Beowulf (Wyatt)/Glossary, M to Y

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Beowulf (Wyatt)
Glossary, M to Y


mā, compar. adv., with gen., 504, etc.
mādmas, etc., see māð(ð)um.
mæg, see magan.
mǣg, st. m., kinsman, blood-relative, 408, etc.; pl. māgas, etc., 1015, etc.; dat. pl. māgum, 1178, etc., mǣgum, 2353.
mǣg-burg, st. f., [kin-burgh] family; gen. mǣg-burge, 2887.
mæge, see magan.
mægen, 2654, see magan.
mægen, st. neut., main, strength, 445, etc.
mægen-āgende, adj. (pres. part.), [main-owning] mighty, 2837.
mægen-byrðen, st. f., main-burden, great burden, 1625, etc.
mægen-cræft, st. m., main-craft, mighty strength, 380.
mægen-ellen, st. neut., main-strength, great courage, 659.
mægen-fultum, st. m., main-aid, strong help, 1455.
mægen-rǣs, st. m., [main-race] mighty onslaught, 1519.
mægen-strengo, st. f., main-strength; dat. 2678.
mægen-wudu, st. m., [main-wood] spear, 236.
mægð, st. f., maid, woman, 943, etc.
mǣg-wine, st. m., kinsman-friend; pl. 2479.
mǣl, st. neut., [meal]:

(1) time, occasion, 316, etc.

(2) sword, 1616, 1667.
mǣl-cearu, st. f., time-care, 189.
mǣl-gesceaft, st. f., [time-shaping] appointed time, 2737.
mǣnan, w v., [mean]:

(1) with acc., declare, proclaim, 857, 1067.

(2) trans. and intrans., moan, bemoan, mourn, lament, 1149, 2267, 3149, 3171.
-mænan, w. v.
ge-mǣnan, w.v., violate, 1101.
mænigo, see menigeo.
mǣre, adj., great, famous, notorious, 103, 762, 1301, 1474, 1598, etc.
mǣrost, superl., greatest, 898.
mǣrðo, mǣrðu, st. f., greatness, glory, fame, 504, 659, 678, etc.; greatness, great deed, deed of glory, exploit, 408, 2134, 2645; dat. pl. adverbially, gloriously, 2514.
msest, st. m., mast, 36, etc.
mǣst, see māra.
mǣte, adj., small.
mǣtost, superl., smallest, 1455.
maga, w. m., son, man, 943, 978, 1474, etc.
*magan, st.-w. v., may, can, be able; pres. sg. 1st and 3rd mæg, 277, etc., 2nd meaht, 2047; pres. subj. sg. mæge, 2530, etc., pl. mægen, 2654 ; pret. meahte, 542, 648, etc., mihte, 190, 308, etc., mehte, 1082, etc. With gān omitted, 754. Special passage: ne meahte, “it was not possible, no one could,” 2547.
māge, w. f., kinswoman, 1391.
mago, st. m., kinsman, son, 1465, etc.
mago-driht, st. f., kindred-troop, band of warriors, 67.
mago-rinc, st. m., kinsman-warrior, warrior, 730.
mago-þegn, magu-þegn, st. m., kinsman-thane, 293, 408, 1405, 1480, etc.
man(n), see mon(n).
man, st. neut., [moan] wickedness, crime, 110, 1055, etc.
mān-fordǣdla, w. m., wicked destroyer, 563.
manian, w. v., exhort, 2057.
manig, see monig.
man-līce, adv., in a manly way, 1046.
mān-sc(e)aða, w. m., wicked scather, deadly foe, 712, 2514, etc.
māra, compar. adj. (of micel), greater, mightier, 247, 518, 753, etc.; neut., with gen., māre, more, 136.
mǣst, superl., [most] greatest, 78, 2181, etc.; neut., with gen., 2645, etc.
maðelian, w. v., harangue, discourse, speak, 286, 2425, etc.
māðm-ǣht, st. f., owning of treasure, valuable possession, 1613, 2833.
māðm-gestrēon, st. neut., jewel-treasure, 1931.
māð(ð)um, st. m., thing of value, treasure, jewel, 169, 1528, etc.; pl. māðmas, mādmas, etc., 36, 385, 1048, 1784, 1867, 2788, etc.
māððum-fæt, st. neut., treasure-vat, costly vessel, 2405.
māððum-gifu, st. f., treasure-gift, 1301.
māððum-sigle, st. neut., treasure-jewel, costly sun-shaped ornament, 2757.
māððum-sweord, st. neut., treasure-sword, sword inlaid with jewels, 1023.
māððum-wela, w. m., [treasure-weal] wealth of treasure, 2750.
mē, pers. pron. (acc. and dat. of ic), me, to me, 446, 472, 541, etc.; dat. for myself, 2738.
meagol, adj., forceful, earnest, solemn, 1980.
meahte, meahton, see magan.
mēaras, etc., see mearh.
mearc, st. f., march, limit; dat. hīm þæt tō mearce wearð, “that was his [life’s] limit,” 2384.
mearcian, w. v., mark, stain, engrave, 450; pp. gemearcod, 1264, 1695.
mearc-stapa, w. m., march-stepper, march-stalker, 103, 1348.
mearh, st. m., [mare] horse; pl. mēaras, etc., 865, etc.
mearn, see murnan.
mec, pers. pron. (acc. of ic), me, 2089.
mēce, st. m., sword, 1938, etc.
mēd, st. f., meed, reward, 1178, etc.
medo, medu, st. m., mead, 2633; dat. 604.
medo-ærn, st. neut., mead-hall, 69.
medo-benc, medu-benc, meodu-benc, st. f., mead-bench, 776, 1067, 1902, etc.
medo-ful, st. neut., mead-cup, 624, etc.
medo-heal, meodu-heall, st. f., mead-hall, 484, 638.
medo-stīg, st. f., mead-path, path to the mead-hall, 924.
medu-drēam, st. m., mead-joy, 2016.
medu-seld, st. neut., mead-hall, 3065.
meodo-setl, st. neut., mead-settle, 5.

meodo-wong, st. m., mead-plain, plain or field where the mead-hall stood, 1643.

meodu-scenc, st. m., mead-draught, 1980.
mehte, see magan.
melda, w. m., informer, finder, 2405.
meltan, st. v., intrans., melt, 1120, etc.
ge-meltan, st. v., melt, 897, 2628, etc.
mene, st. m., collar, necklace, 1199.
mengan, w. v.:

(1) mingle; pp. gemenged, 848, 1593.

(2) mingle with, visit, 1449.
menigeo, mænigo, st. f., many, multitude, 41, 2143.
meodo-, meodu-, see under medo.
meoto, see met.
meotod-, see metod-.
mērcels, st. m., mark, aim, 2439. [Sievers § 159. 1.]
mere, st. m., mere, sea, 1130, etc.
mere-deor, st. neut., mere-deer, sea-monster, 558.
mere-fara, w. m., mere-farer, sea-farer, 502.
mere-fix, st. m., mere-fish, sea-fish, 549.
mere-grund, st. m., [mere-ground] bottom of a mere or sea, 1449, 2100.
mere-hrægl, st. neut., [mere-rail] sea-garment, sail, 1905.
mere-līðend, st. m. (pres. part.), [mere-going] sea-farer, sailor, 255.
mere-strǣt, st. f., [mere-street] way over the sea, 514.
mere-strengo, st. f., [merestrength] strength in swimming, 533.
mere-wīf, st. neut., [mere-wife] mer(e)-woman, 1519.
mergen, see morgen.
met, st. neut., thought; pl. meoto, 489 (see note).
metan, st. v., mete, measure, pass over, 514, 917, etc.
ge-metan, st. v., mete, traverse, 924,
mētan, w. v., meet, find, 751, etc.
ge-mētan, w. v., meet, find, 757, etc.; pret. pl. hȳ (acc.) gemētton, “met each other,” 2592.
Metod, st. m., Creator, God, 110, etc.
metod-sceaft, meotod-sceaft, st. f., appointed doom, eternity, 1077, 2815, 1180 (Creator’s glory?).
meðel, st. neut., council, 1876.
meðel-stede, st. m., meeting-place, 1082.
meðel-word, st neut., council-word, formal word, 236.
micel, adj., mickle, great, 129, etc.; gen. micles wyrðne, “worthy of much,” 2185.
micles, gen. used adverbially; tō fela micles, “far too much,” 694. micle, instr. used adverbially, by much, much, 1579, 2651; so swā micle, “by so much,” 1283.
mid, prep., with dat. and acc.:

(1) with dat., with, amid, among, 77, 195, 274, 902, 1217, 1313, 1868, 2308, etc.; following its case, 41, 889, 1625; of time, 126; with, by means of, through, 317, 438, 475, 574, 779, 1184, 1892, 2028, 2468, etc. Special passages: mid rihte, “by right,” 2056; mid gewealdum, “of his own accord,” 2221; mid him, “among themselves,” 2948.

(2) with acc., with, amid, among, 357, 879, 1128, 2652, etc.
mid, adv., with them, withal, therewith, 1642, 1649.
middan-geard, st. m., [middle-yard] world, earth, 75, etc.; gen. “in the world,” 504, etc.
midde, w. f., middle, 2705.
middel-niht, st. f., mid-night, 2782, etc.
miht, st. f., might, 700, etc.
mihte, see magan.
mihtig, adj., mighty, 558, etc.
milde, adj., mild, kind, 1172, etc.
mildust, superl., mildest, kindest, 3181.
mīl-gemearc, st. neut., mile-mark, measure by miles; gen. nis þæt feor heonon mīl-gemearces, “that is not many miles away,” 1362.
milts, st. f., mildness, kindness, 2921.
mīn, pers. pron. (gen. sg. of ic), of me, 2533, etc.
mīn, poss. adj. (gen. sg. of ic), mine, my, 255, etc.
missan, w. v., w. gen., miss, 2439.
missere, st. neut., half-year, 153.
mist-hlið, st. neut., mist-slope, misty hill-side; dat. pl. mist-hleoþum, 710.
mistig, adj., misty, 162.
mōd, st. neut.:

(1) mood, mind, etc., 50, etc.

(2) courage, 105, etc.; moody pride, fierceness, 1931.
mōd-cearu, st. f., mood-care, sorrow of mind or heart, 1992, 3149.
mōdega, mōdgan, etc., see mōdig.
mōd-gehygd, st. neut., mind-thought, 233.
mōd-geðonc, st. neut., mind-thought, 1729.
mōd-gīomor, adj., sad in mind or heart, 2894.
mōdig, adj., weak mōd(i)ga, mōdega; gen. m. mōd(i)ges; pl. mōd(i)ge: moody, brave, proud, 312, 502, 670, 1508, 1888, etc.
mōdig-līc, adj., [moody-like].
mōdig-līcra, compar., braver, prouder, 337.
mōd-lufu, w. f., [mood-love] heart’s love, 1823.
mōdor, st. f., mother, 1258, etc.
mōd-sefa, w. m., [mood-mind, -heart] mind, heart, courage, 180, 349, 1853, etc.
mōd-þracu, st. f., [mood-]daring, 385.
mon(n), man(n), st. m., weak manna; dat. sg. men(n); pl. men: man, 25, 1943, etc.; weak acc. sg. mannon, 577.
mon, man, indef. pron., one, they, people, 1172, 2355, etc.
mōna, w. m., moon, 94.
mon-cynn, man-cynn, st. neut., mankind, 110, 164, 196, 1955, 2181.
mon-drēam, man-drēam, st. m., [man-dream] human joy, 1264, 1715.
mon-dryhten, -drihten, man-dryhten, -drihten, st. m., [man-]lord, etc., 436, 1229, 1978, 2865, etc.
monig (moneg-), manig (maneg-), adj., many, 5, 75, etc.; nom. monig oft gesæt rīce tō rūne, “many a mighty one oft sat in council,” 171. Often absolutely, 857, etc.; and with dependent gen. pl. 728, etc.
mon-þwǣre, adj., [man-]gentle, kind to men, 3181.
mōr, st. m., moor, 103, etc.
morgen, mergen, st. m., dat. morgne, mergenne: morn, morning, morrow, 565, 837, 2484, etc.; gen. pl. morna, 2450.
morgen-ceald, adj., morning-cold, 3022.
morgen-lēoht, st. neut., morning-light, 604, etc.
morgen-long, adj., morning-long, 2894.
morgen-swēg, st. m., [morn-swough] morning-clamour, 129.
morgen-tīd, st. f., morning-tide, 484, etc.
mōr-hop, st. neut., moor-haunt, “sloping hollow on a moorside” (Skeat), 450.
morna, see morgen.
morð-bealu, st. neut., murder-bale, murder, 136.
morðor, st. neut., murder, 892, 1683, etc.
morðor-bealo, st. neut., murder-bale, murder, 1079, 2742.
morðor-bed, st. neut., murder-bed, 2436.
morðor-hete, st. m., murderous hate, 1105.
mōste, see motan.
*mōtan, st.-w. v., may, be to, must, 186, 2886, etc.; pret. mōste, 168, 2574, etc.; pret. pl. mōstan, 2247.
munan, st.-w. v.
ge-munan, st.-w. v., have in mind, remember; pres. gemon, geman, 265, 1185, etc.; pret. gemunde, 179, 1141, etc. on-munan, st.-w. v., remind; pret. onmunde ūsic mǣrða, “reminded us of glory, urged us on to great deeds,” 2640.
mund, st. f., hand, 236, etc.
mund-bora, w. m., [hand-bearer] protector, 1480, etc.
mund-gripe, st. m., hand-grip, 380, etc.
murnan, st. v., mourn, be anxious, reck, care, 50, 136, 1442, 1537, etc.
be-murnan, st. v., with acc., bemourn, mourn over, 907, etc.
mūða, w. m., mouth, 724.
mūð-bona, w. m., mouth-bane, one who slays by biting, 2079.
myndgian, w. v., call to mind:

(1) with gen., remember, 1105.
(2) remind, 2057.

ge-myndgian, w. v., bring to mind, remember; pp. gemyndgad, 2450.
myne, st. m.:

(1) wish, hope, 2572.

(2) love; acc. ne his myne wisse, “nor did he know his love,” 169.
mynian, w. v.
ge-mynian, w. v., mind, be mindful of, 659.
myntan, w. v., be minded, intend, 712, 731, 762.
myrce, adj., murky, 1405.
myrð, st. f., mirth; dat. mōdes myrðe, de gaieté de cœur, 810.


nā, neg. adv., never, not at all, not, 445, 567, etc.
naca, w. m., bark, craft, 214, 295, 1896; dat. 1903.
nacod, adj., naked, 539, etc.
næbben, 1850, = ne hæbben, see habban.
næfne, see nefne.
nǣfre, adv., never, 247, etc.
nǣgan, w. v., greet, accost, 1318.
ge-nǣgan, w. v., assail; pret. pl. genǣgdan, 2206; pp. genǣged, 1439.
nægl, st. m., nail, 985.
næglian, w. v., nail; pp. nægled, “nailed, riveted, studded,” 2023.
nǣnig (= ne ǣnig), adj.-pron., not any, none, no, 859, etc,; with gen. pl. 157, etc.
nǣre, nǣron, = ne wǣre, ne wǣron, see wesan.
næs, = ne waes, see wesan.
næs, neg. adv., not, not at all, 562, etc.
næs(s), st. m., ness, headland, 1439, etc.
næs-hlið, st. neut., ness-slope, head-land-slope; dat. pl. næs-hleoðum, 1427.
nāh, = ne āh, see āgan.
nalas, nalæs, nales, nallas, nalles, see nealles.
nam, see niman.
nama, w. m., name, 78, etc.
nāman, -nāmon, see niman.
nān (= ne ān), adj.-pron., none, no, 989; with gen. pl. 803.
nāt, = ne wāt, see witan.
nāt-hwylc (= ne wāt hwylc; cf. l. 274), adj.-pron., [wot not which] some, some one, a certain (one), 1513; with gen. pl. 2215, 2053, etc.
ne, neg. particle. not, 38, 1384, etc.; doubled, ne…ne, 182, 245–6, etc.; nōðer…ne, 2124; ne…nō, 1508. Special passage: 1604 (see note). Often found in composition with verbs, e.g. nāh, næbben, næs, nolde, nāt, etc., for which see āgan, habban, wesan, willan, witan; in composition with ā, ǣnig, etc., it forms the words nā, nǣnig, etc. (q. v.). Correlated with ne or another negative, not…nor, neither…nor, etc., 511, 1082–4, etc.; ne…ne…ne, 1100–1; no…ne, 168–9, 575–7, etc.; no…ne…ne…ne, 1392–4, 1735–7; nǣfre…ne, 583–4, 718; nalles…ne, 3015–6. Correlated with a doubled negative: ne……ne…nǣnig, 154–7; ne……nǣnig…nǣre, 858–60.
nēag, adj., nigh, near, 1743, 2728;

with dat. nēh, 2411.

nīehst, nȳhst, superl., [next] last, 1203, 2511.
nēah, adv., nigh, near, 1221, 2870;

with dat. 564, 1924, 2242.

nēar, compar., nearer, 745.
nealles, etc. (= ne ealles), adv., not at all by no means, 2145, etc.; nalles, 338, etc.; nallas, 1719, etc.; nales, 1811; nalas, 1493, etc.; nalaes, 43.
nēan, nēon, adv., from nigh, from near, near, 528 (at close quarters), 839, 3104, etc.
nearo, st. neut., [narrows] straits, distress, 2350, etc.
nearo, adj., narrow, 1409.
nearo-cræft, st. m., [narrow-craft] inaccessibility, 2243.
nearo-fāh, st. m., [narrow-foe] foe causing distress; gen. nearo-fāges, 2317.
nearo-þearf, st. f., [narrow-need] dire distress, 422.
nearwe, adv., narrowly, 976.
nearwian, w. v., [narrow] straiten, press; pp. genearwod, 1438.
nefa, w. m., nephew, 881, etc.; grandson, 1203, 1962.
nefne, næfne, nemne, conj.:

(1) unless, 250, 1056, 1552, etc.; except that, 1353.

(2) In elliptical sentences, with quasi-prepositional force, unless, save, 1934, 2151, 2533.

nēh, see nēah, adj.
nelle, = ne wille, see willan.
nemnan, w. v., name, call, 364, etc.
be-nemnan, w. v., swear, curse, 1097, 3069.
nemne, prep., with dat., except, 1081.
nemne, conj., see nefne.
nēod-laðu (= nīed-laðu), st. f., pressing (invitation) summons; dat. æfter nēod-laðu, “after the pressing summons (Beowulf had received),” 1320.
nēon, see nēan.
nēos(i)an, nīos(i)an, w. v., with gen., visit, revisit, attack, 115, 125, 2388, 2671, etc.; pres. 3rd nīosað, 2486.
nēotan, st. v., use, enjoy, 1217.
be-nēotan, bi-nēotan, st. v., with acc. pers. and dat. rei, deprive, 680, 2396.
neoðor, see niðer.
nēowol, adj., steep; pl. nēowle, 1411.
nerian, w. v., save, preserve, 572; pp. genered, 827.
nesan, st. v.
ge-nesan, st. v.:

(1) intrans. survive, escape, 999.

