Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/Abbas Pasha Hilmi
ABBAS PASHA HILMI, Khedive of Egypt, born in 1874, oldest son of the Khedive Mehemet-Tewfik. He studied at the Theresianum at Vienna. On his father's death in 1892 he became Khedive. In 1893 he dismissed four of his ministers, but Lord Cromer interfered and he agreed to follow England's recommendations in all important matters. At the outbreak of the World War, the Khedive was the guest of the Sultan at Constantinople. On Dec. 18, 1914, the British Foreign Office announced a protectorate over Egypt. In a proclamation issued the following day. Abbas Hilmi was referred to as "lately Khedive of Egypt, who had adhered to the King's enemies" and it was declared that he had been deposed. The title of Khedive was abolished and that of Sultan was substituted. See Egypt.