-â-t; Lat. -bat, -bamus, of refe-bam, etc.; root bheu, to be. See bu, the form now used.

fabhairt, fadhairt, forging, moulding (better faghairt, "tempering" (Wh.), which suits the pronunciation best); Ir. faghairt, tempering (Keat.); founded on Lat. faber, smith, whence, through Fr., Eng. forge

fàbhar, favour, Ir. fábhar, W. ffafr; from Lat. favor.

fabhd, a fault; from Sc. faut, from Fr. faute.

fabhra, fabhrad, abhra, eyelid, eyebrow, Ir. abhra, fabhra, eyelid, E. Ir. abra, n.pl. abrait, Cor. abrans, Br. abrant, eyebrow, Mac. Gr. ἀβροῦτες; further ὀφρúς, brow, Eng. brow. There is an E. Ir. bra, pl. brói, dual brúad, *bruvat-. The phonetics are not clear. Stokes has suggested Lat. frons, frontis, as allied, *bhront- with the prep. a(p)o (= E. Ir. -a-), ab.

fabhradh, swirl, eddy (Carm.). Cf. O. Ir. fobar (St.).

facal, focal, word, Ir. focal, O. Ir. focul, from Lat. vocabulum (through *focvul, Güterbock). Stokes and Wind. take it from Lat. vocula.

fachach, the puffin - a water fowl (Sh.); root va, blow? Onomatopoetic: f-ah-ah, call of bird?

fachail, strife (Sh.; H.S.D. marks it Dialectic); cf. Ir. fachain, striving.

fachant, puny (H.S.D. for N.High.):

fachaint, ridicule, scoffing; from fo-cainnt, "sub-speaking". Cf. W. gogan, satire, Br. goge, *vo-can, root can, sing, say.

fad, fad, long, Ir. fad, O. Ir. fota, longus, fot, length, *vad-dho- or vaz-dho-, Lat. vastus, vast? Hence fadal, delay, desiderium, Keat. faddáil, "long delay", from fad and dáil.

fàdadh, fadadh, kindling, Ir. fadadh, fadaghadh, fadógh (Keat.), Mid.Ir. fatód, E. Ir. átúd, which Zimmer analyses as *ad-soud (soud of iompaidh), but unsatisfactorily; E. Ir. adsúi tenid, kindles, adsúithe, kindled (Meyer). Cf. fód.

fadharsach, trifling, paltry, fagharsach:

fadhbhag, cuttle-fish:

fafan, a breeze:

fàg, leave, Ir. fágaim, O. Ir. foacbaim, fácbaim, *fo-ad-gab-; root gab of gabh, q.v.

fagus, faisg, near, Ir. fogus, E. Ir. focus, ocus, O. Ir. accus, W. agos, Br. hôgoz, *aggostu-. See agus.

faic, see, Ir. faic, O. Ir. im-aci, vides-ne, *ád-cî, see chì. The f is prothetic.

faich, faiche, a green (by the house), Ir., E. Ir. faithche, the field nearest the house, E. Ir. faidche, *ad-cáio-, "by the house", Celtic kaio-n, house; see ceardach. Ascoli refers it to O. Ir. aith, area (an imaginary word), and Jubainville allies it with W. gwaen, plain, Ger. weide (see bhàn for W.).

faiche, a crab, or lobster's, burrow (M'A.); see aice:

faichd, hiding place, den, mole's burrow; see aice.

faicheil, stately, showy; cf. Ir. faicheallach, luminous:

faicill, caution, guard, E. Ir. accill, preparation, watch: *ád-ciall; from ciall, sense? CF. dìchioll.

fàidh, a prophet, Ir. fáidh, O. Ir. fáith, *vâti-s; Lat. vates; Norse óðr, sense, song, M. Eng. wood, Sc. wud (= mad), Ger. with, rage. W. has gwawd, carmen: *vâto-.

faidhbhile, a beech, Ir. feagha, fagh-vile (Lh., Comp.Voc.), W. ffawydden, Br. fao; from Lat. fagus. G. adds the old word bile, a tree, which is the same in origin as bile, leaf.

faidhir, a fair, Ir. faidhrín; founded on Eng. fair, faire (from Lat. feria). For phonetics, cf. paidhir from pair, and staidhir from stair.

faidseach, lumpish (Sh.); faidse, lump of bread (M'A.):

faigh, get, Ir. faghaim, E. Ir. fagbaim, O. Ir. ní fogbai, non invenis, from fo-gabim, root gab of gabh, q.v.

faighe, begging, etc.; see faoighe.

faighnich, foighnich, ask: *vo-gen-, root gen, know, as in aithne. Cf. E. Ir. imma foacht, asked. Windisch refers to iar-faigim, iarfacht, I asked, = iarmifoacht, root ag, say. iarmi-fo-siag (St. R.C.19 177).

fail, foil, corrupt, putrefy, parboil; root vel, bubble, boil; Norse vella, boil, Eng. well, Ger. wallen, bubble.

fail, foil, a stye, Ir. fail, O. Ir. foil, mucc-foil, hara, trét-foil, W. gwâl, couch, *vali-, root vel, cover, encircle; Gr. εἰλúω, envelop (*velu-), εἶλαρ, shelter; Skr. valá, cave, vali, projecting thatched roof. In the sense of "encircling, rolling", add Lat. volvo, volumen, Eng. volume, wallow, etc. Further allied is G. olann, wool, Eng. wool, Lat. lâna, etc.

fail, fàil, a ring, Ir. fáil, O. Ir. foil, g. falach, *valex; Gr. ἑλιξ, a twist, spire, vine-tendril; root vel, "circle", as above in fail. Cf. for vowel fàl, dike; Br. gwalen, "bague sans chaton". Also failbhe, Ir. failge, for failghe; from the stem falach or falagh condensed to falgh.

failc, bathe, lave, Ir. folcadh, O. Ir. folcaim, W. golchi, Br. goalc'hi, wash, *volkô; Lettic wa'lks, damp, wa'lka, flowing water, swampish place. Further allied is G. fliuch, q.v. Possibly here place Volcae, the Rhine Gauls, after whom the Teutons named the Celts; whence Wales, Welsh, etc.

failcin, pot-lid (Arran), failceann (Rob.); from fail, ring (Rob.).

fàile, smell, savour; see àile.

fàileag, dog-brier berry (= mucag):

faileagan, little lawns (Carm.): cf. àilean.

faileas, shadow, aileas (Dial.); from fo-leus? or allied to ail, mark?

failleagan, ailleagan, faillean, root or hole of the ear, faillean, sucker of a tree: *al-nio-, root al, nourish?

fàillig, fàilnich, fail, fàillinn, failing, Ir. faillighim, E. Ir. faill, failure, W. gwall, Br. goall, *valni-; root val of feall, q.v. Borrowing from Eng. fail, from Lat. fallo, is however, possible in the modern languages.

failm, a helm; from the Norse hjálm, Eng. helm.

failmean, kneepan (M'A.); from fail, ring (Rob.). See falman.

fàilt, fàilte, welcome, hail! Ir., O. Ir. fáilte, *vâletiâ, root vâl, vel, glow; W. gwawl, lumen; Gr. ἀλέα, warmth, sun's heat; Got. vulan, be hot, O. H. G. walm, heat (Bez.). Cf. Caesar's Valetiacus. Borrowing from Lat. valête seems to be Zimmer's view (Zeit. 30 28). Rhys suggests W. gwell; Hend., Eng. wealth.

fainear, under consideration, Ir. fa deára, remark, fé ndeár, fé ndeara (Munster). Foley gives tabhair fa d'aire = "observe". "Thoir fainear" = observe, consider. The above may be a fixed fa d'aire = fa-deara, with n from the plural an, their.

fainleag, ainleag, a swallow, Ir. áinleóg, O. Ir. fannall, W. gwennol, Cor. guennol, Br. gwenneli *vannello. Cf. Fr. vanneau, lapwing, It. vannello, Med.Lat. vannellus, which is usually referred to Lat. vannus, fan. *vat-n-allo-s (Holden).

fàinne, a ring, Ir. fáinne, áinne, O. Ir. ánne, *ânniâ; Lat. ânus, Eng. annular.

fair, fàir, far, fetch, bring; a curtailed form of tabhair through thabhair or (tha)bhair? Cf. thoir.

fàir, dawn, E. Ir. fáir, W. gwawr, Br. gouere-, morning, gwereleuen, morning-star, *vâsri-, Lit. vasará, summer, Skr. vâsará, early shining, morning (adj.), Lat. ver, spring, Gr. ἔαρ, spring (Stokes).

fàir, fàire, ridge, sky-line; from fàir, dawn? Cf., however, Ir. faireóg, hillock, and fàireag, below.

fairc, bathe; see fathraig.

fairc, links, lands sometimes covered by the sea (M'A., who says that in Islay it means "hole"); from Eng. park?

fairce, fairche (M'D.), a mallet, Ir. farcha, farcha, farca, M. Ir. farca, E. Ir. forcha tened, thunderbolt; root ark as in adharc?

faircill, a cask or pot lid, E. Ir. farcle: *vor-cel-, root cel, cover.

faire, watching, Ir., E. Ir. faire; see aire.

fàireag, a gland, swollen gland, Ir. fáireóg (Fol., O'R.); cf. W. chwaren, gland, blotch, root sver, hurt, Ger. schwer, difficult. The W. precludes comparison with Lat. vărus, pimple, varix, dilated vein, Eng. varicose.

fairge, the ocean,Ir. fairrge, O. Ir. fairgge, Ptolemy's Vergivios, the Irish Atlantic; from the same root as fearg. In Sutherland fairge means the "ocean in storm". Usually pronounced as if fairce. W. Môr Werydd, the Atlantic.

fairgneadh, hacking, sacking:

fairich, perceive, feel, Ir. airighim, O. Ir. airigur, sentio; same root as faire (Stokes, Beit. 8 341).

fairleas, an object on the sky-line (H.S.D. from MSS.); *f-air-leus; from leus, light.

fairmeil, noisy: allied to seirm. See foirm?

fairsing, wide, Ir., O. Ir. fairsing, W. eang (= *ex-ang, ehang), *f-ar-ex-ang: "un-narrow", root ang, narrow (Stokes for W.).

