Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Harzburg
HARZBURG, or Neustadt-Harzburg, the chief town of an office in the Brunswick circle of Wolfenbiittel, Prussia, is situated 727 feet above sea-level on the right bank of the Radau, a tributary of the Ocker, and at the terminus of the Brunswick-Harzburg Railway, 5 miles E.S.E. from Goslar and 18 miles 8. from Wolfenbiittel. The opening of the railway has made the Harzburg route a principal one for persons visiting the Harz, and the town is also much frequented as a summer residence. It possesses a saltwater bath and also a hydropatlic establishment. A mile and a half south from the town lies the Burgberg, 1500 feet above sea-level, on whose summit, according to tradition, there was at one time an altar to the heathen idvl Krodo, still to be seen in the Ulrich chapel at Goslar. There are now on the summit of the hill a hotel, the remains of an old castle, and a monument erected in 1875 to the honour of Prince Bismarck, with an inscription taken from one of his speeches against the Ultramontane claims of Rome— "Nach Canossa gehen wir nicht." The population of Harzburg in 1875, including the villages of Biindheim, Schulenrode, and Schlewecke, was 4271.
The castle was built by the emperor Henry LV. between 1065 and 1069, but was Jaid in ruins by the Saxons about 1080. By Frederick I. it was granted to Henry the Lion, who caused it to be rebuilt with great splendour about 1180. It was a frequent residence of Otto IV., who died at it, and by his will granted it to the counts of Woldenberg. After being frequently besieged and taken, it finally, after the battle of Miihlberg in 1546, passed to the house of Brunswick. It ceased to be of importance as a foriress after the Thirty Years' War, and gradually fell into ruins.
See Delius, Untersuchungen iber die Geschichte der Harzbura, Yalherstadt, 31826; Dommes, Marzburg and seine Umogebung, Goslar, 1862; Holmstein, Die Harzbury nach Sage und Geschichte, Brunswick, 1878.