Confucian Analects/X

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鄉黨第十

BOOK X. HEANG TANG.


【第一章】【一節】孔子於鄉黨、恂恂如也、似不能言者。【二節】其在宗廟朝廷、便便言、唯謹爾。

【第二章】【一節】朝、與下大夫言、侃侃如也、與上大夫言、誾誾如也。【二節】君在、踧踖如也、與與如也。

Chapter I. 1. Confucius, in his village, looked simple and sincere, and as if he were not able to speak.

2. When he was in the prince's ancestorial temple, or in the court, he spoke minutely on every point, but cautiously.

CHAP II. 1. When he was waiting at court, in speaking with the great officers of the lower grade, he spake freely, but in a straightforward manner; in speaking with those of the higher grade, he did so blandly, but precisely.

2. When the ruler was present, his manner displayed respectful uneasiness; it was grave, but self-possessed.


【第三章】【一節】 君召使擯、色勃如也、足躩如也。【二節】揖所與立、左右手、衣前後、檐如也。【三節】趨進、翼如也。【四節】賓退、必復命曰、賓不顧矣。

【第四章】【一節】入公門、鞠

Chapter III. 1. When the prince called him to employ him in the reception of a visitor, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to move forward with difficulty.

2. He inclined himself to the other officers among whom he stood, moving his left or right arm, as their position required, but keeping the skirts of his robe before and behind evenly adjusted.

3. He hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of a bird.

4. When the guest had retired, he would report to the prince, "The visitor is not turning round any more."

Chapter IV. 1. When he entered the palace gate, he seemed to bend his body, as if it were not sufficient to admit him.


躬如也、如不容。【二節】立不中門、行不履閾。【三節】過位、色勃如也、足躩如也、其言似不足者。【四節】攝齊升堂、鞠躬如也、屛氣似不息者。【五節】出、降一等、逞顏色、怡怡如也、沒階、趨進、翼如也、復其位、踧踖如也。

【第五章】【一節】執圭、鞠躬如也、如

2. When he was standing, he did not occupy the middle of the gate-way; when he passed in or out, he did not tread upon the threshold.

3. When he was passing the vacant place of the prince, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to bend under him, and his words came as if he hardly had breath to utter them.

4. He ascended the reception hall, holding up his robe with both his hands, and his body bent; holding in his breath also, as if he dared not breathe.

5. When he came out from the audience, as soon as he had descended one step, he began to relax his countenance, and had a satisfied look. When he had got to the bottom of the steps, he advanced rapidly to his place, with his arms like wings, and on occupying it, his manner still showed respectful uneasiness.

Chapter V. 1. When he was carrying the scepter of his ruler, he seemed to bend his body, as if he were not able to bear its weight. He did not hold it higher than the position of the hands in making


不勝、上如揖、下如授、勃如戰色、足蹜蹜如有循。【二節】享禮、有容色。【三節】私覿、愉愉如也。

【第六章】【一節】君子不以紺緅飾。【二節】紅紫不以爲褻服。【三節】當暑袗絺綌、必表而出之。【四節】緇衣羔裘、素衣麑裘、黃衣

a bow, nor lower than their position in giving anything to another. His countenance seemed to change, and look apprehensive, and he dragged his feet along as if they were held by something to the ground.

2. In presenting the presents with which he was charged, he wore a placid appearance.

3. At his private audience, he looked highly pleased.

Chapter VI. 1. The superior man did not use a deep purple, or a puce colour, in the ornaments of his dress.

2. Even in his undress, he did not wear anything of a red or reddish colour.

3. In warm weather, he had a single garment either of coarse or fine texture, but he wore it displayed over an inner garment.

4. Over lamb's fur he wore a garment of black; over fawn's fur one of white; and over fox's fur one of yellow.


狐裘。【五節】褻裘長、短右袂。【六節】必有寢衣、長一身有半。【七節】狐貉之厚以居。【八節】去喪、無所不佩。【九節】非帷裳、必殺之。【十節】羔裘玄冠不以弔。【十一節】吉月、必朝服而朝。

5. The fur robe of his undress was long, with the right sleeve short.

6. He required his sleeping dress to be half as long again as his body.

7. When staying at home, he used thick furs of the fox or the badger.

8. When he put off mourning, he wore all the appendages of the girdle.

9. His under-garment, except when it was required to be of the curtain shape, was made of silk cut narrow above and wide below.

10. He did not wear lamb's fur or a black cap, on a visit of condolence.

11. On the first day of the month he put on his court robes, and presented himself at court.


【第七章】【一節】齊、必有明衣、布。【二節】齊必變食、居必遷坐。

【第八章】【一節】食不厭精、膾不厭細。【二節】食饐而餲、魚餒而肉敗、不食、色惡不食、臭惡不食、失飪不食、不時不食。【三節】割不正不食、不得其醬不食。【四節】肉雖多、不使勝食氣、惟酒無量、不及亂。【五節】沽酒

Chapter VII. 1. When fasting, he thought it necessary to have his clothes brightly clean and made of linen cloth.

