Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary 1908/List of Abbreviations

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A. Amateur; Academician.

a. Accepted; acre; active; afternoon; annus, year; ante, before.

ā or āā, in prescriptions, of each a like quantity.

a. or ans. Answer.

A1. First-class (of ships).

A.A.C., anno ante Christum=In the year before Christ.

A.A.Q.M.G. Acting Assistant Quartermaster-general.

A.A.S., Americanæ Antiquarianæ Societatis Socius, Fellow of the American Academy.

A.B. Able-bodied seaman.

A.B., Artium Baccalaureus=Bachelor of Arts.

Abb. Abbess; Abbot; Abbey.

abbr. or abbrev. Abbreviated, or Abbreviation.

Abd. Abdicated.

A.B.F.M. American Board of Foreign Missions.

ab init., ab initio=From the beginning.

abl. Ablative.

Abp. Archbishop.

abr. Abridged; Abridgment.

A.B.S. American Bible Society.

abs., absol. Absolutely.

abs., abstr. Abstract.

abs re., absente reo, the defendant being absent.

A.C., ante Christum=Before Christ.

acc. Accusative.

Acc., Acct. Account (also a/c); Accountant.

A.C.P. Associate of the College of Preceptors.

A.D., anno Domini=In the year of our Lord.

a.d. After date; ante diem, before the day.

ad. Advertisement.

A.D.C. Aide-de-camp.

ad fin., ad finem=At or to the end.

ad h.l., ad hunc locum=At this place.

ad inf., ad infinitum=To infinity.

ad init., ad initium=At or to the beginning.

ad int., ad interim=In the meantime.

adj. Adjective.

Adjt. Adjutant;—Adjt.-gen., Adjutant-general.

ad lib., ad libitum=At pleasure.

ad loc., ad locum=At the place.

Adm. Admiral.

Adolph. Adolphus.

Adv. Advent; Advocate.

adv. Adverb; adversus=Against.

ad val., ad valorem=According to value.

advt. Advertisement.

æ., æt., ætatis=Aged (so many years).

A.F.A. Associate of the Faculty of Actuaries.

A.F.B.S. American and Foreign Bible Society.

Aff. Affectionate; Affirmative.

A.G. Adjutant-general.

Ag., argentum=Silver.

agr., agric. Agriculture.

Agt. Agent.

A.H., anno Hegiræ=In the year of Hegira—i.e. from the flight of Mohammed (622 A.D., 13th Sept.).

A.h.l., ad hunc locum=At this place.

a.h.v., ad hunc vocem=At this word.

A.H.S., Anno humanæ salutis=In the year of human salvation.

A.I.A. Associate of the Institute of Actuaries.

A.I.C.E. Associate of the Institute of Civil Engineers.

A.K.C. Associate of King's College, London.

Al., Ala. Alabama.

Alban. Of St Albans.

Ald. Alderman.

Alex. Alexander.

Alf. Alfred.

alg. Algebra.

Algy. Algernon.

alt. Alternate; Altitude; Alto.

A.M., Artium Magister=Master of Arts; Ante meridiem=Before noon; Anno mundi=In the year of the world; Annus mirabilis=The wonderful year (1666); Ave Maria=Hail Mary.

Am., Amer. America or American.

A.M.A. American Missionary Association.

amt. Amount.

an., anno=In the year; anonymous; answer; ante=before.

anal. Analysis; Analogy.

anat. Anatomy or Anatomical.

anc. Ancient, Anciently.

And. Andrew.

Ang., Anglicé=In English.

Ang.-Sax. Anglo-Saxon.

Anon. Anonymous.

ans. Answer.

ant., antiq. Antiquities.

A.O.F. Ancient Order of Foresters.

aor. Aorist.

Ap., Apl., Apr. April.

A.P.D. Army Pay Department.

Apo. Apogee.

Apoc. Apocalypse; Apocrypha, Apocryphal.

app. Appendix; Apprentice.

A.P.R.C., Anno post Romam conditam=In the year after the building of Rome (753 B.C.).

aq., aqua=Water.

A.R., anno regni=In the year of the reign.

Ar., Arab. Arabic.

ar., arr. Arrive or Arrives, Arrival.

A.R.A. Associate of the Royal Academy.

arbor. Arboriculture.

Arch. Archibald.

arch. Archaic.

archæol. Archæology.

arch., archit. Architecture.

Archd. Archdeacon; Archibald.

arg., argentum=Silver.

A.R.H.A. Associate of the Royal Hibernian Academy.

arith. Arithmetic or Arithmetical.

Ark. Arkansas.

Arm. Armenian; Armoric.

A.R.R., anno regni regis or reginæ= In the year of the king's or queen's reign.

A.R.S.A. Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy; Associate of the Royal Society of Arts.

A.R.S.L. Associate of the Royal Society of Literature.

A.R.S.M. Associate of the Royal School of Mines.

A.R.S.S., Antiquariorum Regiæ Societatis Socius=Fellow of the Royal Society of Antiquaries.

art. Article; Artillery.

A.S. Anglo-Saxon; Anno salutis=In the year of salvation; Assistant Secretary.

Asaph. Of St Asaph.

A.S.E. Amalgamated Society of Engineers.

Ass., Assoc. Association.

Asst. Assistant.

astr., astron. Astronomer; Astronomy.

astrol. Astrology.

ats. At suit of.

Att., Atty. Attorney.

Att.-gen. Attorney-general.

at. wt. Atomic weight.

Au (L. aurum), gold.

A.U.C., anno urbis conditæ, or ab urbe conditâ=In the year from the building of the city—Rome (753 B.C.).

Aug. August.

aug. Augmentative.

Auth. Ver. Authorised Version.

A.V. Authorised Version; Artillery Volunteers; Annos vixit=Lived [so many] years.

Av. Avenue; Average.

Ave. Avenue.

Avoir., Avdp. Avoirdupois.

Ax. Axiom.


b. born.

b., bk. Book.

B., Brit. British.

B.A., Baccalaureus Artium=Bachelor of Arts; British America; British Association.

bach. Bachelor.

B. & F.B.S. British and Foreign Bible Society.

bal. Balance.

Bap., Bapt. Baptist.

bap., bapt. Baptised.

bar. Barometer; Barrel.

Bar. Barrister.

Bart., Bt. Baronet.

bat., batt. Battalion; Battery.

B.B.C. Baseball Club.

bbl. Barrel.

B.C. Before Christ; Board of Control; British Columbia.

B.C.L. Bachelor of Civil Law.

B.D. Bachelor of Divinity.

bd. Bound.

bds. Boards.

b.e. Bill of exchange.

Beds. Bedfordshire.

bef. Before.

Belg. Belgian, Belgic.

Ben., Benj. Benjamin.

Berks. Berkshire.

B. ès L., Bachelier ès Lettres (Fr.)=Bachelor of Letters.

bet. Between.

Bib. Bible.

bibl. Bibliotheca.

bibliog. Bibliographer, Bibliography.

biog. Biographer, Biography.

biol. Biology, Biological.

bis. Bissextile.

bk. Book; Bank; Bark.

bkg. Banking.

bkt. Basket.

B.L. Bachelor of Laws.

bl. Barrel; Bale.

b.l. Bill of lading.

bldg. Building.

B.M. Bachelor of Medicine; Beatæ Memoriæ=Of blessed memory; British Museum.

B.Mus. Bachelor of Music.

