Copyright, Its History And its Law/XXI

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France France has always been the most liberal of countries in giving copyright protection to foreign as well as native authors publishing within France, and copyright was perpetual up to the abrogation by the National Assembly in 1789 of all privileges previously granted. Though two acts regarding dramatic performances (spectacles) were passed in 1791, it was not till 1793 that the National Convention passed a general copyright act, which still remains the fundamental law of French copyright. The state still has copyright in perpetuity in works published by its order or by its agents, but not in private copyrights lapsing to the state for lack of heirs; copyrights otherwise, by the law of 1866, are for life and fifty years. Playright is protected without deposit, but the printer of a book or play is required to deposit two copies on penalty of fine but not forfeiture of copyright. No formalities are requisite, but to obtain a right of action, deposit of two copies of a book is required, at the Ministry of the Interior at Paris or at the Prefecture or town clerk's office if in the provinces, for which a receipt is given. More than a score of laws modifying the French copyright system have been passed, the latest being that of April 9, 1910, providing that transfer of a work of art does not involve the copyright.

France, which had in general extended the protection of domestic copyright to works published in France, whatever the nationality of the author, specifically protected, by the decree of 1852, from republication (though not from performance) works published abroad, without regard to reciprocity, on compliance with the formalities of deposit previous to a suit for infringement. French
It early negotiated treaties with other countries, only those with England (since replaced by relations through the International Copyright Union) and Spain requiring deposit in those countries, while four of the countries which required registration permitted that it should be performed at their legations in Paris.

France, as also its protectorate Tunis, became one of the original signatory powers of the Berne convention of 1886, adopted the Paris acts of 1896, and after some delay and discussion accepted the revised Berlin convention under the act of June 28, 1910, ratified by decree of September 2, 1910, with reservation as to works of applied design, as to which it maintained the stipulations of the previous conventions. It has treaties with Austria-Hungary (1866-1884), Holland (1855-1884), Montenegro (1902), Portugal (1866), and Roumania by an arrangement on the "most favored nation" basis (1907). It has also still existing treaties with Germany (1907), Italy (1884), and Spain (1880), among the unionist countries, on the "most favored nation" basis —former treaties with Great Britain and the Scandinavian countries having been superseded by International Copyright Union relations. It has been in reciprocal relations with the United States as a "proclaimed" country since July 1, 1891; and it has also treaties with the Latin American countries of Argentina (1897), and Paraguay (1900), both under the Montevideo convention, Bolivia (1887), Costa Rica (1896), Ecuador on the "most favored nation" basis (1898, 1905), Guatemala (1895), Mexico through a treaty of commerce on the "most favored nation" basis (1886), and Salvador (1880), and one with Japan (1909) as to rights in China. Algiers and other colonies are under French law, and French precedent is followed by the protectorate Tunis, though as a separate power.

Belgium Belgium, under the law of 1886, grants copyright and playright for life and fifty years, including translations and photographs, or for corporate and like works fifty years. No formalities are required except that corporate and posthumous works must be registered at the Ministry of Agriculture within six months from publication. Notice is required only to forbid reproduction of newspaper articles. Belgium is one of the original parties to the Berne convention, adopted the Paris acts and ratified on May 23, 1910, the Berlin convention. It has treaties with Austria (1910), Holland (1858), Portugal (1866), and Roumania (1910), as also with Germany (1907) and Spain (1880) —all save Austria and Portugal on the "most favored nation" basis; it has been in reciprocal relations with the United States as a "proclaimed " country since July 1, 1891, and as to mechanical music since June 14, 1911, and has also treaties with Mexico on the "most favored nation" basis (1895), and under the Montevideo convention with Argentina and Paraguay (1903).

Luxemburg Luxemburg, under its law of 1898, very nearly a copy of the Belgian law, grants copyright and playright for life and fifty years. The right to translate is protected for ten years from the publication of the original work. Registration is required only for posthumous or official works to be made at the Office of the Government; and notice is required only to reserve playright or to forbid reprint of newspaper articles. Protection is provided against mechanical music reproductions. Luxemburg was an acceding party to the Berne convention, accepted the Paris acts and ratified the Berlin convention July 14, 1910; it has had reciprocal relations with the United States as a "proclaimed" country since June 29, 1910, and as to mechanical music since June 14, 1911.

Holland Holland, originally giving copyright in perpetuity under indefinite conditions, and later applying French law, is now under its law of 1881, the only country in Europe still requiring, in accordance with its ancient practice, printing and publication within the country. Two copies, so printed, must be deposited with the Department of Justice within a month from publication, and playright must be reserved on a printed work. The general term is for fifty years from the date of the certificate of deposit and through the life of the author, if he has not assigned his work, and for unprinted works, including oral addresses, life and thirty years. The protection for unprinted works covers playright and the right to translate, and protects any author domiciled within Holland or the Dutch Indies. For corporate and like works, the term is fifty years. The exclusive right to translate, must be reserved on the original work and exercised within three years; the translation is then protected for five years, provided it is printed within the country. Playright in a printed play lasts only ten years from deposit. Holland is not a party to any general convention, but it has a treaty with Belgium on the "most favored nation" basis (1858) and arrangements with France (1855-1884); and it has had reciprocal relations with the United States as a "proclaimed " country since November 20, 1899. The Dutch colonies, as in the East and West Indies and elsewhere, are generally included under Dutch law. A new copyright code presented by the government in 1910, omitting the printing requirement, has passed the first Chamber, and after it becomes law Holland, under a concurrent vote in 1911, is authorized to accede to the Berlin convention.