fairtlich, fairslich, baffle; *vor-tḷ-, "over-bear", root tel, tol, bear (Lat. tolero, Eng. tolerate)?

faisg, pick off vermin: for root see caisg.

faisg, near: see fagus.

fàisg, squeeze, wring, Ir. fáisge, E. Ir. faiscim, W. gwasgu. premere, O. Br. guescim, Br. goascaff, stringere, *vakshô; Skr. vâhate, press; Eng. wedge; further Lat. vexo. *fo-ad-sech (Asc.).

fàisne, a pimple, weal (H.S.D., Dial.):

fàisneachd, fàistine, prophecy, omen, Ir. fáisdineachd, fáisdine, O. Ir. fáitsine; for fáith-sine, where th is deaspirated before s; from fáith, with the termination -sine (-stine?) Zeuss 2 777.

faisneis, speaking, whispering, Ir. fáisnéis, rehearsal, M. Ir. faisnéis, E. Ir. aisnéis, vb. aisnédim, narrate, *as-in-feid-, infíadim, root veid, vid, know; see innis.

fàite, a smile, Ir. faitbe (O'R.), laugh, O. Ir. faitbim, I laugh, *fo-aith-tibim, tibiu, I laugh, *stebiô; Lit. stebiü*s, astonish.

faiteach, fàiteach, timorous, shy, Ir. fáiteach, faitcheas, fear (Keat.), O. Ir. faitech, cautus: *f-ad-tech, "home-keeping"?

fàitheam, a hem, Ir. fáithim, fathfhuaim; fo and fuaim. See fuaigh.

fàl, turf, sods, dike, Ir. fál, hedge, fold, O. Ir. fál, saepes, W. gwawl, rampart, Pictish fahel, murus, *vâlo-; Lat. vallum, Eng. wall. See further under fail, stye.

fàl, a spade, peat spade, Manx faayl, W. pâl, Cor. pal; from Lat. pâla. Also "scythe" (Wh.).

falach, a hiding, covering, Ir., E. Ir. folach, W., Br. golo, *vo-lugô, *lugô, hide, lie; Got liugan, tell a lie, Eng. lie (Stokes). Ernault refers it to the root legh, logh, lie, as in G. laighe: "under-lie", in a causative sense.

falachd, spite, malice, treachery, Ir. fala. See fàillig, feall for root.

faladair, orts (M'D.):

fàladair, a scythe, really "man who works the scythe", a turfer, from fàl: "scythe" properly is iarunn fàladair.

fàladair, bare pasture (H.S.D. for Heb.): "turf-land", from fàl.

fala-dhà, a jest, irony, fun; see fealla-dhà.

falair, an interment, funeral entertainment (Stew.) = farair?

fàlaire, an ambler, mare, Ir. falaire, ambling horse; seemingly founded on Eng. palfrey. The form àlaire, exists, in the sese of "brood-mre" (M'Dougall's Folk and Hero Tales), leaning upon àl, brood, for meaning. Ir. falaradh, to amble.

falaisg, heath-burning, Ir. folosg (do.), E. Ir. foloiscim, I burn slightly; from fo and loisg, q.v.

falamh, empty, Ir. folamh, M. Ir. folum, E. Ir. folom, folomm; cf. O. W. guollung, M. Br. gollo, Br. goullo. Windisch derives the G. from lom, bare, but the modern aspiration of folamh makes this derivation doubtful. Ernault refers the Br. to the root of Lat. langueo.

falbh, go falbhan, moving about, walking, waving, Ir. foluamhain, bustling, running away, E. Ir. folúamain, flying; see fo and luainech. O. Ir. fulumain, volubilis, allied to Lat. volvo, Eng. wallow, would suit the phonetics best, but it does not appear in the later dialects. The verb falbh is made from falbhan. Hennessey referred the G. to falamh, empty. Cf. E. Ir. falmaigim, empty, quit (Zim.).

falbhair, the young of live stock, a follower as a calf or foal; from the Sc. follower, a foal, Eng. follower.

falcag, common auk, falc (Heb.); from Norse álka, Eng. auk.

fallaid, dry meal put on cakes:

fallain, healthy, Ir. falláin, E. Ir. follán; for fo+slàn, q.v.

fallsa, false (M'D.), Ir., M. Ir. fallsa; from the Lat. falsus.

falluing, a mantle, so Ir., M. Ir. fallaing, Latinised form phalingis (Geraldus), dat.pl., W. ffaling; from Lat. palla, mantle, pallium. Cf. O. Fr. pallion, M. Eng. pallioun. M.E. falding, sort of coarse cloth (Hend.).

fallus, sweat, Ir. fallus, allus, O. Ir. allas: *jasl, root jas, jes, seethe, yeast, W. jas, what pervades, Br. goell (= vo-jes-l), leaven; Eng. yeast, zeal; Gr. ζέω, boil.

falmadair, the tiller: "helm-worker", from falm, helm, from Norse hjálm, helm. See failm.

falmair, a kind of fish (H.S.D. for Heb.), falmaire, herring hake:

falman, kneepan:

falt, hair, Ir. folt, O. Ir. folt, W. gwallt, Cor. gols, caesaries, O. Br. guolt, *valto-s (Stokes), root vel, cover; Lat. vellus, fleece, lána, wool, Gr. λάσιος, hairy (= vlatios); Eng. wool; Lit. velti, hairs, threads. Stokes compares only Russ. volotǐ, thread, Lit. waltis, yarn, Gr. λάσιος. Same root as olann, wool, *vel, *vol, *ul.

faltan, a tendon, snood; for altan, from alt.

famhair, a giant, Ir. fomhor, pirate, giant, E. Ir. fomór, fomórach, a Fomorian, a mythic race of invaders of Ireland; *fo-mór, "sub-magnus" (Zimmer). Stokes refers the -mor, -morach, to the same origin as mare of nightmare, Ger. mahr, nightmare. Rhys interprets the name as "sub-marini", taking mor from the root of muir, sea. The ó of mór, if it is long (for it is rarely so marked) is against these last two derivations.

famhsgal, fannsgal, hurry, confusion (Arg.):

famh-thalmhainn, fath, a mole, fadhbh (Lh.), W. gwadd, Corn. god, Br. goz; M. Eng. wont, talpa. Dialectic ath-thalmhain.

fan, stay, Ir. fanaim, O. Ir. anaim; root an, breathe, exist, as in anam, anail: "gabhail anail" = taking rest. Stokes suggests an = ṃn, root men, remain, Lat. maneo, Gr. μένω, a phonetic change not yet proved for Gaelic. W. di-anod, without delay.

fanaid, mockery, Ir. fonomhad, E. Ir. fonomat: *vo-nom-anto-, root nem, take, for which see nàmhad.

fanaigse, dog violet (H.S.D. quoting O'R.), Ir. fanaigse (O'R.): from pansy?

fànas, a void space; from Lat. vanus.

fang, a sheep-pen, fank; from Sc. fank.

fang, a vulture, Ir. fang, raven.

fann, faint, Ir., E. Ir. fann, W., Br. gwan, Cor. guan, debilis, *vanno-s, root , ven, spoil, wound; Got. wunns, affliction, winnan, to suffer, Eng. wound, wan; Gr. ἄτε, infatuation, etc. Others have connected it with Lat. vannus and with Eng. want. fannan-feòir, weak breeze (M'D.).

fannadh, fishing with a feathered hook (H.S.D. for Heb.):

faob, an excrescence, knob, piece, Ir. fadhb (Lh.†), O. Ir. odb, obex, W. oddf: *ud-bhv-o-, "out-growth", root bhu, be (see bu). Stokes gives a Celtic *odbós, from eðgo-s, ozgo-s(?), allied to Gr. ὄσχη, twig? Lat. obex; or to Lit. ü*dega, tail. Lidén equates Lat. offa, a ball. Stokes now ὀσφúς.

faobh, booty, Ir. fadhbhaim, I despoil, O. Ir. fodb, exuvias: *vodvo-, from I. E. vedh, slay, thrust; Skr. vadh, slay; Gr. ὠθέω, push. The root may be vedh, pledge, Gr. ἄεθλον, war prize, Eng. wager.

faobhag, the common cuttle-fish (Heb.).

faobhar, edge, so Ir., E. Ir. faebur, O. Ir. faibur, machera, sword, *vaibro-s, Lat. vibro, vibrate, brandish, Lit. wyburti, wag (Stokes). Cf. further W. gwaew, pl. gweywyr, a lance.

faoch, faochag, a periwinkle, Ir. faochóg, M. Ir. faechóg; cf. W. gwichiad.

faoch, curve (Carm.):

faochadh, a favourable crisis in sickness, relief; see faothaich.

faochainn, entreat earnestly, strive, inf. faochnadh (M'A., Arg.):

faochaire, knave (Carm.):

faod, feud, may, Ir. féadaim, I can, E. Ir. fétaim, can, sétar, seitir, potest, *sventô; Got. swinþs, strong, Ag. S. swíð (do.), Norse svinnr, clever, Ger. geschwind, swift (Stokes).

faodail, goods found by chance or lost, waif: "foundling", E. Ir. étaim, I find, *pentô, Eng. find. See eudail.

faodhail, ford, a narrow channel fordable at low water, a hollow in the sand retaining tide water: from N. vaðill, a shallow, a place where straits can be crossed, Shet vaadle, Eng. wade.

faoghaid, faghaid, faodhailt, starting of game, hunting:

faoghar, a sound; see rather foghar.

faoighe, faighdhe, begging, asking of aid in corn, etc., M. Ir. faigde, O. Ir. foigde, mendicatio, *fo-guide; from fo and guidhe, beg, q.v.

faoilidh, liberal, hospitable, Ir. faoilidh, joyful, O. Ir. fáilidh, blithe, *vâleti-s, allied to fáilt, welcome (Stokes). Hence faoilte, welcome, delight. Root, *vil, Gr. ἱλαρός, gay?

faoileag, faoileann, a sea-gull, Ir. faoileán, O. Ir. faoilenn, W. gwylan, Br. gwelan, whence Fr. goëland and Eng. gull. For root, Stokes compares Eng. wail.