Bn. Baron.

bn. Battalion.

b.o. Branch Office; Buyer's Option.

B.O.A. British Optical Association.

B.O.A.F.G. British Order of Ancient Free Gardeners.

Boh. Bohemia, Bohemian.

Bol. Bolivia.

Bomb.C.S. Bombay Civil Service.

Bomb.S.C. Bombay Staff Corps.

bor. Borough.

bot. Botany, Botanical.

Boul. Boulevard.

Bp. Bishop.

b.p. Bill of parcels; Bills payable; Birthplace (also bpl.); Bonum publicum=The public good.

B.P. British Pharmacopœa.

B.Q., Bene quiescat—May he (or she) rest well.

bque. Barque.

Br. or Bro. Brother.

br. Brig.

Br. Am. British America.

Braz. Brazil; Brazilian.

b.rec. Bills receivable.

Bret. Breton.

brev. Brevet, Brevetted.

Brig. Brigade, Brigadier;—Brig.-gen., Brigadier-general.

Brit. Britain; Britannia; British; Briton.

Bro. Brother;—Bros., Brothers.

b.s. Bill of sale.

B.S.C. Bengal Staff Corps.

B.Sc. See Sc.B.

B.S.L. Botanical Society of London.

Bt. Baronet.

Bu., Bus. Bushel, Bushels.

Bucks. Buckinghamshire.

Bulg. Bulgaria; Bulgarian.

burl. Burlesque.

bush. Bushel.

B.V., Beata Virgo=Blessed Virgin; also Bene vale=Farewell.

B.V.M. The Blessed Virgin Mary.

B.W.T.A. British Women's Temperance Association.

b. & s. Brandy and soda-water.


C. Centigrade; Catholic; Consul; Court; Congress; Church; Chancellor; Conservative.

c., cap., caput=Chapter.

c. Centime.

c., ct., cent., centum=A hundred.

C.A. Chartered Accountant; Chief Accountant; Commercial Agent; Confederate Army.

Ca. Calcium.

ca. Cases; Centare; circa=About.

Ca., Cal. California.

Cam., Camb. Cambridge.

Can. Canon; Canto.

Cant. Canterbury; Canticles.

Cantab., Cantabrigiensis=Of Cambridge.

Cantuar., Cantuaria=Canterbury; Cantuariensis=Of Canterbury.

cap., caput=Capital; Chapter;—Capitulum=Head; Capiat=Let him (or her) take.

Cap., Capt. Captain.

caps. Capitals.

car. Carat.

Car., Carolus=Charles.

Card. Cardinal.

carp. Carpentry.

Cash. Cashier.

cat. Catechism; Catalogue.

Cath. Catherine; Catholic.

Cav. Cavalry.

C.B. Companion of the [Most Honourable Order of the] Bath; Confined to barracks.

C.B.S. Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament.

C.C. Caius College; Circuit Court; County Council; County Clerk; Cricket Club; Catholic Clergyman.

cc. Chapters.

C.C.C. Corpus Christi College; Christ's College, Cambridge.

C.C.C.S. Colonial and Continental Church Society.

C.D. Acts. The Contagious Diseases Acts.

C.D.S.O. Companion of the Distinguished Service Order.

c.d.v. Carte-de-visite.

C.E. Civil Engineer; Canada East.

Cel. Celsius (scale of—i.e. Centigrade).

cel. Celebrated.

Celt. Celtic.

cen. Central; Century.

cent., centum=A hundred.

Centig. Centigrade.

cert., certif. Certificate; Certify.

Cestr., Cestrensis=Of Chester.

cet. par., ceteris paribus=Other things being equal.

cf., confer=Compare; Calf.

c. f. & i. Cost, freight, and insurance.

cg. Centigram.

C.G. Captain-general; Captain of the Guard; Coast-guard; Commissary-general; Consul-general.

C.G.H. Cape of Good Hope.

C.G.S. Centimetre, Gramme, Second—the units of length, mass, and time.

C.H. Custom-house; Court-house.

Ch. Charles; Chief; China; Church.

ch. Chaldron; Chapter; Child.

Chal. Chaldron.

Chal., Chald. Chaldee, Chaldaic.

Chamb. Chamberlain.

Chanc. Chancellor.

Chap. Chaplain; Chapter.

Chas. Charles.

Ch.C., Ch.Ch. Christ Church.

Ch. Clk. Chief Clerk.

Chem. Chemistry; Chemical.

Ch. Hist. Church History.

Chin. China, Chinese.

Ch.J. Chief-justice.

Chr. Christ; Christian; Christopher.

Chron. Chronicles; Chronology.

C.I. [Imperial Order of the] Crown of India (for ladies).

Cic. Cicero.

Cicestr., Cicestrensis=Of Chichester.

C.I.E. Companion of the [Most Eminent Order of the] Indian Empire.

cir., circ., circa, circiter, circum=About.

cit. Citation; Citizen.

Civ. Civil; Civilian.

C.J. Chief-justice.

Cl. Clergyman; Chlorine; Claudius.

class. Classical; Classification.

clk. Clerk.

C.L.S.C. Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle.

C.M. Certificated Master; Corresponding Member; Common Metre; Chirurgiæ Magister=Master in Surgery.

cm. Centimetres.

c.m., causa mortis=By reason of death.

C.M.G. Companion of the [Most Distinguished] Order of St Michael and St George.

C.M.S. Church Missionary Society.

C.O. Colonial Office; Commanding Officer; Crown Office; Criminal Office.

Co. Cobalt; Company; County.

C/o. Care of.

Coad. Coadjutor.

coch., cochl., cochlear=a spoon, spoonful;—coch. amp., cochlear amplum=a tablespoonful;—coch. mag., cochlear magnum=a large spoonful;—coch. med., cochlear medium=a dessert-spoonful;—coch. parv., cochlear parvum=a teaspoonful.

Cod. Codex.

c.o.d. Cash (or collect) on delivery.

cog. Cognate.

Col. Colonel; Column; Colossians.

coll. College; Colleague; Collector; Colloquial.

collat. Collateral.

collect. Collective.

colloq. Colloquially.

Com. Commander; Commodore; Committee; Commissioner; Commonwealth.

com. Common; Comedy; Commerce; Commune.

comm. Commentary; Commander.

Commissr. Commissioner;—Commy., Commissary.

commn. Commission.

comp. Comparative; Compositor; Compare; Compound or Compounded.

compar. Comparative; Comparison.

Com. Ver. Common Version.

Con. Consul.

Con., contra=Against; conjux=Consort: Conclusion; Conversation.

Cong. Congress; Congregation.

conj. Conjunction.

Conn. or Ct. Connecticut.

cons. Consonant.

con. sec. Conic Sections.

Consols. Consolidated Funds.

contr. Contracted; Contraction.

contr. bon. mor., contra bonos mores=Contrary to good manners.

Cop., Copt. Coptic.

Cor. Corinthians; Coroner.

Cor. Mem. Corresponding Member.

Corn. Cornish; Cornwall.

corr. Corrupted; Corruption.

Cor. Sec. Corresponding Secretary.

C.O.S. Charity Organisation Society.

cos. Cosine.

cosmog. Cosmography.

Coss., consules=Consuls.

Cot. Cotangent.

cp. Compare.

C.P. Clerk of the Peace; Common Pleas: Carriage Paid.

C.P.C. Clerk of the Privy Council.

C.P.S., Custos Privati Sigilli=Keeper of the Privy Seal.

