Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Chao Shên-ch'iao

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CHAO Shên-ch'iao 趙申喬 (T. 慎旃, H. 松伍), July 21, 1644–1720, Nov. 21, official, was a native of Wu-chin, Kiangsu, and a descendant of the Sung imperial family. His father, Chao Chi-ting 趙繼鼎 (T. 取新, H. 止安, 1607–1673), was a chin-shih of 1640, who after a short career as an official, retired in 1642 to spend his later life in teaching, one of his pupils being a son of Chin Pao [q. v.]. During Chao Shên-ch'iao's youth his family was poor but he succeeded in taking his chin-shih in 1670 and after a lapse of eleven years received appointment as magistrate of Shang-ch'iu, Honan. In 1688 he was promoted to a second-class assistant secretary in the Board of Punishments. After another promotion he asked for leave in 1694 on grounds of illness. Granted an audience with the emperor in 1701, he was appointed financial commissioner of Chekiang, on the recommendation of Li Kuang-ti [q. v.], governor of Chihli. Before taking office he swore that he would be incorruptible and lived up to his word. In 1702 he was rewarded with the governorship of Chekiang, and that same year he was ordered to proceed to Hunan to investigate a rebellion of the Miao 苗 tribes which occurred early in 1700, but had not been properly reported to the throne by local officials. The investigation, conducted by Chao and two others, resulted in the removal of several officials of that region, including Kuo Hsiu [q. v.], governor-general of Hukuang.

Early in 1703, Chao Shên-ch'iao was transferred to the governorship of Hunan (a post then called p'ien-yüan hsün-fu 偏沅巡撫 but known after 1723 as Hunan hsün-fu). Hilda 席爾達 (d. 1706) was given command of troops to suppress, with the assistance of Chao and others, those Miao who still held out. Their forts in the mountainous region of Ch'ien-chou and Fêng-huang were soon taken and the rebellion was bloodily suppressed in 1704. The Miao submitted temporarily to Chinese jurisdiction and to taxation, but the unrest, induced by their miserable economic condition, continued throughout the Ch'ing dynasty. Chao remained at his post until early in 1711 when he was promoted to the presidency of the Censorate. Soon after taking this office he accused Tai Ming-shih [q. v.] of writings prejudicial to the ruling dynasty—and for this Tai was executed.

In 1713 Chao Shên-ch'iao was sent to Kwangtung to supervise famine relief, and later in the year was made president of the Board of Revenue. Though he himself was incorruptible, his second son, Chao Fêng-chao 趙鳳詔, proved not to be so. The latter, when prefect of Taiyuanfu, was accused in 1715 of taking bribes amounting to more than 300,000 taels silver, and for this offense was executed in 1718. Chao Shên-ch'iao begged repeatedly to be retired, but was ordered to remain at his post until his death which occurred in 1720. He was given the posthumous name, Kung-i 恭毅. As an official Chao Shên-ch'iao was unpopular, but was upheld by Emperor Shêng-tsu because he was strict with himself. In 1730 his name was ordered to be celebrated in the Temple of Eminent Statesmen.

His collected works, entitled 趙恭毅公賸稿 Chao Kung-i kung shêng-kao, in 8 chüan, were printed in 1737 by a grandson, Chao T'ung-hsüeh 趙侗斆 (T. 景羅). The eldest son of Chao Shên-ch'iao, named Chao Hsiung-chao 趙熊詔 (T. 侯赤, H. 裘萼), was the chuang-yüan or highest chin-shih of 1709. The latter's collected prose and verse, in 4 chüan, entitled 趙裘萼公賸稿 Chao Ch'iu-o kung shêng-kao, were printed in 1737.

[1/269/7b; 3/54/1a; 18/9/6a; 武進陽湖合志 Wu-chin Yang-hu ho-chih (1886) 22/30b, 24/93a; 湖南通志 Hunan t'ung-chih (1885) 84/5b–12b.]

Fang chao-ying