Germany: Copyright throughout the German Empire is now regulated for literary (impliedly including dramatic) and musical works and certain illustrations, by the act of 1901, —in which year there was also adopted an act regulating publishers' rights and contracts; and for works of figurative art and photographs by an act of 1907. An act of 1910 amends these in some particulars.

History These laws superseded entirely the previous acts, dating back to 1870, when the first imperial copyright act was passed after the realization of German unity under Emperor William I. The original act forming the Germanic confederation in 1815, had authorized the German Diet to protect authors' rights, and after futile decrees in 1832 and 1835, resolutions were passed in 1837 making protection effective for a minimum period of ten years throughout all the states which granted protection to authors. Prussia had meanwhile, under the King's Order in Council of 1827, arranged in 1827-29, reciprocal relations with thirty-three out of the thirty-eight states and free cities in the German confederation, and with Denmark for its German provinces, through which the citizens of other states enjoyed the same privileges as natives; and in 1833 the same reciprocal provisions were extended to cover Prussian provinces outside the federation. Many of the early copyright systems had not extended protection to an author's heirs, but in 1837 Prussia passed an improved law making the term life and thirty years and granting protection to citizens of foreign countries in the same proportion that works published in Prussia were therein protected. Thus, up to the time of the Empire, copyright was protected as a matter partly of federal and partly of state legislation.
Laws of
Copyright under the imperial legislation of 1901-07 was granted for life and thirty years, and furthermore for posthumous works at least ten years from publication; and for anonymous, pseudonymous and corporate works, thirty years. Copyright in photographs is for ten years only, and in any event ceases ten years after the author's death. The copyright term is reckoned from the end of the calendar year of an author's death or of publication. In joint authorship, the term is from the death of the last surviving author. Playright is, inferentially, under like terms and conditions. The author of anonymous or pseudonymous works, on registering his name, may obtain protection for the full term. In works published in parts, the publication of the last part determines the copyright term. Corporate bodies (juridical persons) are recognized as authors; in composite works the originator of the work as a whole, or if no such editor is mentioned, then the publisher, is regarded as author; if a literary work is accompanied by music or by illustrations, the author of each part is regarded as originator of his separate work; in inseparable composite works, a partnership arrangement is recognized by the law. No formalities are required, but registration of the author's name on its disclosure in the case of an anonymous or pseudonymous book, may be made in the register to be kept by the Municipal Council of Leipzig for a fee of a mark and a half (36 cents) and expense of official publication originally in the Börsenblatt, but since a law of in the Reichsanzeiger. Translations, adaptations, etc., are protected as original works. Official documents, public speeches, etc., are not protected, and reproduction of newspaper articles, except those of a scientific, technical or recreative character, is permitted, unless reservation is made, on condition of acknowledgment and that the meaning shall not be distorted. Extracts are permitted under specified limitations. Poems may be used as set to music unless distinctively intended for that purpose; and musical compositions, except operas and the like, may be played for charity purposes or by musical societies for members and their families.

Art provi-
In the case of a work of art, reproduction for personal use and gratuitously is permitted, but during an author's life only by photographic means; this permission authorizes only, as to a work of architecture, reproduction of exterior aspect and not of the work upon the ground. The person ordering a portrait is entitled to reproduce it, except on agreement to the contrary. Reproduction and exhibition are permitted of portraits in contemporary history or when accessories, as in a landscape or part of a procession or assemblage, or in the interest of art if not made to order, —provided this is not to the injury of the reputation of the original; or in the interest of justice or public safety. Reproductions of works standing permanently in public places are permitted, but these may not be affixed to a work of architecture.

Piracy Piracy is punished by damages and a statutory fine, or imprisonment in case of intentional infringement, but proceedings must be commenced within three years. The law provides for committees of experts in the several states under regulations of the imperial government to act as arbiters or to advise the justices; and there is final appeal to the Supreme Court of the Empire.

The law protects all works of a subject of the German Empire and works of aliens, if published within the Empire before previous publication elsewhere, the latter clause a change from the former practice of protecting works by a foreigner if published by a firm having a place of business or a branch within the Empire.

Germany was a party to the Berne convention and to the Paris acts, and ratified July 12,1910, the Berlin convention. This ratification was made possible by an act of May 22, 1910, modifying domestic copyright to conform with the provisions of the Berlin convention, and incidentally repealing and replacing sec. 22 of the law of 1901, regarding mechanical music reproduction, as fully stated in the chapter on that subject. On July 12, 1910, the Emperor promulgated an ordinance providing for the application of the law, and both the Berlin convention and this new law became effective September 9, 1910.

Germany has treaties outside the Union with Austria-Hungary (1899), has special treaties beyond the provisions of the Union on the "most favored nation" basis, made in 1907 with Belgium, France, and Italy, and has been a "proclaimed" country in reciprocal relations with the United States since January 15, 1892. By proclamation of Decembers, 1910, reciprocal relations as to mechanical music reproductions were also proclaimed between Germany and the United States.