C.R., Carolus rex=King Charles; Civis Romanus=a Roman citizen; Custos Rotulorum=Keeper of the Rolls.

Cr. Credit; Creditor; Crown.

craniol. Craniology.

cres. Crescendo.

crim. con. Criminal conversation, or adultery.

C.S. Court of Session; Clerk to the Signet; Civil Service; Chemical Society.

C.S.A. Confederate States of America.

C.S.I. Companion of the [Most Exalted Order of the] Star of India.

C.T. Certificated Teacher; Commercial Traveller.

ct. Cent.

C.T.C. Cyclists' Touring Club.

Cu., cuprum=Copper.

cu., cub. Cubic.

cur., curt. Current—this month.

C.V. Common Version.

C.V.O. Commander of the Royal Victorian Order.

C.W. Canada West.

c.w.o. Cash with order.

cwt. A hundredweight—c for centum, a hundred, and wt for weight.

Cyc., Cyclo. Cyclopædia.

Cym. Cymric.


d., dele=Delete; Dead or Died; Deserted; Degree; Denarius or denarii=A penny or pence; Duke.

Dan. Daniel; Danish.

dat. Dative.

dau. Daughter.

Dav. David.

D.C., Da Capo (It.)=Repeat from the beginning; District of Columbia.

D.C.L. Doctor of Civil Law.

D.C.S. Deputy Clerk of Session.

D.D., Divinitatis Doctor=Doctor of Divinity.

D.d., Deo dedit=Gave to God.

D.D.D., dat, dicat, dedicat=He gives, devotes, and dedicates; Dono dedit dedicavit=He gave and dedicated as a gift.

Dea. Deacon.

Dec. December.

dec. Declaration; Declension.

decid. Deciduous.

decl. Declension.

def. Defendant; Definition.

deft. Defendant.

deg. Degree, Degrees.

Del. Delaware; Delegate.

del., delt., delineavit='He drew it,' put after the draftsman's name on an engraving.

demon. Demonstrative.

Dent. Dental, Dentist, Dentistry.

Dep. Department (also Dept.); Deputy.

dep. Deposed.

der. Derivation.

Deut. Deuteronomy.

D.F. Defender of the Faith; Dean of the Faculty.

dft. Defendant; Draft.

D.G., Dei gratiâ=By the grace of God.

d.h., das heisst (Ger.). That is.

dial. Dialect.

diam. Diameter.

Dict. Dictator; Dictionary.

Dir. Director.

disc. Discount; Discoverer.

diss. Dissertation.

dist. Distance; Distinguish.

div. Divide; Divine.

D.L. Deputy Lieutenant.

D.Lit. or Litt. Doctor of Literature.

D.L.O. Dead-letter Office.

do., ditto=The same.

dols. Dollars.

D.O.M., Deo optimo maximo=To God, best and greatest.

Dom. Dominion.

dom. Domestic.

Dor. Doric.

doz. Dozen.

D.P.H. Department of Public Health.

D.P.O. Distributing Post-office.

Dpt. Department.

Dr. Debtor; Doctor.

dr. Dram; Drawer.

D.Sc. See Sc.D.

D.S.O. Distinguished Service Order; District Staff Officer.

d.s.p., decessit sine prole=Died without issue.

D.T. Doctor of Theology.

d.t. Delirium tremens.

Dunelm., Dunelmensis=Of Durham.

D.V., Deo volente=God willing, If God will.

d.v.p., decessit vita patris=Died in his father's life-time.

dwt. Pennyweight—d for denarius, penny, and wt for weight.


E. East; English.

ea. Each.

Eben. Ebenezer.

Ebor., Eboracum=York; Eboracensis=Of York.

E.C. Eastern Central; Established Church.

Eccl., Eccles. Ecclesiastes, Ecclesiastical;—Ecclesiol., Ecclesiology.

E.C.U. English Church Union.

Ed. Editor.

ed., edit. Edited; Edition.

Ed., Edw. Edward.

Edenburgen., Edenburgensis=Of Edinburgh.

Ed., Edin. Edinburgh.

E.D.S. English Dialect Society.

E.E. Errors excepted.

E.E.T.S. Early English Text Society.

e.g., ex. gr., exempli gratiâ=For example.

E.I. East Indies;—E.I.C.S., East India Company's Service.

ejusd., ejusdem=Of the same.

Elis., Eliz. Elizabeth.

Elz. Elzevir.

Emp. Emperor; Empress.

Ency., Encyc. Encyclopædia.

E.N.E. East-north-east.

eng. Engineer; Engraver; Engraving.

Ens. Ensign.

ent., entom. Entomology.

Ent. Sta. Hall Entered at Stationers' Hall.

Env. Ext. Envoy Extraordinary.

e.o.d. Every other day.

Ep. Epistle.

Eph. Ephesians.

Epiph. Epiphany.

Epis., Episc. Episcopal.

epit. Epitaph; Epitome.

eq. Equal; Equivalent.

E.S.E. East-south-east.

esp., espec. Especially.

Esq., Esqr. Esquire.

Est. Established.

et al., et alibi=And elsewhere; or et alii or alia=And others.

etc., &c., et ceteri or cetera=And others, and so forth.

et seq., sq., or sqq., et sequentes or sequentia=And the following.

ety., etym. Etymology.

E.U. Evangelical Union.

Euph. Euphemia.

Eur. Europe; European.

ex. Examined; Example; Exception; Excursus; Executive; Export.

Ex., Exod. Exodus.

Exc. Excellency.

exc. Except; Exception.

ex div., extra dividendum=Without dividend.

ex. g., ex. gr. exempli gratiâ=For the sake of example.

Exon., Exonia=Exeter; Exoniensis=Of Exeter.

exp. Export.

exr. Executor.

Ez. Ezra.

Ezek. Ezekiel.

E. & O.E. Errors and Omissions Excepted.


f. Following; Farthing; Feminine; Fathom; Foot; Forte.

F., Fahr. Fahrenheit.

fam. Familiar; Family.

F.A.M. Free and Accepted Masons.

F.A.S. Fellow of the Society of Arts; Fellow of the Antiquarian Society.

F.B. Fenian Brotherhood.

F.B.S. Fellow of the Botanical Society;—F.B.S.E., Fellow of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh.

F.C.I.S. Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Secretaries.

F.C.P. Fellow of the College of Preceptors.

fcp., fcap. Foolscap.

F.C.S. Fellow of the Chemical Society.

F.D., Fidei Defensor=Defender of the Faith.

Feb. February.

fec., fecit=He did it.

F.E.I.S. Fellow of the Educational Institute of Scotland.

fem. Feminine.

F.E.S. Fellow of the Ethnological or of the Entomological Society.

feud. Feudal.

Ff. The Pandects, prob. by corr. of Greek Π.

ff., fecerunt=They did it or made it; Folios.

F.F.A. Fellow of the Faculty of Actuaries.

F.F.P.S. Fellow of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons (Glasgow).

F.G.S. Fellow of the Geological Society.

F.I.A. Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries.

fict. Fiction.

Fi. fa., fieri facias=That you cause to be made (a writ of execution).

fig. Figure, Figuratively.

fin., ad finem=At the end.

F.K.Q.C.P.I. Fellow of the King's and Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland.

fl., floruit=Flourished; Florin.

Flor., Fla., Fa. Florida.

F.L.S. Fellow of the Linnæan Society.

F.M. Field-marshal.

fm. Fathom.

