Encyclopaedia Biblica/Baruch (Book of)-Bells

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BARUCH, Book of[edit]

A short book which in the LXX is placed immediately after Jeremiah, and is reckoned by the Roman Catholic Church as one of the so-called dcutero-canonical writings.

1. contents[edit]

Its contents may be summarised as follows :

(Chap. 1 1-2. ) The book is said to ha\ e been written by Baruch the son of Neriah at Babylon

j^^ ^j^^ ^^^^^ y^^^. ^^ ^j^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ j^^_

Jerusalem was burned by the Chaldeans.

(Chap. I3-14. ) Baruch reads his book in the presence of Jeconiah [i.e. , Jehoiachin), the son of Jchoiakim, king of Judah, and in the presence of the other Jewish e.xiles who dwell at Babylon by the river Sud ( lovh [?]). After mourning and fasting, they send money to Jerusalem to the priest Jehoiakim ('Itoa/cet/i), the son of Hilkiah, com- manding him to offer sacrifices in lx"half of Nubuchodo- nosor (Nebuchadrezzar) king of Babylon and his son Belshazzar, in order that Israel may find ntercy. .\t the same time, the Jewish e.xiles send the following book, which is to be read publicly on feast days in the Temple.

(Chaps. 1 15-38. ) This section is a confession of sin, put into the mouth of Israel and accompanied by prayers that God will at length pardon his people whom he has so justly punished. Special stress is laid upon the sin which the people committed in refusing to serve the king of Babylon, notwithstanding the solemn injunctions of the prophets.

(Chaps. 39-59. ) Now follows a discourse addres.setl to the Israelites dispersed among the Clentiles. It begins by showing that the calamities of the people are due to their having forsaken God, the only source of wisdom, and 'then proceeds to console them with promises of restoration Jerusalem will be gloriously re-establishe<l for ever and ever, and the oppressors of Israel are to be humbled to the dust.

2. integrity.[edit]

It will be seen that the book is very far from present- ing the appearance of an organic unity. After the

_ .. heading of chap. 1, ' These are the words

^^ ^^^ ,^^j. ^^.^;^j^ Baruch wrote,' etc.. 

we might e.xpect the bt>ok itself to follow immediately ; but, instead of this, we have a long account of the effect produced upon the people by the reading of the book. Nor are we clearly informed whether ' the book ' sent

1 Schwally, ;?/<r/r8 2i7.

by the Jewish exiles to Jerusalem (1 14). which they cite at full length in tlu- following section (1 is-38), is or is not identical with ' the hook ' written by Haruch. Moreover, the historical situation descril)e<l in the narrative (l3-3) does not agree very well with the sub- sec|ucnt portion, since the narrative assumes the con- tinued existence of the temple, whereas 2 26 implies its destruction, l-'inally, the discourse which occupies all the latter half of the book lx.'gins quite abruptly and stands in no definite relation to what precedes : it pre- supposes, indeed, the dispersion of Israel ; but to Haruch aiifl to the s[)ccial circumstances of the liabylonian captivity tiiere is no allusion.

To these general considerations may l)e added several difliculties of detail. The date given in 1 2 is so ob- scurely worded that several modern conunentators [e.g. , I'.wald and Kiieucker) have felt oblijjvd to emend the text. Kven if the omission of the month >k; explained, we still have to decide whether ' the fifth year ' means the fifth year of Jcconiah's captivity or the fifth year after the burning of Jcrusalen) ; and to both views there are .serious objections. Chap. 18 disturbs the sense, and if it be genuine must originally have stood in some other place.

3. Origin.[edit]

Though the Book of Haruch never formed part of the Hebrew Canon (for which reason Jerome excluded it from his Latin translation of the Bible), it was regarded as authentic by many of the Christian fathers, from the second century onwards. Sometimes, owing to the place which it occupies in the LXX, it is cited as a part of Jeremiah. I-".ven in quite recent times, it has been maintained by Roman Catholic theologians that the book is a translation of a genuine work of the well-known Haruch, the friend and secretary of the prophet Jeremiah. .\11 competent critics, however, have long ago concluded that it dates from a very nmch later period, and belongs to the large class of Jewish books which were put forth under false names. Its origin and history remain, how- ever, in some respects obscure. That 1 15-!? 8 and 89- 5g are by different authors is generally acknowledged : Ixjth in substance and in style there is a marked con- trast, the language of the former section tx-ing simple and full of Hebraisms, while that of the latter is highly rhetorical. The dates of the various parts, however, and the (|uestion whether the whole or any part was originally written in Hebrew are matters about which critics dilTcr. Ewald ascriljed the first half (1 i-38) to a Jew living in Babylonia or Persia under one of the latter Acha-menian kings, and regarded the rest of the lx)ok as having been written soon after the capture of Jerusaleiu by Ptolemy Soter (320 H.c. ) ; 4 32 ICwald explained as a reference to the depwrtation of Jews to Alexandria. Very few critics, however, are now in favour of so e;irly a d.ate. Kneucker thinks that the work, in its original form, was com- posed in the reign of Domitian, and consisted of only the heading [i.e., 1 1 2 in part, 3), and the discourse contained in 89-59 ; the confession of sin (1 15-88) was, according to Kneucker, probably written a little earlier (in any ca.se after the year 73 of our era) as an independent work, and was subsequently inserted into the Hook of Haruch by a scribe, who himself composed I4-14. Schtirer, on the contrary, whilst admitting that the middle of chap. 1 does not harmonise very well with what precedes and follows, thinks it on the whole probable that all the first half of the book (1 i-38) is by the same author, whom he places soon after the destruction of Jerusalem (70 A.I).), the second half lieing by a different hand but of about the same period. With reg.ard to the

original Language, Ewald, Kneucker, and others believe the whole to be a tran.slation from the Hebrew, whilst Bertholdt, Hiivernick, and Noldcke regard the Greek as the primitive text. Fritzsche, Hilgenfeld, Reuss, and Schiirer maintain the theory of a primitive Hebrew text in the ca.se of the first half only. In favour of this hypothesis, it may be mentioned that on the margin of the Syro-Hexaplar text of Haruch tlure are three notes by a scribe .stating that certain words in 1 17 and 23 are 'not found in the Hebrew' (cp Ai'<x.KVi'H.\, 6

4. Historical value.[edit]

As to the question of historical credibility, it is obvious that if, with the majority of critics, we .ascribe the Ixjok to the Roman period, its value as a record

" ^'^"^^ '"* reduced to nothing. Whether,

for example, the statements about Baruch's residence in Babylon, the river i;oi55, and the priest Jehoiakim are based upon any really ancient tradition it is impossible for us to decide. The author of the first h.alf borrows largely from Jeremiah and from Daniel ; in the second half we find many reminiscences of Job and of the latter part of Isaiah ; and it may Ix- that sources now lost also were employed. It is par- ticularly important to observe that the closing passage (4 se-.'jg) Ijears a striking resemblance to one of the pieces in the so-called ' Psalms of .Solomon' (Ps. 11 see the edition of Ryle and James, pp. Ixxii.-lxxiv. ), which prob- ably date from alxjut the middle of the first century H.c. Since there is every reason to believe that the Psalms of Solomon were originally composed in Hebrew (cp APOCALYPTIC, Sj 83), the close verbal agreement sc-ems to indicate th.at the author of this part of Haruch u.sed the Psalms of .Solomon in their present Greek form.

5. Texts and Commentary.[edit]

The most important of iht M.SS containing the Greek text ofI?arucharel!,A,.indthc.M.nrchali.-inus(9). In K this book Is missing. Fritzsche's edition of llie Apocrypha (LiOriafocryphiveteristestaiiientigrtrn, 1871) Aoa not accurately represent the H text of Haruch ; but trustworthy information about this M.S may be obtained fiom Swcte's Septuagint iii., in the pre- paration of which the photograuhic reproduction of H was used.

The ancient versions are (i) the old l^atin, contained in the editions of the Vg.; (2) another Latin version, first published a^ Rome in 1688 l)y Joseph M.iria a Caro 'lonun.asi ; (3) the Old Syriac, eilii,ril !> r.iul de Lagarde in his Lihri vetrris tista- tiwnti ,'. '.ue, i8cii, from a ,M.S in the Hritish

Museiii ; ( t) the Syro-Hexaplar- /.c, the .Syriac

translat I lexaplaric text contained in the Cotlex

.\mbr()-.i VIS rcprotluced in photo -lithography by

Ceriani in 1-71 ; (5) the I'ahiopic- a much abridged form of the text ed. by IJillmann (Herlin 1804) in the 5th vol. of his Vitus 'li-staiuentutii ./Etliiopictim ; (6) the .Armenian, of which the best edition is cont.iined in the .\rmenian Itible published at Venice in 1805 ; (7) the Coptic, edited by Rrugsch in ZA x.-xii.

Of modern commentaries the most valuable are those of FritTsche (in KurTgef. HaitJh., 1851), Reusch (ErkUirung ties Buchs Baruch, 1853), Kwald (Proplutcn lies alien Bumies,i.'i) iii. 1867-68), Kneucker (Das Buck Baruch, 1879), and Gifford (in Wace's Apoctyf"!'**, 1888). The best general .accoimt of the book will be found in .Schiirer iCJl', 1886-00, ii. pp. 721-726, ET). The reader may consult also Hertnoldt (Kinltitung, 1812-19, pt. iv.), Hiivernick (De lihro Baruclii covimentatio critica, 1843), Hitzig (in XUT 3262-273), Hilgenfeld (///>/. 5 199-203, -22437-454, '23412-422), NOldeke (ATliche Lit., 1868, p. 214 n.), Reuss (Cesch. d. hciligen Schri/len ATs.^-) 1890), and the article on this book in Smith's DB,^) 1893 an article valuable chiefly on account of the additions made by Prof. Ryle,

6. Appendices[edit]

In many MSS and printed editions the apocryphal Epislle of

Jeremiah is appended to Baruch, and it is reckoned in the Vg. as

the sixth chapter of the book. The Book of Baruch is not to l>e confounded with the

Apocalypse 0/ Baruch (see Aiocai.yptic LiTERATURK, sff-)- The work known as 'The Rest of the words of Baruch,' ext.-int in CJreek, P^thiopic, and Armenian, seems to be a ChristL-in imitation of the Apocalypse of Haruch. We possess, moreover, a third apocalypse of Baruch extant in Greek and in Slavonic, and a fourth extant only in l-thiopic The Greek text of the former has been published by James in his Apocrypha Anecdota, second series [ '97 )(/V.r/i aw*/. '>7//m, vol. 5, no. 1), where some information will be found also about the Ethiopic apocalypse (Hi.). A. A. B.


C^T")? ; BepreAA[e]i [HXAL]). The meaning can scarcely be ' iron.' for such a name would be without a parallel. According to Nestle (/.DFV 15257; cp Kampfmeyer, ib. 9), the name is .Aramaic ('son of ?'); but the latter part of it is still obscure.

I. A wealthy Gileadite of Rogflim, who Ix^friended David in his flight from Absalom at Mahanaim (a.S. 1727). He refused David's offer to live at the court at Jerusalem, but entrusted to him his son Chimmam {f.v. ; 2 S. 1932^). David on his death recomnu-ndod the sons of Barzillai to Solomon (i K. 27).

2. A Oileadite [see(3)], Ezra 2 61 l>{$fp^t\KaU]i. [h], -AAai [ A))-^^ Neh. 7 63 i^ (-AAa lA])=i Ksd. 5 38 /- (Hkkzki.us, RV Zokzhi.- LEUS, RV'i'B- VHM7.y.l.UMv^; 4>ar)ie\Saiov [H], ^op^tWtov |A]).

3. A man who married one of the daughters of (2) and changed his name to Harzillai.l In post-exilic times the b'ne Karzillai were among those deposed from the priesthood because they were unable to prove their pedigree. In i Ksd. .'138 the original name of the founder of the family is s.iid to have betn Jauuus, AV Anns (laSfious [I?), lO&S. [A]) i.e., Jaddua (cp Jos. An/, xi. 84 ; laSSous) ; but in the parallel p.-\ssages he is simply called Bar- zillai; Ezra26i (^ap/SeA^ei [H], ^ep/SeAAat [A])= Neh. V (3 OepfeAAat [.\]), and so L in i Esd. 5 38 (^p^cAAet). The Siime passage gives Augia as the name of his wife.

4. A man of Abel-meholah (not far, therefore, from Gilead), whose .son .\ukiki, (i/.t.) also has been thought to bear an Aramaic name (2 .S. - 1 k).


(BaaAcoB |A]), i Esd. 531 = Ezra 'J 52. BAZLUTH, q.v


(Backama [ANY]; Backa. Jos. -/;//. xiii. t)), an unknown place, in Gilead, where Jonathan the .\Iaccabee was put to death by Trvpho (i Mace. 1,323). Furrer's identification (/.DPVV2. 151) with /dV/- liazitk on the W. Goramaye (to the IC. of the extreme N. of Lake Tiberias) is precarious (see Buhl, J'al. 241). luiually unsukstantiated is the identification witii Bk- ZKK, i.


For n:i33, .1332. m'khondh, the word em- ])!oyei.I to denote the structure upon which each of Solomon's lavers rested (i K.. 7 27 /: 30 32 m / 7,1 ff- ^'^ / ' 2 K- 1 '7 L'r> 13 16 2 Ch. 4 14, ^itx"*'"'^ [sing, and pi.] ; Jer. 27 (34J ig om. KNA, it.^x'^vuiB [Theod.] ; Jer. 52 17 fia.(T(i.<; [BNQF]), see I.avkr ; also for J3, ken, Ex. 31 9 etc., RV [AV 'foot']. For -t, r.lrc/ck, Ex. 2.53, 37 17 RV [.\V 'shaft'], see Candlfistick, S 2, n. 3 ; and for 3:1, .^r?/', Ezek. 4.i 13 RV, .see Ai.tak, 1 1.


(n!?l"3), Gen. 863 RV ; AV B.xshk-


(Pinil. \\ kmp:n r. >,. 41 S RV. .See G.vbhatha,


1 Name[edit]

(|y'3, always in prose [except iCh.'(2'3], and sometimes also in poetry, with the art. pj-^n : the appellative sense of the word, to judge from the Arab, bitfhaitiat"", was probably ' fertile, rich and stoneless soil' : see Wetzstein, in Del. J/iob^^) [.\pp.], 556/ : 6"'^'- iSao-aj' or i) ^aaave'iTu), the name of the broad and fertile tract of country on the E. of Jordan, bounded (somewhat roughly) on the .S. by the Varmuk and a line passing through l-".dre'i and Salchah (mentioned as torder cities in l)t. 3io), on the !".. by the imposing range of extinct volcanoes called the Jebel H.auran, on the W. by Geshur and .M.a'acah (see Josh. I25), and on the N. stretching out towards Hermon (cp Dt. 8822 : see further, on the limits of Bashan, Guthe, ZDPV, 1890, pp. 231-4). The name (in its Gk. form Maravaia.,- and its Arabic form Bathaiiiyeh'^) was, however, after- wards restricted to the southern portion of the area thus defined, other parts of the ancient ' Bashan ' being dis- tinguished as Tk.Vchomtis [q.v.) i.e., the remarkable pear-shaped volcanic formation in the NE. now called the Leja .\uranitis (probably the Jetiel Hauran and its environs in the SE. ), and (iaulanitis (which, how- ever, may have included parts of Geshur and Ma'acah, beyond the limits of Ba,shan proper) in the West. The principal part of the Bashan of the OT must have been the broad rolling prairie now called by the Be- dawln en-Nukra, a word properly denoting the ' hollow hearth ' dug by the Bedawi in the middle of his tent, and applied to this great plain because, though it is

1 The adoption of the family name of the wife suggests that she was an heiress.

2 See Schurer, GJV 1 353.

3 Wetzstein, Hauran, 83-88, and in the app. to Del. Ih'ob,!!^) 553-558, where it is .shown also that the modern ' 'ard el- Bathanlyeh,' or ' L.and of Bathaniyeh,' is the name of a com- paratively small district N. of the Jebel Hauran and E. of the Leja, which can never (as was supposed bj- Porter and others) have formed part of either Bashan or the province of Baravaia.

some 1800-2000 ft. alx)ve the level of the sea, it forms a depression between the hilly Jaulan (across the Nahr er-Rukkad) on the W. , the Zunileh range on the S. , and the Jebel Hauran and the Leja on the E. :' the S. and SE. part of en-Nukra also bears the special name of Haukan (q.7'.).

