Bible(Early Wycliffe)/Introduction to this Edition

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About the Wycliffe Translation[edit]

The Wycliffe Translation was made from the Latin Vulgate, rather than the original texts of the books of the Bible and so takes some translation errors from the Vulgate. It was made by or under the supervision of John Wycliffe, whoose name it is called by, and finished in 1384. The attribution of the translation to Wycliffe caused his body, after his death, to be exhumed and cremated, the ashes scattered in the river(a superstition at that time was that people whoose bodies were cremated could not go to heaven). His bible started modern bible translation, but had very little influence on other translations, except for a little influence on the Douay-Rheims translation, and other bibles that were influenced by the Douay-Rheims translation. The Wycliffe bible's language is difficult for the modern reader because it is so archaic; that and the fact that it was translated from the vulgate, at times very literally and not good english, makes it not very good as anybody's primary bible, and so the rest of the introduction will assume that your main translation is not this one. The epistle to the Loadaciens is taken from a later version of the translation edited by John Purvey in about 1400.

About the Language and Spelling used here[edit]

The Middle English of this bible can be very difficult, so I have included some information about the language used here. Almost all of the words used in this translation are the forerunners of words still in use or archaic but still known in the language, while most others are compounds that are not used(but the meaning of them can be easily determined) or have or don't have a prefix or suffix that they do have in Modern English(For example, ginneth for begins. It doesn't have the prefix be- and has the suffix -eth, which makes it a little strange). There is a glossary for many of the other words. The spelling can be strange, but most of them can be understood by modern readers, even though they are strange, but some of the conventions will be helpful to a modern reader. The letters are written CAPITAL/lowercase. V/v and U/u were considered the same letter, as were I/i and J/j, and the vowel I/i could be written Y/y. The sound that we usually write with Th/th or TH/th was written with the letter thorn or þorn(Þ/þ). Gh/gh, GH/gh, and Y/y were sometimes written with the letter yogh or yoȝ(Ȝ/ȝ), and some words that have a G/g in Modern English had a yogh or yoȝ in Middle English. S could be written S/s or S/ſ(they might not display differently).

Glossary[edit]

Ben
Archaic form of be sometimes used in the place of is/are
Clep
Call
Doon
Do, done
Doom/Dom
Judgement
Domeſman
Judge
Forſoþ
Truely
Gat or gate
Begat, got; gate is ȝate
Get
Beget, get
Ȝif
Archaic form of if
Han
Archaic form of have
Her
Her or their
Hem
Them
His
His or its
Hit
Hit or it
Ilk
Like
Leſe
Destroy, lie, do wrong, morally corrupt
Leſewais
Morally corrupt ways, sinful habits
Leſyng
Lying, lie, wrong thing, destroying
Mede
Reward
Riȝtwis
Rightful, right; used with -ness, un-, -ly, &c
Sin
Archaic form of since; sin
Siþ
Archaic form of since
Soþ
Archaic word meaning truth
Soþfaſtnes
Truthfulness
Soþly
Truely
Sue
Follow
Wexe
Grow, be made
Wood
Crazy, insane, wood, forest

The Modern Names of the Books in this Translation[edit]