F.O. Field-officer; Foreign Office; Full Organ.

fo., fol. Folio.

f.o.b. Free on board.

F.P. Fire-plug.

F.P.S. Fellow of the Philological Society.

Fr. France, French; Friar; Friday.

fr. Fragment; Franc; Frequently;—frcs., Francs.

F.R.A.S. Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society; Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society.

F.R.C.P. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.

F.R.C.P.E. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.

F.R.C.S. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons.

F.R.C.S.E. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.

F.R.C.S.I. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland.

F.R.C.S.L. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of London.

Fred. Frederick.

F.R.G.S. Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.

F.R.H.S. Fellow of the Royal Horticultural Society.

F.R.I.B.A. Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects.

F.R.Met.S. Fellow of the Royal Meteorological Society.

F.R.S. Fellow of the Royal Society.

P.R.S.E. Fellow of the Royal Society, Edinburgh.

F.R.S.G.S. Fellow of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society.

F.R.S.L. Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.

F.R.S.S.A. Fellow of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts.

F.S.A. Fellow of the Society of Arts; Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.

F.S.A.Scot. Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

F.S.S. Fellow of the Statistical Society.

ft. Foot, Feet; Fort.

F.T.C.D. Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin.

fth., fthm. Fathom.

fur. Furlong.

fut. Future.

F.W.B. Free-will Baptist.

fz. Forzando or Forzato.

F.Z.S. Fellow of the Zoological Society.


g. Genitive; Gramme.

G.A. General Assembly.

Ga., Geo. Georgia.

Gael. Gaelic.

Gal. Galatians.

gal. Gallon;—gall., gallons.

gam. Gamut.

gaz. Gazette.

G.B. Great Britain;—G.B. and I., Great Britain and Ireland.

G.C.B. [Knight] Grand Cross of the [Most Honourable Order of the] Bath.

G.C.H. [Knight] Grand Cross of Hanover.

G.C.I.E. [Knight] Grand Commander [of the Most Eminent Order] of the Indian Empire.

G.C.L.H. Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour.

g.c.m. Greatest common measure.

G.C.M.G. [Knight] Grand Cross of [the Most Distinguished Order of] St Michael and St George.

G.C.S.I. [Knight] Grand Commander of the [Most Exalted Order of the] Star of India.

G.C.V.O. [Knight] Grand Cross of the [Royal] Victorian Order.

Gen. General; Genesis.

Gen., Genl. General.

gen. Gender; Genitive; Genus.

gent. Gentleman, Gentlemen.

Geo. George.

geog. Geography.

geol. Geology.

geom. Geometry.

ger. Gerund.

G.F.S. Girls' Friendly Society.

Gk. or Gr. Greek.

gm. Gramme.

G.M.T. Greenwich Mean Time.

G.O. General Order; Grand Organ.

G.O.M. Grand Old Man (W. E. Gladstone).

Gov. Government, Governor.

G.P. General Practitioner; Grateful Patient; Gloria patri=Glory to the Father.

G.P.O. General Post-office.

gr. Grain; Grammar; Gross.

gs. Guineas.

G.S.P. Good Service Pension.

Gu. Guinea; Gules.

guin. Guinea.


h., hr. Hour.

Hab. Habakkuk.

hab. Habitat.

Hag. Haggai.

Hants. Hampshire.

Har. Harold.

H.B.M. His (or Her) Britannic Majesty.

H.C. Heralds' College; House of Commons; Holy Communion.

H.C.M. His (or Her) Catholic Majesty.

h.e., hic est=This is; hoc est=That is.

Heb. Hebrews.

H.E.I.C.S. Honourable East India Company's Service.

her. Heraldry; Heres=Heir.

hf. Half;—hf.-bd., half-bound;—hf.-cf., half-calf.

H.G. Horse Guards; His Grace.

H.H. His (or Her) Highness.

hhd. Hogshead.

H.I.H. His (or Her) Imperial Highness.

hist. Historian, History.

H.J., hic jacet=Here lies;—H.J.S., hic jacet sepultus=Here lies buried.

H.K. House of Keys (Isle of Man).

H.M. His (or Her) Majesty.

H.M.C. His (or Her) Majesty's Customs.

H.M.I.S. His (or Her) Majesty's Inspector of Schools.

H.M.P., hoc monumentum posuit=Erected this monument.

H.M.S. His (or Her) Majesty's Ship or Service.

ho. House.

Hon. Honourable, Honorary.

hor. Horizon; Horology.

hort., hortic. Horticulture, Horticultural.

Hos. Hosea.

H.P. High-priest; Half-pay.

h.p. Horse-power.

H.R. House of Representatives; Home Rule.

hr. Hour.

H.R.E. Holy Roman Emperor or Empire.

H.R.H. His (or Her) Royal Highness.

H.R.I.P., hic requiescit in pace=Here rests in peace.

H.S., hic situs=Here lies;—H.S.E., hic sepultus (or situs) est=Here is buried (or laid).

H.S.H. His (or Her) Serene Highness.

H.S.S., Historiæ Societatis Socius=Fellow of the Historical Society.

Hy. Henry.


Ia. Iowa.

Ia., Ind. Indiana.

ib., ibid., ibidem=In the same place.

I.C.E. Institute of Civil Engineers.

ich., ichth. Ichthyology.

Icon. Iconography, Iconographic.

I.C.S. Indian Civil Service.

id., idem=The same.

I.D.B. Illicit Diamond Buyer (in Cape Colony).

I.D.N., in Dei nomine=In the name of God.

i.e., id est=That is.

i.h.p. Indicated horse-power.

I.H.S., for the Greek capitals IHC, (the C a form of Greek Σ), the first three letters of the name Jesus, often misread as Jesus Hominum Salvator=Jesus Saviour of Men.

Ill. Illinois.

ill. Illustration, Illustrated.

I.L.P. Independent Labour Party.

Imp. Imperial; Imperator=Emperor.

imp. Imperfect; Imperative; Imprimatur=Let it be printed.

I.M.S. Indian Medical Service.

in. Inch, Inches.

inc., incorp. Incorporated.

incog., incognito (It.). Unknown, avoiding publicity.

Ind. Indiana.

I.N.D. Same as I.D.N. (q.v.).

ind., indic. Indicative.

indecl. Indeclinable.

indef. Indefinite.

Ind. Ter. Indian Territory.

inf., infra=Below; Infantry; Infinitive.

infra dig., infra dignitatem=Beneath one's dignity.

init., initio=In the beginning.

in lim., in limine=On the threshold, at the outset.

in loc., in loco=In its place;—in loc. cit., in loco citato =In the place cited.

in pr., in principio=In the beginning.

I.N.R.I., Jesus Nazarenus Rex Judæorum=Jesus of Nazareth< King of the Jews.

inst. Instant—the present month; Institute.

Inst. Act. Institute of Actuaries.

Inst.C.E. Institute of Civil Engineers.

int. Interest; Interior; Interpreter.

interrog. Interrogation, Interrogatively.

in trans., in transitu=On the passage.

intro., introd. Introduction.

inv., invenit=He designed it; Inventor, Invented; Invoice.

I.O.F. Independent Order of Foresters.

I.O.G.T. Independent Order of Good Templars.

I.O.U. I owe you.

I.P.D., in præsentiâ Dominorum=In presence of the Lords (of Session).

i.q., idem quod=The same as.

I.R.B. Irish Republican Brotherhood.

