Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Ch'ang-ling

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3633494Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period, Volume 1 — Ch'ang-lingFang Chao-ying

CH'ANG-ling 長齡 (T. 修圃, H. 懋亭), Dec. 18, 1758–1838, Jan. 26, statesman, general, first Duke Wei-yung (威勇公), was a Mongol of the Sartuk clan (薩爾圖克氏). His ancestors came from the Korchin (科爾沁) tribe of Mongols and were incorporated in the Mongol Plain Blue Banner. But in 1747, owing to the exploits of his father, Nayentai (納延泰, 1694–1762), the family was raised to the more distinguished Plain White Banner. Nayentai served as president of the Court of Colonial Affairs for twenty-four years (1738–62)—longer than any other official in that post throughout the dynasty. This can perhaps be attributed to his knowledge of languages. It is significant that his two sons, like himself, entered officialdom by passing the examination for translators.

In 1773 Ch'ang-ling, the second son of Nayentai, became a student translator and two years later was appointed a clerk in the Board of Works. In 1777 he was transferred to the Court of Colonial Affairs where he served in various capacities until 1794. During this period he gained much experience by serving three times on the staff of the commanders of expeditionary forces—in 1784 to suppress the Mohammedan rebellion in Kansu (see under A-kuei), in 1787–88 against the insurgents in Taiwan (see under Ch'ai Ta-chi), and in 1791–93 against the Gurkas in Nepal (see under Fu-k'ang-an). In 1794 Ch'ang-ling became a sub-chancellor of the Grand Secretariat. Five years later he was appointed lieutenant-general of the Gendarmerie in the West City, Peking. In the years 1800–02 he took part in the campaign against the rebels known as the White Lily Sect (see under Ê-lê-têng-pao) by first serving as commandant of a regiment of troops from northern Manchuria (1800–01) and then as provincial commander-in-chief of Hupeh (1801–02). He fought many battles in northwestern Hupeh and was rewarded in 1802 with the minor hereditary rank of Yün-ch'i-yü for annihilating some of the rebels. Abandoning the front because of illness, he returned to Peking in 1803 and was made provincial commander-in-chief of Chihli with headquarters at Ku-pei-k'ou. Then he served as governor of Anhwei (1804–05) and of Shantung (1805–07). In 1807 he was made governor-general of Shensi and Kansu to suppress a rebellion of the natives of Kokonor, who were of Tibetan origin and known as Fan 番. At the head of 8,000 men he attacked rebellious natives and within forty days (September–October, 1807) forced their leaders to surrender. Thereafter regular troups were stationed in that region.

While he was governor of Shantung Ch'ang-ling failed to discover misappropriations of public funds by a subordinate. When the facts became known in 1808, he was discharged (1809) for negligence and banished to Ili. Late in the same year (1809) he was given the rank of a junior Imperial Bodyguard and was appointed assistant military-governor of Ili with residence at Khobdo. Transferred to Uliasutai in 1810, he gradually regained the confidence of Emperor Jên-tsung. In 1811 he was made governor of Honan and two years later was again appointed governor-general of Shensi and Kansu. Early in 1814 he put an end to an uprising of lumbermen at Ch'i-shan, Shensi, and was rewarded with the minor hereditary rank of Ch'i-tu-yü. But for failure to report a rebellious plot of the T'ien-li Sect (see under Na-yen-ch'êng) while he was in Honan, he was again sentenced to banishment in Ili. As the sentence was announced before his victory in Shensi became known, he was merely degraded. Later in 1814 he was sent for the second time to Ili where he served first as a councilor (1814–16) and then as military-governor (1816–17).

