Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lund
[LUNDA; LONDUNUM (LONDINUM) GOTHORUM (SCANORUM, SCANDINORUM, or DANORUM)].
In the Län of Malmöhus — ancient Catholic diocese. The city is now the capital of the former Danish province of Skaane (Scania), and is situated on an elevated wooded site in a fertile country, about eight miles from the Sound and twenty-four miles east of Copenhagen. It has a university with a large library containing about 200,000 volumes, and over 2,000 manuscripts, a high school, and a school of languages, arts, and sciences, astronomical observatory, botanical gardens, historical museum, several hospitals, insane asylum, important industries, breweries, and numerous factories for the manufacture of cloth, linen, leather, hardware, bricks, and tiles. It is now a Protestant see. Its superb Romanesque cathedral (its crypt dates from the eleventh or twelfth century) was restored in 1833-78. Of the other numerous medieval churches (21 parish, 9 monastic churches) there now remains only St. Peter's church (monastery of Benedictine nuns) which dates from the middle of the twelfth century. A new All Saints' church was built in 1888-1891. The city has four large public squares and many small irregular streets, the names of which occasionally recall the Catholic past. Of especial interest are the cathedral square and the adjoining "Lundagaard", so called after the former royal castle which stood there, its ancient tower alone remaining. In the Middle Ages Lund was famous as the principal city of the north (metropolis Daniæ, caput ipsius regni). Through the centuries (1172, 1234, 1263, 1287, 1678, 1711) the city suffered much from fire and the devastations of war; the kings in their quarrels with the archbishop exhibiting the temper of Vandals. In 1452 Lund was destroyed by the Swedish king, Charles Knutsson, and never recovered from this disaster. The city declined steadily from the beginning of the Reformation and had well nigh lost all its importance when by the Treaty of Roskilde (1658) Denmark was obliged to cede the Provinces of Skaane, Halland, and Blekinge to Sweden. Even the establishment (1666) and endowment of a university (1668) did not raise Lund to its former influential position. In the beginning of the eighteenth century the population had decreased to six hundred and eighty souls; thenceforth it grew slowly until towards the end of the century it numbered three thousand souls. In the nineteenth century trade, commerce and industries greatly increased, and the population grew from 8,385 in 1858, to 19,464 in 1908, nearly all Lutherans.
Lund brings us back to the heathen and fabulous period of Scandinavia. Nothing authentic is known about the origin of the city but it is certain that as early as the ninth century Lund was a place of great commercial importance. The insignificant stream Hajeaa which now flows near Lund and empties into the Lomma Bay in the south-west was for one thousand years navigable by large vessels. The name Lund (a small wood or grove) is derived from a heathen sacrificial grove which lay to the east of the city, and where the deities of the North, Odin, Thor, Frigga, were honoured. Lund is first mentioned in the Icelandic saga, which tells us that the city, surrounded by a wooden rampart, was plundered and burnt in 940 by the Vikings. The conversion of the North to Christianity was begun a century earlier by Archbishop Ebbo of Reims and St. Anschar, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen, his successor in this apostolic work; both worked here personally and also sent missionaries. But the results were neither notable nor lasting, at least in Sweden. Heathenism was not easily uprooted, and in many places was strong enough to prevent the building of churches and the foundation of sees. The missionaries succeeded only in Jutland, where they established the sees of Schleswig, Ribe, and Aarhus (946) as suffragans of Hamburg-Bremen. It was only under King Svend Tveskæg (960-1014) and his son Canute (Knud) the Great (1014-1035) that Christianity made any headway in Denmark. They reigned over England also, hence the growing English influence in religion, education, and commerce. Svend obtained English missionaries for Skaane, among them was Gotebald (d. about 1021), first Bishop of Roskilde. Besides other religious houses and monasteries in Denmark Svend erected also the first church in Lund, and dedicated it to the Blessed Trinity. During his reign the See of Odense was established on the Island of Fünen (988).