2. Character.[edit]

Bashan, as defined above, is distinguished geologically from the country .S. of it. The Yarmuk forms a natural j"^l'"g 1'"^' " '^e S. of which the limestone comes to the surface, while on the N. it is covered by volcanic deposits. Jel)el Hauran, on the .SE. , is simply a range of extinct vol- canoes ; volcanic peaks extend from N. to .S. in Jaul.an, along the edge of the Jordan valley, on the W. ;2 and there are isolated volcanic hills in other parts of the country. The Leja, that strange ' petrified ocean ' NW. of the Jebel Hauran, which measures some 25 m. from N. to S. by 19 from E. to V\\ (.see Trachom Tl.s), owes its origin entirely to streams of basaltic lava emitted from the Ghararat el-Kibliyeh, a now extinct volcano at the NW. corner of the Jebel Hauran. The soil both of the slopes of the Jebel Hauran and of the Nukra is a rich red loam,- formed by the lava scoria, which has become disintegrated under atmospheric .action. The soil thus constituted is celebrated for its fertility : the best corn grows upon it, and in summer time the plain is co\ ered far and wide w ith waving crops. The country is, however, in general almost entirely destitute of trees : only on the slopes of JeM Hauran, especially in its central and southern parts, are there abundant forests of evergreen oak* (cp the allusions to the ' oaks of Bashan ' in the OT : Is. 213 Zech. 11 2 Ez. '276, alsols. 339((5^raX[e]tXaia), Xah. I4). In ancient times, also, it must have supplied rich pastures : the .strong and well -nourished herds of Bashan are men- tioned in Ps. 22 13 [12] {B omits) Am. 4 i Ez. 39i8 ( omits) Dt. 32 14 (^ Taupwv) ; cp also Mic. 7 14 Jer. 0019 ( omits). The lofty conical simimits of the volcanoes forming the Hauran range (cp Porter, 183. 186, 190, 227, 250) are no doubt the ' mountains with peaks,' which the poet of Ps.68i6/ [15/] pictures as looking enviously at the comparatively unimposing mountain of Zion.

3. Towns.[edit]

The principal towns of Bashan mentioned in the OT are the two royal cities of 'Og (Dt. I4 Josh. 124 (Baffa [B]), 'AsiiTAKOTii, now probably either ,pgjj '.\5htera or Tell 'Ash'ari, in the middle of en-Nukra, and Eukk'i, now Der'at, on its S. border, (jOI,.\.\ (Dt. 443), somewhere in the W. , and Salchah (Dt. 3io), now Salchad, a frontier-fortress in a com- manding position overlooking the desert in the SE. corner of Bashan, S. of Jebel Hauran. Bosra, l>etween Edre'i and .Salchah, though not mentioned till i .Mace. hriitff. {tiodop [AHV*]; but see BosoK), also was, no doubt, an important place : the site is still marked by extensive remains belonging to the Rom.an age. ' Threescore fenc(;d cities, with high walls, gates and bars,' forming the kingdom of 'Og, are likewise men- tioned in Dt. 84 (ep 1 K. 413) as situate in the 'region of Argob,' in Bashan. The position of Argob, and, consequently, the positions of those cities as well, are uncertain (see Akgoh, 1); but there are remains of many ancient towns and villages in these parts, esp>eci- ally in the Leja, and on the sloping sides of the Jebel Hauran ; according to Wetzstein, for example [Hauran, 42), there are 300 such ancient sites on the F"-. and S. slopes of the Jelx;] Haiir.an alone.

The dwellings in these deserted localities are of a remark.-\ble char.-icter. Some are the habit.itions of Troglodytes, being caverns hollowed out in the mountain-side, and so arranged as

t Wetzstein, Hauran, St n., HioS, 552; GA.Sm. HO 536 /C See the excellent map of this district published in the ZDPV, 1800, Heft 4, chiefly on the basis of .StuHel's survey.

2 Schumacher, Tliejauiiin, 18-20.

3 Wetzstein, Hauran, ^o/. Cp the map at the end of the volume.

Porter, Fire Years in Damascus,!^* 186, 190, 200, 202, etc. : Ci.XSm. Gtog. 613^ The mountainous region of Jaulan, \V. of the kukkad, also is well wooded.

to form separate chambers ; these are found chiefly on the E. of the Iel)cl Hauran. Others are subterranean alKKles entered by shafts invisible from above ; these are frenuent on the \V. of the Ztimleh ranjje, and at Kdrei the dwellings thus cotisiructcd form quite an underground iit\-. Commonly, the dwelliii^^ are built in the ordinary niaiiner above ground ; but they are constructed of massive well -hewn blocks of black basalt the regular and indeed the only building material used in the country with heavy doors moving on pivots, outside stair- cases, galleries, and roofs, all of the same material;' of this kind are, for example, the houses at Burak, on the N. ed^e of the Leja, at isauwarah, El-Hazm, Deir Kileh, Hiyat, Hit, Bathanlyeh, Shakfi, Shuhba, K. of it, l^anawfit and Suweidch, on the vV. slopes of Jeljel Hauran, Salchad, Kureiyeh, and Hosra, on its SK. slope, and Nejran, Ezra', Khubab, Dfiiiia, ana Mismeiych, within the Leja itself.- Many of these cities are in such a nood st.ite of preservation that it is dilTicult for the traveller to realise th.it they are uninhabited, and in the Leja especially, where the ground itself is of the same dark and sombre hue, unrelieved by a touch of green, or a single sign of life, a feeling of weirdness comes over him as he traverses their desolate and silent streets.

The arciiitecture of the buildings contain^-d in these cities (comprising temples, theatres, aqueducts, churclies, etc.) stamps them as belonging to the (.ira-co- Roman age, and is such as to show that between the first and the seventh centuries A.D. they were the home of a thriving and wealthy people. May any of these cities date from a remoter antiquity, and be actually the fortified places pointed to with wonder in Dt. '^\f. and iK. 4i3? 'i"he ciuestion was answered in the atifirma- tive by Porter^ and by C\Til (jraham,"* who believed that they had really rediscovered the cities ' built and occupied some forty centuries ago ' by the giant race of the Rephilim ; but this view cannot be sustained. The best authorities are unanimous in the opinion that, though in some cases very ancient building materials I may be preserved in them, the e.xtant remains are not, as a rule, of a date earlier than the first century, A.n. | Dt. 84/. and 1 K.413 are sufficient evidence that in 1 the seventh century B. c. there were in Bashan strongly ; fortified places which were popularly supposed to have belonged to the ancient kingdom of Og ; but none of the existing deserted cities can be as ancient as this. At the same time, it is not improbable that some of the cities built during and after the reign of Herod inay have stood upon the sites of cities belonging to a much earlier age, and that in their construction the materials employed in building the more ancient cities may in some cases have been utilised and preserved.

4. History.[edit]

As regards the history of Bashan, it is stated in Xu. 21 33-35 that the Israelites after their concjuest of Sihon, king of Heshlxjn, turned in the direction of liashan, defeated Og its king, who came out to meet them as far as his frontier fortress of F2drei, and took possession of his territory. The passage is in the context of JE ; but it agrees so closely, in form as well as in substance, with Dt. 3 1-3, that Dillmann and other critics consider this to have l)een its original i^lace, supposing it to have been inserted afterwards into the text of Xuml)ers for the purpose of supplying what seemed to l>e an omission. |

All other notices of the same occurrence in the historical books are Deuteronomic (or later): Israel's ancient victories over ' Sihon king of the Amorites and Og the king of Bashan ' being two national successes, to which, especially, the writers of the Deuteronomic school were never weary of referring (Dt. 1 4 Si/?: 447 296[7] 3I4 losh. 2 10 9 10 12 4/ 13 11 A i K. 4 19 ; see also, later, Nu. 32 33[R), Neh. 9 22 Ps IS,', ii 13t; 19/)

The territory of Bashan fell to the possession of the half-trilx; of Manasseh ( Dt. 3 13 4 43 Josh. 13 29-31 [/iacrai/ei ^ ^- 3])- Golan and Wshtaroth are stated in P to have

' See more fully Wetzstein, Hauran, \\ff. \ on Edrei, also, Schumacher, Across the Jortian, 121^

-' See for particulars Porter, Damascus, c\\a.\>'>. 10-14; Heber- Percy, A I isit to Bashan and Argoh, 1895, pp. 40, 47, etc. (with photographs).

3 Damascus, i"^) 2577:, 263/. ; Giant Cities 0/ Bashan, 12 yC 30, etc. t'821.

  • Cainbritige Essays for 1858, p. i6oyr

" Wetzstein, Hauran, 49, lo^yi : Waddington, Inscriptions Grecques et Latines, etc., iii. 1 534 ; and De Vogui, the principal authority on the architecture of Hauran, Syrie Centrale, Archit. Civile et Relig. 4 (cited in Merrill, East of Jordan, 63) ; GASm. HG 624.

Ix-en l^vitical cities (Josh. 21 27, cp iCh. 656[7i]) ; the fornter also is named as a city of refuge (Dt. 443 Josh. 208 21 27).

Bashan played no prominent part in the history ; and it is rarely mentioned in a historical connection. In iK. 4i3 it forms one of S<jlomon's commissariat dis- tricts ; and in 2 K. 10 33 it is included in the enumera- tion of trans-Jordanic regions which were smitten ' by Hazael. Its inhabitants may l)e presumed to have .suffered, like their neighljoiirs in CJile.ad, on other occasions during the .Syrian wars, and finally to have been carried into exile by Tiglath-pileser in 734 (2 K. 1529) ; but in neither connection are they expressly mentioned. .Apart from the prehistoric ' threescore cities of the .\rgob, settled civilisation appears to have begun for the region of Bashan about the time of the (Christian era, when its .Semitic inhabitants first fell under Greek and Roman influence. The most im- [xjrtant event in the history of the country, however, was its incorporation by Trajan, in 106 A.D., in his newly-founded province of .Vrabia. Then it was that Roman culture impressed itself visibly upon both the surface of the country and the character of its in- habitants ; and towns, with great public buildings, of which the remains, as descriljed aV)ove, survive to this day, sprang up in every part of it and continued to thrive for many centuries.[1]

6. Literature.[edit]

The most important works on the topography of J?ashan are, Wetzstein's Reisebcricht iihcr /fauran und die 'I'rachcnen

('60), and Ciuthe and Fischer's art. in the /.DP\', 1890, Heft 4, pp. 225--,o2 (containing

Dr. Stubersiiin,-r;v;.n,l n,an, .-m,! nnm.-rous biblioL;rrii)hical references); on ^ ' i!m- \ :'- i:!.

Schuiiiachtr, Z/W, i8g7,pi). .11. ., ..

Schumacher, Across the J or. urn. ; ; I'-hm, ...r

Years in Damascus; GASni. //., 575//.. n,, ,-/. Inscnptiuns (chiefly Greek and Latin) have been published by Wetzstein in the ^M. of the Berlin Ac. 1863, p. 255-368; Waddington, <?/. cit. Nos. 2071-2548; Clermont-Ganneau, Rccueild Arch. Orient. 1 1-23; GASm. Crit. A',T'., 1892, p. iiff.\ \V. Ewing, DiiFQ, 1S95 (4 papers) ; CIS'li, fasc. 2, \os. 162-193. s. K. I).


(-|\V nvin |l|n) occurs in Dt. 3 14 (BAcceM&e AytoG iAeip[R*]. Bacan ayooS lAeip [H-^'MvHi.) (ut vid.) .\FL]), where A\' renders, 'and (Jair) called them after his own name, Bashan-havolh- jair.' This version does justice to the present text, but certainly does not represent the mind of the original writer. The awkward (indeed, impossible) expression Bashan -havoth -jair can Ik.' accounted for only on the hypothesis that the first element in it (Bashan) is a mis- placed gloss from the margin. RV seeks to evade the difiiculty by rendering, ' called them, even Bashan, after his own name, Havvotii-j.MK.' On the geographical difficulty which still remains, see H.wvoTH-J.MK.


or, as RV, correctly, Basemath (hebrew script = greek script § 54; greek script [AD]).

Other readings are: Gen. 2634 greek script [AE] greek script Dvid. greek script [L ; elsewhere greek script]; 363 greek script [D]; greek script . . . [D]; 4 greek script [D] greek script [E]; 10 greek script [E]; 13 greek script. [A] greek script [DE]; 17 greek script [AE] greek script [Dvid.].

I. Daughter of Ishmael, and wife of Esau, called Mahalath in Gen. 289 and Hittile (greek script [A]; greek script. [E]; greek script. [L]) in Gen. 2634 [P]. The names and tribal origin of Esau's three wives are given twice (cp Anah): by P in Gen. 2634 289, and by R (?) in Gen. 362 f. A wife Basemath, and descent from Ishmael and from Elon the Hittite occur in both accounts (see Cainites, § 9), but differently assigned; while the other names have no connection whatever: thus --

P Beeri-Hittite Elon-Hittite Ishmael
1. Judith 2. Basemath 3. Mahaleth
R (or J) Elon-Hittite Zibeon-Hivite Ishmael
I I [Horite?] I
1. Adah Anah 3. Basemath
2. Oholibamah

2. (AV Basmath, RV Basemath), daughter of Solomon, 1 K. 415 (greek script [A]).


RV rendering of r3>* (Is. 14 29). ^^li^PV (Is. 11 8), for which AV has Cockatrice [q.v.].


of various kinds were used by the Hebrews, and were doubtless not unlike those which are often found depicted up)on Egyptian monuments large open baskets for fruit etc. (cp illustration, Wilk. Ant: Egypt. 1 379), which could be borne upon the head (ib. 383, cp Gen. 40 16/ ), baskets to collect earth in the manufacture of bricks (on a supposed reference to which in Ps. 81 6, see Bkick), or deep wicker ones slung upon a yoke [ib. 380). Especially noteworthy is the large carpenter's tool-basket made of rush (a kind common throughout W. Asia), a specimen of which is now in the British Museum (cp ib. 401). The references to baskets present m:uiy points of interest ; suffice it to refer to the diiTicult saying in Prov. 25 ii, which RV renders, 'A word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in baskets (AV 'pictures'; RV'"-^- 'filigree work') of silver,' where the implied notion is that the golden-hued apples look all the more l>eautiful in silver baskets. But (i) go'den, not golden-hued apples (quinces) must be meant, if the te.xt be correct ; ' gold ' and ' silver ' must both be taken literally. (2) ' Baskets ' is an impossible rendering, and ' filigree work,' though more plausible, is still hypo- thetical. (3) 'Fitly' has no sound linguistic basis. This is a case in which no weak emendati<5n, affecting one or two letters, suffices.

Frankenberg has tried such a one ; the sense produced is

Golden gravings ('nirs) on silver chased work,

(So is) a word spoken to the trustworthy (JICN-7J;, cp (S), i.e., a word spoken to the receptive is as ineffaceable as the chased work referred to. Not very natural, and not a good parallel to v. 12.

By emending the te.xt more boldly (but avoiding arbitrary guessing, and following parallels found else- where) it is possible to reach this excellent sense ' A necklace of pearls in sockets of wreathen gold, (So is) a word of the wise to him who hears it. It is really only a slightly different version of the ne.xt proverb :

A ring of gold and an ornament of fine gold, (So is) a word of the wise to a hearing ear. Of the other Hebrew words rendered 'ba.sket,' dtidiyf^, fene' (Xjp), and sti/ {'?D) were used for general purposes, see Cooking, 2. Xowack (.Irc/t. 1 146) suggests that these were similar in character to the clay and straw /rmvdii of the modern fellahin. The former may perhaps denote loosely any pot or jar, since we find it used for cooking in i S. 2 14 (cp BDB s.z'.). The last- named (.vj/), a reed basket (equivalent to the Gr. Kavovv [by which it is rendered] and Lat. canistrum),'^ has been brought into con- nection with the reduplicated form 1117070, Jer. G9 (EV 'grape- gatherers' baskets ' ; (caproAXos).^ This, however, is doubtful, and indeed the te.xt is uncertain (cp Pesh.). RV"iiJ- renders '.shoots'; but this is C'^i^l ; cp Vine. For 31^3 (Am. 81; ayyos-* []), used also of a bird-cage, see Cage.

