Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography/Cushing, Caleb

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CUSHING, Caleb, statesman, b. in Salisbury, Mass., 17 Jan., 1800; d. in Newburyport, Mass., 2 Jan., 1879. He was graduated at Harvard in 1817, and for two years was a tutor in mathematics and natural philosophy. He then studied law, was admitted to the bar, and settled in Newburyport. He rose rapidly in his profession, and, although busily engaged with his practice, found time to devote to literature and politics, and was a frequent contributor to periodicals. In 1825 he was elected a representative to the lower house of the Massachusetts legislature, and in 1826 a member of the state senate. At this time he belonged to the then republican party. In 1829 Mr. Cushing visited Europe, and remained abroad two years. In 1833 he was again elected a representative from Newburyport to the Massachusetts legislature for two years, but in 1834 was elected from the Essex north district of Massachusetts a representative to congress, and served for four consecutive terms, until 1843. He supported the nomination of John Quincy Adams for the presidency, and was a whig until the accession of John Tyler. When the break in the whig party occurred, during the administration of President Tyler, Mr. Cushing was one of the few northern whigs that continued to support the president, and became classed as a democrat. Soon afterward he was nominated for secretary of the treasury, but the senate refused to confirm him. He was subsequently confirmed as commissioner to China, and made the first treaty between that country and the United States. On his return he was again elected a representative in the Massachusetts legislature. In 1847 he raised a regiment for the Mexican war at his own expense, became its colonel, and was subsequently made brigadier-general. While still in Mexico he was nominated by the democratic party of his state for governor, but failed in the election. From 1850 till 1852 he was again a member of the legislature of his native state, and, at the expiration of his term, was appointed associate justice of the state supreme court. In 1853 President Pierce appointed him U. S. attorney-general, from which office he retired in 1857. In 1857, 1858, and 1859 he again served in the legislature of Massachusetts. In April, 1860, he was president of the Democratic national convention in Charleston, S. C., and was among the seceders from that body who met in Baltimore. At the close of 1860 he was sent to Charleston by President Buchanan, as a confidential commissioner to the secessionists of South Carolina; but his mission effected nothing. Mr. Cushing was frequently employed during the civil war in the departments at Washington, and in 1866 was appointed one of the three commissioners to revise and codify the laws of congress. In 1868 he was sent to Bogotá to arrange a diplomatic difficulty. In 1872 he was one of the counsel for the United States at the Geneva conference for the settlement of the Alabama claims, and in 1873 was nominated for the office of chief justice of the United States; but the nomination was subsequently withdrawn. A year later he was nominated and confirmed as minister to Spain, whence he returned home in 1877. His publications include a “History of the Town of Newburyport” (1826); “The Practical Principles of Political Economy” (1826); “Historical and Political Review of the Late Revolution in France” (2 vols., Boston, 1833); “Reminiscences of Spain” (2 vols., Boston, 1833); “Growth and Territorial Progress of the United States” (1839); “Life of William H. Harrison” (Boston, 1840); and “The Treaty of Washington” (New York, 1873).