(2) trans. survive, escape (from), 1977, etc.; pp. genesen, 2397.
nēðan, w. v.:

(1) with acc., dare, encounter, 2350.
(2) with dat., risk, 510, 538.

ge-nēðan, w. v.:

(1) with acc. hazard, dare, venture on, brave, 888, 959, 1656, 1933, 2511.

(2) with dat. risk, 1469.
nicor, st. m., nicker (sea-monster), 422, etc.
nicor-hūs, st. neut., nicker-house, cavern of a sea-monster, 1411.
nīehst, see nēah, adj.
nigen, num., nine; inflected, 575.
niht, st. f., night, 115, 1334, etc.; gen. (m.) nihtes, 3044.
nihtes, gen. (m.) used adverbially, of a night, by night, 422, 2269, etc.
niht-bealu, st. neut., night-bale, evil at night, 193.
niht-helm, st. m., night-helm, night, 1789.
niht-long, adj., night-long, 528.
niht-weorc, st. neut., night-work, 827.
niman, st. v., take, seize; pres. 3rd, nimeð, nymeð, 441, 598, etc.; pret. sg., nam, nōm, 746, 1612, etc.; pret. pl. nāman, 2216; pp. (ge)numen, 1153, 3165.
be-niman, st. v., deprive; pret. benam, 1886.

for-niman, st. v., carry off; pret. fornam, -nāmon, 488, 2828, etc.

ge-niman, st. v., take, seize, take away, clasp; pret. genam, genōm, 1872, 2776, etc.
nīod, st. f., pleasure, delight, 2116.
nīos(i)an, see nēos(i)an.
nioðor, see niðer.
nīowe, see nīwe.
nīpan, st. v., darken, 547, 649.
nis, = ne is, see wesan.
nīð, st. m., envy, spite, malice, hate, violence, war, contest, conflict, struggle, 184, 827, 882, 2317,2350, 2397, 2680, etc.; affliction, 423. Gen. pl. used instrumentally, in fight, in war, by force, 845, 1439, 1962, 2170, 2206.
niðas, see niððas.
nīð-draca, w. m., [envy-drake] malicious dragon, 2273.
niþer, nyðer, nioðor, adv., [nether] down, downwards, 1360, 2699, 3044.
nīð-gæst, st. m., [envy-guest] malicious guest, 2699.
nīð-geweorc, st. neut., [envy-work] work of enmity, deed of violence, 638.
nīð-grim, adj., [envy-grim] maliciously grim or terrible, 193.
nīð-heard, adj., war-hard, hardy in war, 2417.
nīð-hēdig, adj., war-minded, 3165.
nīð-sele, st. m., hostile hall, 1513.
niððas, niðas, st. m. pl., men, 1005, 2215.
nīð-wundor, st. neut., dread wonder, 1365.
nīwe, adj., new, 783 (startling), 949, etc.; dat. weak nīwan, nīowan, stefne, “anew,” 1789, 2594.
nīwian, w. v., renew; pp. genīwod, genīwad, 1303, 2287, etc.
nīw-tyrwed, adj. (pp.), new-tarred, 295.
nō, adv.. not at all, not, 136, 168 (see ne), 541, 543, 1508 (see ne), etc.
nolde, =ne wolde, see willan.
nōm, see niman.
nōn, st. f., [noon] ninth hour, 3 p.m., 1600.
norð, adv., north, 858.
norðan, adv., from the north, 547.
nose, w. f., [nose] naze, cape, 1892, 2803.
nōðer ( = ne ā hwæðer), adv., nor, 2124.
nū, adv., now, 251, etc.
nū, conj., now, now that, seeing that, 430, etc.; correlative with nū, adv., 2743–5.
nȳd, st. f., need, compulsion, 1005, 2454 (pangs).
nȳdan, w. v., force, compel; pp. genȳded, 2680; inflected, genȳdde, 1005 (see gesacan).
nȳd-bād, st. f., [need-pledge] forced pledge, forced toll, 598.
nȳd-gestealla, w .m., need-comrade, comrade in or at need, 882.
nȳd-gripe, st. m., [need-grip] dire grip, 976.
nȳd-wracu, st. f., [need-wrack] dire ruin, 193.
nȳhst, see nēah, adj.
nyman, see niman.
nymðe, conj., unless, 781, etc.
nyt, adj., useful, of use, 794.
nytt, st. f., duty, office, service, 494, 3118.
nyttian, w. v., with gen.
ge-nyttian, w. v., with acc., use, enjoy; pp. genyttod, 3046,
nyðer, see niðer.


of, prep., with dat., from, 37, 56, 229, 710, 1108, 1138, 1571, 1892, 2083, 2743, 2769, etc.; of (after ūt), 663, 2557; out of, 419; off, 672. Special passage: ðā hē him of dyde, “then he doffed,” 671.
ofer, prep., over, with acc. (of motion, etc.) and dat. (of rest):

(1) with acc., over, 10, 46, 200, 217, 231, 239, 240, 311, 649, 859, 984, 1705, 1717, 2259, 2980, etc.; against, 2330, 2409, 2589; of, 2724; above, beyond, 2879; without, 685; of time, after, 736, 1781. Special passages: ofer eorðan, “on earth,” 248, etc.; ofer wer-þēode, “throughout the nations of men,” 899; ofer ealle, “so that all could hear,” 2899.

(2) with dat., over, 481, 1244, 1907, 2907, 2908, etc.
ōfer, st. m., bank, shore, 1371.
ofer-hygd, -hȳd, st. f. neut., contempt, pride, 1740, 1760.
ofer-mægen, st. neut., over-main, superior force, 2917.
ofer-māðum, st. m., [over-treasure] very rich treasure, 2993.
ofost, st. f., haste, 256, 3007; dat. ofoste, ofeste, ofste, 386, 1292, 2747, etc. [“Beiträge” x. 505.]
ofost-līce, adv., hastily, 3130.
oft, adv., oft, often, 4, 2029, 3019, etc.
oftor, compar., oftener, 1579. oftost, superl., oftenest, 1663.
ō-hwǣr, ō-wēr, adv., anywhere, 1737, 2870.
ombeht, ombiht, st. m., servant, officer, marshal, 287, 336.
ombiht-þegn, st. m., attendant-thane, 673.
ōmig, adj., rusty, 2763, etc.
on, an (677, 1247, 19S5), prep., on; with dat. and acc., usu. dat. of rest and acc. of motion, but instances of the acc. are common, as will be seen, in which there is no suggestion, or the merest suggestion, of motion:

(1) with dat., of place and time, on, in, 40, 53, 76, 409, 607, 609, 677, 702, 782, 847, 891, 926, 1041, 1292, 1352, 1544, 1581, 1618 (a-swimming), 1643, 1662, 1830 (with respect to), 1884, 2197, 2248, 2276, 2311 (upon), 2705, 3157, etc.; after its case, 1935, 2357, 2866; in, among, 1557; at, 126, 303, 575, 683, 3148; by, 1484.
(2) with acc., onto, into, 35, 67, etc.; on, in, 507, 516, 627, 635, 708, 996, 1095, 1109, 1297, 1456, 1675, 2132, 2193, 2690, 2650 (with regard to; cf. ll. 1830–1), etc.; of time, 484, 837, 1428, etc.; to, 1728, 2662, 1739 (according to); towards, 21.
Special passages: 873 (see spēd), 1579 (see ān), 1753 (see endestæf), 2799 (see feorh-legu), 2903 (see efn), 2962 (see wrecan); on gebyrd, “by fate,” 1074; an wīg gearwe, “ready for war,” 1247; on ryht, “rightly,” 1555; on unriht, “falsely,” 2739; on gylp, “for a boast, out of bravado,” 1749; on mīnne sylfes dōm, “at my own disposal, choice,” 2147; þe ic hēr on starie, “on which I am here gazing,” 2796.

on innan, see innan. on weg, away, 763, etc.
on, adv., on, 3084 (see note).
oncer-bend, st. m. f., anchor-band, anchor-chain, 1918.
on-cȳð(ð), st. f., distress, suffering, 830, 1420.
ond, conj., and, 39, 600, etc.
ond-long, and-long, adj., livelong, 2115, 2938; acc. m. ðā ic…gefrægn…andlongne eorl ellen cȳðan, “then I learnt that the earl displayed unceasing courage,” 2695.
on-drysne, adj., terrible, 1932.
ond-saca, w. m., adversary, 786, etc.
ond-slyht, st. m., back-stroke, return blow, 2929, 2972.
ond-swaru, st. f., answer, 354, 1493, 1840, 2860.
ōnettan, w. v., hasten; pret. pl. 306,1803. [“Beiträge” x. 487.]
on-gēan, prep., with dat., against, towards, at, 1034; after its case, 681, 2364 (see foran); without object, 747 (or adv. = forwards).
onlīc-nes, st. f., likeness, 1351.
on-mēdla, w. m., arrogance, 2926.
on-sǣge, adj., impending, fatal, 2483; nom. þær wæs Hondscīo hild onsæge, “there was battle impending over Hondscio,” 2076.
on-sȳn, an-sȳn, st. f., sight, appearance, form, 251, 928, 2772, 2834.
on-weald, st. m., [wielding] control, possession, 1043.
open, adj., open, 2271.
openian, w. v., open, 3056.
ōr, st. neut., beginning, origin, van, 1041, 1688, 2407.
orc, st. m., flagon, 2760, etc.
orcnē, st. m., sea-monster, 112.
ord, st. neut., point, front, van, 556, 2498, 2791.
ord-fruma, w. m., chief, prince, 263.
ōret-mecg, st. m., warrior, 332, 481, etc. [Sievers § 43, N. 4.]
ōretta, w. m., warrior, 1532, etc.
oreð-, see oruð.
or-feorme, adj., without food, famishing, destitute, 2385.
or-leahtre, adj., blameless, 1886.
or-leg, st. neut., battle, war, 1326, etc.
orleg-hwīl, st. f., battle-while, time of battle or war, 2002, etc.
or-þonc, or-þanc, st. m., [original thought] skill, 406; dat. pl. adverbially, skilfully, 2087.
oruð, st. neut., breath, 2557; gen. oreðes, 2523; dat. oreðe, 2839.
or-weaxde, adj., wardless, unguarded, 3127.
or-wēna, adj. (weak form), with gen., [weenless] hopeless, despairing, 1002, etc.
oð, prep., w. acc., until, 2399, etc.
oð þæt, conj., till, until, 9, etc.; once, oðð þæt, 66.
ōðer, num. adj.-pron., other, (the) one, (the) other, the second, another, 219 (see note), 503, 859, 1133, 1300, 1583 (see swylc), 1755, 2117, 2451, 2481, 2670, 2985, etc.; correl. ōðer…ōðer, “one…the other,” 1349–51. Neut. pl. ōðer, 870. Special passage: ealo-drincende ōðer sǣdan, “the ale-drinkers told another tale,” 1945.
oðð, see oð.
oððe, conj.:

(1) or, 283, 649 (see note), etc.

(2) and, 2475.
ōwēr, see ohwǣr.
ō-wiht, pron., aught; dat. a whit, 1822, 2432.


rǣcan, w. v., intrans., reach; pret. rǣhte,_747.
ge-rǣcan, w. v., trans., reach; pret. gerǣhte, 556, 2965.
rǣd, st. m., [rede] advice, counsel, help, benefit, gain, 172, 1201, 1376, 2027.
rǣdan, st. and w. v.:

(1) intrans., decide, decree, 2858.

(2) trans., possess, 2056.
rǣd-bora, w. m., [{{{1}}}er] counsellor, 1325.
Rǣdend, st. m. (pres. part.), Ruler (God), 1555.
rǣran, w. v.
a-rǣran, w. v., rear, raise, exalt, extol, 1703, 2983.
rǣs, st. m., race, rush, storm, onslaught, 2356, 2626.
rǣsan, w. v., race, rush, 2690.
ge-rǣsan, w. v., race, rush, 2839.
ræst, st. f., rest, resting-place, bed, 139, 1237, etc.
rǣswa, w. m., leader, 60.
rand, see rond.
rāsian, w. v., find, explore; pp. rāsod, 2283.
raðe, see hraðe.
rēafian, w. v., reave, rob, plunder; pret. rēafode, rēafedon, 1212, 2985, etc.
be-rēafian, w. v., bereave; pp., with dat., bereft, 2746, etc.
rēc, st. m., reek, smoke, 3155.
rēcan, w. v., with gen., reck, care; pres. 3rd, recceð, 434.
reccan, w. v., relate, tell, 91; dat. inf. reccenne, 2093; pret. rehte, 2106, 2110.
reced, st. neut., house, building, hall, 412, etc.
regn-heard, adj., [mighty-hard] wondrous hard, 326.
regnian, rēnian, w. v., prepare, adorn, 2168; pp. geregnad, 777.
rēn-weard (=regn-), st. m., mighty warden, mighty guard, 770.
rēoc, fierce, 122.
rēofan, st. v.
be-rēofan, st. v., bereave, deprive; pp., acc. sg. f., berofene, 2457, 2931.
reon, see rowan.
reord, st. f., speech, 2555.
reordlan, w. v., speak, croak, 3025.
ge-reordian, w. v., prepare a feast; pp. gereorded, 1788.
rēot, st. m. ? f. ?, revel, 2457.
rēotan, st. v., weep, 1376.
restan, w. v., rest, cease, 1799, 1857, etc.
rēþe, adj., fierce, furious, 122, etc.
rīce, st. neut., realm, 861, etc.
rīce, adj., rich, powerful, mighty, 172, 310, 399, etc.
ricone, adv., quickly, 2983.
rīcsian, rīxian, w. v., reign, rule, domineer, raid, 144, 2211.
rīdan, st. v., ride, 234, 1883, etc.; pret. pl. riodan, 3169.
ge-rīdan, st. v., with acc., ride over, 2898.
rīdend, st. m. (pres. part.), rider; pl. rīdend, 2457.
riht, st. neut., right, 144, 1700, etc.; acc. on riht, “rightly,” 1555; dat. æfter rihte, “in accordance with right,” 1049, etc.; acc. pl. ealde riht, “the old laws, the ten commandments,” 2330.
rihte, adv., rightly, 1695.
rīman, w. v., [rime] count, number; pp. gerīmed, 59.
rinc, st. m., man, wight, warrior, 399, 720, 741, etc.
riodan, see rīdan.
rīsan, st. v.
ā-rīsan, st. v., arise, 399, 2403, etc.
rīxian, see rīcsian.
rodor, st. m., sky, heaven, 310, 1376, 1555, 1572.
rōf, adj., strong, brave, renowned, 1793, 1925, 2538, 2690; with gen. 682, 2084.
rond, rand, st. m., shield, 231, 656, 2673, etc.
rand-wiga, w. m., shield-warrior, 1298, etc.
rond-hæbbend, st. m. (pres. part.), [shield-having] shield-warrior, 861.
rōwan, st. v., row, swim; rēon = rēowon, 512, etc.
rūm, st. m., room, space, 2690.
rūm, adj., roomy, spacious, ample, great, 278, 2461.
rūm-heort, adj., [room-heart] great-hearted, bountiful, 1799, 2110.
rūn, st. f., rune, council, 172.
rūn-stæf, st. m., rune-stave, runic letter, 1695.
rūn-wita, w. m., [rune-] wise man, councillor, 1325.
ryht, see riht.
rȳman, w. v.:

(1) make roomy, prepare; pp. gerȳmed, 492, 1975.
(2) make room, clear a way; pp. ðā him gerȳmed wearð, þæt hīe wael-stōwe wealdan mōston, “when the way was made clear for them so that they were masters of the field,” 2983; so 3088

ge-rȳman, w. v., make roomy, prepare, 1086.


sacan, st. v., strive, 439.
ge-sacan, st. v., gain by strife; inf. ac gesacan sceal…nȳde genȳdde niþða bearna…gearwe stōwe, “but he shall gain by strife the inevitable prepared place of the children of men,” 1004.

on-sacan, st. v.:
(1) with acc. pers. and gen. rei, attempt a person’s life: pres. subj. þætte freoðu-webbe fēores onsæce…lēofne mannan, “that a peace-weaver should assail the life of a dear man,” 1942.

(2) with acc. rei and dat. pers., refuse, dispute, 2954.
sacu, st. f., strife, 1857, 2472; acc. sæce, 154.
sadol, st. m., saddle, 1038.
sadol-beorht, adj., saddle-bright, with a bright or splendid saddle (cf. l. 1038), 2175.
sǣ, st. m. f., sea, 579, 507, 2394, etc.; dat. pl. sǣm, 858, etc.
sǣ-bāt, st. m., sea-boat, 633, 895.
sæce, st. f., strife, fight, contest, 953, 1977, 2029, etc.; gen. sg. secce, 600. Cf. sacu.
sæce, see sacu.
sǣ-cyning, st. m., sea-king, 2382.
sædan, see secgan.
sǣ-dēor, st. neut., sea-deer, sea-monster, 1510.
sǣ-draca, w. m., sea-drake, sea-dragon, 1426.
sægan, w. v., cause to sink, lay low; pp. gesǣged, 884.
sǣ-gēap, adj., sea-wide, spacious, 1896.
sǣ-genga, w. m., sea-goer, ship, 1882, 1908.
sǣgon, see seon.
sǣ-grund, st. m., sea-ground, bottom of the sea,
sæl, st. neut., hall, 307, etc.; acc. sel, 167.
sǣl, st. m. f.:

(1) time, season, occasion, opportunity, 622, 1008, etc.; acc. sg. sēle, 1135.