faoilleach, faoillteach, the month extending from the middle of January to the middle of February, Ir. faoillidh (do.), faoilleach (do.), holidays, Carnival. The idea is "Carnival" or month of rejoicing; from faoilidh. Usually referred to faol, wolf: "wolf-month". Cf. féill. February in Ir. = mí na Féile Bríghde.

faoin, vain, void, Ir. faon, M. Ir. faen, weak:

faoisg, unhusk, faoisgeag, a filbert, unhusked nut, O. Ir. áesc, concha, aesc, classendix, Lat. aesculus? (Stokes). Cf. W. gweisgion, husks, gweisgioni, to husk.

faoisid, faosaid, confession, Ir. faoisdin, O. Ir. fóistiu, *vo-sestamtion- (Stokes), furoissestar, confessus: fo and seasamh, q.v. Cf. Gr. ὑφίστημι, submit.

faol, faolchu, a wolf, so Ir., E. Ir. fáel, fael-chú, W. gweilgi, the sea ("wild dog"), *vailo-s; Arm. gail.

faolainn, a stony beach (Heb.): "the beach", vaðlinn.

faolum, learning; see foghlum.

faomadh, fainting from closeness or excitement, falling (Lewis); from aomadh.

faondradh, wandering, exposure, O. Ir. airndrethach, errantia = air-ind-reth-; G. is for fo-ind-reth-, root ret, run, of ruith, q.v. For ind, see ionn-.

faotainn, getting, E. Ir. foemaim, I receive, root em, grasp, hold, Lat. emo. G. is for *vo-em-tin-.

faothaich, relieve, be relieved from fever, etc., Ir. faothamh, recovery after a crisis, alleviation: *fo-thàmh?

far, upon, far an (am), where, Ir. mar a n-, where; from mar and rel., not from for.

far, with, far rium, with me, Ir. a bh-farradh, with (lit. "in company of", with gen.). See farradh and mar ri.

far, freight (a ship), Ir. faraim, faraighim, farthadh or faradh, a freight:

far, bring; see fair.

far-, over; see far, upon, and air (b). far-ainm, nick-name; far-cluais, listening, etc.

farachan, death watch beetle: "hammerer"; from fairche, hammer, Ir. farachan, a hammer (also Gaelic, Wh.). The possibility of its being from faire must not be overlooked.

faradh, a roost, Ir. faradh (do.), E. Ir. forud, a bench, seat, shelf: *for-sud, root sed, seat, as in suidhe, q.v. Cf. W. gor-sedd, a seat. E. Ir. forad, platform *ver-podo-.

faraich, a cooper's wedge; see fairce.

farail, a visit, inquiry for health; from far or for and -ell-, -eln-, go, root el, as in Lat. amb-ulare, Gr. ἐλθεῖν. See further under tadhal.

faraire; see forair.

faraire, lykewake:

farasda, easy, gentle, Ir. farasda, forasda, solid, reasonable, "staid": *for-asda; for asda, see fasdadh. farasda is confused with furasda, q.v.

farbhail, a lid; from far-bheul, "super-os", from beul, mouth.

farbhalach, a stranger; from falbhalach, from falbh?

farbhas, a surmise; *far-meas, from meas, judge. Cf. eirmis.

farbhas, noise:

fàrdach, a mansion, hearth, home; cf. dachaidh.

fàrdadh, alder bark for dyeing black (H.S.D., Dial.), lye, or any colour in liquid (M'A.); from far and dath?

fàrdal, delay, M. Ir. fordall, staying, E. Ir. fordul:

fardan, a farthing, Ir. fardín; from the Eng.

fàrdorus, lintel, Ir. fárdorus, E. Ir. fordorus, porch, W. gwarddrws, lintel; from for, far and dorus.

farfonadh, a warning (H.S.D.); see root in fathunn: *vor-svon.

fargradh, a report: *vor-gar, root gar as in goir.

fàrlus, chimney or roof-light, E. Ir. forlés; from for and leus, q.v. Cf. àrlas.

farmachan, a sand lark (H.S.D., Dial.):

farmad, envy, Ir. formad, O. Ir. format: *for-mad, the mad being for mento- (*ver-mento-, Stokes), root men, Lat. mens, Eng. mind. See dearmad.

farmail, a large pitcher (Heb.):

farpas, refuse of straw or hay (H.S.D., M'E.); cf. rapas.

farpuis, strife, co-fharpuis:

fàrr, off! be off!

farrach, violence, Ir. farrach, forrach; see farran.

farradh, company, vicinity, M. G. na warri (D. of L.), Ir. farradh, E. Ir. farrad, i fharrad, near, O. Ir. in arrad; from ar-sod-, "by-seat", root sod, sed, sit, as in suidhe. Hence Ir. compound prep. a bh-farradh; and from the same source comes the G. mar ri, q.v.

fàrradh, litter in a boat:

farragan, a ledge (Arran), = faradh, dh hardened.

farraid, ask, inquire; faghairt (Perth), which suggests fo-gar-t, root gar, speak. Cf. iarr.

farral, farran, anger, force, Ir. farrán, vexation, anger, forrán, oppression, M. Ir. forrán, destruction, E. Ir. forranach, destructive. Hence G. farrant, great, stout, Ir. farránta (O'B.). Also farrach. The root seems to mean "superiority"; root vers, vors, as in feàrr, q.v.?

farrusg, a peeling, inner rind; M. Ir. forrusc; from for and rùsg, q.v.

farruinn, pinnacle; from far and rinn.

farsaing, wide; better fairsing, q.v.

farspach, farspag, arspag, a seagull:

farum, noise, Ir. fothrum, E. Ir. fothrom, fothrond, W. godornn, tumultuous nois (Hend.); for fo-thorm, from toirm. Stokes suggest fo-thrond, from torann. The roots are allied in either case.

fàs, grow, Ir. fásaim, O. Ir. ásaim, fásaim, root aux, aüg, increase, Lat. augeo, Gr. αὔξω, Eng. eke, wax. Stokes and Strachan refer fás to a stem (p)ât-to-, pát, pat, eat, feed, Gr. πατέομαι, eat, Eng. feed, food. Lat. pasco, pastum.

fàs, empty, waste, fàsach, a desert, Ir. fás, fásach, O. Ir. fás, fáas, vanus, fásach, desert: *vâsto-s, a waste; Lat. vastus, vastare; Eng. waste, Ger. wüste. Hence fàsan, refuse of grain: "waste". fásach, desert, is neuter, see M'A. pref. VIII.

fasair, harness, girth-saddle; see asair.

fasan, fashion; from the Eng.

fasdadh, hiring, binding, Ir. fastogh, hiring, see foisteadh.

fasdail, astail, a dwelling, E. Ir. fastud, holding fast, vb. astaim, fastaim, O. Ir. asstai, moratur, adsaitis, residentes, *ad-sod-, root sed, sod of suidhe (Thur.). W. eistedd, sitting, is for *ex-sod-ijo. It is possible to refer astaim to *ad-stâ-, root sta, stand, Lat. sto; the -asda of farasda, "staid", seems from it (cf. tairis).

fasgadh, shelter, Ir. fosgadh, O. Ir. foscad, umbra: *fo-scáth, "sub-umbra"; see sgàth, shade.

fasgaidh, a picking or cleansing off of vermin. See faisg. fasgnadh?

fasgnadh, winnowing, fasgnag, asgnag, corn-fan, Ir. fasgnaim, I purge.

faspan, difficulty, embarrassment:

fath, a mole; see famh.

fàth, vista (Carm.):

fàth, a cause, reason, Ir. fath, fáth, E. Ir. fáth, *vât-u-; root vât as in fàith? See next.

fathamas, a degree of fear, awe, a warning; also fothamas: *fo-ted-mess-, root of meas, tomhas, etc.

fathamas, occasion, opportunity: *fo-tad-mess-, see amas.

fathan, athan, coltsfoot, Ir. fathán (O'R.):

fathanach, trifling, silly:

fathraig, fothraig, bathe, Ir. fothrugaim, O. Ir. fothraicim, fothaircthe, balnearum, fothrucud, a bath, *vo-tronkatu- (Stokes), W. trochi, mergere, balneare, Br. go-zronquet; Lit. trinkti, wash, bathe (Bez.).

fathast, yet, M. Ir., E. Ir. fodesta, fodechtsa, for fo-fect-sa, the d being otiose and caused by analogy (Zim., Zeit.30 21). Atkinson suggests with a query fo'nd(fh)echt-sa. The root word is fecht, time: "under this time, sub hoc tempus". See feachd, time. Hence also feasd (= i fecht-sa).

fathunn, news, floating rumour, fabhunn (Dial.): *vo-svon, root sven, sound (see tabhann), or root bon, ban, Eng. ban, O. Ir. atboind, proclaims?

