Confucian Analects/XX

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堯曰第二十

BOOK XX. YAO YUEH.


【第一章】【一節】堯曰、咨、爾舜、天之曆數在爾躬、允執其中、四海困窮、天祿永終。【二節】舜亦以命禹。【三節】曰、予小子履、敢用玄牡、敢昭吿于皇皇后帝、有罪不敢赦、帝臣不蔽、簡在帝心、朕躬有罪、無以萬方、萬方有罪、

Chapter I. 1. Yao said, "Oh! you, Shun, the Heaven-determined order of succession now rests in your person. Sincerely hold fast the due Mean. If there shall be distress and want within the four seas, the Heavenly revenue will come to a perpetual end."

2. Shun also used the same language in giving charge to Yu.

3. T'ang said, "I the child Li, presume to use a dark-coloured victim, and presume to announce to Thee, O most great and sovereign God, that the sinner I dare not pardon, and thy ministers, O God, I do not keep in obscurity. The examination of them is by thy mind, O God. If, in my person, I commit offences, they are not to be attributed to you, the people of the myriad regions. If you in the myriad regions commit offences, these offences must rest on my person."


罪在朕躬。【四節】周有大賚、善人是富。【五節】雖有周親、不如仁人、百姓有過、在予一人。【六節】謹權量、審法度、修廢官、四方之政行焉。【七節】興滅國、繼絕世、舉逸民、天下之民歸心焉。【八節】所重民、食、喪、祭。【九節】寬、則得眾、信、則民任焉、敏、則有功、公、則說。

4. Chau conferred great gifts, and the good were enriched.

5. "Although he has his near relatives, they are not equal to my virtuous men. The people are throwing blame upon me, the One man."

6. He carefully attended to the weights and measures, examined the body of the laws, restored the discarded officers, and the good government of the kingdom took its course.

7. He revived States that had been extinguished, restored families whose line of succession had been broken, and called to office those who had retired into obscurity, so that throughout the kingdom the hearts of the people turned towards him.

8. What he attached chief importance to, were the food of the people, the duties of mourning, and sacrifices.

9. By his generosity, he won all. By his sincerity, he made the people repose trust in him. By his earnest activity, his achievements were great. By his justice, all were delighted.


【第二章】【一節】子張問於孔子曰、何如、斯可以從政矣。子曰、尊五美、屛四惡、斯可以從政矣。子張曰、何謂五美。子曰、君子惠、而不費、勞、而不怨、欲、而不貪、泰、而不驕、威、而不猛。【二節】子張曰、何謂惠而不費。子曰、因民之所利而利之、

Chapter II. 1. Tsze-chang asked Confucius, saying, "In what way should a person in authority act in order that he may conduct government properly?" The Master replied, "Let him honour the five excellent, and banish away the four bad, things;—then may he conduct government properly." Tsze-chang said, "What are meant by the five excellent things?" The Master said, "When the person in authority is beneficent without great expenditure; when he lays tasks on the people without their repining; when he pursues what he desires without being covetous; when he maintains a dignified ease without being proud; when he is majestic without being fierce."

2. Tsze-chang said, "What is meant by being beneficent without great expenditure?" The Master replied, "When the person in authority makes more beneficial to the people the things from which


斯不亦惠而不費乎、擇可勞而勞之、又誰怨、欲仁而得仁、又焉貪、君子無眾寡、無小大、無敢慢、斯不亦泰而不驕乎、君子正其衣冠、尊其瞻視、儼然人望而畏之、斯不亦威而不猛乎。【三節】子張曰、何謂四惡。子曰、不教而殺、謂之虐、不戒視成、謂之暴、慢令致期、謂之賊、猶

they naturally derive benefit;—is not this being beneficent without great expenditure? When he chooses the labours which are proper, and makes them labour on them, who will repine? When his desires are set on benevolent government, and he secures it, who will accuse him of covetousness? Whether he has to do with many people or few, or with things great or small, he does not dare to indicate any disrespect;—is not this to maintain a dignified ease without any pride? He adjusts his clothes and cap, and throws a dignity into his looks, so that, thus dignified, he is looked at with awe;—is not this to be majestic without being fierce?"

3. Tsze-chang then asked, "What are meant by the four bad things?" The Master said, "To put the people to death without having instructed them;—this is called cruelty. To require from them, suddenly, the full tale of work, without having given them warning;—this is called oppression. To issue orders as if without urgency, at first, and, when the time comes, to insist on them with severity;—this is called injury. And, generally, in the giving pay


之與人也、出納之吝、謂之有司。

【第三章】【一節】子曰、不知命、無以爲君子也。【二節】不知禮、無以立也。【三節】不知言、無以知人也。

or rewards to men, to do it in a stingy way;—this is called acting the part of a mere official."

Chapter III. 1. The Master said, "Without recognising the ordinances of Heaven, it is impossible to be a superior man.

2. "Without an acquaintance with the rules of Propriety, it is impossible for the character to be established.

3. "Without knowing the force of words, it is impossible to know men."