In Austria-Hungary, the dual states of that empire have separate copyright as well as other legislative relations. Austrian domestic copyright is based on the law of 1895, as amended by that of 1907, and Hungarian on the law of 1884. Copyright in Austria is dependent on publication within the country and citizenship or reciprocal relations; in Hungary on publication by a Hungarian publisher and two years' residence in the case of foreign authors whose country is not in reciprocal relations. In Austria the general term is for life and thirty years, in Hungary life and fifty years, or for corporate, anonymous and like works, thirty or fifty years respectively, unless the anonymous author discloses his identity. Registration, in Austria at the Ministry of Commerce, and in Hungary at the Ministry of Agriculture, is required only for anonymous and pseudonymous works, and in Hungary in other special cases, as plays. The right of translation must be reserved on the work, for specified languages or in general, and must be exercised within stated periods; notice is also required on photographs, and in Austria on musical works to protect performing right. Posthumous works, if published in the last five years of the thirty or fifty year term, are protected for five years from publication. Photographs are protected only for ten years in Austria and five years in Hungary. Collections of telegraph news, as printed in a newspaper, are protected in Hungary. Austria and Hungary have a treaty with each other (1907), and jointly with Great Britain (1893), Germany (1899), France (1866-1884) and Italy (1890), involving in the case of Hungary registration in Hungary as well as in the country of origin. Austria has also treaties with Belgium (1910), Denmark (1907), Roumania (1908), and Sweden (1908), and has been in reciprocal relations with the United States as a "proclaimed" country since December 9, 1907; Hungary is negotiating reciprocal relations with the United States, but has otherwise no separate treaties. Neither Austria nor Hungary is a unionist country.

Switzerland Switzerland, under its federal constitution of 1874 and the law of 1883, provided copyright for life and thirty years or for corporate and like works thirty years, giving protection for the full term to translations if the right to translate is exercised within five years from publication. Photographs were protected for five years only. No formalities are required, though an author has the option of registering his work, with the exception that registration in the Office of Intellectual Property is required within three months from publication for the protection of posthumous and official publications and photographs. Notice of reservation of playright is required on printed copies. Switzerland was an original party to the Berne convention, accepted the Paris acts and ratified the Berlin convention without reservation in 1910. It has had reciprocal relations with the United States as a "proclaimed" country since July 1, 1891, and included copyright in a treaty with Colombia (1908).

vian coun-
The Scandinavian countries, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, in which last copyright was formerly perpetual, now grant protection for life and fifty years as the general term, or fifty years for corporate and like works, an anonymous author having the right to the full term on printing his name in a new edition or declaring it by registration. Photographs are protected for five years —in Norway for fifteen years. The right to translate into a Scandinavian language is protected for the full term; into other languages for the full term in Norway, but in Denmark and Sweden only for ten years from the end of the year of publication of the original work, with an addition in Denmark that a translation published within these ten years protects the author for the full term against unauthorized translation into that language. No formalities are requisite, but in Norway the printer is required, though default does not affect copyright, to deposit a copy with the university library in Christiania within a year of publication. Notice is required, however, on photographs, and except in Sweden, to reserve right of musical performance. Denmark, by two laws of 1911, requires deposit and registration of photographs. Sweden makes the exceptions that works of art are protected for life and ten years and that playright is for life and thirty years, or for anonymous plays, only for five years, unless the author meantime discloses his identity. In Denmark and Norway right of recitation and in Sweden playright must be specifically reserved.

vian foreign
Denmark's domestic copyright is covered by laws of 1865, 1902, 1904, 1908 and 1911, Norway's by those of 1877, 1882, 1893, 1909 and 1910, and Sweden's by the general laws of 1897, codifying those of 1877, etc., respectively for literary, art and photographic works, and amendatory acts of 1904 and 1908. All three are unionist countries. Denmark remains under the Berne-Paris agreement, not having accepted the Berlin convention. Norway became party to the Berlin convention by ratification September 4, 1910, with reservations as to architectural works, in which it adheres to article IV of the Berne convention; as to newspaper and review articles, in which it adheres to article VII of the Berne convention; and as to the retroactive provision, in which it adheres to article XIV of the Berne convention. Sweden remains under the Berne convention and the interpretative declaration of Paris, not having accepted either the Paris additional act or the Berlin convention. Each Scandinavian country has a special copyright treaty with the other two (1877, 1879, 1881). Denmark has also a treaty with Austria (1907) and Sweden with Austria (1908). Denmark has had reciprocal relations with the United States as a "proclaimed" country since May 8, 1893, Norway since May 25, 1905, and as to mechanical music since June 14, 1911, and Sweden since June 1, 1911. A special law for Iceland, embodying in general the Danish provisions, was passed in 1905, and the Danish law may be taken as covering the other Danish colonies, as the Danish West Indies, in lack of special legislation.

Russia Russia early gave, in 1828-30, enlightened protection to authors, providing for a term of life and twenty-five years, with an added ten years under specified circumstances, and protecting an author's copyright from seizure by his creditors and from passing from a bankrupt publisher except on fulfillment of the author's contract. Under the civil code of 1887, copyright was extended to life and fifty years, but playright was only nominally protected and the protection of translations was negatived by a decision that translations must be word for word. The new law sanctioned March 20, 1911, is a comprehensive and detailed code providing copyright for life and fifty years, except that certain collections are only protected for life and twenty-five years and periodicals for twenty-five years, photographs for ten years and translations on notice of reservation for ten years, the right to translate being exercised within five years from publication. Playright is protected, but on a musical work notice of protection must be printed. A photograph must bear notice of its purpose, date and author's name and domicile. Protection is accorded to all works published in Russia and works published by Russian subjects domiciled elsewhere; and provision is made for treaties on reciprocal conditions. The law treats also of relations between authors and publishers. Russia, though represented at Berlin, has as yet no international relations.

