Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/Sun Yat-sen

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1355901Collier's New Encyclopedia — Sun Yat-sen

SUN YAT-SEN, a Chinese revolutionary leader, born in 1866, near Canton. When still young, he was taken by his parents to Hawaii, where he attended Iolani College. He later graduated from the Hongkong School of Medicine, and for a year practiced at Macao. Soon, however, he gave himself up to the project of driving the Manchu dynasty from China. He attempted a revolt in 1895, which failed, and he fled to Japan and later to Honolulu and San Francisco. He organized the Chinese living abroad in all countries into a reform association to aid the coming revolution. Although large rewards were offered by the government for his death, he escaped without harm. The revolution of 1911 was chiefly successful through the preparations made by him, and he was elected provisional president of the Chinese Republic. He resigned in 1912 in favor of Yuan Shih-kai, in order to induce the latter to join the Republican cause. He later incurred the hostility of Yuan and was obliged to retire to Japan, He continued to agitate for reforms in China and was largely responsible for the rebellions of 1913, 1915, and 1916.