1 helps a little: crapScov = CHS, which should take the place of fJOl but !/ opfii'o-Koi = vna, which must have come from v. 12. nVDCDl 's ^ corrup-.ion of niiaaca (Ex. 2Sn, .see Ouche.s). an? 'n^Sn evidently conceals the name of some precious stone or the like. If so, there is but one possible explanation ; 3,^I^ comes from o'lnn ( jn^t as ^nt 'D> Gen. 3(5 39, comes from c>n:i::i ; see Bela, 2), which means pearls strung together (see Neck- lace). Lastly, i2n probably comes from iin (string or necklace). Thus V. iia corresponds closely to v. 11a , consemiently v. 11b must correspond to v. 12b, where, with Bi. (I'rov.(2)), we should read CDn -\21 (see (S) ; nOID "s based on HDD- r:SX-^y might come from i.Tjyo'?, ' for its purpose,' but more prolably comes from iyOir-Sj;, which is equivalent to nyOE' ]m-^]! (v. nb) Render as above, and cp Got.D.

  • On the sacred canistrum of early Christian times, see Smith,

Z>ic/. Christ. Ant., s.v.

8 The KapraWiyi (also in 2 K. 10 7 for ho, and in Dt. 26 2 4 for K3") was a basket with a tapering extremity.

  • ayyoi (cp Dt. 23 25 I K. 17 10, MT <'?3) used of vessels

of various kinds : cp in NT, Mt. 13 48 2.';4 (WH prefer iyyerov). In Am. i.e. Sym., more suitably, has KoXaOo^ (cp (P in Jer. "24 i for T;ri), a vase-shaped basket ; especially the basket upon the head of Demeter in ancient statues.

In the NT mention is made of (a) a-apyavn), a ba.sket of braid- work (used especially of fish-baskets), in which Paul escaped from Damascus (2 Cor. 11 33). In Acts 9 25, however, the word is (b) o-irvpis (WH prefer a-tjivpU), the b.asket in the miracle of the 4000 (Mt. 1537 etc.). Both were probably larger than(r) the K6(f)ivo<:, in the miracle of the 5000 (Mt. 14 20 etc.). The last- mentioned w.xs an essentially Jewish article (quorum copkinus fanum^ue supellex, Juv. 814), whose size may perhaps be determined from the use of the word to denote a IJceotian measure of about 2 gallons (vide Corp. Inscr. Gr., 1625, 46). T. K. C.


(npL"2). i K. 4is AV; see BASHEMATH, 2.


(Amer. RV Basin). That all the words (one (jreek and four Hebrew) denote hollow vessels adapted to receive and contain liquids is certain ; but what was the general form, and wherein the peculiarity of each consisted we have no means of determining. This uncertainty is sufficiently proved by the frec|ucnt variations in the EV renderings. On the whole subject, see Bowl, Cup, Gobi.kt, and cp Altar, lo; Cooking Utensils, Food, Meals, 12 ; PcrrrEKv.

I. fJN, aggdn (see BDB Lex. s.v.; Kpa.Tr)p [P.KA etc.]), a large bason (EV) or bowl used in the temple ritual (Ex. 24 6). In Is. 2224 EV. 'cups'(om. BNAQr, aya^oifl [Theod. Q^e.]). On a. count of its shape, it is employed in Cant. 7 2 [3]! as a simile in the eulogy of the bride (EV ' goblet ') ; see Che. iui loc. JQK, April 1839.

2- l'l33, k'/dr{cp MH "I'lES goblet), for which AV 'bason, RV ' bowl ' consistently, occurs only as a vessel used in the temple & found it unintelligible. 1 Ch. 28 17 (.ni. 11, Ksifi^avpe [\] Kf)tf). and Ke<j>cl><Dp |L]) Ezra 1 10 (/cec^c^oupi^s [P.], Xf^oupj) [A], Ken^ovpai [L.]~ I Es 1. 2 13 (i^ioAai ^pvarai [B.\l.]), and Ezra 8 27! {Ka<t>ovSrfe [B], Ka<j)ovpti [A], L as in 1 jo)=i Esd. 8 57 (xpviTuifiaTa [BAl.]).

3. P^ID, ntizrdk (a vessel for throwing or to'sing a liquid, <^taA))).l With the exception of Am. G6 (liAQj t'ov &i.v\i(Ty.ei'ov olvov. as though Pi^TD ; see Meals, 12 and 2 Ch. 4 11), this utensil is used only in the temple sacrificial rifual. ICV renders varyingly 'bason' {e.g., Ex. '27 3 .SS 3 2 K. 12i3[i4] etc.) or ' bowl ' (Am. I.e., Zech. 9 15 14 20 Nu. 7 13 etc) ; see Altar, 9.

4. fjD, sapk, 3l temple utensil (i K. 7 50 2 K. 1213114] Jer. 52 19 [where .\q. (Qmfr) vipi'a, Sym. c^toArj] ; AV ' bowls," but RV 'cups' [so EV in Zech. 122]), used also in the ritual of the Passover (Ex. 12 22). The pi. niSD, evidently denoting domestic utensils, occurs in 2 S. 17 28 ("al Ae'^rjre?) ;2 but .see Klo. ad loc.

5. viTrrrjp used in Jn. 185 of the 'bason' (EV) in which Jesus washed the feet of the disciples (cp viTrrei.v=Yrr\ Gen. 18 4 etc.). The utensil must have been larger than any of the above. The Pal. -Syr. (Evang. Hierosol.) renders by ]i_a^<_CC ; cp Heb. ?pp^ and see Bowl, 7.


RV Bassai (Baccai [B]), i Esd. 5i6 = Ezra 2i7, Bk/.ai, q.v.


RV Basthai (BacG&i [BA]), i Esd. 531 = Ezra 2 49, Besai.


(ItpP). The mamzer is mentioned along with the Ammonite and Moabite as excluded from the 'congregation ^ (Dl2%3 2 [3]). The Heb. word is of uncertain derivation, and the EV rendering is ba.sed upon the Vss. (sk Tropvrj^ [B^^ mg. gj sup ras A'^L], B*F om. ). More probably the word means one of mi.xed or alien birth (so Zech. 96, dWoyevrjs [BNAQ]), and among the Rabbins it was the term applied to relations between whom marriage was forbidden (cp Mish. Vebam, 4 13). It is presupposed by (5 in Nah. 3 17 (6 ffi'fjLfxLKT^i aov [BXAQ]), where MT has i-it:d (EV 'thy crowned ones'), and is rather infelicitously accepted by Wellhausen who thinks that the refer- ence is to the mixed population of Nineveh. Rulxjn is certainly right in conjecturing :i'Tn:D, ' thy measuring

1 In some ca.ses where several vessels are named appears to have transposed piTO : see e.g. Nu. 4 14.

2 Apart from the two exceptions mentioned, rejrularly thinks of no 'threshold,' and renders Ovpa npoOvpov (in Jer. i.e., <Ta<tx)><o6).

' The only kind cS foreign marriage which D contemplates seems to be found in Dt. 21 10-14. In Dt. 7 1-4 only Canaanitish peoples are excluded ; but i K. 11 i 2 assumes the exclusion of other nations, and .so, in Ezra!), D's law is extended to cover all foreign neighbours (from MS note of VVRS).

clerks" (see Scribk). For bastardy, in its religious connection, cp Council ok Jkrusalem, lo.


(?l;'py. lit. 'night-flier'?! NYKTCpiC : vesper- it I to :'^ Lev. 11 19 Ut. 14i3 Is. 220; also Bar. 62.). The bats form a well-deliiicd aiul very numerous order of mammalia, termed by naturalists the Cheiiopleni. The iK)silion of the name at the end of the list of un- clean birds, and immediately Ixifore the list of reptiles. accords with the universal opinion of anticjuity that the bat, in .Vristotle's words, ' belonged both to birds and to Ijeasts, and shared the nature of both and of neither ' ; ^ nor is it in any way surprising to find them included, apparently, amongst birds, for bats alone amongst manunals have developed the faculty of true riiglit, and have become so modified by their aerial habits that their power of progressing on the ground is markedly inferior to that of most birds and insects. They show, in fact, a strong aversion to being on the ground, and, as a rule, at once try to leave it, by crawling up some wall or tree from which they can take their Hight.

The nature of their food (either insects or fruit) makes it necessary for those bats which inhabit tem- perate climatis either to migrate at the approach of winter or to spend the cold months in a long winter sleep, for which purpose they often collect in large colonies in caves, ruins, or disused buildings. As a rule the bats of the Old World choose the latter alter- native, and this seenis to be the case with many of those found in Palestine. When food again becomes abundant, they as a rule sleep during the day sus- pended head downwards by their feet, and leave their homes onlv to search for food at the approach of twi- light. The m.ajority of the bats of Palestine (and they are very numerous) inhabit caves, caverns, tombs, ruins, and disused buildings of all kinds, where they can avoid the light, a fact referred to in Is. 220/.

As many as seventeen distinct species of bats, belonging to four dilTerent families and eleven diOerent genera, have been described by Canon Tristram. Two or tbree of these may be mentioned by name. The only representative of the fruit-eating bats (Meiiacheiroptcra) is Xantharpyia (Cynoitycieris) tfgy/>ti- aca, a species which is elsewhere arboreal in its habits, but in Palestine is found living in large colonies in caves and tombs. A further peculiarity of this species i- that individual specimens from dilTerent localities vary markedly in size, those from Kurn in the plain of .Xcre being much smaller than those from the hills near Tyre, which resemble in size the variety found in Cyprus and Egypt. This species is very commonly found mside the Pyramids of Kgypt and is believed to be the one so often figured in H^gyptian frescoes.

The horse-shoe bat Rhinolophus ferrvm-equtnum is the St bat in Palestine, swarming in immense numbers in the caverns .along the Jordan and the Red Se.-i. It has a wide distribution, extending from lingland to Japan and all over Africa. It collects in large colonies (180 have been found together) m caves and ruins for its winter sleep, and these colonies are peculiar as they are exclusively of one sex.

Another British bat very common in the hill country about Bethlehem, Jerusalem, and the Sea of Galilee, is the l-ng-eared bat, PUcotus auritus, usually found in caverns. It is always very late in leaving its restuig-pl.-\ce, not appearing nil twilight has changed to night; but it continues to hunt for the msects on which it feeds the whole night through. N. M. A. E. S.

1 According to Schultens, Clar. Dial. 322, from die root which appears in Ar. as ^alihi ' to be dark ' (of night), and r]<j; 'to fly.' It must, however, be s.-xid that compounds are very rare in Hebrew ; and the modification of form involved in this ca>e is improbable. It might be thought, from the absence of the word in the cognate languages (in the language of the Tar- gums it is simply borrowed from Hebrew), that it is a loan-ord which came in from a non-Semitic source ; but there is much to be said for the view that it is connected with Aram, 'artel, naked ' (from the char.icter of a bat's wings), as suggested by Low (see Ges. Hir/mi), or with the root rpjf, which in Hebrew has the sense of bein^ covered or darkened.

'^ The Peshitta has in I.eviticus and Deuteronomy the curious rendering 'peacock,' but in Is.220 Bar.t5ai employs the proper Syriac word for ' bat ' ; the Arabic version has ' bat ' in Leviticus and Deuteronomy, but (like the Targum) goes astray in a mis- taken paraphrase of Is. '2 20.

3 De Fart. Animal. 4 13. For other references see Bochart, U ierozoicon.


(n3. deriv. uncertain; cp BDB. s.v.). Is. 5 10. .See Weights AND Measures.


(D'3Tri2, ' daught<r of multitudes,' [Hl)l!]; ByrATpoc noAAcoN [BXA] ; ^Ua multitudinis; Cant. 7 4 LsJt)- 'Ihe eyes of the bride are likened to the ' pools in Heshlxjn by the gate of Bath-rabbim.' With true insight, tiriitz in 1871 recognised the impossibility of the reading Bath- rabbim ; he suggested Rabbath-.Ammon. Certainly this is possible; and N\V. of Heshbon, in a lateral valley of the Wady Hesban, old reservoirs have been found. We cannot, hovvever, suppose that these reser- voirs were so famous as to be celebrated in a popular song beside Carmcl and the Tower of Lebanon. ' Heshbon " as well as ' Bath-rabbim " must be wrong. Winckler's suggestion ' Helbfm' {.lOF 1 293 /. ) fits in with the mention of I^banon, but has no other recommendation. Considering that there is deep-seated corruption in the next verse (see H.MK, Gam.kkv, 2), we are justified in making an emendation which might otherwise seem too bold. The most famous pools in Palestine, outside of Jerusalem, were no doubt those known as the Pools of Solomon (see Conduits, 3). In the long green vale of ' Arias, unusually green among the 101 ky knolls of Judaja," Solomon, according to post-exilic belief, ' planted him vineyards, and made him gardens and paradises . . and made him pools of water, to water therefrom the forest where trees were reared' (Eccles. 2 4-6). Probably it is this scenery that has suggested several descriptive passages in Canticles (Stanley ; Del. ) ; it was worthy to be mentioned beside Carmel and Lebanon. Read nb^B* for jucna. and (with Wi. ) "ly for nyc', and render

Thine eyes are like Solomon's pools By the wood of Beth-cerem.

Beth-cerem, ' place of a vineyard,' was probably the name of some part of the garden-land referred to in Eccles. 24-6. See JQR,Avr\\ 1899. Cp Bkth- Haccerkm. t. k. c.


(raC^n?, ' daughter of the oath ' (?), 48 ; in I Ch. 35 r-1"TI2, where the pointing should be corrected to rit^nS ; in '^'^i-_ by a strange con- fuson, BHpc<NBee'= BeershebaV wife of Uriah the Hittite, afterwards wife of David and mother of ."Solo- mon 2 S. ll2-1224(BHecABe6[A]) i K. 1/ (BHecAEee in In 15). Some think that she was a granddaughter of .AHITHOI'HEL (q.v.)-

When David first saw Bathsheba, Joab was engaged in the siege of Rabbath Anmion. The king himself was reposing, after his years of hardship, at Jerusalem. The story (which is omitted in Chronicles) is that, walking one evening on the flat roof of his palace, David saw a beautiful woman bathing in the court of a neighbouring house. He asked who she was, and, learning that her husband Uriah was away w ith the army, ' sent messengers and took her ' (2 S. 11 4). To avert the shock which an open act of adultery would have caused to the ancient Israelitish sense of right, he devised the woful expedient related in 2 S. 11 6-25. First he had Uriah sent to him, ostensibly with a message from the camp. He dismissed him to his house with a portion from the royal table ; but Uriah remained with the guard of the palace : he scrupled, if Robertson Smith maybe followed (AW. Sent. W 4S5. 484), to violate the talxx) on sexual intercourse applied to warriors in ancient Israel. The next night the king plied him with wine ; but still Uriah was obstinate. Driven desperate, his master sent the brave soldier back to Joab, bearing a letter ordering his own destruction. Uriah was to be set in the place of danger and then abandoned to the foe. The cruel and treacherous plan was carried out, and, when Bathshclia's mourning for her husbitnd was over, David made her his wife.

The story of the rebuke of Nathan, of the revival of the king's better self, and of the sickness and death of the child of Bathsheba, is well known. It is a question, however (see Schwally, /.AT IV 12 153 ^ ; Bu. SBOV 89), whether, in the original form of the narrative, 2 S. 1215/. did not follow on 11 27, which means treating the most edifying |)irt of the story as a later amplification (see David, 11). Considering what we know of the gradual idealisation of the life of David (which culminates in Chronicles and the titles of the Psalms), this appears far from impossible. The story gains in clearness by the omission. At any rate, Wellhausen is right in regarding 12 10-12 as an interpolation in the narrative of the colloquy between David and Nathan. It was suggested by an intelligent reading of the subsequent history. David's evil examplewas imitated in exaggerated form byAmnon ; and Amnon's sin was fruitful in troubles, which cul- minated in Absalom's rebellion, and darkened all David's remaining years.

We meet Bathsheba for the last time, just as David's end was at hand, in the full glory of a queen-mother. Solomon rises to meet her, bows down before her, and sets her on a seat at his right hand. She gained her object, and it is interesting (if Nathan really took the part assigned to him in 2 S. I21-15) to notice that Nathan was one of her chief supporters. w. E. A.


(yVJ'-n?, 48). I. See B.'vthshkb.x.

