Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Hung Hsiu-ch'üan

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HUNG Hsiu-ch'üan 洪秀全 (T. 仁珅), 1813-1864, June, leader of the Taiping Rebellion, was a native of Hua-hsien, Kwangtung, the third son of a poor Hakka 客家 family. His childhood name was Huo-hsiu 火秀, his grandfather was known as Hung Kuo-yu 洪國游 and his father as Hung Ching-yang 洪鏡揚 (d. 1848, age 73 sui). Early in life he showed aptitude for study, and through the combined efforts of his family was able to spend his youth in school. Later he was forced by poverty to earn a living as a teacher, competing at intervals in the official examinations without success. During the provincial examination at Canton in 1836 a set of nine Christian tracts came into his hands, but he did not then examine them with care. In 1837 he again competed in the examinations at Canton and again failed. For years his relatives had been confidently expecting him to secure a degree and obtain official appointment, hoping by this means to improve the family's circumstances. Discouraged by his repeated failures, Hung became ill (1837) and was for some time confined to his bed. In this illness he professed to have had visions in which he felt himself transported to heaven into the presence of a venerable old man. The latter tearfully complained to Hung that the human race, which he had created, was worshipping demons instead of its Creator. He then gave Hung a sword with which to annihilate the demons, and a seal by which he could overcome evil spirits. During similar visitations, recurring over a period of about forty days, he often met a middle-aged man, designated by him as Elder Brother, who instructed him in the extermination of demons. For six years after his illness Hung Hsiu-ch'üan continued to teach in village schools, and it was probably at this time that he was a fortune teller, wandering through Kwangtung and Hunan. Although his manner was dignified, his remarks were often peculiar and eccentric.

In 1843 the Christian tracts which had been given Hung Hsiu-ch'üan in 1836 were borrowed by his cousin, surnamed Li. These nine tracts, bearing the general title, 勸世良言 Ch'üan-shih liang-yen, "Good Words Exhorting the Age", were written by the first Chinese Protestant convert, Liang A-fa 梁阿發 (1789–1855), and after revision by Morrison (see under Jung Hung) were printed at Canton in 1832. They contained translations or paraphrases of many chapters in the Bible and a number of essays and sermons on the Scriptures. Upon returning the books, Hung's cousin commented on their extraordinary contents and Hung Hsiu-ch'üan himself then carefully read them for the first time. He professed to find in them the key to his visions of seven years previously and concluded that the aged man of his visions was God the Father; that the middle-aged man, his Heavenly Elder Brother, was Jesus; and that he himself was a son of God, second only to Jesus in power and glory, thus completing a new trinity. He also believed himself called through revelations to destroy demons and pagan idols, and to restore the worship of the true God.

When Hung Hsiu-ch'üan and his cousin Li had baptized each other Hung began to preach. Soon he had made two converts: Hung Jên-kan [q. v.], his relative, and Fêng Yün-shan 馮雲山 (1822–1852), his neighbor and schoolmate. In a short time Hung Hsiu-ch'üan's and Hung Jên-kan's parents, wives, and children were also converted. As the destruction of idols in their native village met with resistance Hung Hsiu-ch'üan and Fêng Yün-shan set out in 1844 to preach in Kwangsi, supporting themselves by peddling pens and ink. Hung returned to Hua-hsien in the winter of 1844 and spent the following two years (1845–46) in teaching and in writing religious discourses and odes. Fêng, in the meantime, made his headquarters at Tzŭ-chin shan 紫金山 or 'Thistlemount', about fifty li north of Kuei-p'ing, Kwangsi. During the next few years he made thousands of converts, chiefly among the Hakka peasants and the Miao aborigines, and organized the religious society known as 拜上帝會 Pai Shang-ti Hui or Association of God Worshippers. For about two months in 1847 he was in Canton receiving instruction from an American missionary, Reverend Issachar J. Roberts 羅孝全 (1802–1871). He left, however, without being baptized. In July 1847 he again set out for Kwangsi where he found Fêng Yün-shan in prison for the destruction of idols. In a short time, however, Fêng was set free. Here Hung was welcomed by the local converts as their leader. Although it was pointed out to Hung and Fêng that the Christianity they preached was based on their private interpretations of a small part of the Bible, they zealously continued to preach. The new doctrine spread rapidly from 'Thistlemount' to neighboring districts, but it was not long before it assumed a political aspect.