, fèath, (fèith, fiath), a calm, M. Ir. feith, E. Ir. féth, O. Ir. féth, Gadelic root vei, *ve-jo-, root ve, , blow, Gr. ἀήρ, air, (whence Eng. air), Ger. wehen, to blow, Eng. wind, especially weather (root vet) for the G. sense.

feabhas, feobhas, goodness, "betterness", Ir. feabhus, O. Ir. febas, superiority, feib, distincion, *visus, g. vesv-iás (Thur., Zeit.28 149, and Brug.), from vesu- or vesv-, as in fiù, q.v. Stokes doubtfully compares Lat. vigeo, Eng. vigour (Bez. Beit.19 75).

feachd, an army, host, expedition, Ir. feachd, an expedition, E. Ir. fecht (ar fecht agus sluagad), W. gwaith, action, work. This Zimmer refers to O. Ir. fichim, I fight (Lat. vinco, Got. veihan, root viq), as well as †feachd, time, Ir. feachd, E. Ir. fecht, oenfhecht, once, W. gwaith, turn, vicem. Stokes separates the latter (feachd, time, E. Ir. fecht, journey), giving as stem vektâ, root vegh (Lat. veho, Eng. waggon); for fecht, campaign, hosting, he gives the Celtic viktâ, root viq, as Zimmer does. The words seem, as Stokes has it, from two roots, but now they are indistinguishably mixed. Osthoff regards feachd, time, as allied to Lat. vices; see fiach.

fead, a whistle, Ir. fead, M. Ir. fet-, fetán, a flute, a whistle, W. chwythell, a whistle, chwyth, a blast, breath, *wviddo-, *svizdo-, Lat. sibilus, Eng. sibilant. See further under séid.

feadh, lenght, extent, so Ir.; see eadh.

feadhainn, people, some people, troop, Ir. feadhainn, E. Ir. fedain, company, cobeden conjugatio, W. gwedd, team, yoke, root ved, I. E. vedh, Eng. wed, Lat. vas, vadis, surety, Skr. vi-vadhá, shoulder-yoke.

fealan, (M'A. feallan), itch, hives; it also means "worm" (see fiolan), M. Ir. filún, glandular disease, fiolún saith, anthrax, malignant struma, all which Stokes takes from L. Lat. fello, strumae.

feall, treachery, Ir. feall, E. Ir. fell (*velno-, W. gwall, defect, Br. goall (do.), Cor. gal, malus, malum, Br. gwall (do.), root vel, cheat; Lit. ap-vilti, vilióti, cheat, Lett. wilát, deceitful; Norse vél, a deceit, wile, Eng. wile; Zend vareta, error. Stokes hesitates between the above and vel from u(p)el, Got. ubils, Eng. evil.

fealla-dhà, joking, irony: *feall+dhà, "double-dealing".

feallsanach, philosopher, Ir. feallsamhnach, feallsamh, philosopher, O. Ir. felsub; from Lat. philosophus.

feamach, groos, dirty (Sh., O'R.): from feam, tail, as in feaman.

feamainn, sea-weed, Ir. feamuin, E. Ir. femnach, W. gwymon, Fr. goëmon, *vit-s-máni-, root vi, vei, wind, as in fèith, vein? Stokes gives the stem as vemmâni- (vembani-?), which suggests *veℊvo-, root veℊ, as in feur.

feaman, a tail, Ir. feam, M. Ir. feam, mentula, Manx famman; also G. eaman, *engvo-, Lat. inguen, groin.

feann, flay:

feannadh, skinning, excessive cold; see fionnadh. The idea of "cold" is metaphorical. E. Ir. fennaim, I skin, is referred by Stokes to the root of Eng. wound: he gives the stem as *venvo-.

feannag, hooded crow, Ir. feannóg, fionnóg: cf. fionna, pile, for root: "piled crow"?

feannag, a lazy-bed; older fennoc, trench: from feann, flay.

fear, a man, Ir. fear, O. Ir. fer, W. gwr, O. W. gur, Corn. gur, Br. gour, *viro-s (Rhys thinks the Celtic start was ver: cf. W. gwr = ver, super, and G. eadh, O. Ir. ed = Lat. id, etc.): Lat. vir; Ag. S. wer, Norse verr, Eng. werwolf; Lit. wýras; Skr. vîra.

fearann, land, so Ir., E. Ir. ferand, also ferenn, a girdle, garter, root vera, enclose, look after; Skr. varaṇá, well, dam, vṛṇoti, cover, enclose; Gr. ἐρυσθαι, draw, keep; Ch. Sl. vrêti, claudere: further Lat. vereor, Eng. ware.

fearg, wrath, so Ir., E. Ir. ferg, O. Ir. ferc, ferg, *vergâ; Gr. ὀργή; root vergo, swell, be puffed up. Hence feargnadh, provocation.

feàrna, alder tree, Ir. fearn, fearnóg, E. Ir. fern, fernog, W. gwern, Corn. gwernen, Gaul. verno-, Fr. verne, *verno-; Gr. ἐρνια, wild figs (? Bez.).

feàrr, better, Ir. feárr, O. Ir. ferr, *vers, *ver(i)s, a comparative in -is from the prep. ver (= G. far, for, super); now comparative for math, but evidently once for fern, good, *verno-s, Lat. supernus (cf. -no- of magnus disappearing in major, and -ro- of Celtic mâros in G. ). Stokes refers ferr to vers, raise, *uersos-, height, top; Lat. verruca, steep place, Lit. wirzùs, top, Skr. varshman-, height, várshîyas, higher. Cf. W. goreu, best (= Lat. supremus).

feàrsaid, a spindle, Ir. fearrsaid, M. Ir. fersaid, *versatti-, *verttati-, W. gwerthyd, Cor. gurthit, O. Br. guirtilon, fusis, M. Br. guerzit, root vert, turn; Lat. vertô, vortex; Ger. werden, to be, Eng. worth, be, M.H.G. wirtel, spindle ring. Skr. vártate, turn, roll, vartulâ, spindle ball.

fearsaideag, thrift or sea gilly-flower; from ovs. fearsad, estuary, sand-bank, passage across at ebb-tide, whence place-name Fersit, and in Ireland Belfast; for root se feart.

feart, attention, notice; Br. gortos, to attend, root vert, vort; Ger. warten, attend, Eng. ward, from ware, Nor. varða, ward. An extension of root ver, watch, Lat. vereor, etc.

feart, a virtue, efficiency, deed, Ir. feart, O. Ir. firt, pl. ferta, W. gwyrth; from Lat. virtus (Windisch, Stokes).

feart, a grave, Ir. feart, O. Ir. fert, tumulus, *verto-; root ver, cover, enclose, which see under fearann. Cf. Skr. vṛti, enclosure, hedge.

fearthuinn, rain, Ir. fearthuinn, E. Ir. ferthain, inf. to feraim, I pour, give, *veraô, rain: Lat. ûrína, urine, Gr. οὖρον (do.): Norse úr, a drizzle, Ag. S. wär, sea; Skr. vā́ri, water, Zend, vâra, rain. See dòirt.

feascradh, shrivelling, so Ir. (O'R.):

feasd, am feasd, for ever, Ir. feasda, henceforward, E. Ir. festa, ifesta, now, from this point forward, i fecht-sa; from feachd by metathesis of the s. See fathast.

feasgar, evening, Ir. feascar, O. Ir. fescor, *vesqero-, W. ucher, *eksero- for *esqero-; Lat. vesper; Gr. ἑσπέρος.

feathachan, slight breeze; see feothachan.

féile, generosity, hospitality, Ir. féile, E. Ir. féle; from fial, q.v.†

féile, charm, incantation, E. Ir. éle, héle, mo fhele; from Norse heill, auspice, omen, Eng. hale, etc.; allied to O. Ir. cél, augurium, W. coel, omen, O. W. coil (Zim., Zeit.33 147). For G. féile, see Inv. Gaelic Soc. Tr. 17 243. Stokes regards Zimmer's derivation from N. a failure, and compares W. wylo, wail, weep, as Ir. amor, music = W. afar, grief, and G. ceòl = Ger. heulen, howl. Rhys cfs. W. eli, oil, ointment.

féile, féileadh, a kilt, E. Ir., O. Ir. fíal, velum: O. Ir. ronfeladar, he might clothe us; from Lat. vêlum, a covering, vêlare, Eng. veil. In Islay, Jura, etc., it is an t-sibhleadh. McL. and D. also give éibhleadh. Hend. questions if Lat. See uanfebli in Fled Br. 68. Root sveil as in fill, spaoil, etc?

féill, a fair, feast, Ir. féil, festival, holiday, O. Ir. féil, W. gwyl, festum, Br. goel, *vegli-; Lat. vigilia, Gr. veille, a watch, vigil, Eng. vigil, wake. The Celtic words are borrowed from Lat. (Windisch, Stokes). Hence féillire, an almanack.

féin, self, Ir., O. Ir. féin, *sve-j-sin, "self there", *sve-j, *sve, Pruss. swaiss, Ch. Sl. svojǐ; Lat. suus, ; Gr. , ὅς. Zeuss explains féin, as bé-shin, "quod sit hoc", being the verb to be. This explanation is due to the divers forms of the O. Ir. word for "self, selves": fésine (= bé-sin-é, sit id hoc), fésin, fadesin (= bad-é-sin), fodén, etc.

Féinn, g. Féinne, the Fingalians, Ir. Féinne, Fiann, E. Ir. fíann, *veinnâ, also E. Ir. fían, a hero, *veino-s, root vein, strive; Lat. vênari, hunt; Skr. vénati, go, move, desire. Zimmer takes the word from Norse fjándi, an enemy (Eng. fiend, which he supposes the Irish tropps called themselves after the Norsemen.

feirm, a farm, Ir. feilm; from m.Eng. ferme, Eng. farm.

féisd, féis, a feast; better feusd, q.v.

feith, wait, Ir. feithim, E. Ir. fethim, inf. fethem (= G. feitheamh), *vetô, root vet; Lat. vetus, old, Eng. veteran; Gr. ἔτος, year; Eng. wether ("yearling").

féith, a sinew, a vein, Ir., O. Ir. féith, fibra, *veiti-s, root vei, vi, wind, bend; Lat. vînem, with, vîtis, a vine; Gr. ἰτέα (long ι), willow; Eng. withe; Lit. výtis, willow-wand, Ch. Sl. viti, res torta; Skr. vayati, weave, flecto. The W. shows a stem *vittâ, vein, W. gwythen, Br. gwazen, Cor. guid-; cf. Lat. vitta, fillet. Hence féith, a bog channel (Ir. féth, a marsh, bog-stream), and feithleag, honeysuckle, M. Ir. feithlend, woodbine, W. gwyddfid (do.).

feitheid, a bird or beast of prey (M'A.), Ir. feithide, Ir. feithide, a beast:

feochadan, corn-thistle, thistle (Arm., H.S.D.), Ir. feochadan (O'R.), feóthadán (O'B.), and feóthán. Cf. fobhannan.

feòcullan, the pole-cat, Ir. feochullan (Fol., O'R. has feocullan like Sh.). Cf. Sc. fethok, fithowe, pole-cat, M. Eng. ficheu, now fitchew.

feobharan, pith, puff (feo'ran) - Dial.; feodharan, root, *vet, vetu-?

feobhas, goodness; see feabhas.

feòdar, pewter, Ir. péatar, W. ffeutar; from the Eng. pewter.

feodhaich, decay, Ir. feodhaim, M. Ir. feodaigim, wither: "senesco"; *vetu-, root vet, as in Lat. vetus, G. feith? O. Ir. feugud, W. gwyw, Lat. vietus; *vivagatu?