Finland Finland, formerly an independent grand duchy, protects copyright under its law of 1880 for a general term of life and fifty years, with exceptions as to photographs, etc., and with provisions as to translation into the Finnish and Scandinavian languages similar to those of Scandinavian countries. Other provisions are similar to those of Russia. It has no exterior copyright relations.
Spain Spain passed a general copyright code in 1879, which applied not only to the Peninsula, but ultramar to Cuba and the other colonies, and became a model for later legislation in several Spanish-American countries, under which code detailed regulations were promulgated in 1880. This code is enforced through the penal code of 1870 and the civil code of 1889. Ordinances from 1893 to 1910 deal with the regulations as to details. Spain grants copyright for life and eighty years on condition of registration by deposit of three signed copies with the Register of Intellectual Property in the Ministry of Agriculture, or in the provincial centres for registration, within one year from publication. In default of registry within the year, any one may publish the work for ten years; and if after the ten years the author fails to register within the ensuing (twelfth) year, the work falls into the public domain. Protection is given for an indefinite term to works issued by the state and, to the extent of their legal existence, those from corporate bodies. A work assigned within the life of the author, remains in the possession of the assignee during the full term unless there are natural heirs (herederos forzosos —"forced" or inalienable heirs), in which case the right reverts to such heirs twenty-five years after the death of the author, on registry of such right and proof of succession under the regulations accompanying the act. This, according to the official Spanish print, is for the remaining fifty-five years —not, as in a French version, for twenty-five years only. A musical work is protected with reference to other instruments and to other forms in a provision so broad that it is possibly applicable to mechanical music reproductions. Writings and telegrams inserted in periodicals may be reproduced unless this is expressly forbidden by notice at the title or at the end of the article — a provision which implies the protection of articles and telegrams in case of such notice of reservation. Works not republished for twenty years fall into the public domain, except in the case of unprinted dramatic or musical works, — unless the proprietor shows that during such period he has kept copies on sale. The protection of domestic law is extended by the terms of the law to citizens of countries having reciprocal relations, without additional formalities.

Spain was one of the original parties to the Berne convention, accepted the Paris acts and adopted the Berlin convention without reservation, through ratification by the King September 5, 1910. Spain has treaties with Portugal as well as with Belgium, France and Italy, all four made in 1880 on the "most favored nation" basis; it has relations with the United States under treaties of 1895, 1898 (the peace treaty), and 1902, and as a "proclaimed" country since July 10, 1895; and has treaties also with Colombia (1885), Costa Rica (1893) , Ecuador (1900), Guatemala (1893), Mexico (1903) and Salvador (1884), mostly on the "most favored nation" basis, and relations under the Montevideo convention with Argentina and Paraguay (1900).

Portugal Portugal, under its civil code of 1867 and penal Portugal code of 1886, grants copyright for life and fifty years to its citizens and to foreigners whose countries grant reciprocal relations. The foreign author, to protect a translation of his work, which protection is for ten years only, must provide such translation within three years. Translations of non-copyright works by a native translator are protected for thirty years. Two copies must be deposited before publication at the Public Library, or in the case of dramatic and musical publication in the Royal Conservatory in Lisbon. Portugal as a republic acceded to the Berlin convention from March 29, 1911. It has additional relations with Italy (1906) and Spain on the "most favored nation" basis (1880); and reciprocal relations with the United States as a "proclaimed" country since July 20, 1893, and with Brazil (1889).

Italy Italy grants copyright under its law of 1882, —codifying its original law of 1865 and the dramatic law of 1875, —as promulgated by royal decree September 19, 1882, to become effective in 1885, and its civil code of 1889. It assures full copyright for life or forty years, whichever the longer. After forty years from first publication or, if the author live beyond that date, after his death, a second term of forty years begins, in which any person, on duly declaring his intention, may republish a work, on condition of paying five per cent royalty to the copyright proprietor. The state may expropriate any work after the death of an author on paying to the proprietor a compensation named by three experts. Government and society publications are copyright only for twenty years. An author may reserve rights of translation for ten years. Playright is for eighty years. Three copies of the printed work should be deposited at the prefecture of the province within three months, in default of which, infringement previous to deposit cannot be punished; and if deposit is not made within ten years, the author is understood to waive his rights. With the deposit copy a declaration of reservation of rights should be filed, for publication in a semi-annual list in the official gazette. Notice is required to reserve rights in periodical contributions. A manuscript copy of an unpublished play should be submitted within three months from first performance for visé, which manuscript is then returned. By the law of 1910, as to legal deposit, three copies must be delivered to the Procureur du Roi in the district of the printing establishment for transmission to the official libraries in Florence, Rome and the respective province ; failure to make such deposit does not affect the copyright, but involves a fine. The laws, both of 1865 and 1882, extended copyright to foreign works, on relations of reciprocity, without treaty arrangements and without additional formalities.

Italy was an original party to the Berne convention and accepted the Paris acts, but has yet to ratify foreign the Berlin convention. It has treaties with Austria-Hungary (1890), Montenegro (1900), Portugal (1906), Roumania (1906), San Marino (1897); also special treaties with Spain (1880), France (1884), and Germany (1907), all on the "most favored nation" basis. It has had reciprocal relations with the United States as a "proclaimed" country since October 28, 1892, and has also treaties with Colombia (1892), with Cuba (1903) and Mexico (1890) on the "most favored nation" basis, and with Nicaragua (1906); and also under the Montevideo convention, relations with Argentina and Paraguay (1900).

San Marino San Marino, the tiny state enclosed within Italy, has pledged itself by the copyright provisions in its treaty with Italy (1897) to protect all works protected in Italy, by application of the Italian law.