The defeat of China by England in the Anglo-Chinese War (1840–42) had disclosed the weakness of the Manchu troops and the corruption of the imperial government. Owing to the oppression of the poverty-stricken peasants by landlords, and because of the great famines in South China in 1847 and 1849, many bandits appeared, particularly in the mountainous province of Kwangsi, and presently made it impossible for the officials to maintain order. The local inhabitants and the Hakkas and Miaos organized each their own militia to protect their group since they could not get along harmoniously with each other. As the God Worshippers were chiefly composed of Hakkas and Miaos the result was a division of the group into two camps consisting of God-worshipping militia and non-Christian militia. These had frequent conflicts with each other but victory usually fell to the former because of their better organization. For this reason members of the secret anti-Manchu society known variously as T'ien-ti Hui 天地會 or 添地會, San-tien Hui 三點會, San-ho Hui 三和會, Hung-mên Hui 洪門會, or "Triad Society"—which aimed at the destruction of the reigning dynasty—asked to join the God Worshippers. Thus a religious movement, together with an intense anti-dynastic sentiment and the desire for an agrarian revolution, combined to initiate the Taiping Rebellion. The plans for the rebellion were formed by Hung Hsiu-ch'üan and five other chiefs: the above-mentioned Fêng Yün-shan; Yang Hsiu-ch'ing [q. v.]; Hsiao Ch'ao-kuei 蕭朝貴 (d. 1852), brother-in-law of Hung, a farmer and native of Wu-hsüan, Kwangsi; Wei Ch'ang-hui 韋昌輝 (original name 韋正 d. 1856), a native of Kuei-p'ing Kwangsi, an educated man who had had experience in transacting business with local officials; and the warrior, Shih Ta-k'ai [q. v.]. Presumably none but these six were cognizant of the plans.

In July 1850 the Taiping Rebellion broke out in the village of Chin-t'ien-ts'un 金田村, at 'Thistlemount'. All God Worshippers were ordered to withstand the government troops. In order to force them to follow their chiefs to any destination, without thought of their families, their homes were destroyed, and all movable property was delivered to a general treasury from which they shared alike—the circumstance of sharing all in common inspiring thousands of poor Hakkas to join the revolt. Soon the pirate, Lo Ta-kang 羅大綱 (d. 1856, some sources say 1855), a native of Chieh-yang, Kwangtung, joined the insurgents with his followers. The force quickly rose to about 10,000 men who believed Hung Hsiu-ch'üan had been appointed by Heaven to be their leader. Since they were forbidden by their tenets to cut off their hair, they came to be designated Ch'ang Mao Tsei 長毛賊 or "Long-haired Banditti". As the governor of Kwangsi failed to stem their advance, the Court sent imperial troops, as well as militia and high commanders, to the front (see under Hsiang Jung). But as these commanders had no co-ordinated policy, Hung Hsiu-ch'üan was able to expand his activities from Kuei-p'ing to the neighboring districts of Kuei-hsien, Wu-hsüan, P'ing-nan, and Hsiang-chou.

On September 25, 1851 the Taipings took Yung-an and there Hung was unanimously declared T'ien-wang 天王, Celestial King of the T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo 太平天國 "Celestial Kingdom of Peace," the year 1851 being the first year of the new dynasty. Hung was said to have offered the highest rank to each of the other five chiefs, and that only after they had declared their full submission to his authority did he accept his own title. The other five chiefs were made wang (王, kings or princes, see under Yang Hsiu-ch'ing). Thus Yang Hsiu-ch'ing was made Eastern King, chief Minister of State and generalissimo in control of all territory in the east; Hsiao Ch'ao-kuei, Western King, second Minister of State and assistant generalissimo with control of all regions in the west; Fêng Yün-shan, Southern King and general of the advance guard; Wei Ch'ang-hui, Northern King and general of the rear guard; and Shih Ta-k'ai, Assistant King (翼王) to aid in sustaining the Celestial Court. Other chiefs were designated ministers, commanders, and so on.

At Yung-an the Taipings were besieged by the government forces from the winter of 1851 to April 6, 1852 when they escaped the siege. According to Ch'ing official accounts, there was a rebel leader named Hung Ta-ch'üan 洪大全, a co-sovereign with the Celestial King with the title T'ien Tê Wang 天德王, who was captured at this time and was later executed in Peking (1852, age 30 sui). The Taipings fled from Yung-an to Kuei-lin, capital of Kwangsi, which they attacked in vain for thirty-one days (April 18–May 19, 1852). Finally they abandoned Kuei-lin and proceeded northward to Hsing-an (May 22) and thence to Ch'üan-chou (June 3) where they intended to go northward by boats dong the Hsiang River to Hunan. But their progress was hindered by an engagement with the imperial forces in which Fêng Yin-shan was killed (June 1852).