(2) happiness, joyance, bliss, 643, etc.; dat. pl. sālum, 607.
sǣ-lāc, st. neut., sea-booty, 1624; acc. pl. sǣ-lāc, “sea-spoils,” 1652.
sǣ-lād, st. f., sea-path, sea-voyage, 1139, 1157.
sǣlan, w. v., bind, tie, secure, 226, 1917; pp. gesǣled, “bound, twisted, interwoven,” 2764.
on-sǣlan, w. v., unbind; imperat. sg. onsǣl meoto, “unbind thy thoughts,” 489.
sǣlan, w. v., happen.
ge-sǣlan, w. v., often impers., befall, chance, happen, 890, 1250; pret. sg. me gesǣlde þæt, “it chanced that,” or “I succeeded in,” 574.
sæld, st. neut., hall, 1280.
sǣ-līðend, st. m. (pres. part.), sea-farer; nom. pl. sǣ-līðend, 411, etc.; sǣ-līðende, 377.
sǣlðe (?), 3152, see note on 3155.
sǣ-mann, st. m., sea-man, 329, 2954.
sǣ-mēðe, adj., sea-weary, 325.
sǣmra, compar. adj. (without pos.) worse, weaker, 953, 2880.
sǣ-næss, st. m., sea-ness, headland, 223, 571.
sǣne, adj.
sǣnra, compar., slower, 1436.
sǣ-rinc, st. m., sea-warrior, 690.
sǣl-sīð, st. m., sea-journey, 1149.
sǣ-weall, st. m., sea-wall, 1924.
sǣ-wong, st. m., sea-plain, shore, 1964.
sǣ-wudu, st. m., sea-wood, ship, 226.
sǣ-wylm, st. m., [sea-welling] sea-surge, 393.
-saga, see -secgan.
sāl, st. m., rope, 302, 1906.
sālum, see sǣl.
samod, see somod.
sand, st. neut., sand, 213, etc.
sang, st. m., song, 90, etc.
sār, st. f. neut., sore, pain, wound, 787, 975; nom. sīo sār, 2468; acc. sāre, “harm,” 2295.
sār, adj., sore, 2058.
sāre, adv., sorely, 1251, 2222, 2311, 2746.
sārig, adj., sorry, sad, 2447.
sārig-ferð, adj., [sorry-heart] sore at heart, 2863.
sārig-mōd, adj., [sorry-mood] in mournful mood, 2942.
sār-līc, adj., [sore-like] painful, sad, 842, 2109.
sāwl-berend, st. m. (pres. part.), [soul-bearing] being endowed with a soul, 1004.
sāwol, st. f., soul, 2820, etc.; acc. gen. sāwle, 184, 2422, etc.; gen. sāwele, 1742.
sāwol-lēas, sāwul-lēas, soulless, lifeless, 1406, 3033.
sāwul-drīor, st. neut., [soul-gore] heart’s blood, life’s blood, 2693.
scacan, st. v., pres. sg. sceaceð, 2742, pp. scacen, sceacen, 1124, 2306, etc.: shake, go, depart, hasten, 1136, 2254, etc. Special passages: inf. ðā cōm beorht scacan sunne ofer grundas, “then the bright sun came hastening o’er the plains,” 1802; pret. strǣla storm strengum gebǣded scōc ofer scild-weall, “the storm of arrows, sent by the strings, flew over the shield-wall,” 3118.
scādan, st. v.
ge-scādan, st. v., decide; pret. gescēd, 1555.
scadu-helm, st. m., [shadow-helm] shadow-covering, cover of night; gen. pl. scadu-helma gesceapu, “shapes of the shadows,” 650.
scami(g)an, w. v., be ashamed, 1026, 2850.
scaþa, see sceaþa.
sceacen, sceaceð, see scacan.
scead, st. neut., shade: acc. pl. under sceadu bregdan, “cast under the shades, i.e. kill,” 707.
scēaden-mǣl, adj., curiously inlaid (sword); absolutely, 1939.
sceadu-genga, w. m., shadoow-goer, prowler by night, 703.
sceal, etc., see sculan.
scealc, st. m., marshal, retainer, 918, 939.
scearp, adj., sharp, 288.
scēat, st. m., [sheet] corner, region, quarter, 96; gen. pl. sceatta, 752.
sceatt, st. m., money, 1686.
sceaþa, scaþa, w. m., scather, foe, warrior: nom. pl. scaþan, 1803, 1895; gen. pl. sceaþena, 4, sceaðona, 274.
sceaðan, st. v., with dat., scathe, injure; pret. scōd, 1887.
ge-sceaðan, st. v., with dat., scathe, 1502, 1587. Special passages: pret. sg. sē ðe him sāre gescēod, “who injured himself sorely,” 2222; bill ǣr gescōd…eald-hlāfordes þām ðāra māðma mund-bora wæs longe hwīle, “the old lord’s (Beowulf’s) sword had erewhile injured him that had been the protector of those treasures a long while,” 2777.
scēawere, st. m., explorer, spy, 253.
scēawi(g)an, w. v., with acc., [shew] espy, see, view, observe, 840, 843, 1391, etc.; pres. pl. subj. scēawian, 3008; pret. pl. scēawedon, 132, etc.; pp. gescēawod, 3075, 3084.
-scēd, see -scādan.
sceft, st. m., shaft, 3118.
scel, see sculan.
scencan, w. v., skink, pour out; pret. sg. scencte, 496.
scenne, w. f., sword-guard, 1694.
-scēod, see -sceaðan.
sceolde, see sculan.
-scēop, see -scyppan.
scēotan, st. v., shoot, 1744.
ge-scēotan, st. v., with acc.,

shoot or dart into, hurry to; pret. sg. hord eft gescēat, 2319.

of-scēotan, st. v., with acc., shoot off, kill; pret. sg. ofscēt, 2439.
scēotend, st. m. (pres. part.), shooter, warrior; pl. 703, 1154.
scepen, see scyppan.
sceran, st. v., shear, cut, 1287.
ge-sceran, st. v., shear, cut in two, 1526; pret. sg. gescer, 2973.
-scet, see -sceotan.
sceððan, w. v., usu. with dat., scathe, injure, 1514, 1524, etc. ; absolutely, 243.
ge-sceððan, w. v., with dat., scathe, injure, 1447.
scild-, see scyld-.
scile, see sculan.
scīnan, st. v., shine, 1517, etc.; pret. pl. scinon, 994, scionon, 303.
scinna, w. m., devil, 939.
scionon, see scīnan.
scip, st. neut., ship, 302, etc.; dat. pl. scypon, 1154.
scip-here, st. m., ship-army, naval force; dat. scip-herge, 243.
scīr, adj., sheer, bright, 322, 496, 979; weak gen. 1694.
scīr-ham, adj., bright-coated, with shining mail, 1895.
scōd, see sceaðan.
scolde, etc., see sculan.
scop, st. m., [shaper] maker, bard, etc., 90, etc.
scōp, see scyppan.
scota, w. m., shooter, warrior; dat. pl. scotenum, 1026 (see note).
scrīfan, st. v., [shrive] prescribe, pass sentence, 979.
for-scrīfan, st. v., with dat. pers., proscribe, 106. ge-scrīfan, st. v., prescribe: pret. sg. swā him wyrd ne gescrāf hrēð æt hilde, “as weird did not assign to him triumph in battle,” 2574.
scrīðan, st. v., stride, stalk, glide, wander, move, go, advance, 163, 650, 703, 2569.
scucca, w. m., demon; dat. pl. scuccum ond scinnum, “from demons and devils,” 939.
scūfan, st. v., with acc., shove, launch, 215, 918; pret. pl. scufun, 3131.
be-scūfan, st. v., witli acc., shove, cast, 184. wīd-scūfan, st. v., [wide-shove] scatter; pp. wēa wīd-scofen witena gehwylcne, “woe [had] scattered each councillor,” 936.
sculan, st.-w. v., pres. sg. 1st, 3rd sceal, 20, etc., scel, 455, etc., sceall, 2498, etc.; pres. subj. scyle, 2657, scile, 3176; pret. scolde, 280, etc., sceolde, 2586, etc.; 2nd sg. sceoldest, 2056; pl. scoldon, 41, etc., sceoldon, 2257: shall, be to, must, have to, be obliged, ought, 24, etc., pret. should, was to, etc., 230, 1067, 1260, etc.; sometimes expressing mere futurity, 384, etc. With foll. inf. omitted: unc sceal worn fela māþma gemænra [wesan], 1783; ūrum sceal sweord oncl helm…bām gemǣne, “to us both shall one sword and helmet [be] in common,” 2659; sceal se hearda helm…fǣtum befeallen, 2255; þonne ðū forð scyle [gongan], 1179; so, 2816. Special passage: hē gesēcean sceall hord on hrūsan, “it is his to seek the hoard in the earth,” 2275.
scūr-heard, adj., [shower-hard] hardened by being plunged into cold water, 1033. Cf. “the ice-brook’s temper,” Othello, v. 2. 253.
scyld, st. m., shield, 325, etc.
scild-weall, st. m., shield-wall, wall of shields, 3118.
scyldan, w. v., shield: pret. nymðe mec God scylde, “unless God had shielded me,” 1658.
scyld-freca, w. m., shield-warrior, 1033.
scyldig, adj., guilty; with dat., synnum scildig, 3071; with gen. 1683; ealdres scyldig, “having forfeited his life,” 1338, 2061.
scyld-wiga, w. m., shield-warrior, 288.
scyle, see sculan.
scyndan, w. v., hasten, 2570, 918.
scȳne, adj., sheen, beauteous, 3017.
scyp, see scip.
scyppan, st. v., shape, create, make, 78; pp. sceapen, 2230; wæs sīo wrōht scepen heard wið Hūgas, “the strife was made hard against the Hugs,” 2913.
ge-scyppan, st. v., shape, create, 97.
Scyppend, st. m. (pres. part.), shaper, Creator, 106.
scȳran, w. v., [make sheer] bring to light, 1939.
se, m., sēo, sīo, f., þæt, neut., demon, adj., the, that: m. se, 506, 2237, 2999; f. sēo, 1343; sīo, 2684, 2999, 3150; neut. þæt, 661; instr. neut. þȳ, 1664, 2028; gen. pl. þāra, 681, þǣra, 992. Following its noun: acc. m. þone, 2007, 2588, 2952, 2969, 3081; gen. pl. ðāra, 2734. Alliterating: dat. m. þǣm, 197, 790, 806; acc. f. sg. þā, 736, 1675; instr. neut. þȳ, 1797; gen. pl. þāra, 2033. Correl. withused as a relative pron.: se…sē, 2865, 3071–3; sēo…sīo, 2258. See also þe.
sē, m., sēo, sīo, f., þæt, neut., pron.

I. Demon. pron., that, that one, he, etc.: m. sē, 469, 2406, 2804; f. sīo, 2024, 2087; neut. þæt, 716, 734, 765, 1002 (see be-flēon); acc. m. þone, 3009; gen. m. and neut. þæs, 1774; ic ðæs ealles mæg…gefēan habban, “I can have joy of all that,” 2739; dat. m. and neut. þǣm, 12, þām, 137; acc. pl. þā, 3014; gen. pl. þāra, 1015 (see note). Immediately followed by the rel. particle þe (q. v.): nom. sē þe, 90, 441, 1497, 2222, 2292, 2864; acc. þone þe, 2295, 3003, 3034, 3116; dat. þām þe, 2601, 2861, 3055; gen. pl. þāra þe, 98, 878, 1196, 1461, 1578, 1625 (“of those things which”). With þe omitted: þām = þām þe, 2199, 2779. Correl. withused as a rel. pron.: sē…sē, 2406–7.
Particular usages:
(1) gen. neut. þæs, of that, of this, thereof, for that, for this, therefor, 7, 16, 114, 350, 588, 1145, 1692, 1778, 2032, 2239, 2335; therefore, 900, 1992. Correl. with þæt, conj., 2026–8, etc. See also þæs, adv.
(2) instr. neut. þȳ, þē, therefore, 1273, 2067. Correl. with þē, conj. (q. v.), 487, 1436, 2638. Often with comparatives, the: 821, 974, 1902, 2277, 2687, 2749, 2880; nō þȳ ǣr, “none the sooner,” 754, etc.
(3) instr. neut. þon; þon mā, “(the) more,” 504; æfter þon, “after that,” 724; ǣr þon, “ere,” 731; be þon, “by that,” 1722; tō þon, þæt, “until,” 2591, 2845. See also under tō.

II. Rel. pron., that, who, which, what; m. sē, 143, 370, 1610, 2407, 2865, etc.; sē for sēo, 2421 (see also þe); neut. þæt = “what,” 15, 1466, 1748; m. acc. þone, 1354, 2048, 2751; f. acc. þā, 2022; gen. neut. Gode þancode…þæs se man gespræc, “thanked God for what the man spake,” 1398; þæs ic wēne, “according to what I expect, as I ween,” 272; so, 383; dat. sing. m. and neut. þǣm, 310, 374, 1363, 1688; þām, 2612; pl. þā, 704, etc. See also þǣs, adv.

þæs þe, see under þæs.
sealde, etc., see sellan.
sealma, w. m., sleeping-place, couch, chamber, 2460.
sealt, adj., salt, 1989.
searo, st. neut., armour, 329, 419 (battle), etc.; dat. pl. adverbially, searwum, “cunningly, curiously,” 1038, 2764.
searo-bend, st. m. f., cunning band, 2086.
searo-fāh, adj., cunningly or artistically coloured, variegated, 1444.
searo-geþræc, st. neut., heap of treasures of cunning work, 3102.
searo-gimm, st. m., cunning gem, jewel of artistic workmanship, 1157, 2749.
searo-grim, adj., [cunning-grim] cunningly fierce, or fierce in battle, 594.
searo-hæbbend, st. m. (pres. part.), [armour-having] armour-bearer, warrior, 237.
searo-net, st. neut., [cunning- or armour-net] coat of mail, 406.
searo-nīð, st. m., armour-strife, hostility, 582, 3067; cunning-hatred, wile, plot, 1200, 2738.
searo-þonc, st. m., cunning thought, 775.
searo-wundor, st. neut., [cunning-wonder] rare wonder, 920.
seax, st. neut., hip-sword, dagger, 1545.
sēcan, sēcean, w. v., 664, 187; dat. inf. tō sēceanne, 2562; pres. pl. (fut.) sēceað, 3001; pret. pl. sōhton, 339, sōhtan, 2380: seek in its various meanings; visit, go to, strive after; 756, 1379, 2738, 2380 (of a friendly visit). Intrans. 2293, 3001 (of a hostile attack); þonne his myne sōhte, “than his wish (hope) sought,” 2275. Special passages: sāwle sēcan, “kill,” 801; so, sēcean sāwle hord, 2422.
ge-sēc(e)an, w. v., 684, etc.; dat. inf. tō gesēcanne, 1922; pret. pl. gesōhton, 2926, gesōhtan, 2204: seek in its various meanings as above, 692, 1839, etc.; often of hostile attack, 2515, etc. ofer-sēc(e)an, w. v., overtax, test too severely; pret. sg. sē ðe mēca gehwane…swenge ofersōhte, “which with its swing overtaxed every sword,” 2686.
sece, see sæcc.
secg, st. m., man, etc., 208, 213, 249, 402, 980, 2863, etc.; of Grendel’s mother, 1379.}}
secg, st. f., sword, 684.
secgan, w. v., 273, 590, 532, 1809, etc.; dat. inf. tō secganne, 473, 1724; pret. pl. sægdon, 377, etc., sǣdan, 1945 ; pp. gesægd, gesǣd, 141, 1696: say, speak. Imperf. with partitive gen. swā se secg hwata secgende wæs lāðra spella, 3028.
ā-secgan, w. v., say out, declare, 344. ge-secgan, w. v., say, 2157; imperat. sg. gesaga, 388.
sefa, w. m., mind, soul, heart, 49, 278, 473, etc.
sēft, compar. adv. (of sōfte), softer, more easily, 2749.
-sēgan, see -sēon.
segen, see segn.
segl, st. neut., sail, 1906.
segl-rād, st. f., sail-road, sea, 1429.
segn, st. m. neut., sign, banner, 1204; acc. segn, 2767, 2776, segen, 47, 1021; nom. sg. þā wæs ǣht boden Swēona lēodum, segn Higelāces, “then was pursuit offered to the Swedes’ people, Hygelac’s standard [raised],” 2958 (see note). From L. signum.
-sēgon, see -sēon.
-sēh, see -sēon.
sel, see sæl.
sēl, compar. adv. (no positive, cf. sēlra), better, 1012, 2687, etc.
seldan, adv., seldom, 2029.
seld-guma, w. m., hall-man; nom. sg. nis þæt seld-guma, “that is no mere retainer,” 249.
sele, st. m., hall, 81, 713, etc.; of the dragon’s cave, 3128.
sēle, see sǣl.
sele-drēam, st. m., [hall-dream] hall-joy (in heaven?), 2252.
sele-ful, st. neut., hall-beaker, hall-cup, 619.
sele-gyst, st. m., hall-guest, 1545.
sele-rǣdend, st. m. (pres. part.), [hall-counsellor] hall-ruler, 51, 1346.
sele-rest, st. f., hall-rest, bed in a hall, 690.
sēlest, etc., see under sēlra.
sele-þegn, st. m., hall-thane, chamberlain, 1794.
sele-weard, st. m., [hall-ward] guardian of a hall, 667.
self, reflex, adj.; nom. sg. self, 594, 920, etc., sylf, 1964; weak selfa, 29, 1924, etc., seolfa, 3067, sylfa, 3054, etc.; acc. sg. m. selfne, 2875, etc., sylfne, 1977; gen. sg. m. selfes, 700, etc., sylfes, 2013, etc.; f. selfre, 1115; nom. pl. selfe, 419, sylfe, 1996; gen. pl. sylfra, 2040: self, etc. Often absolutely 2222, 419, etc.; on mīnne sylfes dōm, 2147. Sometimes agreeing with the nom. instead of with the oblique case next to ivhich it stands: þū þē (dat.) self, 953; þǣm þe him selfa dēah, 1839.
sēlla, see sēlra.
sellan, syllan, w. v., [sell] give, give up, 2160, 1370, 1482, etc.
ge-sellan, w. v., [sell] give, 1029, 1052, etc.
sel-līc, syl-līc (=seld-līc), adj., rare, strange, 2086, 2109, 1426.
syl-līcra, compar., stranger, 3038.
selra, compar. adj. (no positive), better, 860, 1384, 1468, etc.; nom. sg. m. sēlla, 2890. Absolutely þæt sēlre, 1759.
sēlest, superl., best, 146, 256, etc. Weak form reced sēlesta, 412; and often after the def. art. se, 1406, etc.
semninga, adv., forthwith, straight-way, suddenly, 644, 1640, 1767.
sendan, w. v., send, 13, 471, 1842.
for-sendan, w. v., send away, 904. on-sendan, w. v., send away, send off, 382, 452, 1483; with forð, 45, 2266.
sendan, w. v., feast, 600.
sēo, see se, sē.
sēoc, adj., sick, “sick unto death,” 1603, 2740, 2904.
seofon, seven, 517; acc. seofan, 2195; inflected syfone, 3122.
seolfa, see self.
seomian, siomian, w. v.:

(1) rest, ride, lie, stand, 302, 2767.

(2) enfetter, fetter; pret. sg. seomade, 161.
sēon, st. v., see, look, 387, 336, etc.; inf. þǣr mæg…sēon, “there it is possible to see, there may one see,” 1365; pret. pl. sægon, 1422.
ge-sēon, st. v., see, 229, 1485, etc.; pres. sg. 3rd gesyhð, 2455, etc.; pret. pl. gesāwon, 221, etc., gesēgon, 3128, gesēgan, 3038; subj. pret. pl. gesāwon, 1605.

geond-sēon, st. v., see throughout, see over; pret. sg. geondseh, 3087.

ofer-sēon, st. v., oversee, survey, look on, 419.

on-sēon, st. v., look on, look at, 1650.
seonu, st. f., sinew; nom. pl. seonowe, 817.
sēoðan, st. v., with acc., seethe, brood over; pret. sg. mǣl-ceare, mōd-ceare…sēað, 190, 1993.
seoððan, see siððan.
sēowian, w. v., sew, link; pp. sēowed (of a byrny), 406.
sess, st. neut., seat, 2717, 2756.
sētan, see sittan.
setl, st. neut., settle, seat, 1232, 1289, etc.
settan, w. v., set, set down, 325, 1242; pp. geseted, 1696.
ā-settan, w. v., set, set up, 47; pp. āseted, 667.

be-settan, w. v., beset, set about, 1453.

ge-settan, w. v.:
(1) set, 94.