In 1817, at the age of sixty (sui), Ch'ang-ling was for the third time made governor-general of Shensi and Kansu, and in 1821 was given by Emperor Hsüan-tsung the concurrent rank of an Assistant Grand Secretary. Early in 1822 he returned to Peking for an audience but was sent back to Kansu when another rebellion of the natives of Kokonor broke out. From May to July he fought against the insurgents, finally annihilating them between Kokonor and the Yellow River. After the victory he was made a Grand Secretary, reaching Peking late in 1822. Early in 1823 he was made concurrently a Grand Councilor. But he was not to enjoy tranquillity in Peking long. Early in 1825 he went to Yunnan as governor-general of that province and of Kweichow, and late in that year was again made military-governor of Ili. He took over his post in Ili in March 1826, being then 69 sui.

At this time the borders of Chinese Turkestan were being disturbed by Jehangir (張格爾, d. 1828, age 39 sui), a descendant of the Hodjas who had ruled in Turkestan. Jehangir's grandfather, Burhan-al-Din (see under Chao-hui), was ejected from Kashgar in 1758 and was murdered, leaving a son, Sarim Sak 薩林薩克, who took refuge in Khokand. Jehangir, the second son of Sarim Sak, was dissatisfied with life in exile, and owing to his ancestry, was able to get support from fellow-Mohammedans in plotting the recovery of Kashgar. At the end of the Chia-ch'ing period the assistant military-governor of Kashgar was a Manchu of loose character who was hated by the people. Seizing an opportunity, Jehangir collected several hundred Buruts and crossed the border. He was soon driven out, but maintained his headquarters near by in order to harass the border patrol. Though the Manchu governor was removed and punished, dissention among the Mohammedans, who were incited by Jehangir, continued. In 1825 Emperor Hsüan-tsung attempted to effect reforms in that region and appointed Ch'ing-hsiang 慶祥 (d. 1826, posthumous name 壯直, the Duke I-lieh 義烈公, and a Mongol of the Tubet clan 圖伯特) as assistant military-governor at Kashgar, and Ch'ang-ling as military-governor at Ili. In July 1826, four months after Ch'ang-ling reached Ili, Jehangir led his men across the border and within a month took four cities in Chinese Turkestan—Kashgar, Yingeshar, Yarkand and Khotan. Ch'ing-hsiang committed suicide and many of the garrison were killed. But Ch'ang-ling sent reinforcements in time to Aksu and to Ush, thus halting the spread of Jehangir's influence. Aksu became the base for a large army, and Ch'ang-ling was made commander with the rank of General Yang-wei (揚威將軍). Taking with him about twenty thousand men, Ch'ang-ling began to advance early in March 1827, his chief assistants being Ulungga 武隆阿 (d. 1831?), and Yang Yü-ch'un [q. v.]. After a number of victories he entered Kashgar on March 28. In a short time all the other cities were recovered. But the emperor, irritated at Jehangir's escape, was not satisfied and had Ch'ang-ling reprimanded. When an army sent in pursuit of Jehangir clashed with the Khokand army and was defeated, the emperor ordered the withdrawal of the main troops, leaving 8,000 men at Kashgar under the newly appointed assistant-commander, Yang Fang [q. v.] When Ch'ang-ling advocated the appointment of one of the Hodjas as ruler of Kashgar, the emperor was greatly displeased and sent Na-yen-ch'êng [q. v.] to take his command. While the latter was on the journey to assume his post, Ch'ang-ling and Yang Fang captured Jehangir by the following ruse. They circulated false rumors to the effect that Kashgar was undefended and could easily be taken. Jehangir fell into the trap and crossed the border again. Though he withdrew when he saw danger it was too late, for Yang Fang had already observed him. After a pursuit lasting several days Jehangir was taken alive on February 14, 1828. When the news reached Peking Ch'ang-ling was rewarded with a dukedom of the second class, with the designation, Wei-yung 威勇公, and with rights of perpetual inheritance. He was ordered to return to Peking to celebrate the victory of which Emperor Hsüan-tsung was determined to make the most. In imitation of his grandfather, the emperor ordered that portraits of forty of the generals and high officials be hung in the Tzŭ-kuang-ko (see under Chao-hui). When in June Jehangir was delivered to Peking, he was "presented"—before being quartered—to the Imperial Ancestral Temple at a ceremony known as hsien-fu 獻俘. Such a ceremony had taken place twice before: in 1724 after the capture of the rebel leaders of Kokonor (see under Nien Kêng-yao) and in 1776 with the leaders of the Chin-ch'uan rebels (see under A-kuei). A ceremony known as shou-fu 收俘, or "receiving captives" by the emperor, was also performed —earlier observances of it being at the reception of Galdan's son in 1697 (see under Galdan), of Lobdzan Dandzin in 1755 (see under Nien Kêng-yao), of Davatsi in 1756 (see under Amursana), of the Kokonor rebels, and of the Chin-ch'uan aborigines. After 1828 neither of these ceremonies was again observed, for thereafter the government suffered many defeats, and whatever victories it had were too inglorious to warrant a display of power. In fact it is questionable whether Emperor Hsüan-tsung was justified in reviving them in the case of Ch'ang-ling whose victory amounted only to the suppression of a minor rebellion. Incidentally, Ch'ang-ling was the last official of the dynasty to be raised to a dukedom.