Is., Isa. Isaiah.

Is., Isab. Isabella.

I.S.C. Indian Staff Corps.

It. Italian.

I.T. Idaho Territory; Indian Territory.


Jan. January.

Jas. James.

J.C., Juris Consultus=Jurisconsult; Jesus Christ; Justice Clerk.

Jer. Jeremiah.

J.H.S. The same as I.H.S. (q.v.).

Jno. John.

Jo. Joel.

Jos. Josiah; Joseph.

Josh. Joshua.

jour. Journal.

J.P. Justice of the Peace.

Jr., Jun., Junr. Junior.

J.U.D., Juris Utriusque Doctor=Doctor both of Canon and of Civil Law.

Jud., Judg. Judges.

Jul. July.

Junc. Junction.

jurisp. Jurisprudence.


Kal., Kalendæ=Calends.

Kan., also Ks. Kansas.

K.B. Knight of the Bath; King's Bench.

K.C. King's Counsel; King's College.

K.C.B. Knight Commander of the [Most Honourable Order of the] Bath.

K.C.H. Knight Commander of [the Order of] Hanover.

K.C.I.E. Knight Commander of the [Most Eminent Order of the] Indian Empire.

K.C.M.G. Knight Commander of [the Most Distinguished Order of] St Michael and St George.

K.C.S.I. Knight Commander of the [Most Exalted Order of the] Star of India.

K.C.V.O. Knight Commander of the [Royal] Victorian Order.

kg. Kilogram.

K.G. Knight of the [Most Noble Order of the] Garter.

K.G.C. Knight of the Grand Cross.

K.G.C.B. Knight of the Grand Cross of the Bath.

K.G.F. Knight of the Golden Fleece.

K.H. Knight of Hanover.

kilo. Kilogramme.

Kit. Christopher.

K.K., Kaiserlich, Königleich=Imperial, Royal.

K.K.K. Ku Klux Khan.

K.L.H. Knight of the Legion of Honour.

K.M. Knight of Malta.

Km. Kingdom,

km. Kilometre.

Knt., Kt. Knight.

K. of L. Knight of Labour.

K.P. Knight of [the Most Illustrious Order of St] Patrick.

kr. Kreutzer.

K.S.I. Knight of the Star of India.

K.T. Knight of [the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of] the Thistle.

Kt. Bach. Knight Bachelor.

K.t.l., kai ta leipomena (Gr.)=And the rest, And so forth.

Ky. or Ken. Kentucky.


L. Lake; Latin; Liberal; Libra (pound).

l. Latitude; League; Long.

L.A. Law Agent; Literate in Arts.

L.A.C. Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Company.

Lam. Lamentations.

lang. Language.

lat. Latitude; Latin.

Lb., libra=A pound.

l.c. Lower-case (in printing); Loco citato=In the place cited; Left centre; Letter of credit.

L.C. Lower Canada; Lord Chancellor; Lord Chamberlain.

L.C.B. Lord Chief-baron.

L.C.C. London County Council.

L.C.J. Lord Chief-justice.

L.C.P. Licentiate of the College of Preceptors.

Ld. Lord;—Ldp., Lp., Lordship.

L.D. Lady Day; Light Dragoons.

L.D.S. Licentiate in Dental Surgery.

Lect. Lecture.

Leg. Legal; Legate; Legislature.

Leip. Leipzig.

Lev., Levit. Leviticus.

Lex. Lexicon.

Leyd. Leyden.

l.h. Left hand.

L.I. Long Island; Light Infantry.

lib., liber=Book;—lib. cat., Library catalogue.

Lieut., Lt. Lieutenant.

Linn. Linnæan, Linnæus.

liq. Liquid.

lit. Literally; Literature.

litt. Littérateur.

L.L.A. Lady Literate in Arts.

LL.B., Legum Baccalaureus=Bachelor of Laws.

LL.D., Legum Doctor=Doctor of Laws.

L.M. Long Metre.

L.M.S. London Missionary Society.

loc. cit., loco citato=At the place quoted.

log. Logarithm.

lon., long. Longitude.

Lond. London.

loq., loquitur=Speaks.

Lou., La. Louisiana.

L.P. Lord Provost.

L.R.C.P. Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians.

L.R.C.P.E. Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.

L.R.C.S. Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons.

L.S. Linnæan Society; Loco sigilli=In the place of the Seal.

l.s. Left side.

L.S.A. Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries.

L.S.D., libræ, solidi, denarii=Pounds, shillings, pence.

Lt. Lieutenant.

LXX. Septuagint Version.


M., mille=A thousand.

m. Married; Masculine; Meridiem=Noon; Metre.

M., Mons., Monsieur (Fr.). Mr or Sir;—MM., Messieurs, Gentlemen or Sirs.

M.A. Master of Arts. See A.M.

M.A.B.Y.S. Metropolitan Association for Befriending Young Servants.

Mac., Macc. Maccabees.

mach. Machinery.

Mad. Madam.

Mag. Magazine.

Maj. Major.

Mal. Malachi.

Mar. March.

marg. Margin, Marginal.

Marg., Mrgt. Margaret.

Marq. Marquis.

mas., masc. Masculine.

Mass. Massachusetts.

Math. Mathematics.

Matt. Matthew.

M.B. Mark of the Beast, as in 'M.B. waistcoat.'

M.B., Medicinæ Baccalaureus=Bachelor of Medicine.

M.B., Musicæ Baccalaureus=Bachelor of Music.

M.C. Member of Congress; Master of Ceremonies; Member of Council.

M.C.C. Member of the County Council; Marylebone Cricket Club.

M.C.P. Member of the College of Preceptors.

M.C.S. Madras Civil Service.

Md. Maryland.

M.D., Medicinæ Doctor=Doctor of Medicine.

Mdlle., Mlle., Mademoiselle (Fr.). Miss.

Mdm. Madam.

M.E. Most Excellent; Methodist Episcopal; Middle English; Mining Engineer.

Me. Maine.

M.E.C. Member of the Executive Council.

med. Medical, Medicine; Mediæval.

Mem. Memorandum; Memento=Remember.

Messrs, Messieurs (Fr.). Sirs, Gentlemen.

met., metaph. Metaphysics.

metal., metall. Metallurgy.

meteor. Meteorology.

mfd. Manufactured;—mfrs., Manufacturers.

M.F.H. Master of Foxhounds.

M. ft., mistura fiat=Let a mixture be made.

Mgr. Monseigneur.

M.H.G. Middle High German.

M.H.R. Member of the House of Representatives.

M.I.C.E. or M.Inst.C.E. Member of the Institute of Civil Engineers.

Mic. Micah.

Mich. Michigan.

min. Mineralogy.

Minn. Minnesota.

Mis. Missouri.

misc. Miscellaneous, Miscellany.

mil., milit. Military.

Miss., Mis. Mississippi.

M.L.A. Member of Legislative Assembly.

M.L.C. Member of Legislative Council.

Mlle. Mademoiselle.

M.M. (Their) Majesties; Martyrs.

Mme., Madame (Fr.). Madam:—pl. Mmes.

M.N.S. Member of the Numismatical Society.

Mo. Missouri.

mo. Month.

mod. Modern.

mol. wt. Molecular weight.

Mons. Monsieur.

Monsig. Monsignor.

morn. Morning.

mos. Months.

M.P. Member of Parliament.

M.P.S. Member of the Philological Society.

M.P.S. Member of the Pharmaceutical Society.