(2) set at rest, 2029.
sib(b), st. f., peace, relation, kinship, friendship, 949, 1164, 1857, etc.; uninflected acc. sibb, 2600; dat. sibbe ne wolde wið manna hwone, “would not out of compassion to any man,” 154.
sib-æðeling, st. m., kindred-atheling, 2708.
sibbe-gedriht, st. neut., kindred-band, band of kindred-warriors, 387 (see note), 729.
sīd, adj., wide, broad, large, ample, great, 149, 1291, 1726, etc.; weak forms 1733, 2199, 2347.
sīde, adv., widely, 1223.
sīd-fæðme, adj., [wide-fathomed] broad-bosomed, 1917.
sīd-fæðmed, adj. (pp.), [wide-fathomed] broad-bosomed, 302.
sīd-rand, st. m., broad shield, 1289.
sīe, see wesan.
siex-benn, st. f., hipknife-wound, 2904. From seax.
sig, see wesan.
sigan, st. v., sink, march down, 1251, 307.
ge-sīgan, st. v., sink, fall, 2659.
sige-drihten, st. m., victory-lord, victorious lord, 391.
sige-ēadig, adj., victory-happy, rich in victories, victorious, 1557.
sige-folc, st. neut., victory-folk, victorious people, 644.
sige-hrēð, st. m. neut., victory-fame, presage of victory, confidence or exultation in victory, 490.
sige-hrēðig, adj., victory-exultant, exulting in victory, 94, 1597, 2756.
sige-hwīl, st. f., victory-while; gen. sg. þæet þām þēodne wæs sīðast sige-hwīle, “that was for the king the last hour of victory,” 2710.
sigel, st. m. neut., sun, 1966.
sige-lēas, adj., victory-less, of defeat, 787.
sige-rōf, adj., victory-famed, victorious, 619.
sige-þēod, st. f., victory-nation, victorious people, 2204.
sige-wǣpen, st. neut., victory-weapon, 804.
sigle, st. neut., sun-shaped ornament, jewel, brilliant, necklace, 1200, 1157; acc. pl. siglu, 3163.
sigor, st. neut., victory, 1021, 2875, 3055.
sigor-ēadig, adj., victory-blessed, rich in victories, victorious, 1311, 2352.
sīn, poss. adj., his, 1507, 1960, etc.; her, 1934.
sinc, st. neut., treasure, jewelry, gold, silver, prize, 81, etc.
sinc-fæt, st. neut., treasure-vat, costly vessel, casket, 1200, etc.; acc. pl. sinc-fato, 622.
sinc-fāg, adj., treasure-variegated, bedecked with treasure; weak acc. sg. neut. sinc-fāge, 167.
sinc-gestrēon, st. neut., treasure-possession, costly treasure, 1092, 1226.
sinc-gifa, sinc-gyfa, w. m., treasure-giver, 1012, 1342, 2311.
sinc-māððum, st. m., treasure-jewel (sword), 2193.
sinc-þego, st. f., treasure-taking, receiving of treasure, 2884.
sin-gal, adj., continuous, 154.
sin-gala, adv., continually, 190.
sin-gales, syn-gales, adv., continually, always, 1135, 1777.
singan, st. v., pret. song, sang: sing, sound, 496, 1423; pret. sg. hring-īren scīr song in searwum, “the bright iron rings jingled in the mail,” 323.
ā-singan, st. v., sing, sing out, 1159.
sin-here, st. m., [continuous army] army drawn out, very strong, immense; dat. sin-herge, 2936.
sin-niht, st.f.: acc. or dat. sg. sin-nihte, “night after night,” 161.
sint, see wesan.
sīo, see se, sē.
sioloð, st. m.?, still water?; gen. pl. oferswam ðā sioleða bigong sunu Ecgðēowes, “then E.’s son swam over the expanse of still waters,” 2367.
siomian, see seomian.
sittan, st. v.; pret. pl. sǣton, 1164, sētan, 1602; pp. geseten, 2104: sit, 489, 641, 2906, etc.; inf. ēodon sittan, “went and sat,” 493.
be-sittan, st. v., [sit by] besiege, 2936.

for-sittan, st. v., fail; pres. sg. 3rd, ēagena bearhtm forsiteð ond forsworceð, “eyes’ brightness will fail and grow dim,” 1767.

ge-sittan, st. v.:
(1) intrans. sit, sit together, 171, 749, 1977, etc.
(2) trans, sit down in, 633.

ofer-sittan, st. v., with acc., abstain from, refrain from, 684, 2528.

of-sittan, st. v., with acc., sit upon, 1545.

on-sittan, st. v., with acc., dread, 597.

ymb-sittan, st. v., with acc., sit about, sit round, 564.
sīð, st. m.:

(1) way, journey, expedition, undertaking, adventure, 3058, 765, 532, 2532, 318, 872 (exploit), 908 (way of life), 1971 (return), 2541 (way), 2586 (course), 3089 (passage), etc.

(2) time, repetition, 716, 1579, 2049, etc.
sīð, compar. adv. (pos. sīð); ǣr ond sīð, “earlier and later,” 2500.
sīdest, sīðast, superl. adj. (no pos., except the adv.), latest, last; with gen. 2710; absolutely, æt sīðestan, “at latest, at the last,” 3013.
sīð-fæt, st. m., expedition, 202; dat. sīð-fate, 2639.
sīð-from, adj., [journey-forward] ready for a journey, 1813.
sīðian, w. v., journey, 720, 808, 2119.
for-sīðian, w. v., [journey amiss] perish, 1550.
siððan, syððan, seoððan, adv., [sithence] since, after, afterwards, 142, 470, 1875, etc. Special passage: ǣr ne siððan, “before nor since,” 718. Correl. with syððan, conj., 2201–7.
siððan, syððan, seoððan, conj., [sithence] since, after, when, 106, 115, 413, 850, 1148, 1204, 1689, 1775, etc. With pret.=pluperf. 1978, etc. With pret. and pluperf. syððan mergen cōm, ond wē tō symble geseted hæfdon, 2103–4.
slǣp, st. m., sleep, 1251, 1742.
slǣpan, st. v., sleep; pres. part., acc. sg. m. slǣpendne, 741, uninflected, 2218; acc. pl. 1581.
sleac, adj., slack, 2187.
slēan, st. v., pret. sg. slōh, slōg.:

I. intrans. strike, 681, 1565, 2679.
II. trans.:
(1) strike, 2699.
(2) slay, 108, 1152, 2050, etc.

ge-slēan, st. v., with acc:

(1) fight out, 459.
(2) gain by fighting; pret. pl. hīe ðā mǣrða geslōgon, “they gained glory by fighting,” 2996.

of-slēan, st. v., slay, 574, 1665, 3060.
slītan, st. v., slit, tear to pieces, 741.
slīðe, adj., savage, hurtful, dangerous, 184, 2398.
slīðen, adj., dire, deadly, 1147.
smið, st. m., smith, 406; nom. wǣpna smið, “weapon-smith,” 1452.
smiðian, w. v.
be-smiðian, w. v., make firm by smith’s work, 775.
snell, adj., brisk, prompt, keen, bold; weak nom. sg. m. snella, 2971.
snel-līc, adj., brisk, prompt, keen, bold, 690.
snotor, snottor, adj., wise, prudent, 190, etc.; pl. snotere, 202, snottre, 1591; weak nom. sg. m. snottra, 1314, etc., snotra, 2156, etc.; absolutely, 1786, etc.
snotor-līce, adv.
snotor-līcor, compar., more wisely, more prudently, 1842.
snūde, adv., quickly, 904, etc.
snyrian, w. v., hasten, 402.
snyttru, st. f., wisdom, prudence, 1726, 942, 1706.
snyttrum, dat. pl. used adverbially, wisely, 872.
snyðian, w. v.
be-snyðian, w. v., deprive, 2924.
sōcn, st. f., persecution; dat. þǣre sōcne, “from that persecution,” 1777.
somod, samod, adv., together, 1211, 2196, etc.; with ætgædere, 387, etc.
somod, samod, prep., with dat.; somod (samod) ǣr-dæge, “at dawn,” 1311, 2942.
sōna, adv., soon, 121, etc.
song, see singan.
sorg-, see sorh-.
sorgian, w. v., sorrow, care, 451, 1384.
sorh, st. f., sorrow, 473, 149, etc.; obl. sg. sorge, 119, 2004, etc.; dat. sorhge, 2468.
sorh-cearig, sorg-cearig, adj., [sorrow-careful] sorrowful, heartbroken, 2455, 3152.
sorh-ful(l), adj., sorrowful, 512, 1278, 1429, 2119.
sorh-lēas, adj., sorrowless, free from sorrow, 1672.
sorh-lēoð, st. neut., sorrow-lay, lamentation, 2460.
sorh-wylm, st. m., [sorrow-welling] surge of sorrow or care, 904, 1993.
sōð, st. neut., sooth, truth, 532, etc.; dat. tō sōðe, “for sooth,” 51, etc.
sōð, adj., [sooth] true, 1611, 2109.
sōð-cyning, st. m., [Sooth-king] God, 3055.
sōðe, adv., [soothly] truly, 524.
sōð-fæst, adj., soothfast, just, 2820.
sōð-līce, adv., [soothly] truly, 141, etc.
specan, speak, see sprecan.
spēd, st. f., speed, success; acc. on spēd, “with good speed, successfully,” 873.
spel(l), st. neut., spell, story, tale, tidings, 2109, 2898, etc.; acc. pl. spel gērade, “skilful tales,” 873.
spīwan, st. v., spew; inf. glēdum spīwan, “to vomit forth gleeds,” 2312.
sponnan, st. v.
on-sponnan, st. v., unspan, loosen; pret. his helm onspēon, 2723.
spōwan, st. v., impers., with dat. pers., speed, succeed; pret. sg. him wiht ne spēow, “he had no success,” 2854; hū him æt ǣte spēow, “how he sped at the eating,” 3026.
sprǣc, st. f., speech, 1104.
sprecan, specan, st. v., speak, say, 531, 643, 1171, 1476, etc.; with foll. clause, gomele ymb gōdne on geador sprǣcon, þæt hig, “old men spake together about the hero, [saying] that they,” 1595.
ge-sprecan, st. v., speak, 675, 1398, etc.
springan, st. v., pret. sprong, sprang: spring, 18 (spread), 1588 (gape), 2582 (shoot), 2966 (spurt).
æt-springan, st. v., spring forth; pret. sg. ætspranc, 1121.

ge-springan, st. v., pret. gesprong, gesprang: spring forth, arise, 884, 1667.

on-springan, st. v., spring apart, 817.
stǣl, st. m., place, stead, 1479. [Sievers § 202, N. 2.]
stǣlan, w. v.:

(1) institute, carry on; pp. ge-stǣled, 1340.

(2) avenge, 2485.
stān, st. m., stone, rock, 887, 2288, etc.
stān-beorh, st. m., stone-barrow, barrow or cave of rock, 2213.
stān-boga, w. m., [stone-bow] stone-arch, arch of rock; acc. sg. 2545, nom. pl. 2718.
stān-clif, st. neut., stone-cliff, cliff of rock; acc. pl. stān-cleofu, 2540.
standan, see stondan.
stān-fāh, adj., [stone-variegated] paved or inlaid with stones of various colours, 320.
stān-hlið, st. neut., stone-slope, rocky slope; acc. pl. stān-hliðo, 1409.
stapol, st. m., [staple]:

(1) column; dat. pl. ðā stān-bogan stapulum fæste, “the stone-arches firm on columns,” 2718.

(2) threshold?, staple?; dat. sg. Hrōðār…stōd on stapole, geseah stēapne hrōf golde fāhne ond Grendles hond, 926. [Heyne translates: “stand an der hölzernen Mittelsäule Heorots.” But on stapole will not bear this meaning, which further implies that Grendel’s hand was up among the rafters, whereas there can be no doubt that it was set up as a trophy outside the hall. See l. 983; cf. the stoep of houses at the Cape; and see Earle’s note, “Deeds of Beowulf,” p. 139.]
starian, w. v., pres. sg. 1st starige, starie, 3rd starað, pret. starede, staredon: stare, gaze, 996, 2796, etc. Special passage: þæt hire an dæges ēagum starede, “that he should stare on her by day with his eyes,” 1935.
stēap, adj., steep, towering, tall, 222, 2566, etc.
stearc-heort, adj., [stark-heart] stout-hearted, 2288, 2552.
stede, st. m., stead, place; gen. pl. wæs steda nægla gehwylc stȳle gelīcost, “each of the places of the nails was most like to steel,” 985.
stefn, st. m., stem (of a ship), 212.
stefn, st. m., time, repetition; dat. sg. nīwan (nīowan) stefne, “a-new,” 1789, 2594.
stefn, st. f., voice, 2552.
stellan, w. v.
on-stellan, w. v., institute, set on foot, 2407.
stēpan, w. v., exalt, 1717.
ge-stēpan, w. v., exalt, support; pret. sg. folce gestēpte…sunu Ohteres, “he supported the son of Ohthere with an army,” 2393.
steppan, st. v., step, march; pret.

stōp, 761, 1401.

æt-steppan, st. v., step up;

pret. forð nēar ætstōp, 745.

ge-steppan, st. v., step; pret.=pluperf. gestōp, 2289.
stīg, st. f., path, 320, 2213; acc. pl. stīge, 1409.
stīgan, st. v., [sty] go, ascend, descend, 212, 225, etc.; pret. þā hē tō holme stāg, “when he went down to the sea (to swim),” 2362.
a-stīgan, st. v., ascend, arise, 1373; pret. āstāg, 782, āstāh, 1160, 3144; gūð-rinc āstāh, 1118. ge stīgan, st. v., [sty] go; pret. þā ic on holm gestāh, “when I went onto the sea (into the ship),” 632.
stille, adj., still, 301, 2830.
stincan, st. v., [stink] sniff, snuff; pret. stonc, 2288.
stīð, adj., stiff, stout, 1533.
stīð-mōd, adj., [stiff-mood] stout-hearted, 2566.
stondan, standan, st. v., stand, 2760, 411, 726 (come), 783 (arise), 2227, 1037 (lie), etc.; pret. pl. stōdon, 328, stōdan, 3047. Special passages: līxte se lēoma, lōoht inne stōd, “the beam shone forth, light filled the place,” 1570; stōd eldum on andan, “came forth for a mischief to men,” 2313.
a-stondan, st. v., stand, stand up, 759, 1556, 2092.

æt-stondan, st. v., stand (in), 891.

for-stondan, for-standan, st. v., withstand, avert, defend, 1549 ; inf. hēaðo-līðendum hord forstandan, “defend his hoard against the ocean-farers,” 2955; pret. subj. him…wyrd forstōde, “averted weird from them,” 1056.

ge-stondan, st. v., stand, 358, 2596, etc.
stōp, see steppan.
storm, st. m., storm, 1131, 3117.
stōw, st. f., place, 1006, 1372, 1378.
strǣl, st. m. f., arrow, shaft, 1746, 3117.
strǣt, st. f., street, road, 320, 916, 1634.
strang, see strong.
strēam, st. m., stream, flood, 212, etc.
stregdan, w. v., strew; pp. strēd, 2436.
streng, st. m., string, 3117.
strengel, st. m., strong chief, 3115.
strengest, see strong.
strengo, st. f., strength; acc. dat. strenge, 1270, 1533, dat. strengo, 2540.
strong, strang, adj., strong, 153, 2684; with gen. mægenes strang, “strong in might,” 1844.
strengest, superl., strongest, 1543; with gen. or dat. mægenes, mægene, strengest, 196, 789.
strūdan, st. v., spoil, plunder; subj. pret. strude, 3073, 3126.
strȳnan, w. v.
ge-strȳnan, w. v., obtain, acquire, 2798.
stund, st. f., time, hour; dat. pl. adverbially, stundum, “from time to time,” 1423.
stȳle, st. neut., steel; dat. 985.
stȳl-ecg, adj., steel-edged, 1533.
stȳman, w. v.
be-stȳman, w. v., besteam, wet, 486.
styrian, w. v., stir, disturb, 1374, 2840; handle, treat, 872.
styrman, w. v., storm, 2552.
suhter-gefæderan, w. m. pl., uncle and nephew, 1164.
sum, adj., some, one, a certain, 2156, 3124. Although sum always has the inflections of an adj. (see l. 1432), it is more often used substantively, or as an indef. pron., 1251, 1432, 400, etc.; neut. ne sceal þǣr dyrne sum wesan, “there shall be naught secret,” 271. Often with partitive gen. 675, 713, 1499, etc.; esp. with gen. of numerals and adjs. of quantity: fīftēna sum, “one of fifteen, i.e. with fourteen others,” 207; so 3123, 1412, 2091; sumne fēara, “one of a few, i.e. some few,” 3061. In a few cases sum appears to have a certain demon. force, 248, 314, 1312, 2279.
sund, st. m., swimming, 507, 517, 1436, 1618; sound, channel, sea, 213, 1510, etc.
sund-gebland, st. neut., [sound-blend] welter of the sea, tumult of the waves, 1450.
sund-nytt, st. f., [swimming-use]; acc. sund-nytte drēah, “swam through the sea,” 2360.
sundor-nytt, st. f., special service, 667.
sundur, adv., asunder, 2422.
sund-wudu, st. m., [sound-wood] ship, 208, 1906.
sunne, w. f., sun, 94, etc.
sunu, st. m., son, 268, etc.; dat. suna, 1226, etc., sunu, 344.
sūð, adv., south, southwards, 858.
sūðan, adv., from the south, 606, 1966.
I. adv. of manner and degree, so, thus, 347, 1142, 1843, 3069, etc. Special passage: leng swā wel, “the longer the better,” 1854.

II. conjunctive adv., as in its various meanings, 29, 490, 881, 3098, 1667 (when), 2184 (since), etc.; in elliptical sentences, 2622; eft swā ǣr, 642; correl. with swā I., 594, 1092–3, etc. Special passage: swā mē Higelāc sīe…mōdes blīðe, “as may H. be gracious to me, on condition that H. be gracious to me,” 435.