Thereafter the Taipings altered their plans and proceeded to Hunan overland. They took Yung-chou (June 9), Tao-chou (June 12), and several other cities in south Hunan where thousands of bandits and poor peasants joined the revolt. On August 16 they went to Ch'ên-chou from where Hsiao Ch'ao-kuei led a detachment against Changsha, beginning September 11, 1852. Hsiao was wounded on October 5, and died soon after. Hung Hsiu-ch'üan and his main force at Ch'ên-chou were then assembled at Changsha which they furiously attacked by means of tunnels and mines. But their efforts proved fruitless because both government troops and militia had concentrated for the defense of the city. For the encouragement of his disheartened soldiers, Hung presently declared that he had obtained from Heaven a state seal made of jade, and his followers were ordered to salute him with the words Wan sui 萬歲 "[Lord of] Ten Thousand Years"—a salutation used only for an emperor. On November 30, 1852 the siege was abandoned and the insurgents moved northward to Yochow which they took December 13, 1852. There they are reported to have uncovered a great store of munitions and cannon that had been sequestered by Wu San-kuei [q. v.] in the 17th century. Before long they occupied Wuchang (January 12–February 9, 1853), after which they were forced to move eastward along the Yangtze with half a million followers, including women and children. Meeting no great resistance, they took Kiukiang (February 18, 1853) and Anking (February 24). Nanking was entirely in their hands by March 19–21. In order to cut off communications of the government troops they also took Chinkiang (March 30) and Yangchow (April 1). About ten days after the fall of Nanking imperial troops under Hsiang Jung [q. v.] reached that city. This large force, quartered in the East Suburb and known as the Great Camp of Kiangnan (see under Hsiang Jung), harassed the Taipings in their capital from 1853 until 1860, with a short set-back in 1856–58 (see under Hsiang Jung). Another detachment of imperial cavalry and infantry from North China, quartered on the outskirts of Yangchow, was known as the Great Camp of Kiangpei (see under Tê-hsing-a). This force combatted the Taipings round Yangchow in the years 1853-58. After establishing Nanking as his Celestial Capital, known as T'ien-ching 天京, Hung Hsiu-ch'üan dispatched one expedition to North China (see under Lin Fêng-hsiang) and sent another westward to retake Anhwei, Kiangsi, Hupeh and Hunan. Though the northern expedition forced its way from Kiangsu through Anhwei, Honan, Shansi and Chihli, and even to within twenty miles of Tientsin, it was finally suppressed (1855) by Sêng-ko-lin-ch'in [q. v.]. The western campaign also met a stubborn rival in Tsêng Kuo-fan [q. v.], who eventually suppressed the Taiping Rebellion.

Tsêng Kuo-fan was ordered, at the end of 1852, to organize the Hunan Army. On February 25, 1854 he mobilized his newly organized force and pushed the Taipings from Hunan to Hupeh, and in October 1854 from the latter province to Kiukiang in Kiangsi. But in 1855 the rebels reasserted their power. Taking Wuchang for the third time, on April 3, 1855, they overran Hupeh and Kiangsi. In 1856, however, fortune favored Tsêng who recovered Wuchang on December 19, and again forced the Taipings back to Kiukiang. Nevertheless the imperialist forces under Hsiang Jung were crushingly defeated near Nanking on August 9—a turn of events of great significance to the Taipings. Their victory was followed, however, by a series of murders among themselves. The generalissimo, Yang Hsiu-ch'ing, was particularly proud of his accomplishments, and attempted to usurp the position of Hung Hsiu-ch'üan (see under Yang Hsiu-ch'ing). Hung ordered the Northern King, Wei Ch'ang-hui, and the Assistant King, Shih Ta-k'ai, to assassinate Yang (September 3, 1856). But Wei went beyond his orders, and not only killed Yang but mercilessly slaughtered thousands of Yang's relatives and adherents. He then in turn became haughty and arrogant and tried to murder Shih Ta-k'ai, and even dared to kill the Celestial King's own bodyguards. Before long he himself was murdered by Hung. Apprehensive of further murders, Hung relieved Shih Ta-k'ai of his military power and put it in the hands of his near relatives. Shih left the court with an enormous number of followers and set out on his own account, roving through Anhwei, Kiangsi, Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung, Hunan, Kwangsi, Kweichow, Yunnan and finally Szechwan where he was captured and executed (1863). These dissentions naturally weakened the Taiping resistance.