feòil, flesh, Ir. feoil, E. Ir. feóil, O. Ir. feúil, *vepoli-s; Skr. vapâ, fat, vápus, body, form?

feòirlig, a farthing land, feòirling; from Ag. S. feorþling, Eng. farthing.

feòirne, chess, Ir. feoirne (Sh., O'R., Fol.):

feòrag, a squirrel, Ir. feoróg (Sh., O'R., Fol.), W. gwiwer, Br. gwiber; Lit. voverė, Lettic wâweris, Pruss. weware; Lat. viverra, ferret (Pliny).

feòraich, inquire, fiafraigh (Kintyre Dial.), Ir. fiafruighim, O. Ir. iarfaigim: *iar-fach, prep. iar and fach, E. Ir. faig, dixit, *vakô, say; Lat. vocô, call, vox, voice; Skr. vac, say. The r of G. and modern Ir. has shifted to behind the f, while a prothetic f is added.

feòrlan, a firlot; see feòirling.

feothachan, feothan (Arran), a little breeze; root vet, as in onfhadh.

feuch, fiach, behold, see, try, Ir. feuch, féach, E. Ir. féchaim, fégaim, *veikô; Gr. εἰκών, image (Eng. iconoclastic), εὄικα, I seem, εἰκαζω, conjecture; Skr. vic̭, appear, arrive.

feud, may, can; see faod.

feudail, cattle; usual spelling of eudail, q.v.

feudar, 's fheudar, it is necessary, M. Ir. is eidir, it is possible, for is ed fhétir, it is what is possible. feudar is the pres. pass. of feud, may. In G. the "may" has become "must". The negative, cha 'n fheudar, is common in E. Ir. as ni fhétir, ni étir, cannot be.

feum, use, need, Ir. feidhm, pl. feidhmeanna, need, use, duty, need-service of a vassal, E. Ir. feidm, effort, *védes-men-, "need-service"; root ved, as in feadhainn. Hence feumannach, a steward: "a servitor".

feun, a waggon, wain, O. Ir. fén, W. cywain, vehere, *vegno-, root vegh, carry; Lat. veho, vehiculum, vehicle; Gr. ὄχος, chariot; Eng. waggon, wain; Skr. vahati, carry.

feur, fiar, grass, Ir. feur, O. Ir. fér, W. gwair, Cor. gwyr, *vegro-, I. E. root veℊ, increase, be strong; Lat. vegeo, quicken, vigor, vigour, Eng. vegetation; Ag. S. wacan, nasci, Eng. waken. Strachan and Stokes refer it to the root veℊ, uℊ, be wet, moist, Lat. uvidus, moist, Eng. humour, Gr. ὑγρός, wet, Norse vökr, moist; but judged by the Latin, the Celtic should be vebro-, which would not give W. gwair.

feursa, a canker, veursann, a worm in the hide of cattle:

feusag, fiasag, a beard, Ir. féusóg, féasóg, E. Ir. fésóc, beard, fés, hair, *vanso, O.Pruss., wanso, first beard, Ch. Sl. vasŭ, beard.

feusd, feusda, (féisd, féis), a feast, Ir. féis, feusda, E. Ir. feiss; from Lat. festia, Eng. feast.

feusgan, fiasgan, a mussel:

fhuair, found, invent, Ir. fuair, O. Ir. fúar, inveni, frith, inventus est, *vovora, root ver; Gr. εὗρον, I found, εὕρηκα (Strachan, Prellwitz). The root ver is likely that found in Gr. ὁράω, I see, Lat. vereor, Eng. ware.

fiabhras, a fever, Ir., M. Ir. fiabhrus; from Lat. febris.

fiacaill, a tooth, Ir., O. Ir. fiacail. There is an E. Ir. fec for féc, a tooth, a stem *veikkâ:

fiach, value, worth; see next.

fiach, fiachan, debt, value, Ir. fiach, O. Ir. fíach, *veico-, Lat. vices, change, Ger. wechsel, exchange, Skr. vishtí, changing, in turn (Osthoff). This is the right derivation.

fiadh, a deer, Ir. fiadh, E. Ir. fíad, O. Ir. fíadach, venatio, W. gwydd, Br. guez, goez, savage, *veido-s, wild; O. H. G. weide, a hunt, Ger. weide, pasturage, Norse veiðr, hunting; further is G. fiodh, wood, Eng. wood. Hence fiadhaich, wild.

fiadhaich, invite, welcome (Skye):

fiadhair, lay or fallow land; from the above root of fiadh. Cf. Ger. weide, pasture. Also G. fiadhain, wild, Ir. fiadháin, wild, uncultivated.

fial, generous, Ir. fial, E. Ir. fíal, modest, W. gwyl. Bez. suggests *veiplo-, Teutonic vîba-, Ger. weib, Eng. wife. Cf. Ir. fialus, relationship. The underlying idea is "kindness, relationship".

fiamh, awe, reverence, Ir. fiamh, fear, reverence, ugly, horrible, E. Ir. fiam, horrible:

fiamh, aspect, appearance, trace, Ir. fiamh, track, trace, chain, fíamh (O'Cl.) = lorg, E. Ir. fiam, a chain, *veimo-, root vei, wind, as in féith. fiamh ghàire, fèath ghaire (Arg.), a slight smile, is in Ir. fáetheadh an gháire, appearance of a smile, E. Ir. féth, aspect.

fianaidh, peat cart; carn-fianaidh (Ross); see feun.

Fiann, the Fingalians; see féinn. This is the real nom. case.

fiantag, the black heath-berr; root vein as in the above word.

fianuis, witness, a witness, Ir. fiadhnuise, fiadhan, a witness, O. Ir. fiadnisse, testimony, fiadu, acc. fiadain, testem, *veidôn, I. E. root veid, vid, know, see, as in fios, q.v.; Ag. S. witta, a witness, Eng. witness, root, wit, know.

fiar, crooked, Ir. fiar, E. Ir. fíar, W. gwyr, Gr. goar, gwar, *veiro-; root vei, wind as in féith; Eng. wire, Ag. S. wîr, wire.

fiat, fiata, wild; a participial formation from fiadh. Also fiadhta, so Ir.

fiatach, quiet and sly (Skye):

fiathail, calm; see .

fich, an interjetion denoting "nasty"! Eng. fie, Norse , Ger. pfui. Also Dial. fuich, fuidh, which leans on Norse fúi, rottenness ("Cha bhi fuidh ach far am bi fàile").

fichead, twenty, Ir. fiche, ar fhichid, O. Ir. fiche, g. fichet, W. ugeint, ugain, Cor. ugens, ugans, Br. ugent, *vikṇs, uikṇtos; Lat. vîginti; Gr. εἴκοσι; Zend vîçaiti.

fideadh, a suggestion (H.S.D.): *vid-dho-, root vid, wit.

fideag, a small pipe, reed, flute, Ir. fideóg; for root, see fead. Shaw also gives the meaning "small worm". M'L. has fìdeag.

fidean, a green islet or spit uncovered at high tide, web of sea-clam (Isles); from the N. fit, webbed foot of waterfowl, meadow land on the banks of firths or rivers, fitja, to web, Eng. fit.

fìdhleir, a fiddler; from fiodhull. Ir. fidiléir is Eng. fiddler directly borrowed. Hence G. fidleireachd, restlessness; "fiddling" about.

fidir, know, consider, Ir. fidir, knows, O. Ir. fetar, scio, fitir, novit, *viddetor, *vid-dho- (the -dho- as in creid, Windisch); root vid, see, as in fios. Thurneysen explains it as *videsar (aorist stem vides-) becoming vid-shar, but d-sh does not produce t or d without an n before it.

fige, figis, a fig, Ir. fíge; from Lat. fîcus, Eng. fig.

figh, weave, Ir. fighim, E. Ir. figim, O. W. gueig, testrix, W. gweu, to weave, Cor. guiat, tela, Br. twea, M. Br. tweaff, *vegiô; Ger wickeln, roll, wind, curl, wieche, wick, Eng. wick, Ag. S. wecca (Stokes). Usually referred to the root vei, vi, wind.

file, filidh, a poet, Ir. file, g. filidh, O. Ir. fili, g. filed, *velet-, "seer"; W. gwelet, to see, Br. guelet, sight, *velô. Cf. Norse völva, prophetess, sibyl. Old Germanic Veleda, a prophetess (Tacitus).

fill, fold, Ir. fillim, fold, return, O. Ir. fillim, flecto, *velvô; Lat. volvo, roll, volumen, Eng. volume; Gr. εἰλúω, envelop; Got. af-valvjan, roll away, Eng. wallow. Cf. W. olwyn, a wheel (Stokes). Windisch (Curt. Et.) suggests vald as root, allied to Norse velta, roll, Got. valtjan, Eng. welter, Ger. walze, roll, waltz. See especially till.

fillein, a collop: a "roll"; from fill.

fine, a tribe, kindred, Ir., O. Ir. fine, O. Br. coguenou, indigena, *venjâ, kinship; Norse vinr, a friend, Ag. S. wine, O. H. G. wini (do.); I. E. root ven, love, Lat. Venus, veneror, Eng. venerate, Skr. van, love.

fìnealta, fine, elegant, Ir. fínealta; cf. M. Ir. fín- in Fínscothach, fair-flowered, Fin-shnechta, bright-snow, root svén; Gr. ἠνοψ, bright (Stokes for M. Ir.).

finiche, jet (m`D., M'A.), finichd, black as jet (M'E.):

finid, end; from Lat. finit, the colophon of so may tales when written.

finideach, wise, so Ir. (Lh., Sh., H.S.D., which gives C. S. as authority):

finne, a maiden (Arm., M'A., M'E.): "fairness, beauty"; from fionn (*vindiâ).

finnean, a buzzard.

fìoch, wrath, Ir. fíoch, E. Ir. fích, feud, I. E. *veiqo-, fight; Got. veihan, strive, O. H. G. wîgan, fight; Lat. vinco. Hence fiochdha, angry.

