CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Sweden

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Introduction Sweden
Background: A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war in almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 by the global economic downturn, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Indecision over the country's role in the political and economic integration of Europe delayed Sweden's entry into the EU until 1995, and waived the introduction of the euro in 1999.
Geography Sweden
Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 15 00 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 449,964 sq km
water: 39,030 sq km
land: 410,934 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly larger than California
Land boundaries: total: 2,233 km
border countries: Finland 614 km, Norway 1,619 km
Coastline: 3,218 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Elevation extremes: lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.41 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
Natural resources: iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 6.54%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 93.45% (2001)
Irrigated land: 1,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Environment - current issues: acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas
People Sweden
Population: 8,986,400 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.5% (male 807,193; female 762,882)
15-64 years: 65.2% (male 2,974,107; female 2,886,840)
65 years and over: 17.3% (male 668,719; female 886,659) (2004 est.)
Median age: total: 40.3 years
male: 39.2 years
female: 41.5 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.18% (2004 est.)
Birth rate: 10.46 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate: 10.38 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate: 1.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 2.77 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 2.93 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.3 years
male: 78.12 years
female: 82.62 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.66 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,300 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish
Ethnic groups: indigenous population: Swedes and Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks
Religions: Lutheran 87%, Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist
Languages: Swedish
note: small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1979 est.)
male: NA
female: NA
Government Sweden
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local short form: Sverige
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: Stockholm
Administrative divisions: 21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarnas, Gavleborgs, Gotlands, Hallands, Jamtlands, Jonkopings, Kalmar, Kronobergs, Norrbottens, Orebro, Ostergotlands, Skane, Sodermanlands, Stockholms, Uppsala, Varmlands, Vasterbottens, Vasternorrlands, Vastmanlands, Vastra Gotalands
Independence: 6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)
National holiday: Flag Day, 6 June
Constitution: 1 January 1975
Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 March 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by the Parliament; election last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006)
election results: Goran PERSSON reelected prime minister with 131 out of 349 votes
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 39.8%, Moderates 15.2%, Liberal Party 13.3%, Christian Democrats 9.1%, Left Party 8.3%, Center Party 6.1%, Greens 4.6%; seats by party - Social Democrats 144, Moderates 55, Liberal Party 48, Christian Democrats 33, Left Party 30, Center Party 22, Greens 17
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)
Political parties and leaders: Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian Democratic Party [Goran HAGGLUND]; Green Party [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or V (formerly Communist) [Lars OHLY]; Liberal People's Party [Lars LEIJONBORG]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Fredrik REINFELDT]; Social Democratic Party [Goran PERSSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jan ELIASSON
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
chancery: 1501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-1702
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador M. Teel BIVINS
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds VAG 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750 (pouch)
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
Flag description: blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
Economy Sweden
Economy - overview: Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole 20th century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only 2% of GDP and 2% of the jobs. The government's commitment to fiscal discipline resulted in a substantial budgetary surplus in 2001, which was cut by more than half in 2002, due to the global economic slowdown, declining revenue, and increased spending. The Swedish central bank (the Riksbank) is focusing on price stability with its inflation target of 2%. Growth remained sluggish in 2003. On September 14, 2003, Swedish voters turned down entry into the euro system, concerned about the impact on democracy and sovereignty.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $238.3 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.7% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $26,800 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2%
industry: 29%
services: 69% (2001)
Investment (gross fixed): 15.7% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line: NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 20.1% (1992)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 25 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.9% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 4.449 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 2%, industry 24%, services 74% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.9% (2003 est.)
Budget: revenues: $177.7 billion
expenditures: $176.9 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt: 51.8% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate: 1.9% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production: 152.9 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 134.9 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports: 18.45 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports: 11.14 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption: 328,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports: 203,700 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports: 553,100 bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 949 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 968 million cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance: $19.56 billion (2003)
Exports: $102.8 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals
Exports - partners: US 11.5%, Germany 10%, Norway 8.4%, UK 7.8%, Denmark 6.4%, Finland 5.7%, Netherlands 4.9%, France 4.9%, Belgium 4.5% (2003)
Imports: $83.27 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners: Germany 18.7%, Denmark 9%, UK 8%, Norway 8%, Netherlands 6.8%, Finland 5.6%, France 5.5%, Belgium 4.2% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: $19.99 billion (2003)
Debt - external: $66.5 billion (1994)
Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.7 billion (1997)
Currency: Swedish krona (SEK)
Currency code: SEK
Exchange rates: Swedish kronor per US dollar - 8.0853 (2003), 9.7371 (2002), 10.3291 (2001), 9.1622 (2000), 8.2624 (1999)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Communications Sweden
Telephones - main lines in use: 6,579,200 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 7.949 million (2002)
Telephone system: general assessment: excellent domestic and international facilities; automatic system
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels
international: country code - 46; 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 265, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios: 8.25 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 169 (plus 1,299 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions: 4.6 million (1997)
Internet country code: .se
Internet hosts: 945,221 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 29 (2000)
Internet users: 5.125 million (2002)
Transportation Sweden
Railways: total: 11,481 km
standard gauge: 11,481 km 1.435-m gauge (7,527 km electrified) (2003)
Highways: total: 212,402 km
paved: 166,523 km (including 1,499 km of expressways)
unpaved: 45,879 km (2000)
Pipelines: gas 798 km (2004)
Ports and harbors: Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Hudiksvall, Kalmar, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Solvesborg, Stockholm, Sundsvall
Merchant marine: total: 178 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 2,702,763 GRT/1,884,570 DWT
by type: bulk 7, cargo 36, chemical tanker 31, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 1, petroleum tanker 25, roll on/roll off 39, short-sea/passenger 8, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier 23
registered in other countries: 154 (2004 est.)
foreign-owned: Denmark 12, Finland 10, Germany 3, Italy 7, Japan 2, Netherlands 1, Norway 12, Russia 1
Airports: 255 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 154
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 35 (2004 est.)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 82
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 100
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 90 (2004 est.)
Heliports: 2 (2003 est.)
Military Sweden
Military branches: Army, Royal Navy, Air Force (Flygvapnet)
Military manpower - military age and obligation: 19 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 7 to 17 months depending on conscript role; after completing initial service soldiers have a reserve commitment until the age of 47 (2004)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,082,776 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,821,394 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 56,859 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4.395 billion (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.1% (FY01)
This page was last updated on 1 January 2003

This is a snapshot of the CIA World Fact Book as it existed on 26 March 2005