After the death of Yang, Hung Hsiu-ch'üan placed his own relatives in positions of importance in the government. Affairs of state were taken over by his elder brothers, Hung Jên-fa 洪仁發 (Prince An 安王, d. Aug. 5, 1864), and Hung Jên-ta 洪仁達 (Prince Fu 福王, d. Aug. 3, 1864); by his cousin, Hung Jên-chêng 洪仁政 (Prince Hsü 䘏王, d. Nov. 23, 1864), and by Hung Jên-kan, Prince Kan or Kan Wang, the "Shield King" of Western accounts. These were known as the four Hung princes who, though incompetent, were nevertheless powerful. In military matters Hung Hsiu-ch'üan had to rely on the talented Li Hsiu-ch'êng and Ch'ên Yü-ch'êng [qq. v.]. Hung himself is said to have led a carefree existence in the seclusion of his palace attended by numerous concubines.

Owing to the strife in their own ranks, the Taipings could not press the advantages that accrued to them with the defeat of Hsiang Jung (1856). Instead, they lost Kua-chou and Chinkiang in northern Kiangsu—both on the same day (December 27, 1857). In the spring of 1858 the reorganized imperialists of the Great Camp of Kiangnan, commanded by Chang Kuo-iang (see under Hsiang Jung), again attacked Nanking. On May 19 Tsêng Kuo-fan's forces recovered Kiukiang. Hung, now frightened, urgently summoned (1858) his generals to relieve Nanking, but for a year none came, as they were engaged in serious fighting elsewhere. In order to retain the loyalty of important generals, he created (1859) hundreds of new wang, the two most important being Ch'ên Yü-ch'êng who was made Ying Wang, or Brave Prince, and Li Hsiu-ch'êng who was made Chung Wang, Loyal Prince. Before long Li was made commander-in-chief, a move believed by some to have protracted the Rebellion. Under Li Hsiu-ch'êng's command the Taipings conclusively defeated the imperialists near Nanking on May 5, 1860 and harried Tsêng Kuo-fan at Ch'i-men 1860–61. They conquered Soochow (June 2, 1860), Ningpo (December 9, 1861) and the greater part of Kiangsu and Chekiang by the spring of 1862. Meanwhile they repeatedly attacked Shanghai in 1860 and 1862 (see under Li Hsiu-ch'êng).

The Taiping Rebellion finally failed owing to the united opposition of the privileged classes who were Confucianists, and owing to the help offered the imperial forces by Western powers. Moreover, the insurgents were themselves weakened by internal dissention and by lack of competent leaders. At first, Westerners displayed a measure of sympathy for the rebels; then for a time they were neutral, but finally, in order to maintain their commercial interests and to safeguard the privileges gained from the Manchu government in the treaties of 1860 (see under I-hsin), they actually sided with the latter. Li Hsiu-ch'êng's attack on Shanghai was frustrated chiefly by Western troops. The Taiping rule in Chekiang was eventually stamped out by Tso Tsung-t'ang [q. v.], and in Kiangsu by Li Hung-chang [q. v.]. The territory west of Nanking was taken by Tsêng Kuo-fan who took Anking on September 5, 1861 and caused the death of the valiant Taiping general, Ch'ên Yü-ch'êng, in May 1862—this last a heavy loss to the insurgents. The second siege of Nanking was begun by Tsêng Kuo-ch'üan [q. v.] on May 31, 1862 and terminated successfully on July 19, 1864.