III. = rel.pron.; wlite-beorhtne wang, swā wæter bebūgeð, “the beauteous-bright plain, which water encompasses,” 93.

IV. conj., so that, 1508, 2006.

swā þēah, swā ðēh, however, 972, 2967, etc.; redundant after hwæðre, 2442.

swā hwæðere……swā, whichsoever, 686-7.

swā hwylc…swā, with gen., whichsoever, 943, 3057.
swǣlan, w. v.
be-swǣlan, w. v., scorch, 3041.
swǣs, adj., dear, own dear, 29, 520, etc.
swǣslīce, adv., gently, 3089.
swancor, adj., [swank] slender, 2175.
swan-rād, st. f., swan-road, sea, 200.
swāpan, st. v.
for-swāpan, st. v., sweep away, sweep off, 477, 2814.
-swarian, w. v.
ond-swarian, and-swarian, w. v., answer, 258, 340.
swāt, st. m., [sweat] blood, 1286, etc.
swāt-fāh, adj., [sweat-stained] blood-stained, 1111.
swātig, adj., [sweaty] bloody, 1569.
swāt-swaðu, st. f., [sweat-track] blood-track, 2946.
swaðrian, w. v., subside; pret. pl. swaðredon, 570.
swaðu, [swath] st. f., track, 2098; acc. him sīo swīðre swaðe weardade hand, “his right hand showed where he had been,” 2098.
swaðul, st. m. neut.?, smoke, 782.
sweart, adj., swart, black, dark, 167, 3145.
swebban, w. v., send to sleep, kill, 679; pres. sg. 3rd, swefeð, 600.
ā-swebban, w. v., put to sleep, appease, kill; pret. part. pl. āswefede, 567.
swefan, st. v., sleep, sleep the sleep of death, 119, 1008, etc.; pret. pl. swǣfon, 703, swǣfun, 1280.
-swefede, see -swebban.
swefeð, 600, see swebban.
swēg, st. m., sound, noise, 89, 644, etc.
swegel, st. neut., sky, 860, 1078, etc.
swegle, adj., bright, clear, 2749.
swegl-wered, adj., ether-clad, radiant, 606.
swelan, st. v., [sweal] burn, 2713.
swelgan, st. v., swallow; pret., with dat., swealh, 743, swealg, 3155; pret. subj., absolutely, swulge, 782.
for-swelgan, st. v., swallow up, 1122, 2080.
swellan, st. v., swell, 2713.
sweltan, st. v., die, 1617, etc.; with cognate dat. morðre, -dēaðe, 892, 2782, 3037.
swencan, w. v., molest, oppress, 1510.
ge-swencan, st. v., strike, bring low, 2438. ge-swenced, pp. (of swencan or geswencan), made to toil, harassed, harried, pressed, 975, 1368.
sweng, st. m., swing, stroke, 1520, etc.
sweofot, st. m., sleep, 1581, 2295.
sweoloð, st. m., flame, 1115.
-swēop, see -swāpan.
sweorcan, st. v., grow dark, 1737.
for-sw(e)orcan, st. v., grow dim, 1767. ge-sweorcan, st. v., lour, 1789.
sweord, swurd, swyrd, st. neut., sword, 487, 539, 2610, etc.; pl. sweord, 2638, swyrd, 3048.
sweord-bealo, st. neut., sword-bale, death by the sword, 1147.
sweord-freca, w. m., sword-wolf, sword-warrior, 1468.
swyrd-gifu, st. f., sword-giving, 2884.
sweotol, adj., clear, 817, 833; nom. swutol, 90; weak dat. sweotolan, 141.
swerian, st. v., swear, 472, 2738.
for-swerian, st. v., with dat., forswear, 804.
sweðrian, w. v., wane, lessen, 901, 2701.
swīcan, st. v., fail, disappear, escape, 966, 1460.
ge-swīcan, st. v., weaken, fail, 1524, etc.
swīfan, st. v.
on-swīfan, st. v., swing up, raise, 2559.
swift, adj., swift; weak, 2264.
swīge, adj., silent.
swīgra, compar., silenter, 980.
swīgian, w. v., be silent; pret. sg. swīgode, 2897, pl. swīgedon, 1699.
swilce, see swylce.
swimman, swymman, st. v., swim, 1624.
ofer-swimman, st. v., over-swim, swim over; pret. oferswam, 2367.
swīn, swȳn, st. neut., swine, image of a boar on a helmet, hence helmet, 1111, 1286.
swincan, st. v., swink, toil, 517.
swingan, st. v., swing, 2264.
swīn-līc, st. neut., swine-shape, image of a boar, 1453.
swioðol, st. m. neut.?, smoky glow, or the clear vapour just above the flame (?), 3145 (see note).
swīð, swȳð, adj., strong, severe; nom. swȳð, 191.
swīðra, compar., stronger; nom. fem. sīo swīðre hand, “the right hand,” 2098.
swīðan, st. and w. v.
ofer-swȳðan, st. and w. v., over-power, overcome, 279, 1768.
swīðe, swȳðe, adv., strongly, greatly, very, 597, 1926, 2170, 2187, etc.
swīðor, compar., more greatly, more, more especially, rather, 960, 1139, 1874, 2198.
swīð-ferhð, swȳð-ferhð, adj., strong-souled, stout-hearted, 173, 493, 826, 908.
swīð-hicgende, adj. (pres. part.), [strong-thinking] bold-minded, stout-hearted, 919, 1016.
swīð-mōd, adj., [strong-mood] stout-hearted, 1624.
swōgan, st. v., sound; pres. part. 3145.
swōr, see swerian.
-sworcan, see -sweorcan.
swulces, see swylc.
swurd, see sweord.
swutol, see sweotol.
swylc, adj.-pron., such, such as, as.
I. ( = L. talis) such:

(1) adj. 582, 1347, etc.
(2) pron. 299 (with gen.), 996; gen. swulces, 880 (see hwā); acc. ōðer swylc ūt offerede, “carried out and off another such [batch],” 1583.

II. ( = L. qualis) such as, 1156 (with gen.), 1797, 2869; acc. eall gedælan…swylc him God sealde, “deal out all that God gave him,” 72.

III. ( = L. talis…qualis) swylc…swylc, “such…as,” 1249 (with gen.), 1328–9, 3164.
I. adv., as well as, likewise, 113, 293, 2258, etc.; once swilce, 1152. II. conjunctive adv., as, 757.
swylt, st. m., death, 1255, 1436.
swylt-dæg, st. m., death-day, 2798.
swymman, see swimman.
swȳn, see swīn.
swynsian, w. v., resound, 611.
swyrd, see sweord.
swȳð, see swīð.
-swȳðan, see -swīðan.
swȳðe, see swīðe.
sȳ, see wesan.
syfan-wintre, adj., seven winters old, 2428.
syfone, see seofon.
-syhð, see -sēon.
sylf(a), see self.
syll, st. f., sill, base, floor, 775.
syllan, see sellan.
syllīc, see sellīc.
symbel, st. neut., feast, banquet, 564, 2431, etc.; dat. symble, 119, 2104, symle, 81, etc.
symbel-wynn, st. f., feast-joy, joy in feasting, 1782.
sym(b)le, adv., always, 2450, 2497, 2880.
symle, n., see symbel.
syn-bysig, adj., [sin -busy] guilt-haunted, troubled by guilt, 2226.
syn-dolh, st. neut., ceaseless wound, incurable wound, 817.
syndon, see wesan.
syngales, see singales.
syngian, w. v., sin; pp. gesyngad, 2441.
synn, st. f., sin, crime, injury, hatred, struggle, 975, 1255, 2472, 3017.
syn-scaða, w. m., ceaseless scather, perpetual foe, 707, 801.
syn-snǣd, st. f., [ceaseless bit] huge bit, 743.
synt, see wesan.
syrce, w. f., sark, shirt of mail, 226, etc.
syrwan, w. v., ensnare, 161.
be-syrwan, w. v., ensnare, 713; contrive, 942.
syððan, w. v., avenge, 1106.
syððan, see siððan.


tācen, st. neut., token, 833; dat. tācne, 141, 1654.
tǣcan, w. v.
ge-tǣcan, w. v., teach, indicate, assign, 313, 2013.
talian, w. v., tell, 532, 594; count, reckon, 677, 2027; pres. sg. 1st wēn ic talige, “I reckon it a thing to be expected,” 1845.
tēar, st. m., tear, 1872.
tela, adv., well, 948, etc.
telge, see tellan.
tellan, w. v., tell, reckon, deem, 794, 2184; pres. sg. 1st telge, 2067. Special passage: ac him wæl-bende weotode tealde, “but [if he did] he might reckon death-bands prepared for himself,” 1936.
teoh, st. f., band, troop; dat. sg. teohhe, 2938.
teohhian, w. v., assign, 951; pp. geteohhod, 1300.
tēon, st. v., tug, draw, 1036, 553, 1288 (of a sword), etc.; travel: pret. sg. brim-lāde tēah, “travelled the ocean-way,” 1051; so eft-sīðas tēah, 1332.
ā-tēon, st. v., [tug] take; pret. sg. þæt wæs gēocor sīð, þæt (for þe) se hearm-scaþa tō Heorute ātēah, 766.

gē-tēon, st. v., tug, draw, 1545, 2610; deliver, 1044. Special passages: imperat. sg. nō ðū him wearne getēoh ðīnra gegn-cwida, “do not thou give them a refusal of thy replies,” 366; pret. sg. hē him ēst getēah mēara ond māðma, “he honoured him with the horses and treasures,” 2165.

of-tēon, st. v., tug off or away, withhold; with gen. rei and dat. pers., 5; with dat. rei, 1520; with acc. rei, 2489.

þurh-tēon, st. v., [tug through] bring about, 1140.
tēon, w. v., with acc., make, adorn, provide, 1452; pret. pl. tēodan, 43.
ge-tēon, w. v., do, 2295; appoint, 2526.
tīd, st. f., tide (i.e. time), time, 147, 1915.
tīdan, w. v.
ge-tīdan, w. v., bctide, 2226.
til(l), adj., good, 61, 1250, 2721, etc.
tilian, w. v., with gen., [till] gain, 1823.
timbran, w. v., timber, build, 307.
be-timbran, w. v., [betimber] build; pret. pl., betimbredon, 3159.
tīr, st. m., glory, 1654.
tīr-ēadig, adj., [glory-blessed] glorious, happy in fame, 2189.
tīr-fæst, adj., [glory-fast] glorious, 922.
tīr-lēas, adj., gloryless; gen. sg. absolutely, 843.
tīðian, w. v., impers., with gen., grant; pp. wæs…bēne getīðad, “(of) the boon (it) was granted,” 2284.
tō, prep., with dat., to, at, for, 28, 1578, 1983, etc.: for, as, esp. in predicative dats., 14, 51, 95, 460, 910, 2998, etc.: for (with personal object), 525; at, 374, 2892; at (time), 26; in, 188, 647 (at); on, 1138–9; by, 641; from, 1272, 2922; with, 601, 1207 (from). Special usages:

(1) for, in adverbial phrases of time: tō aldre, 955, 2005, 2498; tō life, 2432; tō wīdan fēore, 933.
(2) to, with gerunds, 1008, etc.; rarely with infs., 316, 2556.
(3) Following its case: him tō, “to it,” 313; 1396 (see wēnan); þe þū hēr tō lōcast, “on which thou lookest here,” 1654; þe ūs sēceað tō Swēona lēoda, “for which the peoples of the Swedes will come against us,” 3001.

tō hwan, see hwā, hwæt.

tō þæs, adv., so, 1616.

to þæs þe, conjunctive phrase, to (the point) where, thither whence, 714, 2410, 1967; to the point (degree), that, 1585.

tō þon, adv., to that degree, so, 1876.

tō þon, þæt, until, 2591, 2845; see sē.
to, adv.:

(1) = preposition without expressed object (cf. the particles of separable verbs in German): thereto, to him, to it, 1785, 2648, 1755; on, 1422.

(2) too, before adjs. and advs., 133, 137, 191, etc. Special passages: tō fela micles, “far too much,” 694; hē tō fortð ge-stōp, “he had stepped too far forth,” 2289.

tō-gædre, adv., together, 2630.
to-gēanes, tō-gēnes, prep., with dat., following its case. towards, against, 666, 1542 (at), 1626 (to meet). Special passage: gōdum tōgēnes, “to where the good man lay dead,” 3114.
tō-gēanes, adv.: grāp þā togēanes, “then she clutched at [him],” 1501.
tō-middes, adv., in the midst, 3141.
torht, adj., bright, clear, 313.
torn, st. neut., anger, rage, 2401; insult, distress, 147, 833, 2189.
torn, adj.
tornost, superl., bitterest, 2129.
torn-gemōt, st. neut., [wrath-meeting] angry meeting, encounter, 1140.
to-somne, adv., together, 2568.
tredan, st. v., with acc., tread, 1964, 1352, etc.
treddian, tryddian, w. v, intrans., trad, go, 725, 922.
trem, st. neut.: acc. sg. adverbially, fōtes trem, “a foot’s breadth or space,” 2525.
trēow, st. f., troth, truth, good faith, 1072, 2922.
trēowan, w. v., with dat., trow, trust: pret. sg. gehwylc hiora his ferhþe trēowde, “each of them trusted Unferth’s heart,” 1166.
trēow-loga, w. m., troth-liar, troth-breaker, 2847.
trod, st. f., track, 843.
trum, adj., strong, 1369.
trūwian, w. v., with gen. or dat., trow, trust, believe, 669, 1993, etc.
ge-trūwian, w. v.:

(1) with gen. or dat., trow, trust; with gen., 2322, 2540; with dat., 1533.

(2) with acc., confirm; pret. pl. getrūwedon, 1095.
tryddian, see treddian.
trȳwe, adj., true, 1165.
twā, see twēgen.
twǣfan, w. v.
ge-twǣfan, w. v., usu. with acc. pers. and gen. rei, divide, sever, separate, restrain, 479, etc.; pp. getwǣfed, “ended,” 1658.
twǣman, w. v.
ge-twǣman, w. v., with acc. pers. and gen. rei, sever, cut off, 968.
twēgen, m., twā, f. and neut., num., twain, two, 1163, 1095, etc.; gen. twēga, 2532; dat. twǣm, 1191.
twelf, num., twelve; gen., twelfa, 3170.
twēonum, dat. pl. of distrib. numeral: be (bī) sǣm twēonum, “by the twin seas, i.e. between the seas,” 858, 1297, 1685, 1956.
tydre, adj., unwarlike, 2847.
tyhtan, w. v.
on-tyhtan, w. v., entice, 3086.
tȳn, ten, 3159; inflected tȳne, 2847.

Þ, Ð.


I. adv., then, 3, 331, 461, 465, 536, 657, etc.

II. rel. adv. or conj., with indic., when, as, since, seeing, 201, 402, 539, 632, 706, 1103, 1291, 1598, 1813, etc.; correl. with þā above, 723, 2756, etc.
þā, adj.-pron., see se, sē.
þǣem, them, see se, sē.

I. adv., there, 32, 331, 493, etc.; unemphatic (like mod. there with impers. verbs) 271, 440, etc. For ðǣr on innan, 71, 2089, etc., see innan.

II. rel. adv., where, 286, 420, 1007, 1079, 1394, etc.; (to) where, 356, 1313, etc.; if, 2730, 1835 (?). With swā following: ðǣr…swa, “wheresoever,” 797; “if so be that,” 2730.

þǣra, þǣre, see se, sē.
þæs, adj.-pron., see se, sē.
þæs, adv.:

(1) therefore, 900, 1992; see sē.
(2) so, 773, 968, 1367.

þæs þe, conj.:

(1) as, 1341, 1350, 3000.
(2) because, 108, 228, 626, 1628, 1751, 1998, 2797; correl. with preceding þæs, 1779.

tō þæs þe, see tō.
þæt, adj.-pron., see se, sē.
þæt, conj., that, so that, 62, 1367, 1664, etc.; until, 84, 1318 (?), 1911, 1939 (?); in that, 3036; often correl. loith the demon, neut. pron. þæt or þæs (see sē), 778–9, 1591–3, 1598–9, etc.; repeated 2864–5–71.
þæt þe, conj., that, 1846.
þætte (=þæt þe), conj., that, 151, etc.
þafian, w. v., with acc., consent to, submit to, 2963.
-þah, see -þicgan.
þām, see se, sē.
þanan, see þonan.
þanc, st. m.:

(1) with gen. rei, thanks, 928, 1997, etc.

(2) content?, favour?; dat. sg. þā ðe gif-sceattas Gēata fyredon þyder tō þance, 379.
þanc-hycgende, adj. (pres. part.), [thought-thinking], thoughtful, 2235.
þancian, w. v., thank, 625, 1397; pret. pl., þancodon, 1626, þancedon, 227.
þanon, see þonan.
þāra, see se, sē.
þās, see þes.
þe, rel. particle, indecl., who, that, which, etc.

(1) Alone, 192, 500, etc.; 355, 2182; dat. sg. 2400, 3001; nom. pl. 45, etc.; acc. pl. 2490, 2196; gen. pl. 950; þe gē þǣr on standað, “in which ye stand there,” 2866; so 1654. Special passages: hēo þā, fǣhðe wræc, þe þū gystran niht Grendel cwealdest, “she avenged the feud, in which thou killedst Grendel yesternight,” 1334; mid þǣre sorhge, þe him sīo sār belamp, “with the sorrow, where-with that blow befell (afflicted) him,” 2468.
(2) Immediately preceded by redundant sē, sēo, þæt, etc.; sē þe, 103, 1260, 1342, 1449, 1462 (antec. ǣngum); sē þe for sēo þe, 1344, 1887, 2685; sēo þe, 1445; ðone þe, 1054, 1298, 2056, 2173; pl. þā þe, 1592. Correlatives: se…sē þe, 506 (followed by verb in 2nd pers.); sēo hand …sē þe, 1343–4; sīo hond…sē þe, 2684–5; þæt ys sīo fǣhðo ond se fēond-scipe…þe ūs sēceað tō Swēona lēoda, “that is the feud and the enmity for which the peoples of the Swedes will come against us,” 2999–3001.
N.B. After þāra þe the verb is often in the sg.: 843, 996, 1051, 1461, 2130, 2251, 2383.
(3) Followed by redundant hē: acc. sg. m. þe hine dēað nimeð, “whom death will take,” 441.

þæes þe, see þæs, adv.

þæt þe, see þæt, conj.

þēah þe, see þēah.

forðon þe, see forþam.

tō þæs þe, see tō.
þē, pers. pron. (acc. and dat. of þū), thee, to thee, etc., 417, 523, 525, etc. With a comparative, than thou, 1850.
þē, demon, pron., see sē.
þē, conj.:

(1) because, correl. with a preceding þȳ, þē (see sē), 488, 1436, 2641.
(2) that, so that, 242 (? possibly dat. of the rel. particle þe, “because of which,” antecedent ǣg-wearde).

-þeah, see -þicgan.
þēah, conj., usu. with subj., rarely with indic.: though, although, 203, 2855, 2467, etc.; once þēh, 1613; þēah ic eal mæge, “although I may,” 680.
þēah þe, conj., usu. with subj., though, although, 1167, 1716, 2481, 2838, etc.
þēah, adv., though, yet, however, 1508.
swā þēah, see swā.
þearf, st. f., need, 201, 1477, 1797, etc.; acc. fremmað gēna lēoda þearfe, “fulfil still the people’s need,” 2801.
þearf, v., see þurfan.
þearfa, w. m., n. or adj.: ærnes

þearfa, “shelterless,” 2225.