Canute did still more for the Scandinavian countries, especially for the development of Lund; he encouraged industries and trade and erected at Lund the first mint in Scandinavia. Perhaps Adam of Bremen was right when he said: "Cuius (sc. Sconiæ) metropolis civitas Lundona quam victor Angliæ Chnud Britannicæ Londonæ æmulam jussit esse" (Pertz, "Monum. Germ.", VII, 371), i. e., Canute desired to make Scandinavian Lund the rival of English London. At least he laid the foundation for the growing importance of Lund as the medieval metropolis of Scandinavia. In later centuries Lund was again a royal residence and even more important than Roskilde and Ringsted. Canute VI celebrated at Lund in 1177 his marriage with Henry the Lion's daughter, Gertrude of Saxony; Waldemar the Victorious was crowned there in 1202 and it was there in 1409 that took place the marriage between Eric of Pomerania and Philippa of England. Soon also it became a place of great ecclesiastical importance. The first Bishop of Lund was Bernard, who had been for five years in Iceland and was sent by Canute to Lund in 1022. Canute also filled other sees in Denmark with men who had been consecrated bishops in England, in violation of the right of the Metropolitan of Hamburg; therefore when Gerbrand, consecrated Bishop of Roskilde at Canterbury, repaired to Denmark, he was seized by Archbishop Unvan of Hamburg-Bremen and set free only on submitting to the archbishop as his metropolitan (1022). The king now saw that he was obliged to recognize the privileges of the Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen, and in this he was followed by the Kings of Sweden and Norway. Adam of Bremen concluded from this that the supremacy of the See of Hamburg was respected as a matter of fact in all Scandinavian countries; every Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian bishop, he says, was obliged to report to Archbishop Libentius II (1029-32) the progress of Christianity in their respective countries (Pertz, "Monum. Germ.", VII, 328).
Lund, however, was not properly a see until Svend Estridsen, the successor of Canute, separated Skaane ecclesiastically from Roskilde (1048) and created two sees, Lund and Dalby. After the death of the unworthy bishop, Henry of Lund, Dalby and Lund were united (1060) but there still remained at Dalby a college of regular canons with a provost. The Province of Skaane must have numbered at that time about three hundred churches (Pertz, "Monum. Germ", VII, 370). The building of a new stone cathedral which was to be dedicated to St. Lawrence was zealously furthered by the saintly King Canute (1086). Through richly endowed foundations he sought to maintain God's service worthily, and can therefore rightly be called the founder of the cathedral. His deed of gift for this (21 May, 1085) was done apparently on the occasion of the consecration of the church and is the oldest extant Danish royal deed on record in the original.
Later donations were so numerous that the cathedral became the richest church in the North. Lund was also the foremost, though one of the most recent, sees in the Scandinavian Church, only Viborg and Börglum in Jutland being later foundations (1065). Contemporaneously there began for Denmark an epoch of great prosperity, which is still the national pride. This prosperous development was owing to the new ecclesiastical autonomy and independence of the Scandinavian countries, formerly under the Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. By several papal Bulls missionary work in the heathen North had been originally assigned to the Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen, also the jurisdiction over those countries when converted to Christianity. Later, however, several sees were created in Denmark which had already endeavoured to establish a direct union with Rome and to do away with a foreign and troublesome intermediary authority. This was all the more reasonable from the moment that the Bremen prelates, as worldly princes, began to be occupied with affairs of State to the neglect of their duties as spiritual shepherds. They undertook to consecrate their dependent suffragan bishops, or at least reserved to themselves the right of ratification of those bishops when named by the king.
For Denmark the danger was imminent that the powerful Bremen Metropolitan might misuse his influence and by interference in the internal affairs of the country endanger its political liberty and independence. Canute had already planned the establishment of a Scandinavian church province; but it was only under his successor Svend Estridsen ("cuius industria Dania in octo episcopatus divisa est", Langebek, "Script. rer. dan.", III, 444) that negotiations were begun at Rome. Adalbert of Bremen opposed the independence of these northern sees, except on condition that his own metropolitan see were promoted to the dignity of a patriarchate over the whole North. After the death of Adalbert (1072) his successor Liemar sided with Henry IV in the Investitures conflict and Gregory VII invited King Svend to resume the former negotiations. Svend died, however, about 1075 and the Northern Church question rested for some time till Eric Ejegod, the second successor of St. Canute, took up the affair anew and brought it to a close. Apparently, at the Synod of Bari in which Anselm of Canterbury also took part, Eric obtained from Urban II two requests: the establishment of an archbishopric, and the canonization of his brother Canute. Under Paschal II (1100) the efforts of Eric were crowned with success, and the canonization of Canute was solemnized in Odense, all the bishops of the country being present. Shortly after this Eric died in the Island of Cyprus (1103), while on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. At the same time Cardinal Alberich repaired to Denmark as papal legate to select an appropriate see for the new metropolitan. His choice fell on Lund, and the local bishop, Asger (Adzer), a friend of Anselm of Canterbury, received the pallium and the archiepiscopal dignity (1104). In this way the Northern Church was freed from its dependence on Bremen-Hamburg. Adalbero of Bremen, after the Concordat of Worms (1128), was very anxious to revive the old metropolitan rights in their plenitude, and for this purpose did not shrink from forging papal Bulls.