2. When fasting, he thought it necessary to change his food, and also to change the place where he commonly sat in the apartment.

Chapter VIII. 1. He did not dislike to have his rice finely cleaned, nor to have his minced meat cut quite small.

2. He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp and turned sour, nor fish or flesh which was gone. He did not eat what was discoloured, or what was of a bad flavour, nor anything which was ill-cooked, or was not in season.

3. He did not eat meat which was not cut properly, nor what was served without its proper sauce.

4. Though there might be a large quantity of meat, he would not allow what he took to exceed the due proportion for the rice. It was only in wine that he laid down no limit for himself, but he did not allow himself to be confused by it.

5. He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the market.


市脯不食。【六節】不撤薑食。【七節】不多食。【八節】祭於公、不宿肉。祭肉不出三日、出三日、不食之矣。【九節】食不語、寢不言。【十節】雖疏食菜羹、瓜祭、必齊如也。

【第九章】席不正不坐。

【第十章】【一節】鄉人飮酒、杖者出、斯出矣。【二節】鄉人儺、朝服而立於阼階。

6. He was never without ginger when he ate.

7. He did not eat much.

8. When he had been assisting at the prince's sacrifice, he did not keep the flesh which he received overnight. The flesh of his family sacrifice he did not keep over three days. If kept over three days, people could not eat it.

9. When eating, he did not converse. When in bed, he did not speak.

10. Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup, he would offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave, respectful air.

Chapter IX. If his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it.

Chapter X. 1. When the villagers were drinking together, on those who carried staffs going out, he went out immediately after.

2. When the villagers were going through their ceremonies to drive away pestilential influences, he put on his court robes and stood on the eastern steps.


【十一章】【一節】問人於他邦、再拜而送之。【二節】康子饋藥、拜而受之、曰、丘未達、不敢嘗。

【十二章】廄焚、子退朝、曰、傷人乎、不問馬。

【十三章】【一節】君賜食、必正席、先嘗之、君賜腥、必熟而薦之、君賜生、必畜之。【二節】侍食於君、

Chapter XI. 1. When he was sending complimentary inquiries to any one in another State, he bowed twice as he escorted the messenger away.

2. Chi K'ang having sent him a present of physic, he bowed and received it, saying, "I do not know it. I dare not taste it."

Chapter XII. The stable being burned down, when he was at court, on his return he said, "Has any man been hurt?" He did not ask about the horses.

Chapter XIII. 1. When the prince sent him a gift of cooked meat, he would adjust his mat, first taste it, and then give it away to others. When the prince sent him a gift of undressed meat, he would have it cooked, and offer it to the spirits of his ancestors. When the prince sent him a gift of a living animal, he would keep it alive.

2. When he was in attendance on the prince and joining in the entertainment, the prince only sacrificed. He first tasted everything.


君祭、先飯。【三節】疾、君視之、東首、加朝服拖紳。【四節】君命召、不俟駕行矣。

【十四章】入大廟每事問。

【十五章】【一節】朋友死、無所歸、曰、於我殯。【二節】朋友之饋、雖車馬、非祭肉不拜。

【十六章】【一節】寢不尸、居不容。【二節】見齊衰者、雖狎必變、見冕者、與瞽者、雖褻必以貌。【三節】凶

3. When he was ill and the prince came to visit him, he had his head to the east, made his court robes be spread over him, and drew his girdle across them.

4. When the prince's order called him, without waiting for his carriage to be yoked, he went at once.

Chapter XIV. When he entered the ancestral temple of the State, he asked about everything.

Chapter XV. 1. When any of his friends died, if he had no relations who could be depended on for the necessary offices, he would say, "I will bury him."

2. When a friend sent him a present, though it might be a carriage and horses, he did not bow.

3. The only present for which he bowed was that of the flesh of sacrifice.

Chapter XVI. 1. In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At home, he did not put on any formal deportment.

2. When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it might be an acquaintance, he would change countenance; when he saw any one wearing the cap of full dress, or a blind person, though he might be in his undress, he would salute them in a ceremonious manner.


服者式之、式負版者。【四節】有盛饌、必變色而作。【五節】迅雷、風烈、必變。

【十七章】【一節】升車、必正立、執綏。【二節】車中、不內顧、不疾言、不親指。

【十八章】【一節】色斯舉矣、翔而後集。【二節】曰、山梁雌雉、時哉時哉。子路共之、三嗅而作。

3. To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of his carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the tables of population.

4. When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of provisions set before him, he would change countenance and rise up.

5. On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he would change countenance.

Chapter XVII. 1. When he was about to mount his carriage, he would stand straight, holding the cord.

2. When he was in the carriage, he did not turn his head quite round, he did not talk hastily, he did not point with his hands.

Chapter XVIII. 1. Seeing the countenance, it instantly rises. It flies round, and by and by settles.

2. The Master said, "There is the hen-pheasant on the hill bridge. At its season! At its season!" Tsze-lu made a motion to it. Thrice it smelt him and then rose.