(ge-)þearfian, w. v., necessitate, render necessary; pp. geþearfod, 1103.
þearle, adv., severely, hard, 560.
þēaw, st. m., [thew] custom, 178, etc.; dat. pl. “in good customs,” 2144.
þec, pers. pron. (archaic acc. of þū), thee, 947, etc.
þeccean, w. v., [thatch] cover, enfold, 3015; pret. pl. þehton, 513.
þegn, st. m., thane, 194, 400, 1230, etc.; used of Beowulf, 194, etc., Hengest, 1085, Wiglaf, 2721, etc.
þegn-sorg, st. f., thane-sorrow sorrow for one’s thanes, 131.
þēgon, þēgun, see þicgan.
þēh, see þēah.
þehton, see þeccean.
þenc(e)an, w. v., think, intend: usu. with following inf., 355, 448 (fut.), 739, etc.; with dependent clause, 691; absolutely, 289, 2601 (see onwendan).
ā-þenc(e)an, w. v., think out, intend, 2643. ge-þenc(e)an, w. v., with acc., think, think of, 1474; inf. his…ende geþencean, “think of the end thereof,” 1734.
þenden, adv., yet a while, 1019.
þenden, conj., with indic. or subj., while, whilst, 30, 1224, 2985, etc.
þengel, st. m., prince, king, 1507.
þēnian (=þegnian), w.v., with dat., serve, 560.
þēod, st. f., people, nation, 643, 1705, etc.
þēod-cyning, -kyning, þīod-cyning, st. m., nation-king, king of a people, 2, 2144 (Hrothgar), 2579 (Beowulf), 2963 (Ongentheow), etc.
þēoden, þīoden, st. m., prince, king, 34, 797, 2336, 2656, etc.; dat. þēodne, 345, etc., þēoden, 2032; pl. þēodnas, 3070.
þēoden-leas, adj., prince-less, without one’s chief, 1103.
þēod-gestrēon, st. neut., nation-treasure, national possession, 44, 1218.
þēod-kyning, see þēod-cyning.
þēod-sceaða, w. m., nation-scather, national foe, 2278, 2688.
þēod-þrēa, st. f., national misery, 178.
þēof, st. m., thief, 2219.
þēon, st. v., thrive, succeed, 8; pret. sg. hūru þæt…lȳt manna þāh, “this indeed has prospered with few men,” 2836.
ge-þēon, st. v., thrive, 25, 910; imperat. sg., 1218. on-þēon, st. v., thrive; pret. sg. hē þæs ǣr onþāh, “he therefore throve erewhile,” 900.
þēon (=þȳwan), w. v., oppress, 2736.
þēos, see þes.
þēostre, adj., dark, 2332.
þēow, st. m., slave, 2223.
þes, þēos, þis, demon, adj., this, 411, 484, etc.; inst. neut. þȳs, 1395; acc. sg. m., þisne, 75, þysne, 1771; gen. sg. m. and neut. þisses, 1216, þysses, 790, 806; dat. sg. neut. þissum, 1169, þyssum, 2639; dat. pl. þyssum, 1062, 1219.
þicg(e)an, st. v., with acc., seize, take, partake of, eat, 736, 1010; pret. pl. indic. þēgun, 2633, subj. þēgon, 563.
ge-þicgan, st. v., with acc., take, receive, 1014; pret. sg. ge-þeah, 618, 628; geþah, 1024.
þīn, poss. adj., thine, thy, 267, 2131, etc.
þinc(e)an, see þyncan.
þing, st. neut., thing, matter, affair, 409, 426; gen. pl. ǣnige þinga, “by any means, in any way, on any condition, at all,” 791, 2374, 2905.
þingan, w. v., determine, appoint, 1938; pp. wiste tō þǣm ahlǣcan…hilde geþinged, “knew that battle was in store for the monster,” 647.
ge-þingan, w. v., with refl. dat., take service; pres. gif him þonne Hrēþrīc to hofum Gēata geþingeð, “if then Hrethric enters into service at the Geats’ court,” 1836.
þingian, w. v.:

(1) address, speak, 1843.

(2) compound, settle, allay, 156, 470.
þīod-, see þēod-.
þīoden, see þēoden.
þis, demon, adj., see þes.
þis, demon, pron. neut., this, 290.
þolian, w. v., [thole] endure:

(1) trans. 832, 1525, etc.
(2) intrans. 2499.

ge-þolian, w. v., [thole]:

(1) trans., endure, 87, 147; dat. inf. tō geþolianne, 1419.

(2) intrans., wait patiently, 3109.
þon, pron., see sē.
tō þon, adv., to that degree, so, 1876. tō þon, þæt, until, 2591, 2845; see sē.
þon, adv., then, 2423.
þonan, þonon, þanan, þanon, adv., thence, 819, 520, 1265, 1292, etc.; sometimes of personal origin, 1960, etc.
þone, see se, sē.
þonne, adv., then, 377, etc.; repeated, 1104–6. See þonne, conj.
þonne, conj.:

(1) when, while, with indic. and subj., 23, 573, etc.; in elliptical sentence, brēac þonne mōste, “enjoyed [him or them] while I might,” 1487. Correl. with þonne, adv.: 484–5, 2032–4; swā bið gēomorlīc…þonne hē gyd wrece…þonne his sunu hangað, “so will it be sad, [that] he should then utter a dirge, when his son is hanging,” 2446–7.

(2) than, after compars.: 44, 248, etc. With compar. omitted: medo-ærn micel…þonne yldo bearn ǣfre gefrūnon, “a great mead-hall, [greater] than the children of the age ever heard of,” 70.
þonon, see þonan.
þorfte, see þurfan.
þrāg, st. f., time; acc. sg. of duration of time, 54, 87, 114; nom. sg. þā hyne sīo þrāg becwōm, “when the time (of battle) came upon him,” 2883.
þrēa-nēdla, w. m., [throe-compulsion] the compulsion of oppression or misery; dat. sg. for þrēa-nēdlan, “compelled by oppression or misery,” 2223.
þrēa-nȳd, st. f., [throe-need] dire need, oppression, misery, 284; dat. pl. þe hīe…for þrēa-nȳdum þolian scoldon, “which they through dire compulsion had to endure,” 832.
þrēat, st. m., troop, band, 4, 2406.
þrēatian, w. v., threaten, press; pret. pl. mec…þrēatedon þearle, “pressed me hard,” 560.
þrec-wudu, st. m., [onset-wood] spear, 1246.
þrēo, þrīo, num. neut. (of þrīe), three, 2278, 2174.
þreottēoþa, ord. num., thirteenth, 2406.
þridda, ord. num., third, 2688.
þringan, st. v., intrans., throng, 2960; pret. sg. þrong, 2883.
for-þringan, st. v., snatch, protect, 1084. ge-þringan, st. v., throng, bound, 1912.
þrīo, see þrēo.
þrīst-hȳdig, adj., bold-minded, 2810.
þrītig, þrittig, st. neut., with gen., thirty, 123, 2361; gen. sg. 379.
þrong, see þringan.
þrōwian, w. v., suffer, 2605, etc.; pret. sg. þrōwode, 2594, þrōwade, 1589, 1721.
þrym(m), st. m., might, force, 1918; glory, 2; dat. pl. adverbially, þrymmum, “powerfully,” 235.
þrym-līc, adj., mighty, glorious, 1246.
þrȳð, st. f., strength; dat. pl. þrȳðum dealle, “proud in their strength,” 494.
þrȳð-ærn, st. neut., mighty house, noble hall, 657.
þrȳð-līc, adj., excellent, picked, 400, 1627.
þrȳð-līcost, superl., most excellent; acc. pl. 2869.
þrȳð-swȳð, st. neut.?, great distress, pain, anxiety, 131, 736.
þrȳð-word, st. neut., choice or mighty word, excellent talk, 643.
þū, pers. pron., thou, 352, etc.; acc. sg. þec, þē (q. v.).
þungen, ge-þungen, adj. (pp.), [thriven] mature, distinguished, excellent, 624, 1927. Cf. þēon.
þunian, w. v., thunder, rattle, groan, hum; pret. þunede, 1906.
ge-þuren, pp. (isolated; Sievers § 385, N. 1), forged, 1285.
þurfan, st.-w. v., need: pres. þearf, þearft, 445, 595, etc.; subj. þurfe, 2495; pret. þorfte, 157, etc.; pret. pl. hrēmge þorfton, “needed [to be] exultant,” 2363.
þurh, prep., with acc., through, local, causal, and instrumental, 2661, 267, 276, 278, 558, etc.
þus, adv., thus, 238, 337, 430.
þūsend, st. neut., thousand, 3050; pl. þūsenda, 1829. Without following noun of measure: gen. pl. hund þūsenda landes ond locenra bēaga, 2994. Even without a dependent gen.: acc. pl. ond him gesealde seofan þūsendo, 2195.
þȳ, see se, se.
þȳ lǣs, conj., lest, 1918.
þyder, adv., thither, 379, 2970, 3086.
þyhtig, adj., doughty, strong, 1558.
þyle, st. m., spokesman, 1165, 1456.
þyncan, þincean, w. v., with dat. pers., seem, 1341,368, 687, etc.; sometimes impers., 2653.
of-þyncan, w. v., displease, 2032.
þyrs, st. m., giant, 426.
þȳs, see þes.
þys-līc, adj., [thuslike] such; nom. sg.f., þyslicu, 2637.
þysne, þysses, þyssum, see þes.
þȳstru, st. f., darkness, 87.
þȳwan, w. v., oppress; pres. pl. egesan þȳwað, “oppress with dread,” 1827. From þēow.


ufan, adv., from above, above, 1500, 330.
ufera, compar. adj., later; dat. pl. uferan, 2392, ufaran, 2200.
ufor, compar. adv., higher, upwards, on to higher ground, 2951.
ūhte, w. f., dawn, twilight, 126.
ūht-floga, w. m., twilight-flier, 2760.
ūht-hlem, st. m., twilight-uproar, din or crash in the twilight, 2007.
ūht-sceaða, w. m., twilight-scather, twilight-foe, 2271.
umbor-wesende, adj. (pres. part.), being a child, 46, 1187.
un-blīðe, adj., unblithe, joyless, 130, 2268, 3031.
un-byrnende, adj. (pres. part.), unburning, without being burnt; nom. sg. absolutely 2548.
unc, pers. pron. (dat. and acc. dual of ic), to us two, us two, 540, 545, 2137, etc.
uncer, pers. pron. (gen. dual of ic), of us two, 2532; coupled with the gen. of a proper name, uncer Grendles, “of Grendel and me,” 2002.
uncer, poss. adj. (see above), our (dual); dat. pl. uncran, 1185.
un-cūð, adj., uncouth, unknown, evil, 1410, 2214, 276; gen. sg. absolutely, 960 (Grendel), 876 (what is unknown).
under, prep., under:

(1) with dat. (of rest), 1163, 1204, 1209, etc.; during, with, 738.

(2) with acc. (of motion, expressed or implied), 403, 887, 1551, etc. To denote extent: under swegles begong, “under the sky’s expanse,” 860, 1773; under heofones hwealf, 2015.
under, adv., under, beneath, 2213.
undern-mǣl, st. neut., [undern-meal] morning-time, 1428.
un-dyrne, un-derne, adj., unsecret, manifest, 127, 2000, 2911.
un-dyrne, adv., unsecretly, openly, 150, 410.
un-fǣcne, adj., unguileful, sincere, 2068.
un-fǣge, adj., [unfey] undoomed, not fated to die, 573, 2291.
un-fæger, adj., unfair, not beautiful, 727.
un-flitme, adj., incontestably, 1097; without strife, 1129.
un-forht, adj., [unafraid] fearless, 287.
un-forhte, adv., fearlessly, 444.
un-frōd, adj., not old, young, 2821.
un-from, adj., inert, not bold, unwarlike, 2188.
un-gēara, adv., not of yore:

(1) but now, 932.

(2) erelong, 602.
un-gedēfelīce, adv., improperly, unnaturally, 2435.
un-gemete, adv., [unmeetly] immeasurably, 2420, 2721, 2728.
un-gemetes, adv. (gen. of adj. un-gemet, unmeet), immeasurably, 1792.
un-gyfetðe, adj., not granted, 2921.
un-hǣlo, st. f., [unhealth] destruction; gen. sg. wiht unhǣlo, “the wight of destruction,” 120.
un-hār, adj., (un- intensive) very hoar, very gray, 357.
un-hēore, un-hīore, un-hȳre, adj., uncanny, monstrous, 2120, 2413; nom. sg. f. unhēoru, 987.
un-lēof, adj., [unliefJ not dear, unloved; acc. p;. absolutely 2863.
un-lifigende, un-lyfigende, adj. (pres. part.), unliving, lifeless, dead, 468, 744, 1308; dat. sg. m. þæt bið driht-guman unlifgendum æfter sēlest, “that will be best for the noble warrior after death,” 1389.
un-lȳtel, adj., [unlittle] no little, 498, 833, 885.
un-murnlīce, adv., unmornfully, with sorrow, 449, 1756.
unnan, st.-w. v., grant, will, wish, own, 503, 2874; pres. sg. 1st, an, 1225; subj. pret. 1st, ūþe ic swīþor, þæt ðū hine selfne gesēon mōste, “I would rather that thou mightst have seen himself,” 960; 3rd, þēah he ūðe wel, “how much soever he wished,” 2855.
ge-unnan, st.-w. v., grant, 346, 1661.
un-nyt, adj., useless, 413, 3168.
un-riht, st. neut., unright, wrong, 1254, 2739.
un-rihte, adv., unrightly, wrongly, 3059.
un-rīm, st. neut., [unrime] countless number, 1238, 2624, 3135.
un-rīme, adj., [unrimed] countless, 3012.
un-rōt, adj., [unglad] sad, 3148.
un-slāw, adj., [unslow] not slow; nom. sg. ecgum unslāw, “not slow of edge,” 2564 (see note).
un-snyttro, st. f., unwisdom; dat. pl. his unsnyttrum, “in his unwisdom,” 1734.
un-sōfte, adv., [unsoftly] with difficulty, 1655, 2140.
un-swīðe, adv.
un-swīðor, compar., less strongly, 2578, 2881.
un-synnig, adj., unsinning, guiltless, 2089.
un-synnum, adv. (dat. pl. of *un-synn), “sinlessly,” 1072.
un-tǣle, adj., blameless, 1865.
un-tȳder, st. m., evil progeny; nom. pl. untȳdras, 111.
un-wāclīc, adj., [unweaklike] firm, strong, 3138.
un-wearnum, adv., unawares, 741.
un-wrecen, adj. (pp.), unwreaked, unavenged, 2443.
ūp, adv. , up, 128, 224, 782.
ūp-lang, adj., [uplong] upright, 759.
uppe, adv., up, 566.
upp-riht, adj., upright, 2092.
ūre, pers. pron. (gen. pl. of ic), of us, 1386.
ūre, poss. adj. (see above), our, 2647.
ūrum, pers. pron. (anoyn. form of the dat. pi. of ic, used here for unc), to us, 2659.
ūs, pers. pron. (dat. pl. of ic), to us, 345, 382, etc.; for us, 2642.
ūser, pers. pron. (=ūre, gen. pl. of ic); ūser nēosan, “to visit us,” 2074.
ūser, poss. adj. (see above), our; acc. sg. m. ūserne, 3002; gen. sg. neut. usses, 2813; dat. sg. m. ussun, 2634.
ūsic, pers. pron. (acc. pl. of ic), us, 458, 2638, etc.
usses, ussum, see ūser, poss. adj.
ūt, adv, out, 215, etc.
ūtan, adv., from without, without, 774, etc.
ūtan-weard, adj., outward, the outside of, 2297.
ūt-fūs, adj., outward bound, ready to start, 33.
uton, see wutun.
ūt-weard, adj., [outward] outward bomd, moving outwards, 761.
ūðe, see unnan.
ūð-genge, adj., escaping; nom. sg. wæs Æschere…feorh ūð-genge, “life was ready to depart from Æschere,” 2123.


wā, adv. (Grein), woe; wā bið þǣm…wel bið þǣm…, 183, 186.
*wacan, st. v., wake, arise, spring, come, be born, 1265, 1960; pret. pl. wōcun, 60.
*on-wacan, awake, 2287; be born, arise, spring, 56, 111.
wacian, w. v., watch; imperat. sg. waca, 660; pres. part., nom. sg. m. wæcceude, 708, acc. sg. m. wæccendne, 1268, wæccende, 2841.
wadan, st. v., wade, go; pret. sg. wōd, 714, 2661; pp. gewaden, 220.
on-wadan, s. v., assail; pret. sg. hine fyren onwōd, “him (Heremod) crime assailed.” þurh-wadan, st. v., wade through, pierce, penetrate, 890, 1567.
wado, etc., see wæd.
wæcnan, w. v., intrans., waken, arise, 85.
wæd, st. n., flood, sea, wave; nom. pl. wado, 546; wadu, 581; gen. pl. wada, 508.
wǣfre, adj., wavering, about to die, expiring, 1150, 2420; wandering, 1331.
wǣg-bora, w. m., wave-bearer, wave-traverser, wave-tosser (of a sea-monster), 1440.
wǣge, st. neut., stoup, flagon, tankard, 2253, 2282.
wǣg-holm, st. m., the billowy sea, 217.
wǣg-līðend, st. m. (pres. part.), wave-farer, sea-farer, 3158.
wægnan, w. v.
be-wægnan, w. v., offer, 1193.
wǣg-sweord, st. neut., wave-sword, sword with a wavy pattern, 1489.
wæl, st. neut., slaughter, the slain, corpse, 448, etc.; nom. pl. walu, 1042.
wæl-bedd, st. neut., slaughter-bed.
wæl-bend, st. m. f., slaughter-bond, death-band, 1936.
wæl-blēat, adj., [slaughter-pitiful]; acc. f. wunde wæl-blēate, “his deathly pitiful wound,” 2725.
wæl-dēað, st. m., slaughter-death, death by violence, 695.
wæl-drēor, st. neut., slaughter-gore, 1631.
wæl-fǣhð, st. f., slaughter-feud, deadly feud, 2028.
wæl-fāg, adj., slaughter-stained, 1128.
wæl-feall, -fyll, st. m., slaughter-fall, violent death, 3154; dat. sg. gewēox hē…to wæl-fealle…Deniga lēodum, “he sent many of the Danes to a violent death,” 1711.
wæl-fūs, adj., ready for, expecting, (a violent) death, 2420.
wæl-fyll, see wæl-feall.
wæl-fyllo, slaughter-fill, fill of slaughter, 125.
wæl-fȳr, st. neut., slaughter-fire, death-bringing fire, 2582; corpse-fire, pyre, 1119.
wæl-gæst, st. m., slaughter-guest, murderous stranger, 1331, 1995.
wæl-hlem, st. m., slaughter-crash, terrible blow, 2969.
wæll-seax, st. neut., slaughter-knife, deadly short-sword; dat. sg. (with uninflected adjs.) wæll-seaxe gebræd biter ond beadu-scearp, “drew his keen and battle-sharp short-sword,” 2703.
wǣlm, see wylm.
wæl-nīð, st. m., slaughter-hate, slaughter-strife, deadly enmity, 85, 2065, 3000.
wæl-rǣs, st. m., [slaughter-race] deadly strife, mortal combat, 2947, 824, 2531.
wǣl-rāp, st. m., [whirlpool-rope] icicle, 1610 (see note).
wæl-rēaf, st. neut., slaughter-spoil, battle-booty, plunder, 1205.
wæl-rēc, st. m., slaughter-reek, deadly exhalation, 2661.
wæl-rēow, adj., slaughter-fierce, fierce in strife, 629.
wæl-rest, st. f., [slaughter-rest] bed of (violent) death, 2902.
wæl-sceaft, st. m., slaughter-shaft, deadly spear, 398.
wæl-steng, st. m., slaughter-pole, spear, 1638.
wæl-stōw, st. f., slaughter-place, battle-field, 2051, 2984.
wǣn, st. m., wain, wagon; acc. sg. 3134.
wǣpen, st. neut., weapon, 1660, 1467, 1664, etc.; acc. pl. wǣpen, 292.
wǣpned-mon(n), st. m., weaponed man, man, 1284.
wǣr, st. f., compact, treaty, 1100; keeping, protection, 27, 3109. [“Beiträge” x. 511.]
wǣran, etc., see wesan.
wæstm, st. m., growth, form; dat. pl. on weres wæstmum, “in man’s form,” 1352.
wæter, st. neut., water, the sea, 93, etc.; dat. wætere, 1425, 1656, 2722, wætre, 2854; instrumental gen. hē hine eft ongon wæteres weorpan, “he began again to sprinkle him with water,” 2791.
wæter-egesa, w. m., water-terror, the terrible mere, 1620.
wæter-ȳð, st. f., water-wave, 2242.
wāg, st. m., wall, 1662, 995.
wala, w. m., wale, “wreath” (in heraldry), a protecting rim or roll on the outside of the helmet (Skeat); nom. sg. ymb þæs helmes hrōf hēafod-beorge wīrumbewunden wala ūtan hēold, “round the helmet’s crown the ‘wreath,’ wound about with wires, gave protection for the head from the outside,” 1031.
Waldend, see Wealdend.
wald-swæð, st. neut., or
wald-swaðu, st. f., [wold-swath] forest-track, forest-path; dat. pl.wald-swaðum, 1403.
walu, see wæl.
wan, v., see winnan.
wan, adj., see won.
wang, see wong.
wanian, w. v.:

(1) intrans., wane, diminish, 1607.