As soon as Jehangir was captured Ch'ang-ling was ordered to return to Peking, leaving the settlement of affairs at Kashgar to Na-Yen-ch'êng. He reached Peking in July 1828 and continued to serve as Grand Secretary and as Grand Councilor, but was given concurrently several other high ranks. On his seventy-first birthday, late that year, he was showered with many unusual gifts. However, in 1830 the Khokandians, who were debarred from trade for giving protection to other members of Jehangir's family, attacked Kashgar and Yarkand. Ch'ang-ling was again sent as General Yang-wei to punish the invaders. Before he arrived at Aksu (early in 1831) the Khokandians had already retreated from the border. After investigating their complaints an agreement was reached with them by which trade was resumed and tax on merchandise was remitted in return for a doubtful promise of keeping the Hodjas in check. In later years the Hodjas caused two minor disturbances—in 1846 (see under I-shan) and in 1857—and a serious one lasting more than fourteen years in 1864–78 (see under Tso Tsung-t'ang).

While settling the Mohammedan affairs in 1831 Ch'ang-ling was given the high honorary title of Grand Tutor. He returned to Peking in 1832. Three years later he received a complete set of eight engravings depicting the memorable scenes of his campaign in Chinese Turkestan, entitled 平定囘疆戰圖 P'ing-ting Hui-chiang chan-t'u. The official history of the campaign, entitled P'ing-ting Hui-chiang chiao-ch'in ni-i fang-lüeh (剿擒逆裔方略) 80 + 6 chüan, was completed in 1830 but was not printed until years later. In 1837, on his eightieth birthday, his dukedom was raised to the first class. He died on the following Chinese New Year's Day and was given many posthumous honors, including the name, Wên-hsiang 文襄 and commemoration in the Temple of Eminent Statesmen. He left an account of his life, entitled 長文襄公年譜 Ch'ang Wên-hsiang kung nien-p'u, 4 chüan, which was printed in 1841 by his son, Kuei-lun 桂輪. The family studio bore the name, Kuei-ts'ung t'ang 桂叢堂.

Ch'ang-ling's only brother, Hui-ling 惠齡 (1743–1804, posthumous name, Ch'in-hsiang 勤襄), was governor-general of Szechwan where he took part in the campaign against the Gurkas (see under Fu-k'ang-an). Later he fought against the White Lily Sect in Hupeh. His last post was governor-general of Shensi and Kansu (1801–04), and after his death he was given the hereditary rank of a baron of the second class. Owing to the fact that his son and heir, Kuei-pin 桂斌, was killed in 1826 at Khotan when the insurgents under Jehangir took that city, the hereditary rank was raised to the first class.

[Ch'ang Wên-hsiang kung nien-p'u; 1/373/1a; 2/36/1a; 7/22/29a; 11/42/48b; 1/351/2b; Tung-hua-lu, Tao-kuang; 新疆圖志 Hsin-chiang t'u-chih (1923).]

Fang Chao-ying