In the meantime Hung Hsiu-ch'üan placed his trust in what he believed to be divine guidance. When Li Hsiu-ch'êng urged him to retreat from Nanking to Kiangsi and Hupeh he declined on the ground that it was Heaven's will for him to remain at his capital. When he was advised to lay in supplies for a long siege he likewise refused on the ground that God would certainly provide. When there was nothing to eat in the besieged city he commanded everyone to take "sweet dew"—which meant grass. Then he distributed his pearls to his soldiers in order to hearten them, but the soldiers wept, for they could not exchange pearls for food. Finally Hung Hsiu-ch'üan himself, assailed by vexation and illness and fearful of defeat, committed suicide by taking poison on June 1 (some accounts say 2, 3, 30), 1864, not long before the fall of the city. He was succeeded by his son, Hung Fu 洪福 (or 洪福瑱, childhood name 洪天貴 and later called 洪天貴福, Nov. 1849–1864, Nov. 18), with Hung Jên-kan as regent. The young king, assisted in part by Li Hsiu-ch'êng, finally escaped to Kiangsi where he was arrested and executed at Nanchang (see under Hung Jên-kan). Meanwhile Hung Hsiu-ch'üan's corpse, wrapped in yellow satin embroidered with dragons, was found (July 30, 1864) in a sewer under his palace. He is described as rather tall with oval face and fair complexion, high nose, small round ears, and large, bright eyes. He had a clear and sonorous voice. His corpse was seen by Tsêng Kuo-fan who said that he was partially bald, and that he had a sparse gray beard. Though thousands upon thousands of rebels were mercilessly slaughtered by Tsêng's troops over a period of three days and nights, not one surrendered to the government. The remnants who fled concentrated in Kwangtung and were not annihilated until early in 1866 (see under Hung Jên-kan). Thus the Taiping Rebellion which lasted fifteen years and ravaged seventeen provinces was finally ended. The great jade seal of the Celestial King is now preserved in the Palace Museum, Peking.

Despite his incessant wars, Hung Hsiu-ch'üan, aided by Yang Hsiu-ch'ing, Hung Jên-kan and others, inaugurated many reforms, inspired mostly by ancient Chinese ideals, and by what they regarded as Christian precepts. A new lunar calendar, a compromise between Eastern and Western ideas, was put into use in 1852. The year had 366 days and 12 months, the odd months containing 31 days and the even 30 days. All lucky or unlucky days of the old Chinese calendars were discarded, and a Western Sunday was introduced. The governmental system had all the characteristics of a theocracy, the Celestial King being both the spiritual and temporal ruler. The five kings were both civil and military chiefs who acted in council with their leader. Six Boards were established, including one for foreign affairs. The kings (wang) were divided into four classes and below them were marquesses (侯), state ministers (丞相), supervisors (檢點), commanders (指揮), generals (將軍), and so on. Officials were selected by a civil service examination in which religious subjects had a place. The organization of the army was very elaborate, and the rules governing the soldiers in camp or on the march were very strict. Families were graded in a co-ordinated system which took into account the exigencies both of peace and war. Strict rules for the allotment or cultivation of land were also laid down. Women were allowed positions in the army and in the administrative system, though the sexes were rigidly segregated. Women were under the command of the Celestial King's sister, Hung Hsüan-chiao 洪宣嬌, wife of the King of the West, Hsiao Ch'ao-kuei. When Hsiao died in the attack on Changsha (1852) his wife is said to have assumed the command of his troops. After the seizure of Nanking (1853) we have only meager accounts of the activities of women soldiers, but there was (in Nanking) a great camp of women (女館 or 女行) composed chiefly of those whose husbands had died or were absent, or those who were young or unmarried. This camp, probably organized for their protection, was strictly governed by Hung Hsüan-chiao and rigidly protected from outside interference. When Nanking was short of food the camp was disbanded and the women were compelled to leave the city. Marriage in the Taiping regime was compulsory for all classes of women. Monogamy was the rule for the common people; but the leaders, like Hung Hsiu-ch'üan and Yang Hsiu-ch'ing and others, were said to have had many wives or concubines. Prostitution, footbinding and the sale of slaves were prohibited, as were opium smoking, adultery, witchcraft, gambling and the use of tobacco and wine.