2. The words j;Tiy"n3 rendered ' daughter of Shua ' in Gen.

382 12 (o-aua, omitting n3 [ADEL]) are treated in RV of i Ch.

23(7. 6vy. a-ava'; [P>' .\1 ; t. 9. ava^ [B*] ; o-ove [L]) as a proper name, li.'ith-shu.i.. See Shua.


(BeGzAXApiA [^l)- ^ '^acc.



(DnS [plur. ]), Ez. 4 2 21 22 [27]t. See War.


The rendering is not very happy, as will at once be seen.

1. }"30, maf>pei Jer. 51 20 (Siao-Kopn-t'^eis <t\) [BNAQF]) ; or f 'D, 7ne/<h}f (Prov. 25 18 p6-rra.Kov (BNc.a A] -na.vov [N*]). EVs rendering ' maid ' introduces an arbitrary distinction. Better, 'battle hammer,' or 'club' (cp H^'Sp). In Ezek. 9 2 isSO 'Vs (n-Auf ) should possibly be corrected into 'inrJB'a "Ss, ' his destroy- ing weapon '1 (Che.); 'battle axe' (RVm.ij.), 'slaughter weapon' (EV), ' a weapon of his breaking in pieces ' (AVmg.) are all difB- cult to Justify.

2. -1:0 Ps. " 3 RViiig. The usual rendering (Del., Ba., etc., accepting MT's vocalisation [nJD] and Verss.) is ' stop the way' ( (Tui'fcXeto-oi'). 'J'his involves a double ellipsis 'shut up [the way), [going] against my pursuers.' It is improbable, however, that v,a means ' battle axe ' ; crayapis may mean the battle axe used in upper Asia ; but this does not justify the inference of critics(I)rus.,Grot., Kenn., Ew., Dri., We., etc). Thetextneeds emendation (see J.wiii.iN, 7).


For ,npyo, mdakeh, Dt.22 8EV, see

HoLSK, 4. For niiis, pinnoth, zCh. 26 15 Zeph. 1 16 36 RV, and ^j-:i-^,'!l'mdsoth (plur.), Is. 54 12 SBOT, RV pinnacles' (cp r^r Ps. Sti2 [Ba.]), see Foktkess, 5. vn:^, kdndph, in Dati. !'27 K\"K- is rendered 'battlement.' It is better to read 1J3, kanno (see Bevan, ad loc.\


(Batoc). T.k. 166 AV"?- ; RV"'ff- Bath. See \V'i':K;nrs and Mi-.asukios.


(M3), Neh. 3i8. RV Bavvai. See Bi.nnui (SI-


(I'bX), Zech. 637. See ( :()I,oURS, 17.


(rT'Sn), Is. l.-)2 RV ; .W B.vjith.

BAY TREE[edit]

(nn^X^ Ps. 373-), or. more plausibly, as

1 nMB'D, 'destruction,' we know; but fSO, 'breaking in pieces,' is unattested elsewhere. Co. recognises that the closing words of Ezek. 9 i are no part of the true text, but represent a variant to the equivalent words in v. 2.

2 (S has no rendering of niTK in this passage, since for rniK3 p;n it reads pa"? 'hnD (w rat <cc'pous toC S.i.^i.vov [BK.\RT]). Aq., Symm., and Editio Sexta all render in the .sense of 'in- digenous tree ' ; and neither Pesh. nor Targ. supports the rendering of A V or that of RV.

RV, ' a tree in its native soil.' The word ITITN, 'native born,' however (from the root mt. 'to arise,' 'spring forth" [Barth, 152 c.'\), cannot Ix; applied to a tree, whence Celsius [Hieroh. i. 194^.) supposed the phrase to mean a.vr\p iirix'^p'^oi-

As Hi., Gr. , Che., Ba. , We., Dr. agree, the right reading is nx 'cedar.' On the (probably) corruiH words .Tiyns ( Dr. ' putting forth his strength ' ) and an (Dr. 'spreading'), see Che. Psa/ms^-K


(n-lS-3, 'stripping'?; BacaAcoG [N.\]).

The b'ne Bazi.utii, a faiuily of Nethinim in the great post-exilic list (see Ezra, ii. 9) Ezra252 (/SatraSwe [B], ^abovwO [L]) = Neh. 754 Bazlith {(iaaaud [B], ^aXovad [ Lj) = i Esd. .")3i Basai.oth (^ao-aXe/A [B], ^aaXuiO [A], ^aXovud [L]).


1 Bedholah = B8'X.X '[edit]

(nVn?; Gen. 2 12 anOpaS [AEL] ; Nu. II7 kpyctaAAoc' [B.\FL]), appears in Gen. 2 12 ^S ^^'^ S'^ ^'"^^ oiiy.x or beryl (see ONYX) ^s a characteristic product of the ~" ' land of Havilah ; whilst in Nu. II7 its

' appearance ' (so RV, lit. ' eye,' not Colour [i/.v. , 3], as AV) is likened to that of manna a comparison the appropriateness of which is obvious if as is in all prob- ability the case, the OT bUdholah is the resinous sub- stance known to the Greeks as ^MWiov, fidSeXKOf. j8oXx6i'2 (Dioscor. 1 80) or^SAXo [Peripl. Mar. Ervth., 373948/.).

Peiser identifies n'?"I3 with Bab. btdlti, a spice obtained in Babylonia, and often mentioned in contract-tablets {ZA TIV 1" 347y-)i 'his is important in connection with the Eden- story (see Par.mmsk). As (Jlaser has shown (Skizze, 2 364_^), bdellium was distinct from storax (against Hommel, GBA 613 n. i). Bochart, identifying Havilah with the Arabian co.-ist opposite Bahrain, in the Persian Gulf, naturally explained n7l3 as meaning pearl (^Hieroz. ii. 5 5). This view, however, lacks the .support of any ancient version, and, though upheld by .several Jewish authorities (cp Lag. Or. 2 44), has no solid foundation. The renderings of (avSpa^ and Kpiio-raAAos) point I to some kind of precious stone ; but, as Di. remarks, f5?. 'stone,'

is prefixed to D^t', the word following, and not to TwlJ. The

Pesh. berulhd (in both places) seems to be due to a mere scribe's error : r {ox d. It cannot be supposed to be a genuine Aramaic word.

2 Descriptions Of esJxXiov[edit]

Bdellium is described by Dioscorides {I.e.) as SdKpi'ov difSpov dpa'^iKod ^ ; the best sort being ' bitter in taste, ""ansparent, gelatinous (ra.-po^oXXiSes, ^- !< bulls hide glue ), oily through out and easily softened, unmixed with chips or dirt, fragrant when burnt as incense, resembling onyx ' ; * he speaks also of a black sort found in large lumps, which is exported from India, and of a third kind, brought from I'etra. Pliny (XH 12 9) gives some further details : the best sort grows in Bactriana (N. Afghanistan), on a 'black' tree 'of the size of an olive, with a leaf like the oak and fruit like the wild fig' ; it also grows in .Arabia, India, Media, and Babylon, that of India being softer and more gummy, while that brought through Media is more brittle, crusted, and bitter. The author of the Peripl. mar. Erythr. speaks of it as growing largely in (iedrosia (Beluchislan) and Barygaza (Gujerat), and as exported westwards from the mouth of the Indus. In the older classical literature bdellium appears to be mentioned only in Plautus {Cure. loi),* in a list of perfumes.

3. Various kinds.[edit]

Two of the kinds of bdellium described by Dioscorides are generally identified by the authorities with the two substances described as follows, which are still met with in commerce :-

1 In both places ot Aonrot, i.e., Aq., .Symm., and Th., h.ave /Sie'AAio;', so Vg. bdelliuiit. Cp Jos. Ant. iii. 1 6.

2 The exact form of these two words is uncert.ain. Pliny (129) has iitaldacon, brochon. On the connection of this group of names with bedolah, see Del. Par. j6/., ioi. Pott in II'ZKM 798^. _

  • The reading of this word is uncertain.
  • Perhaps a ' nail ' or ' hoof. '

8 ' Tu mihi stacte, tu cinnamon, tu rosa,

Tu crocinum et ca.sia 's, tu bdellium."

1. Oriiinary HiU-ltiuin (African). 'The driiR isexporlcd from the whole Somali coast to Mokha, Jidda, Aden, Makulla, the Persian (nilf, India, and even China' (Fliickiger and Hanhury, I'liarniacogrSP^ 145). HanUurv says he had it sent him for sale in London from C:hina ; but in matters of this kind the immediate port of origin is often substituted for the ultimate source.

Dymock {Pharmacogr. /n/f. 1 310) says : ' From Berbera also comes Biiellium.' Farther on he explains that 'to a certain extent' it 'resembles myrrh,' but that it is darker . . . less oily . . . strongly bitttr and has hanily any aroma* (I.e. ?io). According to Mohammedan writers (Ac. 312), 'Goo<l bdellium should be cle;in, bright, sticky, soft, sweet -smelling, yellowish, and bitter.' Its Ixjtanical source is BaUamodendron africanum (see A'rw' Bull. 1896, p. giyC).

2. Indian Bdellium. \^ymoc\<. {I.e. 310) describes this as somewhat resenibling the African drug ; 'but the colour is lighter, often greenish.' 1 )ioscorides, therefore, must have had a very dirty s.-imple a not infrequent experience still. Its source is Italsamodendron Mukul, a plant the botanical distribution of which N\V. India, Heliichistan, and possibly .\rabia exactly agrees with the statements of the old authors. The only tliniculty is the description of Pliny, which it does not (it very well, as it is a small tree ; but Pliny's statements cannot be pressed from the botanical point of view : Lemaire (Flore de yirgile, 125) calls Dioscorides ' bien pr6f6rable 2i Pline.'

As to the third kind of bdellium spoken of by Dioscorides, Dymock (310) conjectures that it was probably a kind of myrrh. ' n. M. \v. t. t.-d.


(pn, perhaps for pXH from J'lK, see .^sh ; ICTOC [l^NAOgr]), or rather, as in K\"k-, M,\sr (cp Is. 3323 Ez. '275). employed in Is. 3O17 as a simile of nakedness and desolation. The reference is to the poles, etc., erected in prominent places for signalling purposes ; cp Knskjns ( 2).


(nvra, 35, Vahwe is Lord'), a Ben- jamite, one of Davids warriors, i Ch. Tis (BaA&IA [BX], BaaAiA [A]. BaAaiAC [I']). Ste D.WID, ir a iii.


im-^^i;?). Josh. l.'>24. See 15.\.\l.\tii-


or rather Baean (RV), The children of (yioi Baian [.VNVJ; Bi.AX [Vg.j; y>-^ ; BAANOy. Jos. Ant. xii. 81), an otherwise unknown trilw or community, who in the pre-Maccab;ean period were a ' snare and offence" to the Jews ' in that they lay in wait for them in the w ays. ' Their robber castles or ' towers ' lay, apparently, somewhere Ixjtween Idumiean and Ammon- ite territory. This would suit the lieon of Xu. 323 (see Baal mkon). In one of his warlike expeditions against the unfriendly surrounding peoples after the reconsecra- tion of the temple, Judas the Maccabee utterly de- stroyed the children of Bean and burnt their towers (i Mace. 54/ ; cp 2 Mace. 10 18/:).


(Vis. KY&AAOC [BAL] 2S. 1728 Ez. 49) are twice mentioned as material for food, along with wheat, Ixarley, and lentils ; in the second pas.sage Ezekiel is instructed to make bread of a mi.vture of wheat, barley, beans, lentils, millet, and spelt. The Hebrew name is found also in post-biblical Hebrew, Jewish Aramaic, .Arabic, and Ethiopic. Beans are the seeds of I'icia Faha (Linn.), the cultivated plant not certainly known in the wild state, but in all probability a domesticated form of //(/(/ nai-- bonensis"^ which is a native of the whole Mediterranean region and extends eastward to X. India. It was the

  • cia/xoj of the CJreeks, which is mentioned as far back as

the Ili.ad (ki'io/xoi /xeXaj'oxpofS. 13589). \'irchow found the seeds in the e.xcavations at Troy, and the plant was cultivated in Switzerland and Italy in the age of bronze. Beans are, without doubt, one of the earliest articles of vegetable food among the Europe;in races of mankind.

Cp FCK)D, 4. C(KJKIN<;. 7. N. M. W. T. F.-I).

1 Fliickiger and Hanbury say (I.e. 146) that it is regarded both in London and in India 'as a very inferior dark sort of myrrh.'

On this point see Sir Joseph Hooke Magazint, 7220.

the Botanical


1 Name[edit]

I. (SI). The name, common to Heb. , ^^^'" ^- *" ^- '^ ^O'" ^ root signifying to move slowly and softly.' and thus befits the bear, which has a stealthy tread.

The Heb. word is generally masc., even when the she-lxrar is intended; thus 'a iK-ar roblied of her whelps ' is always 3^ S?2r. On the other hand, the pi. Cai Ukes a fern, verb in 2K. 224, and the sing, is apparently fem. in Is. 11 7. (R

renders apKot [H.XLl, but in I'rov. 17 12 wrongly y.ipi.y.va. (HK.\| (connecting prolwbly with 2.\'i, 'to Ix: anxious'); 'I'heixl. has dpKTO?. In Prov. '2S15 (P has Auicof [HHA twice], easily ex- I lained when we rememljer that the .Aram, form of 3KI, wolf, is ,::hh.

The animal is frequently mentioned in O T (in the .\pocr. in Wisd. II17 Pxclus. '2.') 17 [NA ; but aaKKov

2. Allusions.[edit]

<'^>L,r'^ 5'"^.U""^, "'*^ (Kev.132) m N I . No difticulty arises m con- nection with any of the O T passages ; the attacks of the lion and the lx;ar on David's flock (i S. 17 34 36), and of the she-lxiars- on the children who mocked l'",lisha (2K. 224), accord with the ravenous habits of the animal; 'a bear robbed of her whelps' (2S. 178 I'rov. 17 12 Hos. 138) or 'a ranging tear' (I'rov. 2815) is naturally regarded as the most dangerous possible object to encounter ; one of the signs of profound peace in the Messiah's kingdom is that the cow feeds side by side with the bear, its natural enemy ( Is. 1 1 7). The roar- ing, or rather moaning, of the lx?ar is well expressed by the verb ^D^ (Is. 59ii. "n^C aTtva^u)). which is ap- plied also to the howling of a dog, the cooing of a turtle-dove, the sighing of a man, and the moaning of the sea. The stealthiness of a tiear's attack is men- tioned in Lam. 3 10. By the likening of the second (probably the Median) kingdom in Dan. 75 to a bear which ' was rai.sed up on one side, and three ribs were in his mouth tx.'tween his teeth ; and they said thus unto it, .Arise, devour much flesh,' the extreme de- striictivcni-s.% of the Median concjuests is probably in- dicated (see further Bevan's Daniel, in loc. ). In Am. .^)i9 ' as if a man did flee from a lion, and a tear met him,' we have, as Bochart remarks, a Hebrew equivalent to the classical

Incidit in Scyllani cupiens vitare t'haryhdin.':' In the combination of the 'feet of a bear' with the body of a leopard and the mouth of a lion in Kev. 132, we have an instance of the characteristic re-combination of elements borrowed from OT apocalyptic. The hyper- telical treatment of old history in later Jew ish literature is illustrated by the mention in Wisd. 11 17 of wild teasts, such as lions and tears, among the plagues sent upon the Egyptians, and by the statement ateut David in Ecchis. 473 that "he played (Heb. . . . pnr C'TEoS D'anSi, 'he mocked at . . . ') among lions as among kids, anil among Ix-ars as among lambs of the flock."

Finally, we notice the interesting reading of *<* in Ecclus. 2.') 17 :

A woman's wickedness altereth her visage And darkeneth her face as doth a bear (<uv apto?). If this reading te correct, the ver.se will allude to the tristitia or moroseness often attributed to the te'ar, I which .several ancient writers speak of as expressed in its countenance. On the whole, however, it is more probable that <5" (supported by the Syr. and .Ar. ver- sions) is right in reading

-And maketh her face dark like sackcloth (ci* vclkkov).

3 Natural History.[edit]

The Syrian bear, sometimes called Ursus syriacus, is not six,cifically distinct from the brown tear, Ursus '""* ^'though .somewhat lighter in colour and smaller than the typical varieties. It has a wide distribution,

' The other meaning of the .Ar. verb, 'to have a bristly skin,* is probably, as des. thinks, secondary, and derived from the noun dulib.