M.R. Master of the Rolls.

Mr. Master or Mister.

M.R.A.S. Member of the Royal Asiatic Society.

M.R.A.S. Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences.

M.R.C.C. Member of the Royal College of Chemistry.

M.R.C.P. Member of the Royal College of Preceptors.

M.R.C.S. Member of the Royal College of Surgeons.

M.R.C.V.S. Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons.

M.R.G.S. Member of the Royal Geographical Society.

M.R.I. Member of the Royal Institution.

M.R.I.A. Member of the Royal Irish Academy.

Mrs. Mistress.

MS. Manuscript;—MSS., Manuscripts.

M.S. Master in Surgery; Memoriæ Sacrum=Sacred to the Memory.

m.s. Months (after) sight.

M.S.C. Madras Staff Corps.

m.s.l. Mean sea-level.

M.S.S. Member of the Statistical Society.

mt. Mount;—mts., Mountains.

mth. Month.

Mus. Music; Museum.

Mus.B. Bachelor of Music.

Mus.D., Doc., Doct. Doctor of Music.

M.V.O. Member of the Royal Victorian Order.

Myst. Mysteries.

myth. Mythology.


N. North, Northern; Nitrogen.

n. Name; Natus=Born; Neuter; Noon.

N.A. North America.

Na. Nebraska.

Nah. Nahum.

Nap. Napoleon.

Nat. National.

Nat. hist. Natural History.

nat. ord. Natural order.

naut. Nautical.

nav. Naval; Navigation.

N.B. North Britain, North British; New Brunswick.

N.B., nota bene=Note well, or take notice.

N.C. North Carolina; New Church.

n.d. No date, Not dated.

N.Dak. North Dakota.

N.E. North-east; New England.

Neb., Nebr. Nebraska.

neg. Negative.

Neh. Nehemiah.

n.e.i., non est inventus=Is not found.

nem. con., nemime contradicente=No one contradicting.

nem. diss., nemine dissentiente=No one dissenting.

Nep. Neptune.

Neth. Netherlands.

Neut. Neuter.

Nev. Nevada.

New M. New Mexico.

N.F. Newfoundland; Norman French.

N.H. New Hampshire.

Ni. pri., nisi prius. See Nisi in Dict.

N.J. New Jersey.

n.l., non licet=It is not permitted; non liquet=It is not clear; non longe=Not far.

N.M. New Mexico.

N.N.E. North-north-east.

N.N.W. North-north-west.

N.O. New Orleans; Natural Order.

No., numero=Number;—Nos., Numbers.

non-con. Non-content.

non obst., non obstante=Notwithstanding.

non pros., non prosequitur=He does not prosecute.

non seq., non sequitur=It does not follow.

n.o.p. Not otherwise provided.

Northmb. Northumberland.

Norvic., Norvicensis=Of Norwich.

Nos. Numbers.

Notts. Nottinghamshire.

Nov. November.

N.P. Notary Public; New Providence.

N.S. New Style.

N.S. Nova Scotia.

n.s. Not specified.

N.S.W. New South Wales.

N.T. New Testament.

n.u. Name unknown.

Num., Numb. Numbers.

numis., numism. Numismatics.

N.V. New Version.

N.V.M. Nativity of the Virgin Mary.

N.W. North-west.

N.W.P. North-west Provinces (India).

N.W.T. North-west Territories.

N.Y. New York.

N.Z. New Zealand.

N. & Q. Notes and Queries.


O. Ohio; Oxygen.

o/a. On account of.

ob., obiit=Died.

Ob., Obad. Obadiah.

obdt. Obedient.

obj. Object, Objective.

obl. Oblique; Oblong.

obs. Observation; Obsolete.

obstet. Obstetrics.

oc. Ocean.

O.C.R. Order of Corporate Reunion.

Oct. October.

O.D. Ordnance Data.

O.E. Old English.

O.F. Odd Fellow; Old French.

off. Official.

O.H.G. Old High German.

O.H.M.S. On His (or Her) Majesty's Service.

O.K. All correct (prob. a humorous spelling of this).

Old Test. Old Testament.

O.M. Old Measurement.

omn. hor., omni hora=Every year.

onomat. Onomatopœia.

o/o. Percent.

O.P. Old Price; Ordinis Prædicatorum=Of the Order of Preachers (or Dominicans).

o.p. Out of Print.

Op. Opera.

op. Opposite; Opus=Work.

op. cit., opere citato=In the work cited.

ord. Ordained; Order; Ordinary; Ordnance.

Or. Oregon.

O.S. Old Style.

O.S.A., Ordinis Sancti Augustini=Of the Order of St Augustine.

O.S.B., Ordinis Sancti Benedicti=Of the Order of St Benedict.

O.S.F., Ordinis Sancti Francisci=Of the Order of St Francis.

O.T. Old Testament.

Oxf. Oxford.

Oxon., Oxonia=Oxford;—Oxoniensis=Of Oxford.

oz. Ounce.


p. Page; Participle;—p.a., Participial adjective.

Pa., also Penn. Pennsylvania.

Pac. Oc. Pacific Ocean.

paint. Painting.

Pal. Palestine; Palæontology.

pam. Pamphlet.

Pan. Panama.

par. Paragraph; Parallel; Parish.

Pat., Pk. Patrick.

Pat. Off. Patent Office.

P.C., Patres Conscripti=Conscript Fathers; Privy Councillor; Police Constable; Post Commander.

p.c. Postal-card.

P.C.S. Principal Clerk of Session.

pd. Paid.

P.E. Protestant Episcopal.

P.E.I. Prince Edward Island.

Pen. Peninsula.

Penn. Pennsylvania.

Pent. Pentecost.

per. Period; Person.

per an., per annum=Per year, By the year.

per cent., per ct., per centum=By the hundred.

pers. Person.

Petriburg., Petriburgensis=Of Peterborough.

Pg. Portugal.

Phar., Pharm. Pharmaceutical; Pharmacopœia; Pharmacy.

Ph.B., Philosophiæ Baccalaureus=Bachelor of Philosophy.

Ph.D., Philosophiæ Doctor=Doctor of Philosophy.

Phil. Philippians; Philemon; Philadelphia; Philip.

Phil. Trans. Philosophical Transactions.

phon., phonet. Phonetics.

phonog. Phonography.

phot. Photography.

phr. Phrase.

phys. Physiology; Physics; Physician.

pinx., pxt., pinxit=He (or she) painted it.

P.M. Past Master; Post meridiem=Afternoon; Post-master; Post mortem.

pm. Premium.

P.M.G. Postmaster-general.

p.n. Promissory note.

P.O. Post-office; Postal Order.

po. Pole.

P.O.C. Peninsular and Oriental Company.

p.o.d. Pay on delivery.

P.O.O. Post-office Order.

pop. Population.

pos., posit. Positive.

P.P. Parish Priest.

pp. Pages.

P.P.C., pour prendre congé (Fr.)=To take leave.

P.P.S. Postscript additional.

P.R. Prize-ring; Porto Rico.

P.R., Populus Romanus=The Roman people.

pr. Pair; Per; Present; Price; Pronoun; Prince; Priest; Provençal.

P.R.A. President of the Royal Academy.

P.R.B. Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.

Preb. Prebend, Prebendary.

pref. Preface.

Pres., Preses. President.

P.R.I.B.A. President of the Royal Institute of British Architects.

p.r.n., pro re nata=For special business arising.