According to a general list of Taiping official publications approved by imperial order (旨准頒行詔書總目 1853) there were twenty-nine titles published in Nanking. In addition to this list three more works have come to light in recent years, issued in the late period of the Taiping régime. Many specimens of these are in the Library of Congress. About half of them are pamphlets liberally interspersed with religious sentiments, hymns, poems, essays, etc., while the other half are edicts or governmental documents. The most interesting, from a religious point of view, are the 三字經 San-tzŭ ching, or Trimetrical Classic (1853), and the 幼學詩 Yu-hsüeh shih, or Ode for Youth (1852), written in imitation of old Chinese primers, but designed to inculcate the essentials of supposedly Christian doctrine. Another, entitled 天條書 T'ien-t'iao shu, or "Book of Heavenly Precepts" (1852), gives the Taiping Ten Commandments; and the 天父詩 T'ien fu shih (1857) contains 500 hymns. Of the political books, the 天命詔旨書 T'ien-ming chao-chih shu (1852), gives important decrees and orders of the Taiping campaign from Kwangsi to Changsha; the 太平軍目 T'ai-p'ing chün-mu (1852) and the 行軍總要 Hsing-chün tsung-yao (1855) deal with military organization and tactics; the 太平禮制 T'ai-p'ing li-chih (1852) with ceremonial regulations; and the 天朝田畝制度 T'ien-ch'ao t'ien-mu chih-tu (1853) concerns the land and the administrative system—a kind of constitution of the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace. Though Hung Hsiu-ch'üan is said to have been in youth a prolific writer on religious subjects, it is difficult to affirm with certainty which of these publications were written by him or, if so, how much they were revised. Some of the poems and essays attributed to him appear in the following works: 太平天國詩文鈔 T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo shih-wên ch'ao (1930); T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo chao-yü (詔諭) (1935), and T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo tsa-chi (雜記) (1935). Some of Hung's writings in the last-mentioned work have been translated into English in the T'ien Hsia Monthly (vol. I, no. 4, November 1935). Many Taiping documents were translated by Walter Henry Medhurst (see under Wang T'ao) under the title "Pamphlets issued by the Chinese Insurgents at Nanking..." (Shanghai, 1853).

[1/481/1a; Li Hsiu-ch'êng [q. v.], Li Hsiu-ch'êng Kung-chuang; T'ai-p'ing T'ien-jih 太平天日 in I-ching 逸經, no. 13. 14, 16 (1936); Theodore Hamberg, The Vision of Hung-Siu-Tshuen and Origin of the Kwang-si Insurrection, lithophotographed edition with a Chinese translation by Chien Yu-wên 簡又文 under the title 太平天國起義記 T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo ch'i-i chi (1935); Ch'êng Yên-shêng 程演生, T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo shih-liao ti-i chi (史料第一集) (1926); Liu Fu 劉復, T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo yu-ch'ü wên-chien (有趣文件) (1926); T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo wên-shu (文書) (1933); Hsiao I-shan 蕭一山, T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo ts'ung-shu (1936); Ling Shan-ch'ing 凌善清, T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo yeh-shih (野史) (1923); Chung-kuo chin-pai-nien shih tzŭ-liao, first collection 1931, second collection 1933 (see under Li Hsiu-ch'êng); Chien Yu-wên 遊洪秀全故鄉所得到的太平天國新史料 in I-ching, no. 2 (1936); Chang Tê-chien 張德堅, 賊情彙纂 Tsei-ch'ing hui-tsuan (1855); Chiao-p'ing Yüeh-fei fang-lüeh (see under I-hsin); P'ing-ting Yüeh-fei chi-lüeh (see under Kuan-wên); Hsiang-chün chih and Hsiang-chün chi (for both see bibliography under Tsêng Kuo-fan); Charles MacFarlane, The Chinese Revolution (London, 1853); J. M. Callery and M. Yüan, History of the Insurrection in China, translated from the French by John Oxenford (London, 1853); J. Milton Mackie, Life of Tai-ping-wang (New York, 1857); Lin-le [A. F. Lindley], Ti-ping Tien-kwoh (London, 1866), with translations of some Taiping documents; Chinese translation of above, entitled T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo wai-chi (外紀) (1915); Robert. J. Forrest, "The Christianity of Hung Tsiu-Tsuen" in the Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, no. IV (1867); William J. Hail, Tsêng Kuo-fan and the Taiping Rebellion (New Haven, 1927); G. E. Taylor, "The Taiping Rebellion, its Economic Background and Social Theory", in Chinese Social and Political Science Review, vol. XVI, no. 4 (1933); Nohara Shirō 野原四郎, 太平天國の亂, in 世界歷史大系 Sekairekishitaikei, vol. 9 (1934); Toriyama Kiichi 鳥山喜一, 太平天國亂の本質 in 東方文化史叢考 Tōhō bunka-shi sōkō (1935); Hsieh Hsing-yao 謝興堯, T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo shih-shih lun-ts'ung (史事論叢) (1935); J. S. M. Ward and W. G. Stirling, The Hung Society or The Society of Heaven and Earth (London, 1925-26); Hsiao I-shan 蕭一山, 近代秘密社會史料 Chin-tai pi-mi shê-hui shih-liao (1935); Kuo T'ing-i 郭廷以, 太平天 國曆法考訂 T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo li-fa k'ao-ting (1937), pp. 75–7.]

Têng Ssŭ-yü