2 It was a common opinion in antiquity that she-bears were fiercer than the males; thus Pliny; (1149). 'Mares in omni genere fortiores pr^eterquam pantheris et ursis. '

3 Cp also Is. '.'4 18 Jer. 4S 44.

being found in several parts of Europe, formerly all over that continent, and throughout Asia N. of the Himalayas. It is unsociable in its habits, though some- times male ami female are seen together, and the cubs accompany their mother. Bears are omnivorous, kill- ing and eating other animals ; but they have a vegetable diet also. They are particularly fond of fruit and honey. In cold climates they hiliernate during the winter months, and during the period of hibernation they subsist on the stored-up fats. The young are generally born towards the end of this period. They are now practically extinct in S. Palestine, but are still to te met with in the Lebanon and Hermon districts.

2. RV rendering of vy (Jobflg) and b>'J? (Job3832),

AV ARCTUKL'.S (if.T.). N. M. A. E. S.


The importance attached by the Hebrews to the beard is fully borne out by the many references to it found in the O T.

Two worus are thus rendered : (a) f(51, znknn, (pnNAQrLn-oJycui/, used of the be.-\rd proper, cp 2S. 10 4yC ^ i Ch. 19 47^ Is. 7 20 15 2( = Jer. 4837) etc., and also of the chin 1 (in Lev. Viig/., 14 9 of both man and woman). (f>) Ctit', sdpham (from HSb', ' lip '), rendered ' beard ' in 2 S. 19 24 [25], is more properly the mous- tache or ' upper lip ' (so IpBAi, ,xu(rTa| ; EV Lev. 18 45, and AV mg. Ez. 24 17 22 Mic. 3 7 where EV ' lip ').

The beard was, and still is, in the East, the mark of manly dignity. A well-bearded man is looked upon as honourable, and as one who in his life ' has never hungered' (Doughty, Ar. Des. 1 250). By touching the beard, or by swearing by it, a man's good faith was assured [op. cit. 1 268) a fact which may possibly throw light upon Joab's treachery towards Amasa (2S. 2O9). To cut it off wilfully was an insult (2 S. IO4/, cp Is. 16), and to cut it ceremonially was strictly forbidden ; see Cuttings of the Flesh, 3. To shave it was an outward sign of mourning (Is. 152 Jer. 4Is 4837; cp Ep. Jer. [Bar. 6] 31) : see Moi;kning Customs, i.^

Although barbers are mentioned only in a late pass- age (Ez. 5i, D'aVa n'?J, ' to shave,' on the other hand, is frequent. Gen. 41 14 [E], 2 .S. 10 4 Judg. 16 17 22, etc. ), they were doubtless in great request.^ In Egypt the barber is described as industriously journeying from place to place seeking employment, carrying in an open- mouthed bag the tools of his craft a small short hatchet or recurved knife (cp A'i"(3i48). The razor is fre- quently mentioned in the OT, where it is called ij;?), taar (Nu. 65 87 Is. 720 Ps. 523 [4] ; but 'sheath' or ' scabbard ' in i S. 17 51 2 S. 208 Ez. 21 4 [9] etc. ), or .Tiio,'* morah (Judg. IBs I617 i S. 1 n) ; see Kniik.s

In Egypt, apart from priests (and high officials, Gen. 41 14), the practice of shaving the hair does not seem to have been very general (cp Egvh r, 39). On the other hand, the beard was regul.-irly shorn, and only the shepherds and foreigners let it grow, apparently to the disgust of the cleanly Egyptians. Hence the negligent Rameses Vll. is caricatured in his tomb at Thebes wearmg an unshorn beard of two or three days' growth. Nevertheless, the beard was looked upon as a symbol of dignity, and on solemn occasions the want was supplied by an artificial one. Such beards were made of a piece of hair tightly plaited and fastened by two straps behind the ear. The king wore a longer beard, square at the bottom ; one even longer and curled at the end was the distinguishing mark

' Unless ' chin ' is the primary meaning of \/Jp1. The word [pj ' old man,' is perhaps a derivative, lit. ' gray-beard.'

'- In 2S. I!i24[25] Meribba'al to show his grief leaves his beard untrimmed.

3 Herod, according to Jos. (/4A xvi. 11 6), was nearly as- sassinated by his barber, Trypho. In MH the barber is ISO ; cp Shabb. 1 2.

  • For .niyo (We. TBS 146^!) : hence both names are from the

same root, .Tiy^ ' to lay bare.'

6 A Phoenician inscription, fifth-fourth century B.C., from Larnaka in Cyprus, mentions the ciSj in a list of charge-; in connection with a temple of Ashtoreth. Unless they were there to attend to ceremonial tonsures, it is possible that Renan is right in taking them to be physicians whose business it w.as to heal the self-inflicted wounds of the worshippers (cp i K. IS 28, and see CIS 1 86 ; cp 95).

of a god.J The people of Punt followed the Egyptians in all such customs. Canaanites, Assyrians, and Uabylonians,2 on the other hand, wore long hair and plaited beards, .and in strong contrast to these are the monumental representations of the desert nomad with pointed moustache (cp WMM, As. u. hur. J40, 296). i*


For (i) b'hemah (non?) and (2) hayyah (^'n). ' living creature ' including rpj; and ,-jcna, Gen. 8 17 (P), but more particularly wild beasts. Gen. 7 14 (I') 872033 etc .see Cattle, 2 (2). For I's. (js 30(31], ' wild beasl of the reeds' [RV], see Crocodile, Dragon. For (3) ^'//-(T^S), 'beast of burden,' see Cattle, 2 (3). For (4) Is. 13 22 (C"N; 'wild beasts of the islands' [AV]) .see Jackal (4), Wolf. For (5) Is. 13 21 3414 Jer. 50 39 (D"li ; 'wild beasts of the desert' [EV]), see Cat (end).

(6) IV 2/0, wild beasts' [AV] Ps. 6O11 [12] 80i3[i4] is more scrupulously rendered 'that which moves (or roams)' by Dr., Ha;thg., We. [bUOl]. BDB recognises -v/m 'to move. 'Small crcaturiis' would also be possible: cp Talni. Kri ' a worm,' Ass. zizanu, an animal like a locust. Ihe probability of such a word in bibl. Hcb., however, is not great. The two passages have to be considered separately. gives dilferent readings : Ps. 'M a)patoT>)s(cp ri Is. CO 1 1), P.s. 80 ovos aypiot [15], /xeaono? a. [F.i;] /uLoi/ios a. [Nc.aAT], /lioi/os a. [R*]. The Targ. (in both passages) finds a reference to the Hooi'Oii. See further, BDB S.V., and (on the text, which is corrupt) Che. Psaliiisi-'i.

NT. For Rev. 11 7 etc. ]3ii etc. (the two mystical dtipia.) see Apocalypse, 40 43-47, Antichrist, 4^ and cp Behk- MOTH AND Leviathan, 2; Dragon, 2. For Rev. -1 6 (^uia : the four 'living creatures') see Cherub, 3. For Rev. 18 13 etc. {KTrivY)) cp Cattle, 2, (2), (3).


(with rods), Dt. 25i-3 etc. See LAW AND JUSTICE, 12.


(h coraia nyAH [Ti. WH]). Acts 3 10 ; see Temple.


C^a, 57 ; Hilprecht has found the Jewish name Biba on a tablet from Nippur; BhB&I [BA], B0KX6I [L])-

1. The b'ne Bebai, a family in the gre.at post-exilic list (s^-e Ezra, ii. 9, 8<), Ezra2ii (reckoned at 623) (|3a/3ei [B], -^ai [A])=Neh.7i6 (reckoned at f28) (^)P[e]i [BNA]) = i Esd.513; of whom twenty-eight are included in Ezra's caravan (see Ezra, i. 2, ii. 15 [i] d) EzraSii (^a^ei [liAl /Sa^iei |L once]) = 1 Esd.837, Bafi [once] (fiairjp, ^rj^ai [B], ^a/3i [.\ once], fiaprit. [L once]) and four in list of tho.se with foreign wives (see EzRA,i. s end)ECTal028(|3a^[e]i[BNA])=i Esd.029. Itwas represented among the signatories to the covenant (see Ezra, i. 7) Neh.10.5 [i6](/3,,Sa.[BN]^^Pa.[L]).

2. An unidentified place mentioned with Chorai and Cola [yy.7'.], Judith 154 07))3at [A], ai3eA)3ai/ii [N*}*'^-']), perhaps a repetition of the following name Chuiiai (B and Vg. omit ; if the reading of {<*, tt'^-^ be considered trustworthy, Bki.mkn [y.f.], a locality not otherwise improbable, may be intended.


("133, 'first-born' ; 61, or cp, jjerhaps. Ass. bairu. At.' b.ikr, 'camel' [so BDB Lex.']). A Benjamite clan. Gen. 4621 {xo^ojp [A], -(Sop [L], -/3a)X [D]) and iCh. 76 8 {^oxop [A], x^t^^P [I-li ct^Setpa [B V. 6, omitting all mention of Bela] and aliaxfi, afiaxeip [ib. v. 8]). The name is wanting in i| Nu. 2638-41, but it is possible that the name IJiccHRR (gen- tilic npa, Bachkiie, R\' Becherite) in the Ephraimite list, ib. V. 35 ('^^ om.) was originally a marginal addition to the Benjamite clans, which after being misplaced has crept into the text (cp Bered, ii.). To the clan Becher (^entilic Bichri [i/.v.]) belonged the rebellious Siieba [q.v. ii. (i)], and, if we adopt two very probable emendations (see Bechorath, Matri), also Saul. A descendant of the latter bears, according to the MT, the cognate name Bocheru (but see Bocheru). It is possible that the name recurs under the form MiCHKi [q-v.]. See also Benjamin, 9.


RV Becorath (JTl'lDB), apparently

1 .See Erman, Eg. 226 n. 4; Wilkinson, 2333.

- The sculotures represent, however, not only eunuchs, but also what seem to be people of the lowest rank peasants, labourers, and slaves without beard. In the oldest Babylonian sculptures, on the other hand, the head is completely bare. The ancient custom w.as perhaps given up through the be.ard becoming a sign of the military caste (see Perrot and Chipiez, ArtinChalii.'ii-i-).

3 Illustration, Benz. Arch. 100, 109.

the son of AriiiAii [</.-], an ancestor of Saul, i S. 9i (BAxei ['^]. BextopAG [A], MAxeip/ H-]- '^'^^ "^"i is really to be read as BiicHER [y. r. ]; it is the name of Saul's clan. C,"p Klo. on i S. 9i and Marq. Fund. 14.


(BaiktciAaiG [B], BeKTeAeG and haktaAai [A], B<MTOYAl<^ \y^*\ BeKTiAeO [N<=-a] ; Bcth-K'tilath, 'house of slaughter' [Syr. J), The ri..\iN OK, three days' journey from Nineveh, ' near the mountain which is at the left hand of upper Cilicia ' (Judith22i). (Irotius has suggested Ttolemy's (iuKTaiaW-rj in Syria {P/o/. v. 15 16; cp the Hactiali of the Tafi. Pnit. 21 R. m. from Antioch) ; but this does not agree with the situation as defined in the text. The name of the mountain is given as Ange, Agge by It. Vg. and as i-X^(' by the Syr. (so Lag.). For the latter Walton gives /x!^/ ' mountain of pots,' which suggests that the name may have arisen from reading bnn. 'potsherd,' for an original .y-\n, or KC'in '?n. which actually occurs as a place-name. See Tki.-Harsha.


1 General conditions.[edit]

Oriental lieds in the olden time cannot always have been so simple as we are led to suppose that they S^"^'i"y are to-day. Both the frame-work and the trappings of the bed were sometimes richly ornamented. Of course, manners changed and luxury grew. Egypt was perhaps in advance of other nations ; but even in Egypt the priests were wont to use beds of a very simple kind. If they had any frames at all, they were wicker- work of palm-branches, resembling the kafas of the modern Egyptian (cp Wilkinson, Anc. Eg. 1 185/, 419/ ). 2 The early Israelites were naturally slow in their material progress. Shepherds, for example, sleeping in the open air (cp Gen. 31 40), would wrap themselves in their simlah or rug* (Ex. 2226[25]), and, if need were, used stones for their head-rests (Gen. 28 11). Tent-dwellers too would be content with that useful article the simlah, and this was probably what Sisera was wrapf)ed in \\ hen he lay down to sleep * (Judg. 4i8). Those who dwelt in the house were protected from the weather, but knew no luxury. Great persons had special sleeping-chambers. Ishbaal for example, was murdered in such a room (3?E'p "nn), 28. 47; cp Ex. 83 [728], 2 K. 612 ; also -\-m 2^8. 13 10; iK. I15 Ps. 10530 (corr. text), and in the highly civilised period represented by Ecclesiastes it was per- haps the usual arrangement (Eccles. 10 20). Considering, however, how rare special bedrooms are in Eastern houses now, and also the poor construction of the houses in ancient Palestine, we can hardly venture to suppose that a 'chamber of beds,' (niED Tin, 2 K. II2 2 Ch. 22ii) was common among the Israelites. Guests, however, enjoyed privacy in the so-called upper-story [v-Kipi^ov in and NT), which was on a part of the flat roof, where coolness could be enjoyed (m-p n?y, 2 K. 4io Klo. ,tS;;, i K. 17 19 23). And in such rude houses as may still be seen in parts of Palestine, and were doubtless common in antiquity, the upper chamber would necessarily be the sleeping-room of the family, as long as the weather permitted (see House, 2). During the

1 fioxip might point to tdo ; but 3 is not unfrequently read as d; cp V^n, eo4xa<r[e]t [BA], da.^.ia<jti [L], 2 S.II21, and 2T, op^, Hos.l06[BAQr*J.

2 Porphyry calls them by the name bajs, from the Coptic bai, palm-br.-inch.' Cp ^ai'a, i Mace. 1851 (where the form of the

Greek i< doiil)tfiiI) Jn. 12 13 and Symm. Cant. "9.

3 So the modern Arab sleeps, e.g., on the roof of the mosque (Doughty) ; a iitlatn (nl^ob) is still the chief article of his wardrobe an oblong piece of thick woollen stuff, used for .-in outer garment by day and for a coverlet by night. See Dozy, Did. lies I'etevients ,ies A robes, 39.

  • For the unintelligible .ID'Db- (Judg. 4 18) read with Che.

'?9?' ^ '"= technical term than '"IDpO (Gratz) is required. Moore (ad loc.) frankly states that the main exegctical tradition pomts to a coarse rug or wrap.

summer, in the absence of a latticed upper chamber, huts of boughs on the fiat roof could be used (tor a descrip- tion of such see Schunracher, Across the Jordan, 89).

2 Terms[edit]

The bed itself is called generally (a) ,ncD mittah (from ,nt::, 'to stretch,' cp K\ivr\ from kXLvu} ; Gen. ^^"^^ *"^- )= (^) ^re'C miskdbh (proix,-rly place for lying,' Gen. \\i^ etc.) ; and [c) bTy ' 'eres (properly bedstead, Prov. 7 16).

nED(once Littek \,q.v. (i)), Cant. 3 7 RV) is used in 2 .S. 831 of a bier. 328*0 is used collectively of the bedding, etc. in 2 S. 1728 (where read pi.). There seems to be no distinction between these three words : b and c occur together in parallelism in Job 7 13, a and c similarly in Ps.(i6 (7]. The variant render- ing ' couch ' is employed arbitrarily, for the sake of differentia- tion, by EV in Job7 13(32^0), by AV in Am. 3 12 (cniO, by RV ib. (n:3D). and by KV in Am.C4 (^-ij;).

Other words rendered ' bed ' are (d) pjj" yd^ud (properly 'spread out," Ps. 086 [7], Job. 17 13), used also of the bed of wedlock in Gen. 494 (cp iCh.5:); an extension of meaning similar to that borne by icoitt) in Heb. 13 4 (but cp Lk. 11 7 etc.) ; cp .Ar. 'its, conjux. From the same root is derived also (-) yvn mnsuV, Is. 28 20 (see below on 2 K. 3 1 5).

In NT Koc'nj (cp above), (cAiVrj '(Mk. 730 etc.^, Kki.vLlt.ov (Lk. 61924, EV 'couch'), and (cpd^/Saros = Lat. grabbalus, Mk. 2 4 etc.). The Book of Judith adds <rTpu)fivrj (I89), which may perhaps = ^3^p.