Monaco Monaco, under laws of 1889 and 1896, provides copyright for life and fifty years with the peculiar provision that copyright on anonymous and pseudonymous works extends fifty years beyond the death of the publisher, who is reputed author. No formalities are required except notice of reservation in respect to articles in periodicals. Monaco acceded to the Berne convention, in 1889, accepted the Paris acts and ratified the Berlin convention without reservation, December 19, 1910.
Greece Greece originally provided for copyright protection under its penal code of 1833, with a term of fifteen years subject to royal extension. By the law of 1867 the printer of a work was required to deposit with the National Library two copies within ten days of publication, failure involving a fine of at least ten drachmas, but not forfeiture of copyright; and to this requirement was added by the law of 1910 a third copy for the Library of Parliament and a fourth for the local public library, with authority to transmit through the post. A dramatic copyright law of 1909 specifically covers playright, making the term life and forty years and preventing modification of a play by an assignee. Greece has no international relations.

Montenegro Montenegro, though it has no specific domestic copyright law, and only gives uncertain protection under its customary law and civil code of 1888, has treaties with France (1902) and Italy (1900). It had acceded to the Berne convention July 1, 1893, and accepted the Paris acts, but withdrew from the International Copyright Union April 1, 1900, "from motives of economy."

and other
The Balkan states are led in copyright protection by Roumania, possibly owing to the influence of the literary queen "Carmen Sylva," which country, under the press law of 1862 and penal code of 1864, has protected copyright and playright, including probably translation, for life and ten years. Written registration is required at the Ministry of Instruction, and deposit of four copies was also required, though not on penalty of forfeiture of copyright. A later law, of 1904, repeals the deposit requirement. Roumania has copyright treaties with Belgium (1910), France (1907), these on the "most favored nation" basis, Austria (1908) and Italy (1906). Bulgaria and Servia seem to give no protection, except that accorded in Bulgaria by its penal code of 1896, and have no international relations.

Turkey Turkey, which gave some protection to authors so far back as its penal code of 1857, passed in 1910 a new copyright code providing for books, drama and music a term of life and thirty years, in which last the children, widow or widower, the parents and the grandchildren or their descendants should benefit in equal shares ; and for works of art, including architecture, a term of life and eighteen years. Posthumous works are protected from publication for the years above stated. Copyright includes right of translation, representation and adaptation; translations are protected, but the term extends only fifteen years after the death of the translator. The assignment of publishing right does not include playright unless specifically stated. Reprint of periodical articles, unless forbidden, and extracts from books "in case of urgency or to the end of public utility," may be made on acknowledgment of the source. Reprint of works out of print may be licensed by the Ministry of Public Instruction. Registration is requisite with deposit of three copies, in the case of reproduced works, with the Ministry of Public Instruction, at Constantinople, or in its provincial offices on written application and a fee of a quarter of a Turkish pound, for which a certificate is issued. An annual publication of the copyright entries is provided for. The law is not in terms confined to Turkish subjects, but it may by the nature of Turkish legislation apply only within the Turkish Empire, though there seems to be hope that Turkey may adhere to the Berlin convention. Turkey is otherwise without international relations.

Japan Japan, the only oriental power which is a unionist country, adopted a general copyright code in 1899 (March 3, as applied by ordinances of June 27 and 28), modifying a law of 1877, and in the same year (July 15) ratified the Berne-Paris agreements and became a member of the International Copyright Union. Amendatory acts were adopted in 1910, on June 14-15, broadening the scope to include architecture and providing as to details of registration. Under domestic legislation first publication in Japan is the only requisite for copyright, but registration must be made in the Ministry of the Interior before action for infringement can be brought, and by disclosure of name to obtain the full term for anonymous and pseudonymous works. Registrations are printed in the official gazette. Protection is for life and thirty years, or thirty years for anonymous, posthumous and corporate works. The right of translation is protected for ten years, and translations are protected for the full term; photographs for ten years only. Titles are protected in copyrighted works, but not general titles. Periodical contributions must be protected by notice. Japan accepted the convention of Berlin with reservations as to the exclusive right of translation, in which it adheres to Article V of the Berne convention as revised at Paris, and as to the public performance of musical works, in which it adheres to Article IX of the Berne convention. Japan has treaties with China (1903) and with the United States (November 10, 1905, "proclaimed" May 17, 1906), which, however, excepts translations, and also special treaties of August 11, 1908, covering Japanese protectorates in Korea and China.

Korea Korea was formerly without copyright provisions, except as given by the above-named treaty and similar British provisions as to the consular court at Seoul, but since it has become practically a Japanese possession, it has been included by Japanese ordinance of 1908 under Japanese copyright law.
China China promulgated, December 18, 1910, its first domestic copyright provisions, establishing a term of life and thirty years, on condition of registration by deposit of two copies at the Ministry of the Interior or corresponding provincial office, with a fee of five dollars. The protection does not include the exclusive right to translate foreign works into the Chinese language, although individual translations may be protected. Photographs, unless included in writings, are protected only for ten years from date of registration. These provisions require approval to be made effective. China has a treaty with Japan (1903) and one of like date (October 8, 1903) with the United States, effective from January 13, 1904, protecting for ten years books, maps, prints, or engravings, "especially prepared for the use and education of the Chinese people" or "translation into Chinese of any book," but Chinese subjects are to have liberty to make "original translations into Chinese, " so that the treaty affords little protection. By treaty with Japan (August 11, 1908) Japan's copyright protection is extended where it has extra-territorial jurisdiction, as in Canton and other places in China. By British Orders in Council of 1899, 1907, copyright protection against infringement by a British subject may be afforded by the consular court at Shanghai to foreign as well as British suitors under specified conditions.