(2) trans., diminish, curtail, decrease, 1337; pp. gewanod, 477.
wānigean, w. v., bewail, lament; inf. gehȳrdon gryre-lēoð galan Godes ondsacan, sige-lēasne sang, sār wānigean helle hæfton, “heard God’s adversary singing his terror-lay, his victory-less song, hell’s captive bewailing his sore,” 787.
warian, w. v., guard, inhabit, 1253, 1265, 2277 (guards); pres. pl. warigeað, 1358.
waroð, st. m., [warth] shore, 234, 1965.
wat, etc., wot, see witan.
wē, pers. pron. (pl. of ic), we, 1, 260, etc.
wēa, w. m., woe, 936, 191, etc.; gen. pl. wēana, 148, etc.
weal(l), st. m., gen. wealles, dat. wealle, acc. weal, 326: wall in its various meanings; rampart, burgh-wall, 785, etc.; wall of a building, 326, 1573; natural wall of rock, sometimes the side of a barrow or den, 2307, 2759, 3060, etc.; wall of cliff, 229, etc.
wēa-lāf, st. f., [woe-leaving] wretched remnant (of either army after the battle in which Hnæf fell), 1084, 1098.
wealdan, st. v., with dat., gen., or absolutely, wield, rule, rule over, govern, possess, control; prevail; 442, 1859, 702, 2051, etc. Special passages: þenden wordum wēold wine Scyldinga, “while the friend of the Scyldings still had power of speech,” or “ruled with his word,” 30; ðǣr hē þȳ fyrste…wealdan mōste, “if he at that time was to prevail,” 2574; wæl-stōwe wealdan, “to be masters of the field,” 2984.
ge-wealdan, st. v., with gen., dat., or acc. wield, control, possess, bring about, 1509, 1554, 2703.
Wealdend, Waldend, st. m. (pres. part.), the Wielder, God, 1693, etc.; often with dependent gen., 17, etc.; gen. Wealdendes, 2857, Waldendes, 2292, 3109; dat. Wealdende, 2329.
weall, see weal.
weallan, st. v., well, boil, be agitated, literally and figuratively; pret. wēoll, 2138, 2113, etc.; wēol, 518, etc.; pres. part. weallende, 847, weallinde, 2464; nom. pl. neut. weallende, 546, weallendu, 581. Special passages: Ingelde weallað wæl-nīðas, “in Ingeld’s breast deadly hatred wells up,” 2065; hreðer ǣðme wēoll, “his breast swelled with breath,” 2593.
weall-clif, st. neut., wall-cliff, sea-cliff, 3132.
weard, st. m., [ward] warden, warder, guardian, owner, 229, 1741, 2524, etc.
weard, st. f., ward, watch, 305, 319.
weardian, w. v., ward, guard, indwell, 105, 1237, 2075. Especially in the phrase lāst or swaðe weardian: inf. hē his fohne forlēt…lāst weardian, “he left his hand behind to mark his track,” 971; so pret. weardade, 2098; pret. sg. for pi. in subordinate clause, þæt þām frætwum fēower mēaras…lāst weardode, “that four horses followed the armour,” 2164.
wearn, st. f., refusal, 366.
wēa-spell, st. neut., woe-spell, tidings of woe, 1315.
weaxan, st. v., wax, grow, 3115, 1741, 8.
ge-weaxan, st. v., wax, grow, become, 66, 1711.
web, st. neut., web, tapestry; nom. pl. 995.
wecc(e)an, w. v., wake, rouse, stir

up, 2046, 3024; pret. wehte, 2854. Special passage: bǣl-fȳra mǣst…weccan, “to kindle the greatest of funeral piles,” 3144.

tō-weccan, w. v., wake up, stir up; pret. pl. tō-wehton, 2948.
wedd, st. neut., pledge, 2998.
weder, st. neut., weather, 546; nom. pl. weder, 1136.
weg, st. m., way; only in on weg, “away,” 264, 1382, etc.
wēg, st. m., wave, 3132. Cf. wǣg-.
wegan, st. v., bear, wear, wage, 3015, 2252, 2464, etc. Special passage: mōd Ðrȳðo waeg,…firen ondrysne, “Thrytho bore moodiness or fierceness, [committed] terrible crime,” 1931.
æt-wegan, st. v., bear away, carry off, 1198. ge-wegan, st. v., engage, fight, 2400.
wēg-flota, w. m., wave-floater, ship, 1907.
wehte, see weccan.
wel(l), adv., well, rightly, much, 186, 289, 1792, 2570, 2855; usual form wel, but well, 2162, 2812.
wel-hwylc, indef. adj. and pron.

I. Pron.:
(1) with gen. wel-hwylc witena, “well nigh every councillor,” 266.
(2) neut. absolutely, everything, 874.

II. Adj. almost every, 1344.
welig, adj., wealthy, rich, 2607.
wēn, st. f., weening, expectation, hope, 734, 383, etc. Special passages: wēn ic talige, “I reckon it a thing to be expected,” 1845; dat. pl. bēga on wēnum, ende-dōgores ond eft-cymes lēofes monnes, “in expectation of both, the day of death and the return of the dear man” (i.e. expecting one or the other), 2895.
wēnan, w. v., with gen., infin. clause, or absolutely: ween, expect, hope, 157, 1184, etc.; pres. sg. 1st wēn, 338, 442. Special passages: þæs ic wēne, “as I hope,” 272; swā ic þē wēne tō, “as I expect from thee,” 1396; with inf. ic ǣnigra mē wēana ne wēnde…bōte gebīdan, “I expected not to abide the remedy of any of my woes,” 933; with gen. and clause, hig þæs æðelinges eft ne wēndon, þæt hē…cōme, “they expected not the atheling again, that he would come,” 1596.
wendan, w. v., intrans., wend, turn, 1739.
ed-wendan, w. v., intrans., turn back, desist, cease, 280.

ge-wendan, w. v., trans. and intrans., turn, change, 315, 186.

on-wendan, w. v., trans., turn aside, set aside, avert, 191. Special passage: sibb ǣfre ne mæg wiht onwendan, þām ðe wel þenceð, “naught can ever set aside kinship, to a right-minded man,” 2601.
wenian, w. v., honour, 1091.
be-wenian, bi-wenian, w. v., entertain, attend on; pret. subj. sg. for pl., dryht-bearn Dena du-guða biwenede, 2035 (see note); pp. pl. bewenede, 1801.
weorc, st. neut., work, deed, trouble, 74, 1656, etc.; gen. pl. worda ond worca, 289; dat. pl. wordum ne worcum, 1100. Special passages: he þæs gewinnes weorc þrōwade, “he suffered trouble for that strife,” 1721; dat. pl. adverbially, weorcum, “with difficulty,” 1638.
weorce, adj., grievous, painful, 1418.
weorod, see werod.
weorpan, st. v., [warp]:

(1) with acc. rei, throw, 1531.
(2) with acc. pers. and gen. rei, sprinkle, 2791.

(3) with dat., spew, cast forth, 2582.
for-weorpan, st. v., throw-away; pret. subj. forwurpe, 2872. ofer-weorpan, st. v., stumble, 1543.
weorð, st. neut., worth, price, pay, 2496.
weorð, adj., worthy, honoured, dear; nom. sg. m. weorð Denum æþeling, “the atheling dear to the Danes,” 1814.
weorþra, compar., worthier, 1902.
weorðan, st. v., become, be, befall, happen, come, 2526, 414, 2731, etc.; inf. wurðan, 807; pres. pl. wurðað, 282; pret. sg. hē on fylle wearð, “he fell,” 1544; pp. geworden, “happened, arisen,” 1304, 3078. Often with predicative dat. governed by tō, and dat. pers.: ðū scealt tō frōfre weorðan…lēodum þīnum, hæleðum tō helpe, “thou shalt be for a comfort to thy people, a help to the heroes,” 1707; so also 460, 587, etc.
ge-weorðan, st. v.:

(1) intrans., become, be, happen, 3061.
(2) trans., agree about, settle; inf. þæt ðū…lēte Sūð-Dene sylfe geweorðan gūðe wið Grendel, “that thou wouldst let the South Danes themselves settle their war with Grendel,” 1996.

(3) impers., with gen., and following clause in apposition, appear, seem, seem good; pret. þā ðæs monige gewearð, þæt, “then it appeared to many that,” 1598; pp. hafað þæs geworden wine Scyldinga…þæt, “this had seemed good to the friend of the Scyldings, that,” 2026.
weorð-full, adj.
weorð-fullost, superl., [worth-fullest], worthiest, 3099.
weorðian, w. v., worthy (“Lear” ii. 2. 128), honour, adorn, 2096, 1090, etc.; pp. geweorðod, 2175; geweorðad, 250, 1450, 1959; gewurðad, 331, 1038, 1645; weorðad, 1783.
weorð-līce, adv.
weorð-līcost, superl., most worthily, 3161.
weorð-mynd, st. f., worship, honour, glory, 8, 65, 1559, etc.; dat. pl. tō worð-myndum, “for honour, for honour’s sake,” 1186.
weotena, see wita.
weotian, w. v., prepare, etc.: pp. acc. pl. wælbende weotode, “death-bands prepared, appointed, destined,” 1936.
be-weotian, be-witian, w. v., observe, etc.: pres. pl. þā, ðe syngales sēle bewitiað, “those [weathers, days] which continually observe the season,” 1135; bewitigað sorhfulne sīð, “make a journey full of woe,” 1428; pret. sg. ealle beweotede þegnes þearfe, “attended to all the thane’s needs,” 1796; hord beweotode, “watched over a hoard,” 2212.
wer, st. m., man, 105, 1352, 216, 1256, etc.; gen. pl. wera, 120, etc.; weora, 2947.
wered, st. neut., beer, mead, 496.
werede, etc., see werod.
were-fyhte, w. f., defensive fight, fight in defence, 457.
werga (weak form of werig), adj., cursed; gen. sg. wergan gāstes, 133 (Grendel), 1747 (the devil).
wērge, etc., see wērig.
wergend, st. m. (pres. part. of werian), defender, 2882.
wērgian, w. v., weary; pp. gewergad, 2852.
werhðo, st. f., curse, damnation; acc. sg. werhðo, 589.
werian, w. v., guard, defend, protect, 453, 1327, etc.; reflex., 541; pp. nom. pl. 238, 2529.
be-werian, w. v., defend; pret. subj. beweredon, 938.
wērig, adj., with gen. or dat., weary, 579; dat. sg. wērgum, 1794; acc. f. sg. or pl. wērge, 2937.
wērig-mōd, adj., weary of mood, 844, 1543.
werod, weorod, st. neut., troop, band, 651, 319, 290, etc.; dat. werede, 1215; weorode, 1011, 2346; gen. pl. wereda, 2186; weoroda, 60.
wer-þēod, st. f., [man-nation] people; acc. pl. ofer wer-þēode, “throughout the nations of men,” 899.
wesan, irreg. v., be, 272, etc.; pres. sg. 3rd is, 256, 1761, etc.; ys, 2910, 2999, 3084; pres. pl. sint, 388; synt, 260, 342, 364; syndon, 237, 257, etc.; pres. subj. sg. sīe, 435, etc.; sȳ, 1831, etc.; sig, 1778, etc.; pret. pl. wǣron, 233, etc.; wǣran, 2475; imperat. sg. wes, 269, etc., wæs, 407. Negative forms: pres. sg. 3rd nis, 249, etc.; pret. sg. 1st and 3rd næs, 2141, 134, etc.; pret. pi. nǣron, 2657; pret. subj. sg. nǣre, 860, etc.

Special passages:
(1) Omission of infin. 617, 1857, 2363, 2497, 2659; also 992, 2256.

(2) Forming, with a pres. part., an imperf. tense: secgende wæs, “was saying,” 3028.
wēste, adj., waste; ace. sg. m. wēstne, 2456.
wēsten, st. neut., waste, 1266; dat. wēstenne, 2298.
wīc, st. neut., [wick] dwelling, 821, etc.; often in pl., 125, etc.; dat. pl. wicun, 1304.
wīcan, st. v.
ge-wīcan, st. v., intrans., weaken, give way, 2577, 2629.
wicg, st. neut., horse, steed, 1400, 286, etc., pl. wicg, 2174.
wīc-stede, st. m., [wick-stead] dwelling-place, 2462, 2607.
wīd, adj., wide, extended, long, of space and time, 935, 877, 1859, 2014, etc.
wīd-cūð, adj., [wide-couth] widely known, 1256, etc.; gen. absolutely, wīd-cūðes (i.e. Hrothgar), 1042.
wīde, adv., widely, 18, 2135, 2913, 3099, etc.; qualifying a superlative, wīde mǣrost, “the greatest far and wide, greatest of all,” 898.
wīdre, compar.; wīdre gewindan, “to flee away more widely, escape further,” 763.
wīde-ferhð, st. m., [wide-life] ever, only used as acc. of time, 702, 937; ealne wīde-ferhð, “for all time to come,” 1222.
wīd-floga, w. m., wide-flier (the dragon), 2830, 2346.
widre, see wīde.
wīd-scofen, see under scūfan.
wīd-weg, st. m., wide-way, highway; acc. pl. geond wīd-wegas, “along the highways,” 840, “far and wide,” 1704.
wīf, st. neut., wife, woman, 2120, 1284, 2028, 993, etc.
wīf-lufu, w. f., wife-love, love for one’s wife, 2065.
wīg, st. m.:

(1) war, battle, 23, 65, 1084, etc.; dat. wigge, 1656, 1770, 1783.

(2) war-prowess, valour, might, 350, 1042, 2323, etc.
wiga, w. m.., warrior, 629, 1543, 2395. [“Beiträge” x. 511.]
wīgan, st. v., war, fight, 2509, 599.
wīg-bealu, st. neut., war-bale, the evils of war, 2046.
wīg-bil, st. neut., war-bill, war-sword, 1607.
wīg-bord, st. neut., [war-board] war-shield, 2339.
wīg-cræft, st. m., war-craft, war-might, 2953.
wīg-cræftig, adj., war-crafty, mighty in battle, 1811.
wīgend, st. m. (pres. part.), warrior, 3099, 1125, 429, etc.
wīg-freca, w. m., war-wolf, warrior, 1212, 2496.
wīg-fruma, w. m., war-chief, 664, 2261.
wigge, see wīg.
wīg-getāwa, st. f. pl., war-equipments, 368. See gūð-geatwa.
wīg-gryre, st. m., war-terror, 1284.
wīg-heafola, w. m., [war-head] war-helmet, 2661.
wīg-hēap, st. m., war-heap, band of warriors, 477.
wīg-hete, st. m., war-hate, 2120.
wīg-hryre, st. m., [war-falling] slaughter, onset, 1619.
wīg-sigor, st. m., war-victory, 1554.
wīg-spēd, st. f., war-speed, success in war, 697.
wīg-weorðung, st. f., idol-worship, sacrifice, 176. [“Beiträge” x. 511.]
wiht, n.:

I. st. f.. wight, being, creature, 120, 3038.
II. st. f. neut., whit, aught, 2601 (see onwendan), 1660; acc. for wiht, “for aught,” 2348; with gen., 581.
III. Adverbial use, aught, at all; almost always negative (with ne), naught, not at all, no whit.
(1) Acc., with ne or nō: 862, 1083, 2854, 2857, 541; nō hine wiht dweleð ādl ne yldo, “sickness or age misleads him not a whit,” 1735.

(2) Dat.; with ne, 186, 1514, etc.; affirmatively, 1991.
wil-cuma, w. m., [will-comer] welcome guest, 388, 394, 1894.
wil-dēor ( = wild dēor), st. neut., [wild deer] wild beast, 1430.
wile, see willan.
wil-geofa, w. m., will-giver, joy-giver, 2900.
wil-gesīð, st. m., [will-companion] willing or loved companion, 23.
willa, w. m., will, wish, desire, desirable thing; joy, pleasure; sake: 626, 1711, etc.; dat. sg. tō willan, “out of good will,” 186; ānes willan, “for the sake of one,” 3077; gen. pl. wilna, 660, 950, 1344; willum, “according to our wishes,” 1821; so sylfes willum, 2222, 2639.
willan, irreg. v., will: pres. sg. 1st wille, 318, 344, etc.; wylle, 947, etc.; 2nd wylt, 1852; 3rd wile, 346; wyle, 2864; wille, 442, 1371, etc.; wylle, 2766; pl. wyllað, 1818. Negative forms: nelle = ne + wille, 679, 2524; nolde=ne+wolde, 706, 791, 2518, etc. With omission of inf. nō ic fram him wolde, 543.
wilnian, w. v., desire, 188.
wil-sīð, st. m., [will-journey] willing journey, 216.
wīn, st. neut., wine, 1162, 1233, 1467.
wīn-ærn, st. neut., wine-hall, 654.
wind, st. m., wind, 217, etc.
win-dæg, st. m., strife-day, day of strife, 1062.
windan, st. v., intrans. and trans., wind, rise, twist, 1119, 1193, etc.; pret. pl. strēamas wundon sund wið sande, “the currents rolled the sea against the sand,” 212; pp. dat. sg. wundnum golde, “with twisted gold,” 1382.
æt-windan, st. v., with dat. pers., wind away, escape, 143.

be-windan, st. v., wind about, brandish, enclose, grasp, mingle, 1461, 1031, etc.; pp. galdre be-wunden, “wound about with incantation, encompassed with a spell,” 3052.

ge-windan, st. v., intrant., wind, turn, flee away, 763, 1001.

on-windan, st. v., unwind, 1610.
wind-blond, st. neut., [wind-blend] tumult of winds, 3146.
wind-gerest, st. f., [wind-rest] resting-place of winds, 2456.
windig, adj., windy; pl. windige, 572, 1358; windge, 1224.
wine, st. m., friend, esp. friend and lord, friendly ruler, 30, 170, 457; acc. pl. wine, 21; gen. pl. winigea, 1664; winia, 2567.
wine-dryhten, wine-drihten, st. m., friend-lord, friend and lord, friendly ruler, 360, 862, 2722.
wine-gēomor, adj., friend-sad, mourning for the loss of friends, 2239.
wine-lēas, adj., friendless, 2613.
wine-mǣg, st. m., friend-kinsman, relative and friend, loyal subject; pl. wine-māgas, 65.
winia, winigea, see wine.
winnan, st. v., [win] strive, fight, 113, 506; pret. sg. 3rd wan, 144, 151, won, 1132.
wīn-reced, st. neut., wine-house, wine-hall, 714, 993.
wīn-sele, st. m., wine-hall, 695, 771.
winter, st. m., winter, year, 1128, 1724, 2209, etc.; gen. sg. wintrys, 516.
wīr, st. m., wire, wire-work, filagree, 1031, 2413.
wīs, adj., wise, 1845, 3094, 1413, etc. Weak forms: nom. m. wīsa, 1400, 1698, 2329; acc. sg. wīsan, 1318.
wīsa, w. m., wise one, guide, 259.
wīs-dōm, st. m., wisdom, 350, 1959.
wīse, w. f., wise, fashion; instrumental acc. (Grein), ealde wīsan, “in the old fashion,” 1865.
wīs-fæst, adj., [wise-fast] wise, 626.
wīs-hycgende, adj. (pres. part.), wise-thinking, 2716.
wisian, w. v., with acc. rei, dat. pers., or absolutely, [make wise] point out, show; direct, guide, lead; 2409, etc.; pres. sg. 1st wīsige, 292, etc.; pret. sg. wīsode, 402, etc.; wīsade, 208, etc.
wisse, see witan.
wist, st. f. (from wesan):

(1) weal, 1735.