fiodh, wood, so Ir., O. Ir. fid, W. guid, gwydd, gwydden (sing.), Corn. guiden, Br. gwezenn, tree, gwez, trees, Gaul. vidu- *vidu-; Eng. wood, Ag. S. wudu, O. H. G. witu. Hence †fiodhcheall, chess play, E. Ir. fidchell, W. gwyddbwyll, "wood-sense", from fiodh and ciall. Also fiodhag, wild fig, fiodhan, cheese-vat.

fiodhradh, an impetuous rush forward (Heb.):

fodhull, a fiddle, E. Ir. fidil, from Low Lat. vitula, whence Fr. viola, Eng. viol, violin. Cf. Eng. fiddle, from Med.Lat. fidula, Lat. fidis.

fioghuir, a figure, Ir. fíoghair, M. Ir. figur; from Lat. figura.

fiolagan, a field-mouse (Arran.):

fiolan, fiolar, an earwig, nesscock, W. chwil, beetle, chwiler, maggot, Br. c'houil; Gr. σίλφη, cockroach, Eng. sylph. Cf. feallan.

fiomhalach, a giant (Sh.); from fiamh.

fìon, wine, Ir. fíon, O. Ir. fín, W., Cor., Br. gwin; from Lat. vinum.

fìonag, a mite, insect, a miser, Ir. fineóg, a mite in cheese, etc.:

fionn, white, Ir. fionn, O. Ir. find, W. gwyn, Corn. guyn, Br. gwenn, Gaul. vindo-, *vindo-, a nasalised form of root vid, veid, see, as in fios. Cf. Servian vidný, clear.

fionn-, to, against, Ir. fionn-, ionn-, O. Ir. ind-; see ionn-.

fionna, fionnadh, hair, pile, Ir. fionnadh, E. Ir. finda, findfad, O. Ir. finnae, pilorum, *ves-niâ, root ves, clothe, Lat. vestis, Eng. vestment. Stokes has compared it to Lat. villus, hair, which he takes from *vin-lus, but which is usually referred to the root vel of vellus, lana, etc. The -fad of E. Ir. is for *vida, aspect, W. gwedd, root vid, see.

fionnachd, refreshment: "coolness", *ionn-fhuachd: cf. fionnar.

fionnan-feòir, grasshopper, Ir. finnín feoir (O'R.):

fionnairidh, a watching: *ind-faire; see fionn-, to, and faire.

fionnar, cool, Ir. fionnfhuar, M. Ir. indfhuar; from fionn-, and fuar.

fionnas-gàrraidh, parsley (M'L.):

fionndairneach, randk grass, downy beard (H.S.D.):

fionndruinne, (white) bronze, E. Ir. findruine, white bronze: *find(b)ruine (Hend.), Eng. bronze.

fionnogha, grandson's grandson, Ir. fionnúa; from fionn-, ad-, and ogha.

fionnsgeul, a romance, Ir. finnsgeul; from fionn- and sgeul: ande-sqetlon.

fìor, true, Ir. fíor, O. Ir. fír, W. gwir, O.W. guir, Br. gwir, *vêro-; Lat. vêrus; Ger. wahr. Root ver, vor, var, see, as in Eng. beware, ward. Before the noun the word is fìr. Hence fìrean, righteous man, O. Ir. fírian, W. gwirion, *vêriâno-s.

fios, knowledge, Ir. fios, O. Ir. fiss, *vid-tu-, root vid, veid, know; Lat. video, see; Gr. εἶδον, ἰδεῖν, saw, οἶδα, know, Got. vitan, watch, Eng. wit; Skr. vid, know, vetti, to know. Hence fiosrach, knowing.

fir-chlis, the northern lights; see fear and clis.

fir-chneatain, backgammon men:

fire faire, interjection—"what a pother"; from the Sc. fiery-fary, bustle.

fireach, hill ground, mountain: cf. fearann, root *ver.

firead, a ferret, Ir. firéad; from the Eng.

fireun, an eagle, Ir. fír-én: "true-bird"; from fìor and eun. So in E. Ir. fír-iasc is the salmon. So in Reay Country (Rob.).

firionn, male, so Ir.; E. Ir. firend; from fear.

fise faise, interjection—noise of things breaking, talking secretly.

fitheach, a raven, Ir., O. Ir. fiach; this is a dissylable, *vivo-ko-; the phonetics being those of biadh. Stokes gives *veijako-s or *veivako-s. It is still distantly allied to Ger. weihe.

fithreach, dulse, so Ir. (Lh., O'B., etc.):

fiù, worthy, Ir. fiú, O. Ir. fiú, W. gwiw, Cor. guiu, O.Br. uuiu, Gaul. vesu-, *vesu-, vêsu-, good; Skr. vásu, good; root ves, be, Eng. was. Some give *visu (*vîsu-) as the stem, Gr. ἴσος, like (= visvo-s), Skr. vishu, æque. Hence fiùbhaidh, a prince, valiant chief, Ir. fiúbhas, dignity; also fiùghanta, generous, Ir. fiughantach, fiúntach (Keat.), worthy.

fiughair, expectation, E. Ir. fiugrad, praedicere; from Lat. figura. Ir. has fíoghair, figure, fashion, sign.

fiùran, a sapling, Ir. fiúrán (Sh., O'R., Fol.):

fiùthaidh (fiùbhaidh), an arrow; see iùthaidh).

flaiche, a sudden gust of wind (Sh., O'R.):

flaitheanas, heaven, glory, flaitheas, sovereignty, Ir. flaitheamhnus, O. Ir. flaithemnas, gloria; from flaithem, lord, g. flaitheman; see flath.

flann, red, blood-red, so Ir., E. Ir. fland, blood, red: vl-ando-, root vol of fuil, q.v.
flasg, a flask, W. fflasg; from the Eng.

flath, a chief, prince, Ir. flaith, O. Ir. flaith, chief, dominion, flaithem(an), chief (*vlatimon-), W. gwlad, region, M.W. gulatic, rex, Corn. gulat, patria, Br. gloat, realm, Gaul. vlatos, *vlato-s, *vlati-s, root vala, vla, be strong; Lat. valere, Eng. valid; Got. valdan, Ger. walten, rule, Eng. weild, Walter; Ch. Sl. vladą, rule, Russ. vladiete, rule, O. Pruss. waldnika-, king. Also *valo-s as the final element of certain personal names—Domhnall, *Dumno-valo-s (see domhan), Conall, *Kuno-valo-s (*kuno-s, high, root ku, as in curaidh, q.v., Teutonic Hûn-, Humbold, Humphrey, Hunwald, etc.), Cathal, *Katu-valo-s (see cath), etc.

fleachdail, flowing in ringlets (H.S.D., from MSS.); from Lat. plecto, plait.

fleadh, a feast, Ir. fleadh, O. Ir. fled, W. gwledd, O. W. guled, pompae, *vḷdâ, root vel, wish; Gr. εἰλαπίνη, feast, ἒλδομαι, wish, ἐλπίς, hope; Lat. voluptas; Eng. will, well.

fleadhadh, brandishing; Eng. wield; see flath.

fleasg, a rod, wreath, Ir. fleasg, garland, wand, sheaf, O. Ir. flesc, rod, linea, *vleska, from *vledska, root vḷd; Ger. wald, wood, Eng. wold; Gr. ἄλσος, grove; Ch. Sl. vladi, hair. From the Celtic comes the Fr. flèche, arrow, whence Eng. Fletcher, arrow-maker. See fleisdear.

fleasgach, young man, bachelor, so Ir., M. Ir. flesgach: "wand-bearer". From fleasg, above. The Ir. fleasgaigh ealadhna, itinerant medicine men, carried fleasgan to denote their profession.

fleasgairt, a barge or boat hung with festoons; from fleasg.

fleisdear, arrow-maker; from Sc. fledgear, M. Eng. flecchere, now fletcher, from O. Fr. flechier. See fleasg further.

fleodradh, floating (Heb.), fleodruinn, a buoy; from Norse fljóta, to float, Eng. float.

fleogan, an untidy, flabby person, a flat fish (Arms.), fleoidhte, flaccid (Sh.):

fliodh, chickweed, a wen, Ir. fliodh, fligh, chickweed, W. gwlydd, chickweed, soft stems of plants, *vḷdu-. Same root as in fleasg.

fliuch, wet, Ir., O. Ir., fliuch, W. gwlyb, O. W. gulip, Corn. glibor, humor, Br. gloeb, wet, *vḷqu-s, wet; Lat. liquidus (= fliquidus); Lit. wa'lks, wet, wa'lka, swampy place. See failc.

flò, hallucination (H.S.D. for N. H.):

flod, a state of floating; from Eng. float, Norse floti, a raft.

flodach, lukewarm; see plodadh.

flùr, plùr, flower, Ir. plúr, M. Ir. plúr; from the M. Eng. flour, O. Fr. flour, Lat. florem, G. flùr is from the Scotch.

fo, under, Ir., O. Ir. fo, W. go-, O. W. guo-, Cor. go-, Cor., Bret. gou-, Gaul. vo-: *vo, for *u(p)o; I. E. upo; Gr. ὑπό; Lat. s-ub; Got. uf; Skr. upa, hither.