CUSHING, Frank Hamilton, ethnologist, b. in Northeast, Erie co.. Pa., 22 July, 1857. He manifested in early childhood a love for archjeolog- ical pursuits, and at the age of eight years began to collect fossils and minerals, made a complete Indian costume, and lived in a bark hut in the woods. He learned from observation that wherever Indian encampments had been long established the soil and vegetation had undergone a change, which materially assisted him in his search for relics. At the age of fifteen he had discovered the process of making arrow-heads from flint by pressure with bone. In 1870 his father removed to Medina, N. Y., where the son's researches found new ground and a greater wealth of material. In the town of Shelby were ancient remains of fortifications rich in relics, and they, with ancient fortifications, burial-grounds, and camp sites in the counties of Madison and Onondaga, were carefully searched, as well as the Hamilton group of rocks. In the spring of 1875 he became a student in Gornell university, but spent most of his time as assistant to Dr. Gharles Rau in the preparation of the Indian collections of the National museum for the Gentennial exposition at Philadelphia, and was curator of the entire col- lection until the close of the exhibition, when he was appointed curator of the ethnological depart- ment of the National museum. During the sum- mer of 1876 he gained his first knowledge of the Pueblo Indians, and joined Maj. J. W. Powell in his expedition of 1879 to New Mexico, as assist- ant ethnologist of the U. S. bureau of ethnology, of the Smithsonian institution. The expedition spent two months among the Zuiii Indians, and Mr. Gushing, at his own request, was left there. He adopted the costume, habits, and life of the race, and for three years lived strictly the life of an Indian among the Indians, studying their hab- its, language, and history. During the second year of his sojourn he had so far made himself one of the tribe, and gained the esteem of the chiefs, that he was formally adopted and initiated into the sacred esoteric society of priests, the " Priesthood of the Bow." In 1883 he visited the east with a party of six Zuhis, who came for the purpose of taking water from the Atlantic ocean, or " Ocean of Sunrise," as a religious ceremony, and carrying it to their temple in the Pueblos. Four of the Zunis returned, while Mr. Gushing remained with the other two during the summer in Washington, for the purpose of writing, with their aid, his con- tribution to the bureau of ethnology on Zuili fetiches. In September of the same year he re- turned to Zuni; but, in the spring of 1884, failing health obliged his return for two years to the east. He brought with him three Indians to aid him in the preparation of a dictionary and grammar of the Zuni language, and translations of myth and beast stories, hero legends, songs, and rituals. Mr. Gushing's publications and contributions to peri- odical literature include " Antiquities of Orleans Gounty" (Washington, 1874); "Zuni Fetiches" (1881) ; "The Relationship between Zuni Sociologic and Mythic Svstems " (1883); "The Nation of the Willows " (1883) ; " Adventures in Zuni " (1883) ; " Studies of Ancient Pueblo Keramic Art, as Illus- trative of Zuiii Gulture-Growth " (1884) ; and " Zuiii Breadstuff" (1885).

CUSHING, Jonathan Peter, educator, b. in Rochester, N. II., 13 March, 1793 ; d. in Raleigh, N. G., 35 April, 1835. In his boyhood he was ap- prenticed ; but. by skilfully managing the proceeds of his overwork, he purchased a portion of his time, and immediately entered Phillips Exeter academy. By working a portion of each day and by teaching, he paid his way thi'ough college, being graduated at Dartmouth in 1817. His health failed, and he went south, became a tutor in Hampden Sydney college in the November follow- ing his graduation, and professor of chemistry and natural philosophy two years later. This chair he held for two years, when he became the president of the college. By his exertions, the institution, which had been sadly disorganized and broken down, was built up again ; but the labor and re- sponsibility of the enterprise exhausted his strength and hastened his death.

CUSHING, Luther Stearns, jurist, b. in Lu- nenburg, Mass., 33 June, 1808 ; d. in Boston, 33 June, 1856. He was the only graduate at the Har- vard law-school in 1836. For some years after leaving college he was associated with Gharles Sumner and George S. Hillard in the editorship of "The American Jurist and Law Magazine" in Boston, when in 1833 he was made clerk of the house of representatives, an office which he held for fourteen years. In 1844 he was chosen a mem- ber of the legislature, then for four years was judge of the court of common pleas in Boston, after which he became reporter of the decisions of the supreme court of the commonwealth, and pre- pared twelve volumes (55 to 66 inclusive) of law reports, extending from 1850 to the time of his death. In 1848 he became lecturer on Roman law in Harvard law-school, and filled the chair until his death. His name is best known in connection with his " Manual of Parliamentary Practice " (Boston, 1844), which immediately became an au- thority for proceedings in deliberative assemblies. He also published a " Treatise on Trustee Process " (1837) ; " Treatise on Remedial Law " (1887) ; Eng- lish translation of Savigny's " Recht des Besitzes," law of possession (1838) ; translation of Pothier's " De la vente." contract of sale (1839); translation of Mattermaier on "Effect of Drunkenness on Griminal Responsibility" (1841); translation of Domat's " Les lois civiles dans leur ordre natu- re!" (1850); "Reports of Gontroverted Election Gases in Massachusetts " (1853) ; " Introduction to the Study of Roman Givil Law " (1854) ; and "Lex Parliamentaria Americana." a comprehensive work on parliamentary law (1856).

CUSHING, Nathaniel, soldier, b. in Pembroke, Mass., 8 April, 1753 ; d. in Marietta, Ohio, in August, 1814. He joined the forces that went from Massachusetts in 1775, became a lieutenant in Brewer's regiment in July of that year, was advanced to a captaincy in 1777, organized a surprise, and captured forty of the De Lancey loyalists in May, 1780, after many fruitless attempts