Pro. Professional.

Prof. Professor.

Prot. Protestant.

pro tem., pro tempore=For the time being.

Prov. Proverbs.

prox., proximo=Next.

P.R.S. President of the Royal Society.

P.R.S.A. President of the Royal Scottish Academy.

P.R.S.E. President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

P.S., post scriptum=Postscript, written after.

Ps., Psa. Psalms.

pseud. Pseudonym.

P.T. Pupil Teacher.

p.t. Post-town.

P.T.O. Please turn over.

Pub. Doc. Public Document.

P.W.D. Public Works Department.

pwt. Pennyweight.

P. & O. Peninsular and Oriental Company.


q., quadrans=Farthing; Query; Quintal.

Q., Qu. Query; Question.

Q.A.B. Queen Anne's Bounty.

Q.B. Queen's Bench.

Q.C. Queen's Counsel; Queen's College.

q.d., quasi dicat=As if he should say.

q.e., quod est=Which is.

q.e.d., quod erat demonstrandum=Which was to be demonstrated.

q.e.f., quod erat faciendum=Which was to be done.

q.e.i, quod erat inveniendum=Which was to be found out.

q.l., quantum libet=As much as you please.

Q.M. Quartermaster.

qm., quomodo=In what manner; How.

Q.M.G. Quartermaster-general.

qr. Quarter.

Q.S. Quarter-Sessions.

q.s., Quantum suff., quantum sufficit=A sufficient quantity.

qt. Quantity; Quart;—qts., Quarts.

Qu. Queen; Question,

qu., quar. Quart, Quarter, Quarterly,

q.v., quod vide=Which see; quantum vis=As much as you will.


R., rex, regina=King, Queen.

R., recipe=Take.

R., Reau. Réaumur's thermometric scale.

R.A. Royal Academy or Academician; Royal Artillery.

Rabb. Rabbinical.

R.A.C. Royal Arch Chapter.

Rad. Radical.

rad., radix=Root.

R.A.M. Royal Academy of Music.

R.A.S. Royal Asiatic Society.

r.c. Right centre.

R.C. Roman Catholic; Red Cross.

R.C.M. Royal College of Music.

R.C.P. Royal College of Preceptors.

R.C.S. Royal College of Surgeons.

R.D. Rural Dean; Royal Dragoons.

R.E. Royal Engineers.

Rec. Recipe.

recd. Received.

recpt. Receipt.

Rect. Rector; Rectory.

Ref. Ch. Reformed Church.

Reg. Prof. Regius Professor.

Regt. Regiment.

Rep. Representative; Republic; Report, Reporter.

rept. Receipt.

retd. Returned.

Rev. Revise, Revision; Revelation.

Rev., Revd. Reverend;—Revs., Reverends.

Rev. Ver. Revised Version.

R.G.G. Royal Grenadier Guards.

R.G.S. Royal Geographical Society.

r.h. Right hand.

R.H. Royal Highness; Royal Highlanders.

R.H.A. Royal Horse Artillery; Royal Hibernian Academy.

rhet. Rhetoric.

R.H.G. Royal Horse Guards.

R.H.S. Royal Humane Society; Royal Horticultural Society; Royal Historical Society.

R.I. Rhode Island.

R.I.B.A. Royal Institute of British Architects.

R.I.P., requiescat in pace=May he (or she) rest in peace.

R.M. Royal Mail; Royal Marines.

R.M.A. Royal Military Asylum; Royal Marine Artillery.

R.M.L.I. Royal Marine Light Infantry.

R.M.S. Royal Mail Steamer; Royal Microscopical Society.

R.N. Royal Navy.

R.N.R. Royal Naval Reserve.

Rob., Robt. Robert.

Roffen. Of Rochester.

Rom. Romans.

Rom. Cath. Roman Catholic.

R.P. Reformed Presbyterian; Regius Professor.

R.R. Right Reverend.

R.R.C. Royal Red Cross (for ladies).

R.S. Royal Society.

R.S.A. Royal Society of Antiquaries; Royal Scottish Academy or Academician.

R.S.D. Royal Society of Dublin.

R.S.E. Royal Society of Edinburgh.

R.S.L. Royal Society of London.

R.S.M. Royal School of Mines.

R.S.O. Railway Sub-office; Railway Sorting Office.

R.S.S., also S.R.S., Regiæ Societatis Socius=Fellow of the Royal Society.

R.S.V.P., Répondez, s'il vous plait (Fr.)=Reply, if you please.

Rt. Hon. Right Honourable.

Rt. Rev. Right Reverend.

R.T.S. Religious Tract Society.

Rt. W., Rt. Wpful. Right Worshipful.

R.V. Rifle Volunteers; Revised Version.

R.W.D.G.M. Right Worshipful Deputy Grand Master.

R.W.G.M. Right Worshipful Grand Master.

R.W.G.R. Right Worthy Grand Representative.

R.W.G.S. Right Worthy Grand Secretary.

R.W.G.T. Right Worthy Grand Templar; Right Worthy Grand Treasurer.

R.W.G.W. Right Worshipful Grand Warden.

R.W.S. Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours.

R.W.S.G.W. Right Worshipful Senior Grand Warden.

Rx. Tens of rupees.

Ry. Railway.


S. South; Sabbath; Saint; Seconds; Society; Sun.

S.A. South Africa; South America; South Australia.

Sa. Saturday.

s.a., secundum artem=According to art; sine anno=Without date.

S.A.I., Son Altesse Imperiale (Fr.). His Royal Highness.

Sam. Samuel.

Sarum. Of Salisbury.

S.A.S., Societatis Antiquariorum Socius=Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.

Sat. Saturday.

S.C. South Carolina; Senatus Consuetum=A decree of the Roman Senate.

s.c., s. caps., sm. caps. Small capitals.

sc., scil., scilicet=To wit, Namely, Being understood.

sc., sculp., sculpt., sculpsit=He (or she) engraved it.

Sc.B., Scientiæ Baccalaureus= Bachelor of Science.

Sc.D., Scientiæ Doctor=Doctor of Science.

sch., schr. Schooner.

sci. fa., scire facias=That you cause to know.

S.C.L. Student of the Civil Law.

Scot. Scotland, Scotch.

Script. Scripture.

S.D. South Dakota; Senior Deacon.

S.D., salutem dicit=Sends greeting.

s.d., sine die=Without day.

S.D.U.K. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.

S.E. South-east.

sec. Second; Section.

Sec., Secy. Secretary.

sec. leg., secundum legem= According to law.

sec. reg., secundum regulam= According to rule.

sect. Section.

Sem. Seminary; Semitic.

Sen. Senator; Senior.

Sep., Sept. September; Septuagint.

seq., sequentes or sequentia=The following.

ser. Series; Sermon.

Serg., Sergt. Sergeant;—Serj., Serjt., Serjeant.

Sess. Session.

sfz. Sforzando.

S.G. Solicitor-general.

s.g. Specific gravity.

S.H. School-house.

sh. Shilling.

s.h.v., sub hoc verbo or sub hac voce=Under this word.

S.J. Society of Jesus.

S.L. Solicitor at Law.

s.l., s. lat. South latitude.

sld. Sailed.

s.l.p., sine legitima prole=Without lawful issue.

S.M. Short Metre.

S.M., Sa Majesté. His (or Her) Majesty.

Smith. Inst. Smithsonian Institution.