Siam Siam passed a literary copyright law in 1901, giving identical rights with those in any other property for life and seven years, or for forty-two years, whichever the longer, on the conditions of printing and publication within the country, registration within a year and deposit of four copies. Siam has no treaty relations, but works printed and first published there possibly would have the benefit of the law. British copyright protection is also extended through British consulates.
Persia and other native-governed countries seem to have no copyright protection, although Persia was represented at the Berlin conference. Copyright provisions in British India, Ceylon and the other Asian colonies is covered in the preceding chapter on the British dominions. The Dutch East Indies have copyright protection under Dutch law, and Indo-China under French law. The Philippine Islands, like the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), have copyright protection under United States law.

Tunis, etc. Tunis, a protectorate of France but not a French colony, long the only unionist country in Africa, has domestic protection under its law of 1889, following in general that of France, with a term of life and fifty years. It was one of the original parties, as a separate power, to the treaty of Berne, accepted the Paris acts and ratified the Berlin convention with reservation, September 30, 1910, like France, as to works of applied design, in which it adheres to the stipulations of the previous convention ; it has no other foreign relations. Algiers, a French colony, is under French law and international relations. Morocco and other native states seem to be without copyright protection.

Egypt Egypt, under the protectorate of Great Britain but not a British possession technically, is without domestic legislation, except that its penal code of 1884-89 forbids piracy, and it is not included under British relations. But under a crude sort of customary law and this penal code, the courts enforce rights of foreigners as well as of natives by the protection of their works for an indefinite term. The rights of French citizens in plays and music have been enforced through the French consular court, and in recent years the mixed courts at Cairo and the Court of Appeal have exercised copyright jurisdiction, "under the principles of natural justice and the laws of equity." In the leading case of the Société des gens de lettres v. Egyptian Gazette, in 1889, the Court of Appeal laid down the principle that "copyright is a veritable right of property founded on labor," and on this ground has upheld the right of literary, dramatic and musical authors and of artists to prevent reproduction.

Liberia Liberia seems to have no domestic copyright law recorded, and probably protection, national and international, is under customary law without formalities. It was represented as an independent power at the Berne convention and signed the original convention, but never became a party to it by ratification; it, however, adopted the Berlin convention by ratification and is now a member of the International Copyright Union.

The Congo Free State seems to cover copyright offenses by its extradition treaties with Belgium (1898) and France (1899) to the extent of including in the list of offenses fraudulent application to any art object or work of literature or music, of the name of an author, or any distinctive sign adopted by him.

Copyright provision in South Africa, Sierra Leone and other British colonies is covered in the preceding chapter on the British dominions.

In Latin America provision for copyright protection had generally been made by the several states, for various terms, in some cases in perpetuity, previous to a movement for international relationship which began with the Montevideo convention of 1889, for South American states only, reached a further step in the convention of Mexico City, 1902, was not substantially advanced by the amendatory treaty proposed at Rio de Janeiro, 1906, which never became practically operative anywhere, and culminated in the Buenos Aires convention of 1910, which was ratified by the United States Senate February 16, 1911, but has yet to be ratified by the Latin countries. Five South American states are bound together under the Montevideo convention as ratified by Argentina (1894), Bolivia (1903), Paraguay (1889), Peru (1889), and Uruguay (1892).

The United States has relations with Mexico (1896), Costa Rica (1899), Cuba (1903), Chile (1896), and by ratification in 1908 of the Mexico convention of 1902, with Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Salvador and possibly Dominican Republic, and will come into relations under the Buenos Aires convention of 1910, with any power ratifying that convention.

Mexico Mexico, under the guarantees of property in its constitution of 1857, and the specific and elaborate copyright provisions of its civil code of 1 871, as modified by that of 1884, grants copyright in perpetuity and playright for life and thirty years as the general term, with complicated modifications and exceptions. In the case of anonymous and pseudonymous works, rights in perpetuity are to the publisher and his successors, pending disclosure of the author, who must record his name in a sealed envelope. The right of translation is protected in perpetuity except for works of non-residents published abroad, then limited to ten years. Corporate works are protected for twenty-five and official publications for ten years only. Registration is required through application to the Minister of Public Education and deposit of two copies is obligatory, one in the National Library and one in the Public Archives. A third copy is usually expected for the Library of the Ministry. The right to copyright holds for ten years from publication. Reservation is required of right of translation and of other specified rights, by notice on the printed work. Protection is conditioned on residence, reciprocity or first publication within Mexico. Private letters may not be published without consent of both correspondents or their heirs, except for proof of right or in the pubUc interest, or for the progress of science. Mexico does not seem to be a party to any convention, not even that of Mexico City, but has had reciprocal relations with the United States as a "proclaimed" country since February 27, 1896, and has treaties with the Dominican Republic (1890) and Ecuador (1888), and with Belgium (1895), France (1886), Italy (1890), and Spain (1903), all on the "most favored nation" basis. To obtain Mexican copyright, it seems necessary to execute a power of attorney, validated by a Mexican consul, to a representative in Mexico City for the registration and deposit at the Ministry.

states: Costa
Of the five nations of Central America, Costa Rica, under penal and civil codes of 1880 and 1888 and a copyright law of 1896, grants copyright, including playright, for life and fifty years, with provisions for return to heirs after twenty years and other variations after the Spanish model, on registration and deposit within a year of three copies of a printed work at the office of Public Libraries, on condition of residence or reciprocity. GuatemalaGuatemala, under a decree of 1879, Guatemala grants copyright for literary works in perpetuity on registration and deposit of four copies at the Ministry of Public Education to "inhabitants of the Republic," —with the curious provision that an assignee cannot prevent republication with "essential modifications" by the author. Right of translation must be reserved by notice. A sealed envelope with name of author must accompany an anonymous book. HondurasHonduras, under its constitution of 1894, has provisions in its civil and penal codes of 1898 guaranteeing to an author of a literary, scientific or artistic work the general property rights, pending passage of a copyright law and punishing fraud by "minor banishment." NicaraguaNicaragua, under its civil code of 1904, grants copyright in perpetuity on registration and deposit of six copies with the Ministry of Agriculture. Right of translation must be reserved by notice. SalvadorSalvador, under its constitution of 1886 and law of 1900, grants copyright on works published in Salvador for life and twenty-five years, or for corporate works fifty years from publication on deposit of one copy with the Minister of Agriculture before publication, with the exceptional provision that if the heirs renounce their rights or fail to make use of them within a year from the author's death, the work falls into the public domain; the translator of a Latin or Greek work is protected as an author, and the government may grant five-year licenses for the reprint with author's permission of "interesting works," presumably those published elsewhere.