, brink (Carm.):

fobhannan (fòthannan), a thistle, Ir. fóbhthán, fóthannán, E. Ir. omthann, *omo-tanno-, "raw or rough twig"? See amh and caorrunn. Dial. fonntan (Arran).

focal, word; see facal.

fochaid, scoffing, Ir. fochmhuid, fochuidbheadh, M. Ir. fochmaid, E. Ir. fochuitbiud, *fo-con-tib-, root teb, smile, O. Ir. tibiu, laugh; Lit. stebiü*s, be astonished.

fochair, presence, am fochar, coram, Ir., M. Ir. fochair: *fo-char, car being cor, put.

fochann, young corn in the blade, Ir. fochan, M. Ir. fochon; *vo-kuno? Root kun, ku, increase, Gaul. cuno-, high, etc. See curaidh.

fód, a peat, turf, Ir. fód, O. Ir. fót: *vonto-?

fodar, fodder, Ir. fodar; from the Eng. fodder.

fògair, expel, banish, Ir. fógair, command, proclaim, O. Ir. fócairim (do.), fócre, monitio: *fo-od-gar-; root gar of goir.

fogh, quiet, careless (Stew.):

foghail, a hostile incursion, Ir. foghail, E. Ir. fogal; *fo-gal: root gal, valour, war. See gal.

foghail, fòghail, noise, bustle, merriment; for first sense, see foghair, for second, see othail.

foghainteach, valorous, Ir. fóghainteach, good, fit, serviceable, fóghaint, ability: "capable"; from foghainn, suffice. See fòghnadh. Ir. foghaintidhe, a servant.

foghair, a sound, tone, so Ir., O. Ir. fogur, sonus: *fo-gar-; root gar of goir. Strachan makes the root part fog, and refers it to fuaim, q.v.

foghar, harvest, Ir. fóghmhar, M. Ir. fogamur, autumn, E. Ir. fogamur, fogomur, last month of autumn: *fo-gamur, the gamur being from the root of geamhradh, winter, q.v. The idea is "sub hiemem". Cf. W. cynauaf, harvest, O. W. kynnhaeaf, from cyn, before, and gauaf, winter.

fòghlum, learning, Ir. fóghluim, O. Ir. foglaim, vb. fogliunn: *vo-glendô, *glendô, make clear; Eng. glance, Ger. glanz, splendour; Ch. Sl. ględati, show.

fòghnadh, sufficiency, service, Ir. foghnamh, O. Ir. fognam, service; from fo and gnìomh, deed.

foichein, a wrapper, infant's clout:

foichlean, a sprout, young corn (Arm.), faichean (Arg.), Ir. foichnín; see fochann.

fóid, a peat; see fód.

fòidheach, a beggar; see faoighe.

foidhearach, naked (H.S.D., Dial.):

foidhidinn, patience, Ir. foighid, O. Ir. foditiu, toleratio (*vo-dam-tin-), vb. fodamim, patior, root dam; Lat. domo, I tame, subdue; Gr. δαμάω (do.); Eng. tame; Skr. dâmyati, tame.

foighnich, ask; see faighnich. Also, more Dialectic, foinich.

foil, macerate, broil; see fail. Hence foileag, a cake suddenly and imperfectly toasted.

foil, pig-stye; see fail.

fòil, slow, stately, fòill, composure, Ir. fòil, fóill, softly! a while, M. Ir. co fóill, slowly, for a while, E. Ir. co foill, slowly:

foileadh, slow development:

foill, treachery, O. Ir. foile, astutia. G. is for *volni-, Ir. for *foliâ, both side-forms to feall, treachery, q.v.

foillsich, reveal, O. Ir. foillsigim *svolnestikiô; see follus.

foinich, ask; see faighnich.

foinne, a wart, Ir. faine, faithne, W., Cor. gwenan, blister, Br. gwennhaenn, a wart; Eng. wen, Ag. S. wenn (Ern.).

foinneamh, foinidh, handsome, genteel; cf. next word, also Lat. vinnulus, delightful, root ven, as in G. fine, etc.

foinnich, temper, Ir. foinnim, temper, knead, foinnighte, tempered, kneaded. Cf above word.

foir-, prefix meaning "super", same as for-: see far, air(b).

fòir, help, Ir. fóir (vb. and n.), E. Ir. foriuth, I. help, O. Ir. don-fóir, to help us: *vo-ret-; root ret of ruith, run. For force, cf. furtachd. The W. gwared, release, Br. goret, are of like elecents. Similarly foirbheart (an Ir. word really), assistance, is from foir- and beir.

foirbhillidh, acceptable (M'D); from for and bail, good?

foirceadal, foircheadal, instruction, catechism, Ir. foircheadal, O. Ir. forcital, doctrina, vb. forchun, doceo: *for-can-; root can, say, sing. See can.

foireann, foirionn, a band, crew, Ir. fuirionn, E. Ir. fairenn, O. Ir. foirinn, O. W. querin, W. gwerin, people, M. Br. gueryn, *vorênâ, *vorinni-, multitude, root ver, enclose; Ag. S. vorn, multitude, caterva; Lit. worà, long row in Indian file; Skr. vrā/, troop, company. See fearann.

foirfe, perfect, Ir. foirfe, complete, old, O. Ir. foirbthe, pefectus, forbe, perfectio, vb. forbanar, perficitur, forfenar, consummatus: *for-ben-; root ven, va, go (Lat. venio, Gr. βαίνω, ἔβην, practically a verb "to be" (Stokes Neo-Celtic Verb. Subst.).

fòirin, assistance, E. Ir. inf.dat. foirithin; see fòir.

foirinn, border land (Cam.)

foirm, noise; side form of toirm?

fòirmeil, brisk, lively (Sh., etc.): from Eng. formal (Rob.).

foirmeilich, formalists.

fòirne, a band, dwellers, Ir. foirne (O'B.); an oblique form of foireann, g. foirne.

fòirneadh intruding; see teirinn, teàrnadh.

fòirneis, a furnace; see fùirneis.

foirneata, conspicuously brave; see niata.

fois, rest, Ir. fois, O. Ir. foss, residence, remaining, rest, W. ar-os; *voss-; root ves, be, rest; Gr. ἄστυ, city (*vastus); Skr. vástu, place; Lat. Vesta; Eng. was, Ger. wessen, be, Got. visa, remain. So all etymologists till Windisch (1892) suggested the root stâ, tat is *vo-sto-. Stokes still holds by old (1903). Hence foisdin, taciturnity, Ir. foisdine.

foisteadh, wages, hire, Ir. foistighim, I hire; M. Ir. foss, servant, W. gwas (Eng. vassal); from the same root as fois. Also fasdadh.

folach, covering, hiding; see falach.

fòlach, rank grass growing on dunghills; *vog-lo-, root, vog, veg of feur.

folachd, a feud, bloodiness; see fuil.

folachdain, water-parsnip (H.S.D. quotes only O'B.), Ir. folachtain:

follas, publicity, follaiseach, public, Ir. follus, public, manifest, O. Ir. follus, clear, shining, manifest, *svolnestu-s; see solus.

fonn, land, Ir. fonn, E. Ir. fond; from Lat. fundus, which, again, is connected with G. bonn, q.v.

fonn, a tune, Ir. fonn, tune, desire, delight, M. Ir. adbonn, a strain; *svonno-, root sven, sound, Lat. sonus, Eng. sound. See seinn.

fonnsair, a trooper (M'A.):

for-, super-, Ir., O. Ir. for-; prep. for, for which see far, air(b).

forach, forch, projection into the sea (Carm.):

forail, command, Ir. foráilim. See earail for formation and root.

forair, watch, Ir. foraire; from for and aire.

forasda, sedate, so Ir.; see farasda, in the sese of "staid".

forbhas, ambush (Sh., H.S.D., which quotes Lh. and C. S.), Ir. forbhas, E. Ir. forbas, siege:

forc, a fork, Ir. forc, E. Ir. forc (= gobul); for Lat. furca, Eng. fork.

forc, push (especially if legs are forked), pitch with a fork; from forc, fork.

forfhais, Mforas, information, inquiry, Ir. foras, E. Ir. foras, forus, true knowledge: *for-fiss, from fiss or fios, knowledge, q.v. foras feasa, "basis of knowledge".

forgan, keenness, anger; from a side-form forg (*vorg) of fearg?

fòrlach, a furlogh; from the Eng.

forluinn, spite, hatred (H.S.D.), Ir., M. Ir. forlonn; from for and lonn, fierce.

forman, a mould, Ir. formán; from Lat. forma.

forradh, gain (H.S.D.), excrescence, shift (M'E.); from for and rath? See rath.

forsair, a forester; from the English.

fortail, strong, hardy, (an Ir. word clearly), Ir. foirteamhail, fortail, brave, stout, E. Ir. fortail, predominant, strong; from Lat. fortis.

fortan, fortune, Ir. fortún; from Lat. fortuna.

fortas, litter, refuse of cattle's food, orts; from the Eng. orts. Lh. has an Ir. fortas, straw.

fòs, yet, still, Ir. fós, M. Ir. fós, beos, O. Ir. beus, beius. Stokes makes it a comparative in s from beo-, allied to Lat. beô, gladden, be-ne, well.

fosg, fosgag, the lark (Carm.):

fosgail, open, so Ir., E. Ir. oslaicim: *f-od-as-leic; Gaelic root leic or leig, let. See leig and cf. tuasgail.

fosgarach, open, frank:

fosglan, porch (Carm.):

fosradh, pounded bark (or anything) to stop leaks; cf. Ir. fosradh, scattering, from *vo-ster-, root ster, strew.

fosradh, hand feeding of cattle (Heb.):

fothach, the glanders in horses, Ir. fothach, fóthach:

fòtus, a flaw, refuse (M'A. says "rotten pus", and gives fòt, rotten earth): from Sc. faut, as in fabhd.

frabhas, refuse, small potatoes (Arg.):

frachd, freight; from Sc. fraught, Eng. freight.

fradharc, vision, sight, Ir. rádharc, E. Ir. rodarc: *ro-darc; root derk, see, as in dearc, q.v.

fraigein, a brisk, warlike fellow; see frogan.

fraigh, wattled partition, E. Ir. fraig: *vragi-, root verg; Skr. vraja, hurdle; Gr. εἰργω, shut in.

fraileach, sea-weed (Sh., O'R.):

frangalus, tansy; lus na Fraing (Cameron), the French herb; from Fraing, France. Ir. lus na bhfhrancach, M. Ir. frangcan, tansy (St.).

fraoch, heather, Ir. fraoch, O. Ir. froech, W. grug, Cor. grig, M. Br. groegon, *vroiko-; Gr. ἐρείκη. Hence G. fraoch, wrath, Ir. fraoch, E. Ir. fraech, furor.

fraochan, toe-bit of shoe; "heather-protector", from fraoch?

fraoidhnidh, flourishing:

fraoidhneis, froinis, a fringe; from the Eng.

fraoileadh, a flustering by liquor; Dial. sraoileadh:

fraon, a place of shelter in the mountains (Sh., O'R.), fraoinibh (D.Bàn):

fras, a shower, Ir. fras, E. Ir. frass, *vrastâ; Gr. ἔρση, dew; Skr. farsham, rain.

freagair, answer, Ir. freagairim, E. Ir. frecraim: *frith-gar-, root gar of goir.