For tV"lSK, Cant. 39 AVmg., see Palanquin, and for WnV, ib. 5 13, cp Garden.

3 Construction[edit]

To-day the divan, or platform, which goes along the side or end of an Oriental room serves as a rest for the bedding. This arrangement may have been '^"^^'" '" ^- Israel as early as the time of Amos (see below 5) ; but, if so, it was confined to the rich. What we know for certain is that the beds were movable ( i S. 19 15 : Saul wishes to have David brought to him in the bed), and this characterises all periods (see Lk. 5 18 and cp arpwyvvw in Mk. 14 15 Acts

934). Thus (cp below, 5) they could be used by day j as seats or couches (Ezek. 234i). In some cases the bed I was fitted with a head (cp Gen. 4731),* such perhaps as we find represented on Egyptian monuments (cp Wilk. op. cit. 1 416 fig. 191). That Og, king of bashan, had an iron bedstead, according to Dt. 3ii, is a state- ment of EV which most scholars would question. The wide application of Semitic words for ' bed ' justifies the rendering ' couch of death ' i.e. , sarcophagus.*

Basaltic sarcophagi abound in the E. of Jordan, and a giant could well be enclosed in ' Hiram's tomb,' as the Bedouins still designate one of them,* which is said to measure twelve feet by six.

The cloths or rugs spread over a bedstead were called Dn3>0 (Prov. 7 16), and very possibly the singular of this word is to be substituted for the obscure T33 and 1330 found in i 8. 19 13 16 and 2 K. 8 15 respectively (see above, 2, on Judith ISg). Neither of the latter words was understood in antiquity,^ and the revisers

1 Cp Ass. eriu, 'bed, couch,' Aram, ^^yj, JLoO^J^ 'couch, cradle, bier,' new Heb. d'-;?, 'a bower in the vineyard' ; Ges.- Bu. illustrates by Ar. ' ari, 'wooden frame.'

2 In "4 the word does not appear in the best texts (so RV).

3 For nep, however, Pe.sh. Gei. read HED, 'staff'; cp Heb. II21.

We can hardly say with Driver (Deut. 53) that 'the supposed meaning of bnj; is little more than conjectural." The evidence from a comparison of us.ages is overwhelming. If E5munaz.-ir can use 33e'Dforhis death-couch, the Deuteronomic writer may of course use fyV for that of Og. NC'li', indeed, occurs in a Palmyrene bilingual from et - "Tayyibeh in this sense. Cp also TCD in 28.831, and the Syr. use of ^flPii V . (n. I above). It must be remembered too that the Deutero- nomist assumes an oratorical style. He ought not to be required to use the technical Hebrew term for sarcophagus, filN (Gen. 6O26). Cp Schwally, Z.A TW, 1898, p. 127, n. 3 (who would render either ' bed ' or [cp -Aram. Nctj-l ' bier ').

  • So Robinson. The huge size of the sarcophagus indicates

the importance of the man whose body is placed in it. There is a vast .sarcophagus of a saint near Samarcand.

8 It should be mentioned, howe'er, that in 2K. S15 whilst B represents the Hebrew word by xofi^ Aq. and Symm. (and through them perhaps L) give to (TTpiifia (laion).

have shown their jx-Tplexity in the former passage by giving three alternative renderings.

4. Pillows.[edit]

Of pillows we hear nothing in 'OT. In Mk. 438 we have TrpoffKe<(>d\aiov (cp Kzek. HiiS O, A\' ' pillow ' ; but it was an extemporised pillow ; R V better, ' cushion. '

AV even sometimes RV does indeed assume the use of pillows. Thus (a) Vnb'KTD (with suffix) is rendered ' bolster ' by AV in i S. 19i^ 16 2<;7'ii 16, and by .Wmg. in i K. 106 ; and 'pillow' by AV in Geri. '2Sii 18. The word, however, denotes properly ' the parts about one's head,' and is thus rendered by RV everywhere (e.g:, iS. Hi3, 'at the head thereof), and once even by AV in i K. I".i6, The Heb, word finds its exact parallel in the rn73"lip (with suffix), 'the parts about (one's) feet ' (Ruth;i8i4). (/) For T33 in iS. 19 13 16, EV has 'pillow,- while RVmg- offers 'quilt' or 'network' (so Ew., cp ^133, a sieve) ; but see 3. (c) The ' i)illows ' of the prophetesses (so Trpo<TKe(j>dKai.oy ; cp Vg. Pesh. Targ.) in Ez. 13 18 20 are purely imaginary. ninDS appears to mean some kind of magical amulet carried by the prophetesses; cp Ass. iasii, 'to bind," kasitu (Del. in Haer, Eztk. xii.yC).

It is impossible to separate the subject of lieds from that of couches or divans. Amos, as a dweller in the _ T)ja.ns ^"""^""y- directs his scorn against the luxury of the rich grandees ' that sit in Samaria in the corner of a couch, and on the silken cushions of a bed' (.\m. 3 12^, RV). The rendering of RV is indefensible : Damascus and damask have no connec- tion (see Damascus, 6 n. ). The passage has been cleared up with an approach to certainty by critical conjecture : it should run thus, ' that sit in Samaria on the carpet (n'Sxa) of a couch, and on the cushion (3|;;^C3) of a divan.' ' From another pas.sagc, which also can be restored very nearly to its original clearness (see D.WID, 12 n. ), we learn that the couches of the great were richly adorned. The selfish grandees are described as those ' that lie upon couches (or beds, ni::D, of ivory,' Am. 64). Such couches were sent as tribute by Hezekiah to Nineveh [KB 297, 1. :^6), and the Amarna Tablets (5 20 ; cp 27 2028) speak of ' beds ' (irsu) of ivory, gold, and wood sent to the king of Egypt. So too in Esther (1 6 ; cp i Esd. 36) we read of couches adorned with gold and silver, and covered with rich tapestry an<l deckings from Egypt (cp Prov. 7 16). Some of the-,c couches would of course be used as beds. .Such, at any rate, was the gorgeous bed [K\ivr\) in the tent of Holo- phernes. The description of it contains the first mention ofa ' canopy' (/cwi'uiTrtov, Judithl02i ISg 16 19, origin.illy a fly-net) one of the results of Greek influence ; Hei.i.knism, 15.


(nn3 ; Bar&A [BADEL]), the father of Hadad I., king of Edom, (}en. 3635 iCh. I46 (B&ApAM [L])- The name is seemingly a corruption of Bir-dadda i.e., probably, Hir is Dadda (two names of the storm-god best known as Ramman) : cp with this Bir-zur (n:-i3, Panammu inscr. from Zenjirli, i, 3). Waiti, the 'king of .Arabia ' concjuered by Asur-bani-pal, had for his father Bir-dadda (A'j9 2222/ ), a name which <inswers to the -Assyrian name Bir- ramman (the eponym for 848 B.C.). Homniel (Beitr. z. Ass., 1897, p. 270) derives from Be-(Ha)dad i.e., by Hadad; cp Baana, Be-eshtkrah. t. k. c.


(|"15 ; badan, or [Cod. Am.] bexedax).

I. In an address ascribed to Samuel we find Bedan mentioned Ijetween Jerubbaal and Jephthah as one of the chief deliverers of Israel (i S. 12 n MT). No such name occurs in the Book of Judges, however, and the form of the name is suspicious.

Ew. supposed that the initial letter had been dropped, and that we .should read Abdon (|n3y, Judg. I213). Abdon, however, is one of the six ' minor Judges ' introduced into the historical scheme of Judges at a later time. The Targ. fancifully understands the name as ben-Uan />., Samson.

1 Cp .\mos, 5 n. ; Che. Expositor, vi. b,- 366, JQR 10 572, and on n'BS, 'mat, 'rug,' 'carpet' see //n Is. i26n. For 33^03 Gratz and Nowack give r3'0w*3, 'on the covering of.' But jr is non-existent ; in Judg. 4 18 it is corrupt (see above).

The mention of Sisera in v. 9 entitles us to exf)ect Barak, which name is actually read by (3 {^apuK [B.\I.,]), Pesh. So We. , Dr. , Klo. , Bu. , Moore, H. P. Smith.

2. A Manassite, i Ch. 7 17 (/3a5a/ut [H], -Sav [.\h]); perhaps a corruption of -Vbdon (pay). See .Machik.


(nn5, more probably a textual corruption for n\S-|2, I Chy82it [so Gray, NP.V 285. n. 11, who cites <5" and Pesh.], than an abbreviation for HnSr [so Olsh. 2771^, 4, followed by BDB], a Levitical name in the list of those with foreign wives (EzRA, i. 5 end) Ezral035 (Barma [B], BaAaia [AL], ma. [S] ;

^(' = i Esd. 934 Pki.ias, RV Pedias (neAl&C [B],

TT&iAeiAC [A], BA2k(M& UA)- By reading Beraiah (/.-'.) as above, we gain a second name in which creation ( Ny^ia) is referred to by the distinctive exilic and post-exilic term. See CREATION, 30.


(n-jn-n,' MeAiccA; Dt.144 Judg.Hs Ps. II812 Pr. 68 (] Is. 7i8 Ecclus. r)7 [X-^-^] lis 4Macc. Higt) has for its Hebrew name a word derived from a root meaning to lead (or to Ix; led) in order.

Thus it means properly a member of a swarm (cp e.xamen from ex-ago). Besides the familiar incident of Samson finding a swarm of bees in the lion's carcase

(recalling Vergil's story of .Xristaeus and other classical allusions, see below), we have in the OT two references 10 the angry assaults of bees on those who meddle with their hives (Dt. 144 Ps. llSi2 [.MT] ; '- cp 4 Mace. 14 19).

and a likening of the Assyrian power to a lx?e summoned by the sound of a hiss to settle on the land of Israel-'

lis. 7 18). In Prov. 6, at the close of the exhortation iu the sluggard to learn from the ant and her ways, has the following addition to the Hebrew text :

Or go thou to the bee And learn how diligent she is, And how noble (o-e^inji') is the work th.at she doeth ; Whose labours kings and private men u-^e for health, And she is desired and honourable in the eyes of all : Though she be weak in strength, By honouring wisdom she is advanced.

We may compare the words of the son of Sirach (11 3). The bee is little among such as fly, but her fruit is the chief of sweet things.

The common bee of Palestine is Apis fasciata, Latr. ; some authorities regard it as a distinct species, others as a sub-species of the cosmopolitan honey-bee ^-^//w mcllijica. In favour of the latter view it is stated that when crossed with races of the same species it breeds freely ; but, on the other hand, it differs in size and colour from the English bee, being smaller and lighter, and beautifully striped. The colonies are large and very many, Palestine being a country well adapted for the needs of insects which flourish in the sun and feed on flowers.

Bees are found wild, making their hives in crevices of the rocks and hollow trees, etc. ; and, even at the present day, many of the Arabs make a living by collecting wild honey and bringing it into the towns for sale. Bee-keeping is much practised in the East (where honey is largely used in cooking), the hives, according to Canon Tristram, being tubular structures 3 or 4 ft. long, and some 8 in. in diameter, roughly made of sun-dried mud. The ends of the tube are closed with a tile perforated with a hole for the access of the bees.

Many of the hives are piled up together and covered with boughs for the sake of shade. When the combs

This '-m. word is a nomen unitatis; the collective appears in Arab. as dibr or dabr, a swarm of bees, also probably in emended text of i S. 14 26, ilS^, its bees (for B*?^) ; so 0, We.,

Dr., Bu., H. P. Smith.

- has 'as bees about wax,' which Ba., Che.(l) adopt ; but j;n comes from \yj^, a rival reading to ni'3 (Che. /V.C-')). In cod. N Ecclus. 57 a corrector h.-is added <o? neAi<r<rai crpi^ij<r|.

The ancients believed that it was possible to summon bees by sounds, such as the beating of metal : .see Verg. Georg. 46$, and the other passages cited by Bochart (Hicroz. 4 10).

are stored with honey the end is removed and the comb pulled out with a hook. It is jxissible that this method of apiculture is of considerable antiquity the art was well known in classical times, and the bee has lK;en, as Darwin points out, ' semi - domesticated from an ex- tremely renjole jieriod,' but there is no reference to it in the or or the NT.

The temper of this race of bees is very irritable, and they are very revengeful ; indeed, it seems that the farther Kast one travels, the more the bee is to be avoided. This eagerness to attack may e.xplain such passages as Dt. I44 I's. II812, which, if they referred to the English \kc, would seem exaggerated. A few years ago some hives of this Kastern race were introduced into the South of England, but proved so aggressive that they had to Ix destroyed. They are very active on the wing and fly great distances.

The passage in Judg. (148), which describes Samson finding ' a swarm of Ixjes and honey in the carcase of the lion," reads strangely. It is, however, by no means improbable that in the hot dry climate of Palestine the boily of a lion might dry up (juickly, and it is possible that the flesh of the animal might have been removed by ants. The skeleton might then form an attractive shelter for a hive. On the other hand, liaron Osten .Sacken ' has recently drawn attention to the w idely- spread myth called Bugonia, which is that bees are generated in the bodies of dead animals, more especially in the carcases of oxen. This myth frctiuenlly occurs in ancient and medi;eval literature,- and was believed and quoted by distinguished naturalists as late as the middle of the seventeenth century. Its explanation, according to our author, lies in the fact that a true fly (Erishtlis lenax, one of the Diptera), which mimics a bee so closely as to deceive those who are not entomo- logists, lays its eggs in decaying meat. This provides food for tile maggots. After the pupa stages emerges the mature insect. As it flies away, it would be almost certainly taken for a bee. The theory is ingenious ; but it does not account for the honey in the lion's carcase, and at present, although the Eristalis undoubtedly lays its eggs in filth, the evidence that it does so in dead bodies is somew hat scanty.

A story parallel to Samson's is to the effect that recently, when the tomb of Petrarch at .\rqua was opened, it was found that a swarm of bees had made their honeycomb on the remains of the poet.

The Palestine bee, which is found S. of Mount Carmel, differs from the Syrian bee found in Asiatic Turkey X. of that district. The latter is of a deeper gray. Both races are larger than the Cyprian bee, which is slender and wasp-like. The Egyptian bee resembles the Syrian in size, but is yellow and of an unusually fierce temperament. See also Honky.

N. .M. .\. E. s.


(in*'?V3. 42. i-c, 'Baal knows.' or 'whom B. deposits' [for safe custody ; cp Ar. wada'a, ' deposuit ' ; see Kerber, /ugfnn. 39] ; the \Iassoretic vocalisation intentionally disguises the word ?1^3), one of the sons of D.WiD {'/.'., 11 </] (i Ch. 14;. jSaXeySae [BS], -\\iaoa[A],/JaaXta5a[L]; Ti.'stext eXiaSe). This, the original form of the name, was later altered by the scrupulous copyists to Ei.i.^n.v in 2 S. 5 16 (but ^aaXiXad [L] and -ei/jLaS in B's secondary [see D.wiu, 11 (d) /3] list) and i Ch. 38. when Baal had become objectionable as a name of God (WRS, OTVCC-) 68). Cp Baal. i. 5-


(BeeXcApoc [BA]). i Esd.58 = Ezra

22, HlI.slIAN.


(BeeAreeMOC [B]). i Esd. 2i6. See Ri.iUM, 5.

1 Bullettino dtlla Societd Entomolorica Italiana, torn. 25 l'9il. ^ See the references in Bochart, Hieroz. 4 10.


as in RV'"k ; EV Beelzebub ; a name of the ruler of the demons (ftpxcoN TcoN A&r moniojn). Mt. IO25 122427 Mk.3 22 Lk. 11 .5 iS/t

KV follows Text. Rcc, which has 0Af,/3ov^ (so IVsh.) ; l.ut final / is better atte.sud 03Afe^ouA (cA Syr.Hcl.); so '1 i. Trcg.). W'H, following 15 and partly k, '^"l 1. Form everywhere 0^.0ouA, which, Weiss insists, must of name, i's oriKinal ; but this scepticism as to the A in pecA is paradoxical. The word ^^^ouA is in- explicable and hardly pronounceable, and the famous p.-issjigc in Mt. IO25, where the oiKohtano-rn^ is said to \x insultingly called liee(l)zebul, implies the speaker's consciousness that ^ya is one element in the title.