Emperor Lothair III, in the hope of gaining politically by the civil war which in the meanwhile had broken out in Denmark, supported at Rome Adalbero's request. In fact Innocent II restored the authority of the Archbishop of Bremen over all the northern sees, as is shown by several contemporary letters to Adalbero, to Archbishop Asger, and to the Kings of Sweden and Denmark. Asger, however, held fast to his rights, encouraged by his nephew Eskil, then provost of the cathedral of Lund, who sent Hermann, a canon of Lund, and a Rhinelander, to Rome where he defended successfully the rights of the Metropolitan of Lund guaranteed fully to him thirty years before. This ended for all time the ambitious plans of domination long cherished by the Prelate of Bremen; the lofty dream of a Patriarchate of the North toppled; even the authority of a Frederick Barbarossa (1158) could not revive it. Later Hermann became Bishop of Schleswig; he is buried in the crypt of the cathedral at Lund. In 1134 Asger was confirmed in his dignity by Innocent II, through the papal legate Cardinal Martin. In 1139 his successor Eskil (q. v.) held at Lund the first Northern National Council under the presidency of Cardinal Theodignus. The high altar of the cathedral was solemnly consecrated by Eskil in 1145, making in all with those of the crypt sixty-four consecrated altars. When in 1152 a separate ecclesiastical province was established at Trondhjem (Nidaros) for Norway with bishops of the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Greenland as suffragans, the Archbishop of Lund received the honour of papal legate with the title of Primate of Denmark and Sweden. Under Eskil's reign the ecclesiastical law of Skaane (1162) and Zeeland (1171) was codified, numerous monasteries founded and the Archbishopric of Upsala established (1164). After the conquest of Rügen (1169) the See of Roskilde was divided and the jurisdiction of Lund was enlarged. Later the North German sees of Lübeck, Ratzeburg, Schwerin, and Cammin were added to Lund as suffragans.
Under Archbishops Absalon (1177-1201) (q. v.), and Andreas Sunesön, 1201-23, Lund was at the zenith of its power. Absalon was equally prominent as prince of the Church and as statesman and continues to be reckoned one of the most prominent men of medieval Denmark. Both he and Eskil encouraged monastic life and were patrons of the arts and sciences. During his reign the famous historian Saxo Grammaticus was provost of Roskilde (1208). Absalon rendered service to the Church by strict discipline and the introduction of celibacy among the clergy. His successor Andreas was a zealous and saintly man highly educated and the most learned medieval theologian of Denmark. The epic "Hexaëmeron" and several hymns testify to his gifts as a classical scholar. He took part personally in the crusades against the heathens in Livonia and Esthonia and established three new suffragan sees in Reval, Leal, and Virland which were lost by the sale of Esthonia to the Teutonic Order (1346). Under him the first Dominican monastery was established in Lund (1221). He was probably present at the Lateran Council and is said to have been the only Dane who ever received a cardinal's hat. He died in 1228 after he had resigned about 1223 on account of ill-health; it has been suggested on account of leprosy.