Geneſis
Genesis
Exodus
Exodus
Leuiticus
Leviticus
Numeri
Numbers
Deuteronomie
Deuteronomy
Joſue
Joshua
Judicum
Judges
Ruþ
Ruth
I. Kyngis
1 Samuel
II. Kyngis
2 Samuel
III. Kyngis
1 Kings
IIII. Kyngis
2 Kings
I. Paralipomenon
1 Chronicles
II. Paralipomenon
2 Chronicles
Þe Preier of Manaſſes
The Prayer of Manasseh
I. Eſdre
Ezra
II. Eſdre
Nehemiah
III. Eſdre
1 Esdras
Tobie
Tobit
Judiþ
Judith
Eſter
Esther
Job
Job
Sauter
Psalms
Prouerbys
Proverbs
Eccleſiaſtes
Ecclesiastes
Songus of Songis
Song of Solomon
Wisdam
Wisdom
Eccleſiaſtici
Sirach
Iſaye
Isaiah
Jeremye
Jeremiah
Lamentacioun
Lamentation
Baruch
Baruch
Ezechiel
Ezekiel
Osee
Hosea
Joel
Joel
Amos
Amos
Abedias
Obadiah
Jonas
Jonah
Micheas
Micah
Naum
Nahum
Abacuk
Habakkuk
Sophonye
Zephaniah
Aggey
Haggai
Zacharias
Zechariah
Malachie
Malachi
I. Machabeorum
1 Maccabees
II. Machabeorum
2 Maccabees
Maþeu
Matthew
Mark
Mark
Luke
Luke
Joon
John
Romaynes
Romans
I. Corinþis
1 Corinthians
II. Corinþis
2 Corinthians
Galaþies
Galatians
Effeſies
Ephesians
Philipencis
Philippians
Colocenſis
Colossians
Laodicenſis
Laodiceans
I. Teſſalonycenſis
1 Thessalonians
II. Teſſalonycenſis
2 Thessalonians
I. Timoþe
1 Timothy
II. Timoþe
2 Timothy
Tyte
Titus
Filomon
Philemon
Ebrews
Hebrews
Actus Apoſtolorum
Acts
Þe Epiſtle of James
James
Þe firſt piſtle of Petre
1 Peter
Þe ſecounde epiſtle of Petre
2 Peter
Þe firſte epiſtle of Joon
1 John
Þe ſecounde epiſtle of Joon
2 John
Þe þrid piſtle of Joon
3 John
Þe epiſtil of Jude
Jude
Apocalips
Revelation

Books in the Wycliffe Bible now Considered Apocryphal by Protestants and Catholics[edit]

Laodicenſis was considered apocryphal by the Catholics of John Wycliffe's time(before the Protestant Reformation). IIII. Eſdre(2 Esdras) is now considered apocryphal, but was not included in this translation. III. Eſdre and Þe Preier of Manaſſes were included in the Wycliffe Bible as cannonical but were later considered apocryphal when the cannons were decided on in the 1500s.

The Books of the Bible in their Modern Order[edit]

Books considered apocryphal by Protestants, but not Catholics are placed in brackets([]). Daniel and Eſter have sections that are considered apocryphal by Protestants, but not Catholics.

Geneſis
Exodus
Leuiticus
Numeri
Deuteronomie
Joſue
Judicum
Ruþ
I. Kyngis
II. Kyngis
III. Kyngis
IIII. Kyngis
I. Paralipomenon
II. Paralipomenon
I. Eſdre
II. Eſdre
[[Bible(Early Wycliffe)/[Tobie]|[Tobie]]]
[[Bible(Early Wycliffe)/[Judiþ]|[Judiþ]]]
Eſter
[[Bible(Early Wycliffe)/[I. Machabeorum]|[I. Machabeorum]]]
[[Bible(Early Wycliffe)/[II. Machabeorum]|[II. Machabeorum]]]
Job
Sauter
Prouerbys
Eccleſiaſtes
Songus of Songis
[[Bible(Early Wycliffe)/[Wiſdam]|[Wiſdam]]]
[[Bible(Early Wycliffe)/[Eccleſiaſtici]|[Eccleſiaſtici]]]
Iſaye
Jeremye
Lamentacioun
[[Bible(Early Wycliffe)/[Baruch]|[Baruch]]]
Ezechiel
Daniel
Oſee
Joel
Amos
Abedias
Jonas
Micheas
Naum
Abacuk
Aggey
Zacharias
Malachie

Maþeu
Mark
Luke
Joon
Actus Apoſtolorum
Romaynes
I. Corinþis
II. Corinþis
Galaþies
Effeſies
Philipencis
Colocenſis
I. Teſſalonycenſes
II. Teſſalonycenſis
I. Timoþe
II. Timoþe
Tyte
Filomon
Ebrews
Þe epiſtle of James
Þe firſt piſtle of Petre
Þe ſecounde epiſtle of Petre
Þe firſte epiſtle of Joon
Þe ſecounde epiſtle of Joon
Þe þrid piſtle of Joon
Þe epiſtil of Jude
Apocalips