freasdal, serving, attending, Ir. freasdail, O. Ir. frestal, fresdel: *fris-do-el-; for root see fritheil. Dr Cameron referred it to fris and tal, which see in tuarastal.

freiceadan, a guard, watch: *frith-coimhead-an; from coimhead, guard, look, q.v.

freiteach, a vow, interdictory resolution, E. Ir. fretech, fristoing, repudiation, renunciation, O. Ir. fristossam, renuntiaverimus; root tong, tog, swear, Lat. tongeo, think, Eng. think. Stokes gives the final root as tag, take, Lat. tangere. Ir. tong, swear, is allied to W. tyngu.

freòine, fury, rage:

freothainn, bent-grass (Arg.):

freumh, friamh, a root, Ir. fréamh, E. Ir. frém, W. gwraidd, gwreiddyn, Cor. grueiten, Br. grisienn, *vṛd-mâ, *vṛdjo-, *vṛdnu-: Lat. radix, root; Gr. ῥίζα; Got. vaurts, Eng. wort, root.

frìde, a tetter, ring-worm, M. Ir. frigde, flesh-worm, E. Ir. frigit, W. gwraint, M. Br. gruech, *vṛgṇtiâ, root verg; Eng. wriggle.

frìdeam, support, attention:

frighig, fry; from the Eng. frying.

friochd, a second dram, a nip:

friochdan, a frying pan, Ir. friochtán; cf. Ir. friochtalaim, I fry. From fry of the Eng.

frioghan, friodhan, a bristle, pig's bristle; M. Ir. frighan i. guairech muc; root vṛg as in fraigh? Cf. W. gwrych, hedge, bristles, *vṛg-ko-. Hence frioghail, sharp, keen.

frionas, fretfulness: *friogh'n-as, "bristlines"; from frioghan.

friotach, fretful (Stew.); see frith, wour look.

frith, an incantation to discover if far-away persons live (Heb.), fate (Sh., O'R.); from the Nrose frétt, enquiry of the gods about the future, Sc. fret, freit.

frith, frioth, small, trifling (Sh., O'R.), which M'A. says antecedes the noun, is the prep. frith or ri.

frith, a sour or angry look (A.M'D.), frithearachd, peevishness, Ir. frithir, peevish: *vṛti-; root of ri "against"?

frìth, a forest, deer forest, Ir. frith, wild, mountainous place, W. ffridd, forest; from M. Eng. frið, deer park, Ag. S. frið.

frith-, fre-, freas-, prefix = prep. ri by force and derivation; which see.

fritheil, attend, Ir. friotholaim (Con. friothólaim), E. Ir. frithailim, root -al- (Ascoli), go; root al, el, eln of tadhal, q.v.

frithir, earnest, eager (Stew.), Ir. frithir, earnest, peevish; cf. frith, sour look.

fròg, a hole, fen, den, ròg (Suth.).

frogan, liveliness, a slight degree of drunkenness:

froighnighe, a dampness oozing through the wall; from fraigh and snighe.

froineadh, a sudden tugging, rushing at (M'D.):

froìnis, a fringe; see fraoidhneis.

fròmhaidh, hoarse, rough:

fruan, acclivity (Carm.):

fuachd, cold, so Ir., O. Ir. uacht, ócht, *aukto-; Lettic auksts, cold (adj.), Lit áuszti, cold, be cold.

fuadaich, drive away, Ir. fuadaighim, drive away, snatch away, E. Ir. fúataigm: *fo-od-tech(?); see teich. Hence fuadan, wandering.

fuadarach, hasty, in a hurry (Stew., Arm. and H.S.D.), Ir. fuadar, haste; from fuad- of fuadaich? Cf. Sc. foutre

fuagarthach, exiled; see fògair.

fuaidne, loose pins of warping stakes. Cf. O. Ir. fuat.

fuaigh, stitch, fuaigheal, sewing, so Ir., E. Ir. fúagaim, úagaim, O. Ir. úaimm (n.): +out-s-men-; root poug, pug, stitch, stick; Lat. pungo, Eng. punch. Zimmer (in 1882), referred it to the root of òigh, the idea being "integrate", from óg, uag, "integer". O. Ir. óigthidi, sartores.

fuaim, noise, so Ir., E. Ir. fúaimm (pl. fuamand). Neither *vog-s-men (Strachan; root vog of Skr. vagnú, sound, Got. vôpjan, cry, Eng. whoop) nor *voc-s-men (Stokes; root voq, voice, Lat. voco) can give ua, only ŏ or ă.

fuaithne, loom posts (Uist), Ir. uaithne, pillar, post, E. Ir. úatne, a post (bed post). So Henderson; fùidne (Wh.):

fual, urine, so Ir., O. Ir. fúal: *voglo- or *voblo-; root voℊ, veℊ, uℊ, be wet; Gr. ὑγρός, wet, Eng. hygrometer; Lat. humidus, uveo, (for ugveo), be moist, Eng. humour; Norse vökva, moisture.

fuar, cold, Ir. fuar, E. Ir. uar, W. oer, Cor. oir; *ogro-, root ug, aug, of fuacht, q.v. Stokes refers it to the root veℊ, uℊ, discussed under fual, especially Gr. ὑγρός, wet; a root which would rather be vob in Celtic (cf. Lat.), and this would not give W. oer. Strachan suggests either Ch. Sl. ognǐ, fire (Lat. ignis), or Gr. πάγος, frost (root pâg, fix, fit). Hence fuaradh, windward side, fuaran, a well, fuarraidh, damp, fuarralanach (Ir. fuarálach, chill), cold feeling, etc.; fuar bhalla, an outside wall; fuar-shlat, the rough strong hoop used to bend in staves at the end of casks (Wh.).

fuasgail, loose, untie, so Ir., E. Ir. fuaslaicim; see tuasgail.

fuath, hatred, so Ir., M. Ir. fúath; cf. E. Ir. uath, awe, terror, terrible, and see uath for root.

fuath, a spectre, so Ir., O. Ir. fúath, figura, forma:

fùcadh, fulling cloth, M. G. owkkit (D. of L.), Ir. úcaire, fuller; cf. pùc.

fudag, a shoe-strap (H.S.D. says Dial.):

fudaidh, mean, vile; from Sc. footy, fouty.

fùdar, powder, Ir. púdar; from the Eng.

fùdraic, smart, in good condition:

fuidh! an interjection. See fich.

fuidheall, remainder, Ir. fuigheall, O. Ir. fuidell, W. gweddill; also G. fuidhleach, remains, E. Ir. fuidlech: *vodilo-, dîl, allied to Eng. deal, dole, Ger. teil (St. with query).

fuidir, a fool (Carm.):

fùidreadh, commixing, pulverising; from fùdar. Dial. fùdradh, turning hay in the sunshine to dry it.

fùidsidh, craven; from Sc. fugie, one who flies from the fight.

fuigheag, a thrum, Ir. fughóg; from a short vowel form of root of fuaigh.

fuil, blood, Ir., O. Ir. fuil, gen. fola, folo: *voli-, root vol, vel, well; Eng. well. Stokes agrees.

fuilear, cha 'n fhuilear dhomh, I need, must; for furail, O. Ir. foráil, excessive injunction, infliction, same root as earail.

fuilig, fuiling, fulaing, suffer (thou), Ir. fulangaim, E. Ir. fulangim, O. Ir. fuloing, sustinet, inf. fulang: "under-go"; from fo and *long, going, root leng, spring, go, as in leum, q.v. Further allied is Ger. verlangen, desire, Eng. long, Lat. longus.

fuin, bake, Ir. fuinim, I knead, bake, boil, E. Ir. fuinim, bake, cook. Zimmer takes the word to mean "to fire, bake", from the Norse funi, flame, fire, E. Ir. oc-fune = Norse við funa, a-roasting; but unlikely. Possibly *voni-, "dress", root ven, von, Lat. Venus, Eng. venerate.

fuirbidh, a strong man, also fuirbearnach; compounds of and beir, with for, super.

fuirearadh, a parching of corn; see eararadh.

fuirich, stay, Ir. fuirighim, E. Ir. fuirigim, noun fuirech, O. Ir. fuirset (s future): *vo-reg; root reg, stretch, go; Lat. porrigo, rego. See rach.

fuirm, stools, a form, Ir. fuirm, W. ffurf; from Eng. form.

fùirneis, fòirneis, a furnace, Ir. furnéis; from the Eng.

fuithein, fuifein, a galling, taking off the skin by riding (M'D.): fo-bian?

fulaing (vb.), fulang (n.); see fuilig.

fulaisg, rock; from fo+luaisg, q.v.

fulbh, gloom (Arg.); see suilbh.

fulmair, a species of petrel, fulmar; from Sc., Eng. fulmar.

fulpanachd, articulation, jointing (Sh., O'R., H.S.D.); cf. alp.

funntainn, benumbment by cold; see punntuinn. Sc. fundy.

furadh, parching corn (Carm.), also furaradh. See fuirearadh.

furail, incitement, command, Ir. furáil, E. Ir. uráil, furáil, O. Ir. iráil; the same as earail, q.v.

furan, a welcome, Ir. furán, foran (Connaught); root ver, as in E. Ir. feraim fáilti, I welcome. The root means in E. Ir. "give rain" (see fearthuinn). The root of fhuair seems mixed with that of fearthuinn. See fearthuinn.

furas, patience: *f-air-asta, asta (standing, staying) being for ad-sta-, ad and sta, stand.

furasda (furas), easy, easier, Ir. furas, furasda, E. Ir. urusa: *air-usa, from usa, easier, q.v.

furbaidh, wrath (Sh., O'R.), furban (H.S.D., from MSS); see fuirbidh.

furbhailt, furailt, courtesy, kindly reception; also furmailt. For the latter Armstrong gives "ceremony" as force, which may be from Eng. formality. The words, otherwise, seem from for-fàilte.

furm, a stool; see fuirm.

fùrlaich, hate, detest (Arms.), revolt against (Rob.):

furtachd, relief, help, so Ir., O. Ir. fortacht (gen. in -an): *for-tiacht; for Gaelic root tiagh, tigh, see tighinn.

fusgan, a heather brush; cf. Sc. whisker, a bunch of feathers for sweeping, Eng. whisk.

futhar, the dog-days; from Sc. fure-days.