and inter-
In 1894-95, and again in 1897-1901, interstate treaties, incidentally covering copyright, were negotiated; but interstate and international relations are now covered by the participation of the five nations, as well as the United States and the Dominican Republic, in the Mexico convention of 1902 and by the treaty of peace made by these five Central American states at Washington, December 20, 1907. There is some question under the treaty of 1907 whether protection is assured in each state to others than residents, but probably all citizens of the five states are protected throughout all. To secure protection under the convention of 1902, an American citizen should apply for an additional certificate from the U. S. Copyright Office for each country, which after validation by the State Department is sent with one deposit copy for each country to the respective American legations, through which official acknowledgment will be returned. Costa Rica has had reciprocal relations with the United States as a "proclaimed" country since October 19, 1899, and has treaties with France (1896) and Spain (1893); Guatemala with France (1895) and Spain (1893), the latter on the "most favored nation" basis; Nicaragua with Italy (1906) ; and Salvador with France (1880) and Spain (1884).

Panama Panama grants copyright under the constitution of 1904, which adopted and made part of Panaman law the Colombian copyright law of 1886, which is summarized in the paragraph on Colombia. The Canal Zone is under United States law through a War Department order of 1907.

Cuba Cuba, which as a Spanish colony came under the Cuba Spanish act of 1879, has domestic protection under this act as applied by four military ordinances, 1900-1902, during the United States protectorate, and continued under its insular government. In the third ordinance, of June 13, 1901, it was provided that existing copyrights under the Spanish law of 1879 should be valid during their term, and also that copyright as well as patents granted by the United States shall have insular protection on deposit of a copy of the certificate. Registration is made at the Registry in the Department of State within one year of publication, accompanied. If a foreign work, by certificate of copyright in the country of origin, and deposit should be made of three copies for preservation in the National Library, the University and the Public Archives. On these conditions, under the military ordinance of 1900, authors of foreign scientific, artistic and literary works or their agents or representatives enjoy protection in the case of new works. Regulations of 1909 prescribe the forms of application for domestic and for foreign works. To claim Cuban copyright, an American should obtain an attested copy of the copyright certificate and transmit this, with a power of attorney in Spanish validated by a Cuban consul, and three deposit copies, to a representative in Havana, who must deposit the certificate with an attested Spanish translation and the three copies at the Registry. Copyrights by Spanish subjects previous to the treaty of peace with the United States, ratified in 1899, remain valid by virtue of a specific article in the treaty. Cuba has been in reciprocal relations with the United States as a "proclaimed" country since November 17, 1903, and has a treaty with Italy (1903) on the "most favored nation" basis. It is reputed to have ratified the Pan American convention of 1902, but possibly only the industrial treaty.

Haiti Haiti, which gave copyright protection as early as 1835, adopted in 1885 a copyright law with some unusual features. An author holds exclusive right during life; the widow through her life; the children for twenty years further, or other heirs, if there are no children surviving, for ten years. Unauthorized reprints are confiscated on the complaint of the proprietor of the copyright; and the author recovers from the reprinter the price of a thousand, or from a bookseller of two hundred copies, reckoned at the retail price of the author's edition. Deposit is required of five copies within twelve months from publication at the Department of the Interior. Haiti has the unique distinction in Latin America of being a unionist country; it was originally a party to the Berne convention, accepted the Paris acts and adopted the Berlin convention without reservation. It has no relations with the United States and no treaties.

The Dominican Republic provides copyright protection under its constitution of 1896, has a treaty with Mexico (1890) on the "most favored nation" basis, and ratified the Pan American convention (though possibly only the industrial treaty) of 1902, June 15, 1907.

West Indian
Jamaica and the other British islands and colonies along the Atlantic and Caribbean seas have copyright protection under imperial and to some extent local laws, as already noted; Porto Rico is under the provisions of United States law and the Danish and Dutch West Indian colonies are under the respective laws of their nations.

Brazil Brazil, under the constitution of 1891 and the law Brazil of 1898 and regulations of 1901, grants copyright for the general term, inclusive of photographs, of fifty years from the first of January of the year of publication, with a term of ten years for the right of translation and playright. Posthumous works are protected within fifty years from the death of the author. Assignments are valid only for thirty years, after which copyright reverts to the author. Written application for registration is requisite at the National Library, and deposit of one copy of a printed book or play must be made there within two years. Reservation of royalty for playright must be made on a printed work. Protection is confined to a native or resident or a Portuguese author of a work written in Portuguese —the latter in accordance with a treaty of reciprocity with Portugal (1889), the only treaty.