The second half of the century was saddened by weary strifes between the archbishops and Kings Christopher I and Eric Menved. Archbishops Jacob Erlandsen and Jens Grand were cruelly imprisoned and the country fell under an interdict. Jens Grand escaped from his prison to Rome and Boniface VIII removed the interdict from Lund. The archbishop lived several years in Paris, received in 1307 the See of Bremen and died at Avignon, 1326. The disorders of the time were responsible for the decline of Lund in secular and ecclesiastical affairs. The Province of Skaane passed (1332-1360) to Sweden, was reconquered and was definitely lost by the Peace of Roskilde (1658). At the same time the Archbishop of Lund's influence disappeared for the Archbishop of Upsala assumed complete authority over Lund, thereby depriving the dignity of Primate of Sweden of all meaning. During the time just preceding the Reformation church affairs were in a very bad way in Denmark. Archbishop Birger (1519) rendered valuable service by having the "Missale lundense", the "Breviarium ecclesiæ lundensis", the "Statuta provincialia" as well as the "Historia danica" of Saxo Grammaticus printed at Paris. After his death there were complications and dissensions between Christian II and the cathedral chapter. The originally elected Aage Sparre who was withdrawn to favour the king's choice, Jörgen Skodborg, succeeded (1523) in occupying the archiepiscopal chair but resigned in 1532, powerless to stay the advances of the Reformation. The last Catholic archbishop, Torben Bille, who, however, was never consecrated, was imprisoned by command of Christian III in 1536, church property was confiscated by the crown, and the Reformation was established. A superintendent took the place of the archbishop and the incumbent has had the title of bishop since the incorporation with Sweden in 1658.
Eight years later, Charles X founded a university, solemnly opened in 1668. In 1676 the Danes gave bloody battle near Lund and made in 1709 another fruitless attempt to reconquer Skaane. Charles XII made Lund his head-quarters after his return from Turkey in 1716-1718. In the course of its existence the university has been threatened in several ways, but since the beginning of the nineteenth century it has not been imperilled. It comprises four faculties and received in 1878-82 the gift of a new building from the State. In 1908 there were about one hundred professors stationed there, the number of students being three hundred and twenty-two. A new library was built in 1907. The famous poet, Esaias Tegnér, lived there several years (1812-24) as professor of æsthetics and Greek and died in 1846 as Bishop of Vexiö.
LANGEBEK, Scriptores rerum danicarum, I-VII (Copenhagen, 1772-92); Necrologium Lundense, III, 422-73; Liber danicus lundensis, III, 473; III, 473-579; IV, 26-68; Saxonis Grammatici historia Danica, ed. MÜLLER (Copenhagen, 1839); PERTZ, Mag. Adami Gesta hammenburgensis ecclesiæ Pontificum, in Mon. Germ. hist., VII (Hanover, 1846), 267-392; SOMMELIUS, De initiis archiepiscopatus lundensis (Lund, 1767); NEUMANN, De fatis Primatus lundensis (Copenhagen, 1799); THRIGE, De bremiske Erkebiskoppers Bestroebelser for at vedligeholde deres Höjhed over den nordiske Kirke (Copenhagen, 1845); CAWALLIN, Lunds Stifts Herdaminne, I (Lund, 1854), 1-15; BERLING, Lund (Lund, 1859-68); JÖRGENSEN, Den nordiske Kirkes Grundloeggelse og forste Udvikling, I, III (Copenhagen, 1862); AHLENIUS, Sverige, Geografisk, Topografisk, statistisk Beskrifning, I (Stockholm, Upsala, 1908), 261-83; HUITFELDT, Danmarks Rigis Krönike, I, II (Copenhagen, 1652); OERNHJELM, Historiae Sveonum Gothorumque ecclesiasticae libri quatuor priores (Stockholm, 1689); PONTOPPIDAN, Annales ecclesiae danicae, I-IV (Copenhagen, 1741, sq.); SUHM, Historie af Danmark, II-XIV (Copenhagen, 1784-1828); DAUGAARD, Om de danske Klostre i Middelalderen (Copenhagen, 1830); MÜNTER, Kirchengeschichte von Dänemark und Norwegen (Leipzig, 1831); REUTERDAHL, Svenska kyrkans historie (till 1533), I-IV (Lund, 1836-66); LAPPENBERG, Hamburgische Urkundenbuch (Hamburg, 1842); HELVEG, Den danske Kirkes Historie til Reformationen I, II (Copenhagen, 1862); JÖRGENSEN, Historiske Afhandlinger, I (Copenhagen, 1828), 5-58, 86-179, 202-234; OLRIK, Konge og Proestestand (Copenhagen, 1898); IDEM, Den oeldste Danmarks-krönike (Copenhagen, 1898).
Philipp von Kettenburg.