The name differs in two respects from the traditional name of the god of l':kron : ( i ) its first part is Aramaic, and (2) its last letter is not b but /. 2. Explanation, j^jj,, ^.^ cannot doubt that BCelzebnl is identical with Baal-zCbub. This heathen god seemed at one moment to be the rival of Yahwe (2 K. 1 3), and his name naturally rose to Jewish lips when demoniacal possession was spoken of, because of the demoniacal origin assumed for heathen oracles. The title occurs nowhere in Jewish literature, and must, therefore, have lost its popiilarity after the time of Christ. There were, in fact, so many names of demons that we cannot be surprised that some once popular names passed out of use. If we ask how the name Beel-zebub, or rather Beel-zebul, came to tje popular, the answer is first, that the title Baal-zebul was probably not confined to the god of Ekron, but was once known in Palestine pretty widely, so that a traditional knowledge of it, as well as of the synonymous title Haai.-Zki'IKjN [q.v.], can \x presumed among the Jews and their neighbours even apart from 2 K. 1 ; and next, that Lk. 954 shows that special interest was felt by the Jews of the time of Christ in the strange narrative in which the natne Baal-zebub occurs. That the form Baal-zcbfil was generally preferred may be presumed froin the best accredited Greek text of the Gospels the knowledge of this form nmst have come to the Jews by tradition and by intercourse vith their neighbours but it is probable enough that Bctl-zebhb also was current, and from Mt. 10 25 we are obliged to assume that some teachers pronounced the name Beel- zebud, with the view of interpreting it Beel-debaitha = olKo5eaii6TT)%. ' lord of the house ' n and n Ix^ing easily interchanged.! (.An analogy for this can be found in the Elohist's play upon Zebulun. as if Zebudun, in Gen. 3O20. ) The interpretation was correct (see Baai.- zi-.Bi;n, 3), though the 'house' of which Jesus and his contemporaries thought was, not on the mountain of God (cp BAAi.-ZF.riiON, ' lord of the [niansi(jn of the] north), but in the ' recesses of the pit ' ^ (Is. 14 15). Though the demons might be allowed to pervade the upper world (cp I'.ph. 22). the place from which they proceeded was the 'abyss' (the Abaddon of Rev. 9ii).

As things now stand, therefore, it is best to suppose Baal,-ZEBUB [q.v. , 3] to be a modification in the direc- tion of cacophony for religious reasons (cp Gog, Magog) which did not hold its ground. Baal-zebul is probably the original form, and it meant ' lord of the mansion ' i.e. , to the Jews of NT times, ' lord of the nether world." The reading of the received Greek text is assimilated to the reading of the traditional Hebrew text.

Over against this view stands that of the old scholar Lightfoot (still defended by Am. Meyer, Jesu Mutter- sprache, 49). which connects -zebul with 3. Other ex- 1,3, dung," Vai. '?nn. * dung-making." in planationa. ^ Hebrew ; cp S31'. ' to offer to idols." The idea is that ' lord of flies " was changetl into ' lord of dung," to show abhorrence of heathenism. Such transformations are, no doubt, in the later Jewish spirit; 1 Cp ."s ZojSoufl for Zabud [q.v., 1].

She Ol, on this theory, is ironically described as the 70T, the palace ' or ' mansion ' of the demons, as in Ps. 40 1 5 (according to one possible view, see PsALMS, ^.ffOr where We. reads ?3|0) of the wicked rich.

but this particular one is improbable.^ ' Lord of flies' (could we assume that this was the original meaning) was itself, as a title, bad enough ; nor would the people, who feared the demons so much, have ventured to speak too disrespectfully of the archdemon (cp Ashmedai or AsmodOus, which to a Hebrew ear meant the ' destroyer' not a disrespectful title) ; lastly, on Lightfoot's theory the name ought to be Beel-zebel : it is shown elsewhere that a late editor detected the new Hebrew word zebel, 'dung,' in the name I-zebel (Jezebel). Lightfoot's theory, then, must be abandoned, as Baudis- sin holds. But Baudissin's own theory (adopted from Hitzig) is not really more satisfactory. He thinks that Baal-zebul is simply a euphonic modification of Baal-zebub, the consonant which closed the first syllable being repeated at the close of the second part of the word.

This, however, leaves Baal-zebub unexplained, for Baudissin's theory of the name is scarcely admissible.

See Selden, De Dis Syris,2(>; Lightfoot, Horcs HebraiccB, on Mt. 12 24 Lk. 1 1 15 ; Movers, Die Phonizier ('41), 1 260/ ; Riehm's article in HWB^"^). The latter revives an old theory of Storr and Doderlein that bi'el dUbdbd in Aramaic might mean either ' lord of flies ' or 'an enemy,' ix^P^^ dfOptuwos (Mt. I328) = Sid/SoXos. This is doubtless plausible. We must at least admit that the common people cannot without instruction have attached a meaning to -zcbul. But how has Beelzcbul (half Hebrew, half Aramaic) fixed itself in the Gospel tradition? Pesh. too retains Beelzebub. Baudissin's article in Herzog, /-'A'A"<^' (learned and thorough) adopts the ordinary view, as far as Baal-zebub is concerned.

T. K. C.


(-1X2, ' well,' loi). i. [to (Ppiap [BAFL]). A station of the Israelites, apparently between Heshbon and the Anion (Nu. 21i6 [JE]). See Nahaliel ; Waxueking, 8 ; and cp, below, Bekr-Elim. The interest of Beer is not geographical but literary. The discovery of the well was commemorated (the narrator gives us to understand) by a song. The song with its context runs thus, according to MT,

And from there to Beer : that is the well whereof Yahwfe said unto Moses : .\ssemljle the people, and I will give them water. Then sang Israel this song :

Spring up, O well ; greet ye it with a song. Well, that the princes have dug, The nobles of the people have bored, With the sceptre with their staves. And from iMidbar[KV the wilderness] to Mattanah ; and from Mattanah to Nahaliel ; and from Nahaliel to liamoth.

The historical character of this statement has generally been assumed. Ewald, however, is on the road to a very different theory when he remarks that such a well- song would become a source of joy to the labourers who thenceforward used it {Hist. 2204). He sees, in fact, that it is essentially a popular song. Robertson Smith, too, finely speaks of ' the exquisite song in which the Hebrew wonien as they stand round the fountain, waiting their turn to draw, coax forth the water which wells up all too slowly for their impatience.'^ We should not expect the origin of such a song to be remembered ; nor is there anything in the words to suggest the occasion ascribed to it in JI-'. More prob- ably it arose in the dry country of the south of Judah, where springs were the most valued possession (cp Judg. lis Josh. 15 19 Gen. 2619/;). The ' princes," 'nobles,' and ' captains ' (for ppnaa we read o'ppno ; cp Judg. 59-14) referred to are the sheikhs of the clan. When

1 D'Sl^, the present writer thinks, has no connection with ^Sa, 'dung.' It is pointed in imitation of D'S?pB', 'abomina- tions,' and should really be read D'Vlj'jl, 'heaps of stones,' i.e., altars of stone. Cp, however, Idol, $ 2 (/').

'^ Hitzig (A7. Proph., by Steiner, 267)compares(S.'s K\i.&aKov\i. (Habakkuk); Baudissin adds Habel-mandel for Babel-Mandeb.

3 'The Poetry of the OT,' Brit. Quart. Rev. Jan. 1877; cp RS'^) 135. The expression 'coax forth" was .suggested by Herder. The fountain is credited by primitive races with per- sonality.

a fresh well has been found, the sheikhs go through the symbolic form of digging for it with staves, and the poets of the clan greet the well with a song.

Does MT give us the whole of the song? Can Midbar be used as a proper name ? Surely not. And, when we examine the MSS of , we find some justifi- cation for the hypothesis of Budde, that the text of the itinerary originally ran, ' .And from there to Beer ; and from Beer to Nahaliel and from Nahaliel to Bamoth.' and that an editor who knew the song of the well, and desired to do it honour, inserted it Ijetween the first and the second items in the list, with the additional line, 'Out of the wilderness a gift ' (see Mattanah). See Budde, New World, March 1895; Preuss. Jahrbb., 1895, p. 491^ ; Franz Del. ZA'II', 1882, p. 449^

2. A place to which Jotham [i] fled from his brother Abimelech, Judg. 921 (^an.-i)p [B], papa. \\\ r)pa. [L]). In OS (23873; 106 20) it is identified with a village called Bera, 8 m. N. of Eleutheropolis. The context, however, gives us no data for determining the site of the ' well ' in question.

IJeekoth ((l-v.) and even Beersheba have been suggested. Kb. el-lilreh, W. of 'Ain Shems, is considerably more than 8 m. N. of Beit Jibrln. t. K. C.


(XnX?, 'well" ; BmmAa [B], BeHRA [A], cm. L. ), b. Zophah, in genealogy of Asher (i Ch. 737)-


(n"lS3, 'well'), a Reubenite prince, son of Baal, carried off by Tiglath-pileser, i Ch. 56 (BchA [B], -HRA [A], B&PA [I-])- He is identified by the rabbins with Beeri, the father of the prophet Hosea.


(D?\S IX? [Ba. Gi.], 'well of tere-binths' (?) or 'of sacred trees' ; 4)pGAp TOY<MA[e]iM [BNAQF]), a place apparently on the northern border of Moab, answering to Eglaim on the south (Is. 158). It is generally identified with the Bekk of Nu. 21 16. Some identify it also with the Alema of i Mace. 526 ; but see Alema.


ClX?, ' belonging to the well ' or ' Beer,' 76 ; cp above).

1. A Hittite, the father of Judith (i. 1), Esau's wife, Gen. 26 34 Oc7)p [AD], jSaijjA [E], /Saiiop [L]). It is impossible to reconcile this description with that of Ad.ih in the genealogy in Gen.3t52, for which see B.\sue.math, i.

2. The father of Hosea, Hos. 1 i (6 /3e.,p[e]t, [BAQ]).


(^X'l ^TO nX?), a well in the Negeb, famous in Hebrew tradition as the scene of Hagar's theophany (Gen. 16 14), and no doubt connected with a sanctuary (St. ZATW 1 349 ['81]). Beside this sacred well was the abode of Isaac (Gen. 'J462 25 11).

1. Name.[edit]

The name is mentioned only by J ; E, who gives nearly the same account of the theophany (21 8-21), speaks simply of ' a well.' According to RV, Beer-lahai-roi means ' well of the living one who sees me.'

So the Versions (1(5 14 : <l>peap of ci/aJTriof [ellSof [.\DE], 24 26 25 II : </). riji opao-eois [ADEL] ; Pcsh. in all three ).**.? JJ^S t*J Ju)- This rendering, however, is inconsistent with that given of El Roi in 1013, '.\ God that seeth ' ; we should expect, not 'NT 'n, but "NT 'n, and, even apart from this, 'n cannot be equiva- lent to hit, ' God ' (the phrase 'n Vx is late). Probably, there- fore, we should render with We. {Prol.i*) 330; ET 326), 'living is he who .sees me,' and explain this by the liijht of H.-.!;ar's words in v. 13, which, as they stand, are unintelligible, but may, by the correction of U7TI into D'ri7K,l and the insertion of TIKI between TI'NT and *"inN (the resemblance of these three words accounts for the omission of one), be interpreted thus : ' Have I .seen God and remained alive after my vision (of CJod)? ' El Roi (lit. ' God of vision ') will then mean ' the God who is seen ' (cp Gen. 22 14).

These explanations of El-R6'I and Beer-lahai-ro'i are too plainly not original. According to analogy, 'nV (wrongly vocalised lahai) ought to be a noun in the construct state. Instead of lahai we should doubtless

1 Cp dtV in MT of I S. 3 13 : read D'n'^N with bal. 5'6

vocalise /<'/*/, 'jaw-bone'; ro/f?) is some animal's name, not known in the later Hebrew, ami perhaps of Arabic origin. Ttie name misread Lahai-roi should, therefore, be renden-d ' Antelope's (?) jaw-l)one. '

Another explanation is proposed by Hommel (AHT 209). Adhering to the points as regards the syllable hat, he compares the S. Ar. name Luhai-'atkt. He docs not account for ro'i. Should 'm l)e lin (see Reu)? Samson's Lehi, however, supplies a more obvious clue.

Uffi, 'jaw-bone.' was a name given to any prominent crag, from a fancied resemblance to a jaw-bone. .See Lehi ; and cp Onugnathos {tvov 71'd^oj), a promontory on the coast of Laconia, and 'Camel's jaw-l>one' (an Arabic name, Yilkiit, iv. 3539^ ; cp We. Vakidi, 298, n. 2).i

2. Site[edit]

According to E. the well was in the wilderness of Beersheba (Hen. 21 14) ; J, more precisely, states that it was 'on the way to Shur' (16 7), 'between Kadesh and Bered ' {v. 14). Jerome knew of a 'well of Hagar' ((>510l3); does he mean the tra- ditional well in the tl ddy el-Muweileft f This strangely formed wady is at the foot of mountains of the same name, and Palmer thinks that there was once a large city here (' perhaps one of the " cities of the south " '). One of the wells has special sanctity, and is connected by the Bedouin with Hagar. Two caves appear to be ancient. The siiialler, at the upi:)er end of the wady, on the right hand, was apparently a Christian chapel ; the other, on the opposite side, seems to have served as the hermitage (Palmer, Desert of the Exodus, 2 354). As to the 'jaw-bone' rock no positive state- ment can be ventured. On the geographical state- ment in <. 14, see Bkkkd, i. To the suggestions there made it may be added that the 'way to Shuk ' [q.v.) would be one of the regions called by the Assyrians Musri. According to the original tradition Hagar seems to have fled, not to Egypt, but to a N. Arabian district called by a name which was confounded with Mizraim (ICgypt). This, and not Egypt, was really her native country ; this too was the country from which, according to E, she took a wife for her son Ishmael (21 21). SoW'i. AOF 30/. See H.\GAR, i ; Is.\.\c, 2 ; MizkAi.M, 2 ; MoKi.vu. T. K. c.


(nnXZ; BhrcoG [BXAL]), a city of Benjamin.

In Josh. IS 25, P(r,poi0a [H], /3r,#u)pa>9 [I.], 2.S. 42 [A omits]; gentilic Beerothito (rnN^.T ; j3r,pa)eaio9 [I'.AL], 2 Sam. 42/ 59; Pr)9u>p. [liA], /Siflapft [L], 2 Sam. 2337; 'rf'^rr, KV Bero- THITE, 1 Ch. 11 39 ; o Pfp0(i [?,], 6 /3i7pwfl [A], o /Sjjpojfli [L]).

According to Josh. 9 17 {^etpuv [B*], ^r]Owf> [B'^bmEf.]), it belonged originally to the Gitieonite confederation ; and, according to 2S. 43, there was at one time a migration of its inhabitants to CJiitaim (see l.siii?.\.\L, 1). Men of Beeroth are mentioned in the great post-exilic list (see KzR.\, ii. 9, 8 r) ; Ezra225 = N'eh. 729 (/i7?pa.'s [B], afiripu)d [L]) = i Esd.5i9 (i^vpoy [B] p(7/pwe? [.\]). It is named by Kus. (cp Reland, 618-19), and is now represented by the modern /-.V /i/reh (which still owes its name to its abundant supply of water), a village of about 800 inhabitants, in a poor district, about 9 m. N. from Jerusalem, on the Shechem road. Tradition assigns it as the place where Joseph and Mary missed Jesus from the company of returning pilgrims (Lk. 24345).


RV Beeroth Bene-Jaakan (Ii;'r'."\:? nilX?. wells of the b'ne J.i'akan '), a halting-place in the desert, Dt. 106 (BHpco9 YICON lAKeiM [HAL]), where it is men- tioned Ix-fore MosKROTH.'-^ This notice is pre-Deutero- nomic, and belongs to a fragment of E's list of stations

> So first We. ProL I.e. ; cp Moore, /ii'^, 347. It natural inference that Kl-roi originally referred to an a god (so Ball, Genesis, SHOT).

