Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Howard, Charles (1629-1685)

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search

HOWARD, CHARLES, first Earl of Carlisle (1629–1685), born in 1629, was the second son, and eventually heir, of Sir William Howard, knt., of Naworth, Cumberland, by Mary, eldest daughter of William, lord Eure. His father was grandson of Lord William Howard (1563-1640) [q.v.] In 1646 he was charged with having borne arms for the king, but was cleared of his delinquency by ordinance of parliament, and on payment of a fine of 4,000l. (Lords' Journals, viii. 296, 469, 477, 499). Lady Halkett,who visited Naworth in 1649, gave particulars of Howard's household in her 'Autobiography;' he was married at that date. In 1650 he was appointed high sheriff of Cumberland. Though professing to be a supporter of the Commonwealth, his known loyalist predilections led to several charges of disaffection being brought against him before the commissioners for sequestrations in Cumberland in the beginning of 1650 (T. C., Strange Newes from the North, pp. 5-6). His explanation seems to have satisfied the council of state (25 March 1650), and in the following May directions were sent him respecting the trial and punishment of certain witches whom he professed to have discovered in Cumberland (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1650, pp. 58, 159). Sir Arthur Hesilrige was, however, instructed to sift the charges thoroughly and report the result (ib. p. 175). Howard bought for his residence Carlisle Castle, a crown revenue, and became governor of the town. At the battle of Worcester he distinguished himself on the parliamentarian side. `Captain Howard of Naward, captain of the life guards to his excellency, has received divers sore wounds, and Major Pocher, but both with hope of life, and some few others. Captain Howard did interpose very happily at a place of much danger, where he gave the enemy (though with his personal smarts) a very seasonable check, when our foot, for want of horse, were hard put to it' (J. Scott and R. Salway to the president of the council of state, in Cary, Mem. of the Civil War, ii. 363). In 1653 he sat as M.P. for Westmoreland in Barebone's parliament, and on 14 July in the same year was appointed a member of the council of state, and placed on various committees (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1653-4, p. 25). In 1654 and 1656 he represented Cumberland in parliament. Cromwell despatched him to the north in April 1654 to check the inroads of the Scots. He was also to check horse-racing and prevent all meetings of papists or disaffected persons (ib. 1654, pp. 100,245). At that time he was captain of the Lord Protector's bodyguard. When Colonel Rich was deprived of his regiment its command was given to Colonel Howard, January 1655 (Mercurius Politicus,p.5607). In March 1655, being then colonel of a regiment of horse, he was nominated a councillor of state for Scotland (ib. 1655, pp. 108, 152), and in the ensuing April was appointed a commissioner of oyer and terminer to try the rebels in the insurrection in Yorkshire, Northumberland, and Durham (ib. 1655,p.116). He became major-general of Cumberland, Northumberland, and Westmoreland in October 1655 (ib. 1655,p.387). In December 1657 he was summoned to the House of Lords set up by Cromwell, and it is said that the Protector conferred upon him the title of Baron Gilsland and Viscount Morpeth,21 July 1657 (Noble, i. 378, 439; The Perfect Politician, ed. 1680,p.291).

In April 1659 he urged Richard Cromwell to act with vigour against the army leaders, and offered, if the Protector would consent, to take the responsibility of arresting Lambert, Desborough, Fleetwood, and Vane; but his advice was rejected, and he was deprived of his regiment on Richard's fall (Oldmixon, Hist. of England during the … Stuarts, pp.433-4; Noble,House of Cromwell, i. 330; Baker, Chron. ed.1670,pp.659–60; Heath, Chron.p.744). He was for a time imprisoned, was released on parole in August 1659 (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1659–60,p.150), but on 21 Sept. he was rearrested and sent to the Tower on a charge of high treason, being suspected of complicity with Sir George Booth's insurrection (ib.pp.217-18,253). He was set free without trial, and on 3 April 1660 was elected M.P. for Cumberland. After the Restoration Howard became a privy councillor (2 June 1660), custos rotulorum of Essex (9 July–24 Nov.1660),and lord-lieutenant of Cumberland and Westmoreland (1 Oct. 1660). He was not reappointed to the governorship of Carlisle, that post being conferred on his old enemy, SirPhilipMusgrave, in December 1660 (ib.1660-1,p.431). On 20 April 1661 he was created Earl of Carlisle, was constituted vice-admiral of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Durham on 18 June following, and became joint-commissioner for office of earl-marshal on 27 May 1662. From 20 July 1663 to December 1664 he was ambassador extraordinary to Russia, Sweden, and Denmark. He was appointed captain of a troop of horse on 30 June 1666, captain in Prince Rupert's regiment of horse on 13 June 1667, and on the 20th of the same month lieutenant-general of the forces and joint commander-in-chief of the militia of the four northernmost counties. On 29 Nov. 1668 he was sent ambassador extraordinary with the Garter to Charles XI of Sweden. He succeeded to the lord-lieutenancy of Durham on 18 April 1672,colonel of a regiment of foot on 22 Jan. 1673, and deputy earl-marshal of England in June. From 25 Sept. 1677 to April 1681 he was governor of Jamaica (Luttrell, Relation, i. 77). On 1 March 1678 he was reappointed governor of Carlisle. Howard died on 24 Feb. 1685, and was buried in York Minster, where is his monument (Drake, Eboracum,p.502). He married Anne, daughter of Edward, first lord Howard of Escrick [q.v.], by whom he had three sons (Edward, who succeeded him, Frederick Christian, d. 1684, and Charles, d. 1670) and three daughters. Lady Carlisle died in December 1696. A curious 'Relation' of Howard's embassies was published in English and French in 1669 by Guy Miège, who accompanied him. Of three portraits in oil of Howard, one, painted probably when he was colonel of Cromwell's life guards, is at Naworth; another,of the time of Charles II, is at Castle Howard; a third is in the town hall at Carlisle. There is also an enamel miniature. An engraving of him, by W. Faithorne, is prefixed to Miège's 'Relation.' Another engraved portrait is by S. Blooteling, and there is a third in Dallaway's 'Heraldry.'

[Information from the Earl of Carlisle and C. H. Firth, esq.; Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 328-30; Noble's House of Cromwell, ed. 1787, i. 330, 378; Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges, iii. 503; Lady Halkett's Autobiography (Camden Soc.), pp. 31–8; Guizot's Richard Cromwell, ed. Scoble, i. 122; several of Howard's letters are printed in the Thurloe Papers.]

G. G.