Argentina Argentina, which under its constitution of 1853 and civil code of 1869 protected an author's productions as general property, adopted in September, 1910, a copyright law, as an application of common law, providing for a term of life and ten years, or in the case of posthumous works twenty years from publication. Protection is comprehensive of all classes of intellectual property, and extends to all forms of use without special reservation. By Presidential decree of February 4, 1911, a Section of Library deposit was established as a division of the National Library. Registration is required by deposit of two printed copies or of an identifying reproduction within fifteen days from publication for works published in the capital, or thirty days in the provinces, this including foreign works published within the country, publication meaning the offering for sale therein. The law specifically applies to authors of other countries with which Argentina has international relations, deposit in Buenos Aires being then not required where the formalities of the country of origin have been fulfilled. Argentina's international relations are dependent chiefly on the Montevideo convention of 1889, as ratified by Argentina with respect to Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay in 1894, Bolivia in 1903, and with respect to Belgium in 1903, France in 1896, Italy and Spain in 1900.

and Uru-
Paraguay and Uruguay, like Argentina, long protected intellectual property as general property. Paraguay's constitution of 1870 secures exclusive property to an author, and a new penal code, promulgated in 1910, assures copyright on all classes of intellectual property, on registration in the public registries with prescribed fees, and punishes piracy by fine of double the profit and imprisonment. Uruguay in its civil code of 1868 declared that the productions of talent or intellect are the property of their authors, to be regulated by special law, but no such law has been passed. Both countries have relations with the other South American states parties to the Montevideo convention of 1889; Paraguay has also the same relations as Argentina with the European countries above cited. The statement that Paraguay is a party to the Mexico City convention of 1902 seems a misapprehension arising from the fact that her representative signed ad referendum.
Chile Chile, under the constitution of 1833 and law of 1834 and its civil code of 1855 and penal code of 1874, protects copyright including playright for a general term of life and five years thereafter, which may be extended an additional five years, except for playright, by action of the government, corporate works for forty and posthumous works for ten years. Deposit of three copies is required at the National Library in Santiago. Protection is extended to foreign works [first?] published in Chile; a Chilean-made edition of a work already published abroad may have protection for ten years. Chile has reciprocal relations with the United States as a "proclaimed" country since May 25, 1896; by a provision in the treaty respecting parcels post, piratical copies of works copyright in the country of destination are to be excluded. Chile ratified only the ineffective Rio convention of 1906.

Peru Peru, under its law of 1849 and the constitution of 1860 and penal code, grants copyright including playright for life and twenty years thereafter. Anonymous and pseudonymous works may be protected for the full term by deposit of the true name in a sealed envelope. Posthumous works are protected for thirty years. Deposit is required of one copy in the public library and one copy in the department Prefecture. Protection is probably confined to an inhabitant of Peru, but Peru has reciprocal relations under the Montevideo convention as ratified October 25, 1889, with Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay.

Bolivia Bolivia, which protected intellectual property by its penal code of 1834, and later by a copyright law of 1879, adopted a brief copyright code, including playright, in 1909, providing a general term of life and thirty years, with the peculiar provision that the publisher of a work of unrecognized authorship hitherto unpublished may have protection for twenty years. Registration is required at the Ministry of Public Education and deposit of one copy of printed works must be made within one year of publication in the public libraries, in default of which the work falls into the public domain. Bolivia has reciprocal relations under the Montevideo convention as ratified November 5, 1903, with Argentina, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay, and also international arrangements with France (1887).

Ecuador Ecuador, under the constitution of 1884 and law of 1887, grants copyright for life and fifty years, and playright for life and twenty-five years. Anonymous and pseudonymous works are protected fifty years beyond the death of the publisher, unless the author meantime substitutes his name; posthumous works for twenty-five years. There are special provisions for terms of fifty years in the case of translations, adaptations, compilations, etc., and for twenty-five years for editions of works of undefined authorship. Registration is required with notice of reservation of playright within six months from publication or three months from performance of an unpublished play. Three copies of a printed work must be deposited with the registrar for the use of the Minister of Public Education, the National Library and the provincial library. Titles of periodicals are specified as copyrightable. Assignment must be registered to become operative. Protection is seemingly confined to a citizen of Ecuador, but it is expressly provided that a foreign author may assign right of translation or playright to a citizen of Ecuador, who may then prevent infringement. Ecuador has reciprocal relations with Mexico (1888), as also with France (1898, 1905) and Spain (1900), all on the "most favored nation" basis.
Colombia Colombia, under the Constitution and law of 1886, and the civil code of 1873 and penal code of 1890, protects copyright, including playright, for life and eighty years, and for the legal existence of a corporate body, with the provision as in Spain respecting natural heirs. Registration is required within a year from publication or performance, at the Ministry of Public Education, with deposit of three copies, one for the Ministry and two for the National Library. If a work is not registered within the year, it falls into the public domain for ten years, but can thereafter be protected by registration within the succeeding year. Non-Colombian authors seem not to enjoy protection of the right of translation for a work printed in a country of foreign language. Colombia has treaties with Spain (1885) on the "most favored nation" basis, Italy (1892) and Switzerland (1908).

Venezuela Venezuela, under the law of 1894 and penal code of 1897, protects copyright including playright in perpetuity, the publisher being considered the author in the case of anonymous and pseudonymous works pending legal proof of the identity of the author. In posthumous works protection is in perpetuity to the heirs or assigns. The right is secured by request to the district governor or state president for the issue of a patent with registry of title and verbal oath that the work has not been previously published within Venezuela or elsewhere; the patent certificate must be printed on the back of the title-page, and must be published at least four times in the official gazette. Deposit must be made of six copies at the Registry, two copies going to the Minister of Agriculture for the National Library. Protection is not specifically confined to Venezuelans, and seems to depend on first publication, but assignment to a citizen of Venezuela may be desirable. Venezuela has no foreign relations.