(2) meal; dat. sg. æfter wiste, “after Grendel’s meal of thirty thanes,” 128.
wiste, wist, see witan.
wist-fyllo, st. f., food-fill, abundant meal; gen. sg. wist-fylle, 734.
wit, st. neut., wit, 589.
wit, pers. pron. (dual of ic), we two, 535, etc.
wita, w. m., wise man, councillor, pl. the witan, 778; gen. pl. witena, 157, etc., weotena, 1098.
witan, st.-w. v., [wit] know, 1863, 764, 2519, etc.; pres. sg. 1st and 3rd wāt, 1331, etc.; negative nāt, 681, etc.; 2nd wāst, 272; pret. sg. 1st and 3rd wiste, 646, etc.; wisse, 169, etc.; pret. pl., wiston, 181, etc.; wisson, 246. Special passages: tō ðæs ðe hē eorð-sele ānne wisse, “to where he knew an earth-hall to be, knew of an earth-hall,” 2410; so, 715; pres. sg. 1st, ic on Higelāce wāt…þæt hē, “I know concerning Hygelac, that he,” 1830; negative scea-ðona ic nāt hwilc, “I know not which of scathers, some foe,” 274; 3rd, God wāt on mec (acc.), þæt mē is micle lēofre, 2650.
ge-witan, st.-w. v., know, 1350.
wītan, st. v., with acc. rei and dat. pers., [wite] reproach, blame, 2741.
æt-wītan, st. v., with acc. rei,

twit, blame, charge; pret. pl. ætwiton wēana dǣl, “charged [him] with his share of their woes,” 1150.

ge-wītan, st. v., depart, go, 42, 123, 2471, etc.; often with reflex. dat. 26, 662, 1125, etc.; often followed by inf. (in many cases best rendered by a pres. part.) 291, 853, 234, 2387, etc. Special passages: fyrst forð gewāt, “time went on,” 210; pp., dat. sg. m., þæt ðū mē ā wǣre forð gewitenum on fæder stǣle, “that thou wouldst aye be to me when dead in a father’s place,” 1479.

oð-wītan, st. v., with acc. rei and dat. pers., reproach; inf. ne ðorfte him ðā lēan oðwītan mon on middan-gearde, “no man on earth needed to reproach him

with those rewards,” 2995.
-witian, see -weotian.
wītig, adj., witty, wise (applied to the Deity), 685,etc.; wittig, 1841. [“Beiträge” x. 511.]
witnian, w. v., punish, torment; pp. wommum gewitnad, “tormented with plagues,” 3073.
wið, prep, loith dat. and acc., with (with acc. 1088, 3027, with dat. 2600), a rare meaning except with words denoting strife, such as winnan, 152; usual meaning against, 144, 326, 1549, 2528, etc.; sometimes towards (acc.) 155, 1864; by (acc.), 2013, 2566; from (dat.), 827, 2423. With acc. and dat. in the same sentence: “with,” 424–6 (see gehēgan); gesæt þā wið sylfne…mǣg wið mǣge, “he sat then by [the king] himself, kinsman with kinsman,” 1977–8. Special passages: wið duru healle, “to the door of the hall,” 389; wið earm gesæt (see gesittan), 749; forborn bord wið rond, “the shield was burnt up to the rim,” 2673; wið Hrefna-wudu, “by (over against) Ravenswood,” 2925.
wiðer-ræhtes, adv., opposite, 3039.
wiðre, st. neut., resistance, 2953.
wlanc, see wlonc.
wlātian, w. v., look, 1916.
wlenco, st. f., pride, bravado, daring; dat. wlenco, 338, 1206, wlence, 508.
wlītan, st. v., gaze, look, 1572, 1592; pret. pl. wlitan, 2852.
giond-wlītan, st. v., look through, view thoroughly, 2771.
wlite, st. m., countenance, 250.
wlite-beorht, adj., of bright aspect, beauteous-bright, 93.
wlite-sēon, st. f. neut.?, sight, 1650.
wlitig, adj., beauteous, 1662.
wlonc, wlanc, adj., proud, 331, 341, 2833, 2953; with dat. ǣse wlanc, “carrion-proud,” 1332.
wōh, adj., crooked, wrong; dat. pl. him bebeorgan ne con wōm wundor-bebodum wergan gāstes, “he knows not how to protect himself against the crooked wondrous commands of the cursed spirit,” 1747 (see note).
wōh-bogen, adj. (pp.), crooked-Bowed, coiled, 2827.
wolcen, st. neut., welkin, cloud; dat. pl. wolcnum, 8, 1119, etc.
wolde, pret. of willan.
wollen-tēare, adj., with welling tears, 3032.
wōm, see wōh.
womm, st. m., spot, plague, 3073.
won, v., see winnan.
won, wan, adj., wan, dark, 1374, 702; nom. pl. neut., wan, 651; weak form wonna, 3024, 3115.
wong, wang, st. m., plain, meadow, 93, 2242, etc.
wong-stede, st. m., [plain-stead] champaign spot, 2786.
won-hȳd, st. f., [wan, i.e. un-, thought] carelessness, rashness, 434.
wonn (?), 3154, see note on l. 3155.
won-sǣli(g), adj., unhappy, 105.
won-sceaft, st. f., [wan-shaping] misery, 120.
wop, st. m., weeping, 128, 785, 3146.
wore, see weorc.
word, st. neut., word, 79, etc.; acc. pl. word ōðer fand, 870. The dat. pl. is common with verbs of saying: 176, 388, 1193, 2795, 3175.
word-cwide, -cwyde, st. m., word-saying, speech, 1841, 1845, 2753.
word-gyd, st. neut., word-lay, dirge, 3172.
word-hord, st. neut., word-hoard, 259.
word-riht, st. neut., [word-right] right or befitting word, 2631.
worhte, see wyrcan.
worn, st. neut., multitude, number, 264; acc. sg. þonne hē wintrum frōd worn gemunde, “when he, old in years, remembered the number [of them],” 2114. Qualified by fela or eall: nom. sg. worn fela, “a great number,” 1783; acc. sg. þū worn fela…ymb Brecan sprǣce, “thou hast said a great deal about Breca,” 530; eal-fela eald-gesegena worn, “a very great number of old sagas,” 870; worn eall gespræc gomol, “the aged one spake very many things,” 3094. Similarly in gen. pl. governed by fela: with gen. sg. worna fela…sorge, “very much sorrow,” 2003; with gen. pl. worna fela…gūða, “very many wars,” 2542.
worold, st. f., world, 1183, 1681, 1062, etc.; gen. sg. worulde, 2343, worlde, 2711; his worulde gedāl, “his severance from the world,” 3068.
worold-ār, st. f., world-honour, 17.
worold-cyning, wyruld-cyning, st. m., world-king, mighty king, 1684, 3180.
worold-rǣden, st. f., the way of the world; acc. sg. swā hē ne forwyrnde worold-rǣdenne, “so he escaped not the lot of mortals, i.e. death” (?), 1142 (see note).
worðig, st. m., street, court, precincts, palace, 1972.
worð-mynd, see weorð-mynd.
woruld-candel, st.f., world-candle, the sun, 1965.
woruld-ende, st. m., world-end, the end of the world, 3083.
wracu, st. f., revenge; acc. sg. wræce, 2336.
wræc, st. neut., wrack, misery, exile, 170, 3078.
wræcca, see wrecca.
wræce, see wracu.
wræc-lāst, st. m., exile-track, path of exiles, 1352.
wræc-mæcg, st. m., banished man, exile, 2379.
wræc-sīð, st. m., wrack-journey, exile, 2292; dat. pl. nalles for wræc-sīðum ac for hige-þrymmum, “by no means because of banishment but out of magnanimity,” 338.
wræt, st. f., ornament, jewel; acc. pl. wræte, 2771, 3060; gen. pl. wrætta, 2413; dat. pl. wrættum, 1531.
wræt-līc, adj., ornamental, adorned, ornate, curiously wrought, splendid, wondrous, 891, 1489, etc.
wrāð, adj., wroth, hostile; absolutely, foe, 319, 660, etc.
wrāðe, adv., amiss, 2872.
wrāð-līce, adv., wrothly, wrathfully, 3062.
wrecan, st. v., with acc., wreak, drive, drive out, utter, avenge, 1278, 423, etc.; often wrecan gid, spel, etc., “utter, rehearse, a lay, legend, or tale,” 873, 1065, etc. Special passages: subj. pres. þonne hē gyd wrece,” [that] then he should utter a dirge,” 2446; pret. sg. ferh ellen wræc, “strength drove out life,” 2706; pp. wearð…on bīd wrecen, “was driven to bay,” 2962.
ā-wrecan, st. v., tell; with acc. gid, 1724, 2108.

for-wrecan, st. v., with acc., drive away, banish, 1919, 109.

ge-wrecan, st. v., usu. with acc., wreck, avenge, 107, 3062, etc.; pret. pl. gewrǣcan, 2479; with reflex. acc. 2875; absolutely, hē gewræc syððan, “he took vengeance afterwards,” 2395.
wrecca, w. m., wretch, exile, wanderer, adventurer, 1137, 898; dat. wræccan, 2613.
wrecend, st. m. (pres. part.), wrecker, avenger, 1256.
wreoðen-hilt, adj., with wreathed or twisted hilt, 1698.
wrīdian, w. v., grow, 1741. [“Beiträge” x. 511.]
wrītan, st. v., write, engrave, 1688.
for-wrītan, st. v., cut asunder, 2705.
wrīðan, st. v., with acc., [writhe] bind, 964; bind up, 2982.
wrixl, st. neut., exchange, 2969.
wrixlan, w. v., with dat. wordum, “exchange, interchange, words,” 366, 874.
wrōht, st. f., strife, contest, 2287, 2473, 2913.
wudu, st. m., wood:

(1) a wood, 1364, 1416.
(2) a spear; acc. pl. wudu, 398.

(3) a ship, 1919; nom. sg. wudu wunden-hals, “the ship with twisted or curved prow,” 298; acc. sg. wudu bundenne, “the bound wood, i.e. the wooden ship,” 216.
wudu-rēc, st. m., wood-reek, smoke, 3144.
wuldor, st. neut., glory; nom. sg. kyninga wuldor (Hrothgar), 665; gen. sg. wuldres, 17, etc.
wuldor-torht, adj., glory-bright; pl. 1136.
Wuldur-cyning, st. m., Glory-king, the King of glory, 2795.
wulf, st. m., wolf, 3027.
wulf-hlið, st. neut., wolf-slope; acc. pl. wulf-hleoðu, 1358.
wund, st. f., wound, 2711, etc.; acc. sg. wunde, 2725, etc.
wund, adj., wounded, 565, etc.
wunden-feax, adj., with wound, i.e. twisted, hair, 1400.
wunden-hals, adj., [wound-neck] with twisted or curved prow, 298.
wunden-mǣl, st. neut., [wound-sword] sword with winding, curving, ornaments, 1531.
wunden-stefna, w. m., [wound-stem] ship with twisted or curved stem, 220.
wunder-fæt, st. neut., wonder-vat, wondrous vessel; dat. pl. 1162.
wundor, st. neut., wonder, 771, etc.; monster, 1509: nom. acc. wundur, 3062, 3032, etc.; acc. wunder, 931; dat. wundre, 931; gen. pl. wundra, 1607; dat. pl. adverbially, wundrum, “wondrous(ly),” 1452, 2687.
wundor-bebod, st. neut., wonder-command, wondrous command, 1747.
wundor-dēað, st. m., wonder-death, wondrous death, 3037.
wundor-līc, adj., [wonderlike] wondrous, 1440.
wundor-sīon, st. f., wonder-sight, wondrous sight, 995.
wundor-smið, st, m., wonder-smith, 1681.
wundur-māððum, st. m., wonder-jewel, wondrous jewel, 2173.
wunian, w. v., [won]:

(1) intrans. dwell, remain, 284, 1128; with dat. wīcum wunian, 3083.
(2) trans. indwell, inhabit, 1260, 2902.

ge-wunian, w. v., with acc, dwell with, remain with; subj. pres. pl. gewunigen, 22.
-wurðad, see weorðian.
wurðan, see weorðan.
wutun, uton, = let us, with foll. inf., 2648, 1390, 3101.
wyle, wyllað, wylle, wylt, see willan.
wylm, wǣlm, st. m., welling, surge, flood, 516, 2546, etc. [Sievers, § 159, 2.]
wyn-lēas, adj., joyless, 821, 1416.
wynn, st. f., joy, 1080, etc.; gen. sg. wynne, 2727.
wyn-sum, adj., winsome, joyous, 1919; neut. pl. wynsume, 612.
wyrcan, w. v., work; pret. worhte, wrought:

(1) with acc. work, make, 930, 92, 1452; pret. part. pl. (as adj.) fæste geworhte, “steadfast,” 1864.
(2) with gen. achieve; subj. pres. wyrce sē þe mōte dōmes, “achieve glory he who may,” 1387.

be-wyrcan, w. v., surround, 3161.

ge-wyrc(e)an, w. v., work, 20, 69, 1660, etc.:
(1) intrans. act, 20.

(2) trans. work, make, accomplish, achieve, 635, 1660, 1491; subj. pret. pl. geworhton, 3096.
wyrd, st. f., weird, fate, probably personified in some passages (see note on 1205), 455, 477, 1056, 3030, etc.
wyrdan, w. v., destroy; pret. sg. wyrde, 1337.
ā-wyrdan, w. v., destroy, 1113.
wyrm, st. m., worm, dragon, 886, 1430, etc.
wyrm-cynn, st. neut., worm-kin, serpent kind, 1425.
wyrm-fāh, adj., worm-adorned, snake-adorned, 1698.
wyrm-hord, st. neut., worm-hoard, dragon’s hoard, 2221.
wyrnan, w. v. (from wearn).
for-wyrnan, w. v., refuse, escape, 429, 1142.
wyrpan, w. v. (from weorpan).
ge-wyrpan, w. v., recover, raise (oneself); with refl. acc. 2976.
wyrpe, st. m., change, 1315.
wyrsa, adj. compar. (of yfel), worse, 1212, etc.; gen. pl. wyrsan, 525; neut. acc. sg. absolutely, þæt wyrse, 1739.
wyrt, st.f., [wort] root, 1364.
wyrðe, adj., worthy, 368, 2185.
wyrðra, compar., worthier, 861.
wyruld-, see worold-.


yfel, st. neut., evil; gen. pl. yfla, 2094.
yldan, w. v., delay, put off, tarry; inf. 739; wēnde þæs yldan, þæt…, “hoped for this reason to delay (tarry?), that…,” 2239.
ylde, elde, st. m. pl., men, 77, 150, etc.; dat. eldum, 2214, 2611, 3168.
yldesta, see eald.
yldo, st. f., [eld] age, old age, the age, 1736, etc.; gen. yldo bearn, “the children of the age,” 70; dat. ylde, 22, eldo, 2111.
yldra, see eald.
ylf, st.f., elf, 112.
ymb, ymbe, prep., with acc., about, around, concerning, local, temporal, denoting object, etc., 399, 568, 838, 2883, 219, 353, 507, 2070, etc.; following its case, 689; ymb āne niht, “after one night,” 135.
ymbe, adv., about, around, 2597.
ymbe-sittend, ymb-sittend, st. m. (pres. part.), [about-sitting] neighbour; nom. pl. ymbe-sittend, 1827; gen. pl. ymb-sittendra, 9.
yppe, w. f., high seat, throne, dais, 1815. From ūp.
yrfe, st. neut., heritage, 3051.
yrfe-lāf, st.f., heirloom, 1053, 1903.
yrfe-weard, st. m., heir, 2731; gen. sg. yrfe-weardas, 2453 (see note).
yrmðo, st. f., misery; acc. yrmðe, 1259, 2005. From earm.
yrre, st. neut., anger, 711, 2092.
yrre, eorre, adj., angry, 769, 1532, etc.; gen. sg. used substantively, eorres, “of the angry one,” 1447.
yrre-mōd, adj., angry in mood, angry-minded, 726.
yrringa, adv., angrily, 1565, 2964.
ys, see wesan.
ȳð, st. f., wave, 548, 848, 1437, 2693, etc.; acc. sg. or pi. ȳðe, 46, 1132, 1909.
ȳðan, w. v., destroy, 421.
ȳðe, 1002, 2415, see ēaðe.
ȳðe-līce, adv., easily, 1556.
ȳð-geblond, -gebland, st. neut., blending of waves, surge, 1373, 1593; pl. 1620.
ȳð-gesēne, see ēð-gesȳne.
ȳð-gewinn, st. neut., wave-strife, 1434, 2412.
ȳð-lād, st. f., [wave-lode] wave-path, way over the sea; pl. 228.
ȳð-lāf, st. f., [wave-leaving] what is left or thrown up by the waves, the foreshore, 566.
ȳð-lida, w. m., wave-sailer, ship, 198.
ȳwan, ēawan, ēowan, w. v.:

(1) trans. show; pres. sg. ēaweð, 276; pret. ȳwde, 2834.
(2) intrans. appear; pres. sg. ēoweð, 1738. Cf. ēage.

ge-ȳwan, ge-ēawan, w. v., present, proffer, 2149; pp. ge-ēawed, 1194.