S.M. Lond. Soc., Societatis Medicæ Londiniensis Socius=Member of the London Medical Society.

S.M.M., Sancta Mater Maria=Holy Mother Mary.

s.m.p., sine mascula prole=Without male issue.

s.n., secundum naturam=According to nature.

S.O. Sub-office.

s.o. Seller's option.

Soc. Society.

sol. Solution.

Sol., Solr. Solicitor.

Sol.-gen. Solicitor-general.

Sop. Soprano.

sp. Spelling.

s.p., sine prole=Without issue.

S.P.C.A. Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

S.P.C.C. Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

S.P.C.K. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

S.P.G. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.

sport. Sporting.

S.P.Q.R., Senatus Populusque Romanus=The Senate and People of Rome.

s.p.s., sine prole superstite=Without surviving issue.

spt. Seaport.

sq. Square.

sq., sequens=The following.

Sr. Senior; Sir.

S.R.I., Sacrum Romanum Imperium=Holy Roman Empire.

S.R.S., Societatis Regiæ Socius=Fellow of the Royal Society.

S.S. Sabbath School.

Ss. Saints.

s.s. Steamship; Screw steamer.

S.S.C. Solicitor before the Supreme Court (Scotland); Societas Sancti Crucis=Society of the Holy Cross.

SS.D., Sanctissimus Dominus=Most holy Lord (the Pope).

S.S.E. South-south-east.

S.S.W. South-south-west.

St. Saint; Strait; Street.

Stdy. Saturday.

Ste., Sainte (Fr.). Fem. of Saint.

ster., stereo. Stereotype.

ster., stg. Sterling.

S.T.P., Sanctæ Theologiæ Professor=Professor of Theology.

str. Steamer.

Su. Sunday.

sub. Subject; Suburb.

subj. Subject; Subjunctive.

subst. Substitute.

suf., suff. Suffix.

sup. Superfine; Superior; Superlative; Supreme.

Sup. Ct. Superior Court; Supreme Court.

supp. Supplement.

Supr. Supreme.

Supt. Superintendent.

Surg. Surgeon, Surgery.

Surv.-gen. Surveyor-general.

S.V., Sancta Virgo=Holy Virgin; Sanctitas Vestra=Your Holiness.

s.v., sub voce=Under the word or title.

S.W. South-west; Senior Warden.

sym. Symbol.

syn. Synonym.

synop. Synopsis.

syst. System.


tal. qual., talis qualis=Just as they come, Average quantity.

Tam. Tamil.

tan. Tangent.

tc. Tierce.

T.C.D. Trinity College, Dublin.

Te. Tellurium.

tech. Technically; Technology.

tel., teleg. Telegram, Telegraph.

temp. Temporal; tempore=In the time of.

ten. Tenor.

Ten., Tenn. Tennessee.

Ter., Terr. Territory.

term. Termination.

Test. Testament.

Teut. Teutonic.

Tex. Texas.

Text. Rec., Textus receptus=The Received Text.

t.f. Till forbidden.

theat. Theatrical.

theol. Theology, theologian.

theor. Theorem.

theos. Theosophy.

therap. Therapeutics.

Thess. Thessalonians.

Tho., Thos. Thomas.

T.H.W.M. Trinity High-water Mark.

Tim. Timothy.

Tit. Titus.

T.O. Turn Over; Telegraph-office.

tom. Tome or Volume.

tp. Township.

Tr. Transactions; Translator; Trustee.

trans. Transitive.

transf. Transferred.

Treas. Treasurer.

T.R.H. Their Royal Highnesses.

trig. Trigonometry.

Trin. Trinity.

trop. Tropic.

Truron., Truronensis=Of Truro.

T.S.O. Town Sub-office.

T.T.L. To take leave.

Tu., Tues. Tuesday.

typ., typo. Typographer, Typography.


U.C. Upper Canada.

U.F.C. United Free Church [of Scotland].

U.K. United Kingdom.

U.K.A. United Kingdom Alliance.

ult., ultimo=Last.

Unit. Unitarian.

Univ. University; Universalist.

U.P. United Presbyterian.

up. Upper.

U.S. United States; United Service.

u.s., ut supra=As above.

U.S.A. United States of America; United States Army.

U.S.C. United States of Colombia.

U.S.N. United States Navy.

U.S.S. United States Ship or Steamer.

usu. Usually.

u.s.w., und so weiter (Ger.)= And so forth.

ut dict., ut dictum=As said.

ut sup., ut supra=As above.

ux., uxor=Wife.


v., versus=Against; vide=See; Verb; Verse; Volume; Viscount.

V.A. Royal Order of Victoria and Albert (for ladies).

V.A. Vicar Apostolic.

Va. Virginia.

val. Value.

var. Variant.

var. lect., varia lectio= Varying reading.

Vat. Vatican.

vb. Verb.

V.C. Vice-chancellor; Vice-consul; Victoria Cross.

V.D. Volunteer [Officers'] Decoration.

v.d. Various dates.

V.D.M., Verbi Dei Minister=Preacher of God's Word.

Ven. Venerable.

Venet. Venetian.

Vert. Vertebrata.

Ves. Vessel.

Vet., Veter. Veterinary;—Vet. Surg., Veterinary Surgeon.

V.G. Vicar-general.

v.g., verbi gratiâ=For example.

Vic. Vicar; Vicarage.

vid., vide=See.

vil. Village.

v.imp. Verb impersonal.

v.irr. Verb irregular.

Vis., Visc. Viscount.

viz., videlicet=Namely.

v.n. Verb neuter.

voc. Vocative.

vocab. Vocabulary.

Vol. Volunteer.

vol. Volume;—vols., volumes.

Volc. Volcano.

V.P. Vice-president.

V.R., Victoria Regina=Queen Victoria.

v.r. Verb reflexive.

V.R.I., Victoria Regina et Imperatrix=Victoria, Queen and Empress.

V.S. Veterinary Surgeon.

Vt. Vermont.

v.t. verb transitive.

vul. Vulgar.

Vul., Vulg. Vulgate.

vv.ll., variæ lectiones=Various readings.

v.y. Various years.


W. West; Warden; Week; Welsh.

W.A. West Africa; West Australia.

Wal. Walloon.

Wash. Washington.

W.B. Water Board; Way-bill.

W.C. Water-closet; Western Central; Wesleyan Chapel.

W.C.T.U. Women's Christian Temperance Union.

We., Wed. Wednesday.

w.f. Wrong font.

W.I. West Indies.

Winton., Wintoniensis=Of Winchester.

Wis. Wisconsin.

wk. Week.

Wm. William.

W.M.S. Wesleyan Missionary Society.

W.N.W. West-north-west.

Wp., Wpfl. Worshipful.

W.R. West Riding.

Wr., Wlr. Walter.

W.S. Writer to the Signet.

W.S.W. West-south-west.

wt. Weight.


X. or Xt. Christ. (X.=Gr. Ch.)

Xm., Xmas. Christmas.

Xn., Xtian. Christian.


y., yr. Year.

y., yd. Yard.

Ye. The (the Y not being a Y, but as representing the Anglo-Saxon þ).

Y.M.C.A. Young Men's Christian Association.

yr. Your; Younger.

Yt. That (Y as in Ye).

Y.W.C.A. Young Women's Christian Association.


Zn. Zinc.

Zech. Zechariah.

Zeph. Zephaniah.

Zr. Zirconium.


&, et=And.

&c., et cetera=And so forth.