  • The Samar. text has lor this verse : ' And the children of

Israel journeyed from Moseroth and encamped among the b'ne Ja'ak2n.'

which has been inserted by the editor (Bacon, Trip. Trad. 207/; cp Meyer, /.ATW 1 118 ; Dr. Deut. 120). In Nu. 3331/ the same name occurs (shortened into Bknk-Jaakan, jpy* '33 ; (iavaia [BJ ; -viKai' [A] ; -{i)aKav [F] ; fiaviK. [L]) after Moseroth ; but the list of stations in Nu. 33 is of late editorial origin (cp Kue. //ex. 98, 102). The sjKJt probably lay somewhere on the edge of the Arabah. Cp Jakan, and Wander- ings, 8.


1. References[edit]

(rT^IN?, 107 i.e. , 'well of seven', rather than 'seven wells' see lx;low, 3 ; BHpCABee

, t'^-^^r.] 'Vr^' ^^^^ BHRCABeO [A] ; in den. 21 31 4)peAp opKICMOy [.\DL], 2633 <|). opKOy [ADEL], it is taken as mean- ing ' well of the oath ').i One of the Simeonite towns in the southern territory of Judah (Josh. I92), on the border of the cultivated land, came to be regarded, for the greater part of history, as the remotest point of Canaan in that direction ; whence the phrase 'from Dan to Beersheba' (2 8.17"), which, after the fall of the \. kingdom, became from ' Geba to Beersheba' (2 K. 238), or 'from Beersheba to Mt. Ephraim' (2Ch. 194 ^fnpaa^fe [B]), and in the post- e.xilic period ' from Beersheba to the valley of Hinnom ' (Xeh. 11 27 /3f77/>(ra/ife [B], /3epcr. [A], 30 littjpaafitf [B], ^fpff. [A]). Vet Beersheba, though the practical, was not the ideal, border of the Holy Land. This ran along the ' river of Egypt,' the present Wady el-'Arish, nearly 60 m. SE. of Beersheba.

An account of the origin of the name and the planting of the sacred tamarisk of Beersheba is given in the story of Abraham (Gen. 21 22^. E) ; but another story fx;long- ing to another document (J) assigns the origin of the well and its name to Isaac (Gen. 2626-33). It was the scene of more than one theophany in patriarchal times. It was an important sanctuary frequented even by N. Israel in the time of Amos (65 (ppeap toO 8pK0v [B.AQ]), who refers with disapproval to those who swear by the life of the divine patron'- of FJeersheba (814). It was in Beersheba that the two sons of Samuel are said to have exercised their judgeship (iS. 82), and a day's journey thence into the wilderness is placed the incident of the 'juniper' tree in the life of Elijah (i K. 193j5': /3e/)<ra/3ff [A]). Beersheba was the birthplace of the mother of King Joash (2K. r2i[2] 2Ch. 24i). In post-exilic times it was inhabited by men of Judah.

The ruins at Beersheba belong apparently to early Christian days. The Onoviastica describe it as a large place with a Roman garrison (103 32 '234 100). In the time of Jerome the place was of some importance ; later, it became an episcop.il see ; but by the fourteenth century it had become deserted and ruined.

2 Identification[edit]

It is represented by the modern />/> es-Seba, on the W. es-Seba', 28 m. s'w. from Hebron (Rob. Bk' 1 300 -^ ' ^ '^st the arable land of Palestine ' ^'""^"y comes to an end with Beersheba, and the country to the south of it is usually barren, there are, for nearly 30 m. .S. of Beersheba, ruins of old villages gathered round wells ; they evidently date from Roman times.

3. Derivation.[edit]

On Josh. 192, ' Beersheba and Shelxi,' see Shema (i. ).

[WRS(AV/. Sem.C-) 181) remarks 'The sanctuary of Beersheba proix-rly consisted of the ' Seven Wells " T\i * vhich gave the place its name. ' Among

., , , ,,,.,. ,, ,, '.

the Arabs a place called ' Seven Wells is mentioned by Strabo (I64S4). Robertson Smith has also given abundant evidence of the sanctity attaching to the groups of seven wells among the Semites. Even to-day seven wells or cisterns seem to have the power of undoing witchcraft (ZDFl'l i<^). This view is due to Stade (Gesch. i. 127), who thinks that the postposition of the numeral was Canaanitish ; but, as in the case of Kirjaih-arta (see Hebron, i. ). the theory is doubtful.

1 The Hebrew verb ' to swear ' means literally ' to come under the influence of seven things.' See WRS, Ket. Stm.^t 161 J^. 2 MT gives ' way ' (cultus) ; see Amos, i ao.

' Well of Seven ' is not inexplicable ; ' Well of (the) Seven gods ' is intrinsically a probable meaning. Few persons, it is to be hoped, go to lieersheba looking for seven wells. Gautier affirms that there are now only three, though there may once have l?en more {Souvenirs de Terre Sainte,'^- 147 ; but cp his letter in Exp. Times, IO328 (Apr. 99). Trumbull [Exp. Times, 889 [Nov. '96]) also states that he saw three wells, but adds that at some distance he saw the remains of a fourth and a fifth. He admits that there may once have been more than five. Cp also Dr. Exp. Times, 7 s(>l f- ('>^Y>- '96). For descriptions of Beersheba as it is to-day, see Rob. BR 1 204 ; Gu(5rin, Judde, 2 278 283 ; Si^journ^, Kev. bibliqite, 1895, p. 265.] <;. .\. s.


(Hnri'JT?) in Josh. 21 27 (Bocop&N \^\ -??-\.^'\ BeeBApA [A]), perhajjs an abbreviation for n^riVT jri'5' 'house of Astarte ' (cp Ges. , Nestle, Eig. 114, etc. ). Homniel, however (Ih-itr.f. Ass. , 1897, p. 268), explains ' by Ashtar ' ; cp the S. Ar. nnnv^. ' by Athtar (i.e. , Ashtar).' Cjray (I/PX 127) also is against the supposed abbreviation of bcfh into be-. See ASHTAROTH.


RV Cricket (^jl^n ; o(})iomaxhc^ [BAFL] : Lev. Il22t). By the word so rendered is almost certainly intended a species of locust or grass- hopper ; the name is one of four used in the verse to denote ' winged creeping things that go upon all fours, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth. ' The Hebrew name has passed into Aramaic, post-biblical Hebrew, and Armenian ; in Arabic harjala means ' a troop of horses ' or ' a troop of locusts ' (cp Joel24), and the connected verb means 'to proceed in a long train,' as do locusts. ' Beetle ' is at all events a wrong rendering ; for the Coleoptera have, as a rule, legs ill adapted for ' leaping upon the earth,' and are .seldom or never eaten ; whereas certain kinds of crickets, as of locusts, are fried and eaten by Eastern nations. It is impossible, howe\er, to identify the species (if any) referred to. Cp also Ldcl'ST, 2.


See Alms, 4.




two real or supposed animals grouped together in Job 40i5-41, but , ii/r i- * nowhere else in the canonical books, however below).

1. Mention Of Behemoth.[edit]

' Di<hcmdth (nicna)

, , ' . , , , -

IS no doubt an intensive plural form, and means ' a colossal beast. ' It occurs [a) in Job 40 15-24, probably (b) in Is. 306, but hardly (c) in Ps. 7322.3

In (rt) the animal so called is described at length. This description is followed by a sketch of Leviathan, and most critics have thought, specially on the ground of the ' hyperbolical ' expressions, that the two pictures are later insertions in the speeches of Yahwe (see Joii). Whether the expressions are fitly called 'hyperbolical,' we shall .see presently. Almost all modern critics, whether they separate Job40i5-41 from the main body of the speeches of Yahwe or not, have thought that Behemoth is a Hebraised form of an Egyptian word for the hippopotamus (p-ehe-iitou, ' water - o.\ '), but there is no philological basis for this opinion.* In ib) Is. 306 3^J nicna NBp is probably to be rendered ' Oracle of the monster (behemoth)

1 '.\Kpts according to the order in uafl ; a.rrojc.i.'i is men- tioned in hexaplaric MS.S as a rendering by 'dAAo?.'

2 It will be seen that on one strongly supported theory there are parallels to this combination.

3 The versions render Behemoth as follows : in (a) Bripia

[LAAJ, KTtfVI) l.'\(]. ineoa.J, m (I') TiaV TfTpOLltOi

[.\q. Sym. Th.], in {c) K-rrfvuiBr)^ [LXX, .Sym.)

(Ml-no&UiV [LXX], (CTJJI'I)

  • So independently WALM (Egyi'T, 9). The objections are

as follows :-(i) The final t>i in Behemoth is un.-\ccounted for (Lejjsius). (2) The Egyptians had several names for the hippo- potamus (r.^., rert, 'a beast that rolls it.self in the mud'); out the texts nowhere mention p-ehe-uiou. (3) The form, if it existed, would be tnOu-ehe (F. C. Cook). It is strange that Jablonski, who died in 1757, and could know only Coptic, and that imperfectly, should be consulted in preference to Birch, who, after supposing himself to have found the old Egyptian original of Behemoth in bekhatna, discovered afterwards that the name was really AAi*^ (Renouf, Expositor, July 1897). Cp Remi'Han. On an analogous attempt to justify the interpretation of Leviathan as a crocodile, see col. 520, n. 3.

of the south land.'l This is the lit.iding of a .short fragmentary passage of prophecy, and refers to the description of E(|ypt at the end of 7'. 7 as ' K.ihab the quelled one ' (.see Rah ad, ii. i). 'The south-land' (Negeb) is here, as in Dan. 89 W^ff., a designation of the second of the two empires which endangered Palestine, /.f. , Egypt, the other being ^iiplidn, ' the northland ' (Jer. Ill 15 Zech. 26 \io\yi.e., in a large sense, Babylonia. So JJel. The heading in ?'. 6 may be very late.

Delitzsch finds Behemoth also in (r) Ps. 73 22, ' .\s for me, I was senseless and ignorant, I was a Behemoth toward thee' (Del., Nowack). This rendering is correct, if the text is .sound, and if the spe.iker is an individual. If, however, the speaker i.s to be understood collectively, we may perhaps render, I was (like) the beasts toward thee.' .So Ba. ; but the absence of the particle of comparison is a difTiculty. If we compare 49 10 [11] 026(7] it becomes plausible to read, with Griitz, n':i2B 'Fiirn, ' I was devoid of understanding toward thee.'

2. Of Leviathan[edit]

Leviathan (|n-iS, livyathdn, 'wreathed' i.e., 'gather- ing itself in folds'; or perhaps of Bab. origin) is a designation of a mythic serpent in all the passages in which it occurs, unless Job 41 1 be an exception.'-^ See also Li;vi.\TH.\N".

It is found (if) in Job41i (4O25), 'Canst thou draw up-* Leviathan with a hook, (and) press down his tongue with a cord ? ' ; (<^) J ob 3 8, 'Let those who lay a ban u [xni t he sea curse it, (those) who are apf)ointed to rouse un " '

27 1, ' In that day shall Yahwe punish Leviathan the fugitive

Leviathan ' ; (/) Is.

serpent, and Leviathan the coiled serpent, and he shall slay the dragon in the sea ' ; (^g) Ps.74 14, ' Thou didst shatter the heads of Leviathan, and gavest his [carca.se] to be food for the jackals ' ; 5 (/() Ps. ]04 26,'> 'There do the dragons move along, (there is) Leviathan whom thou didst form to be its ruler.' To these refer- ences, two supplied by apocryphal writers may be added : (/) En. CO7-9, cp 247; ; (_/) 4 Esd. O49-52 ; cp Apoc. Bar. 294.

3. Both mythical monsters.[edit]

In the present article we shall desert the zoological explanation of Behemoth and Leviathan, leaving the field open to another writer to represent the more generally received opinion (.see Hll'PO-

my tea ,,q.[.amus, Ckocodii.k). Strong reason will have to be shown for not interpreting these strange forms with some regard to mythology. No one would assert that the author of Job had an altogether distinct mythological conception ; but modern commentators who disregard the mythic basis of the descriptions make a serious mistake.

It was natural in 1887 to look for illustrations of the Job passages, [d) and [e), to Egypt," though reference should have been made, not to the fantastic griffins on certain wall-paintings, but to the idealisation of the ordinary monsters of the Nile in the mythic narratives of Re' and Osiris. ' There are supernatural as well as natural hippopotamuses and crocodiles, and it is a specimen of these which the poet has given us. The descriptions are hyperbolical and unplcasing, if referred to the real monsters of the Nile ; they are not so if explained of the " children of defeat," with the dragon Apopi at their head,* which the poet, by a fusion

1 The alternative explanation, ' Oracle of the beasts of the south ' i.e., of the desert which adjoins the south of Judah is le.ss natural. Why ' the .south ' instead of ' the desert ' ? And why are serpents called niona, ' beasts ' ? rii'n would have been more in place. Cp SBOf on Is. 306.

2 (p renders Levifithan as follows : in (ri')6pato>'Ta(Aq. Sym. Aeutaflai'), in (<') to /xeya ictjtos (.-Vq. Sym. Afuiadar, Th. hfio.- (coi'Ttt), in (yO rbi' SpaKoi'Ta (.Xi]. .Sym. Th. Xfviajffav) [twice], in (^) Tuiv SpaKODTuiy (.\q. Afviadav), in (/) Spdxuiv.

3 -irpai for MT -ii'pri. The final letter of 7/. 24 (now iSK, ' his snout ') and the first letter of ?'. 25 became effaced. F^wald (Lehrb. d. I/ebr. Spr. 791) makes an elaborate attempt to account for the absence of the interrog.itive particle (n) in MT, baseS on the theory that the Arabic word for crocodile (timsd{i) existed in the Hebrew vocabulary of Job. Similarly Budde ; Duhm leaves the point undecided. Against this, see Che. Ex- positor, July 1897.

  • Read C for DV, with Gunkel, to restore parallelism ; cp Ps.


B Reading C'^VC*^ ?3KS finOiil \nK Cp Fox.

8 Reading D'3'3n for the scarcely possible ni'Jjjj 'ships'; and correcting 13 pniJ'S into 'l3-!':iS. See Che. Ps.f^}

7 Che. /ob and .?<>/. 56, where the first recent critical protest was made against the dominant theory. Cp the fantastic forms described in Maspero, Struggle 0/ tlu Nations, 84. I ^ .See Maspero, op. cit. 159.

historically most justifiable,! icU-ntifies with the monsters of IJjihyloiiian origin called elsewhere Rahab and his helpTS (Job 5)13). And even in the uncorrected but still more in the corrected text there are expressions and statements which are hardly explicable except on the mythological theory. ' How, for exaniple, can the hippo- potanms and the crocodile lie said to Ije, not niercly dangerous to approach, but Ixjyond the range of hunters ? There is evidence that even in early times the I'.gyptians were skilled in attacking and killing thenj. How, too, can the ordinary hippopotamus t>e called ' the firstling of the ways of God" (Job 40 19), and the ordinary crocodile Ix; said to Ix; feared by all that is lofty, and to be king over all the sons of pride - (Job 41 u [26]) ?

The Babylonian eiemciits in lic-hemoth and Leviathan, however, are niore important than the ICgyptian. They have been pointed out, though with some exaggeration, by Gunkel, who also noticed how much the text of the accounts of BChenioth and Leviathan has suffered in transmission. It may be hoped that by the light of the mythological interpretation the corruptions may l)e partly removed. For example, Job4l9-ii [1-3] may be plausibly emended thus (see J(JK, April, 1897) :

Surely thy self-confidance proves itself vain ; Even divine beings the fear of him lays low. An angel shudders when he would arouse him ; Who then (among mortals) woidd dare to meet him as a foe? Who ever confronted him and came off safe? Under the whole heaven, not one !

The un-emended form of this passage, it is true, does not favour a mythological interpretation ; but it is very difficult to give it atiy plausible meaning, whereas the emended text is in perfect harmony with all that we hear of Leviathan elsewhere. One more proof of the helpfulness of the new theory may Ix; given. No passage has pu/.zlcd interpreters more than 40 19 b. The RV rentiers thus, ' He (only) that made him can make his sword to approach (unto him). ' u"in. however, should Ixi n^n (Giesebrecht). The real meaning is, ' that was made to be ruler of his fellows ' ('n t"Ah "lirvn) i-^- Behc-moth is the king of all land animals. Take this in connection with Job 41 25 [33]* and Ps. 10426, and it would seem that Leviathan was regarded as lord of the ocean, and Behemoth of the dry land. The former notion was borrowed from the Babylonians ; the latter perhaps from the Egyptians.'*

Thus the liOhemoth and leviathan passages in Job represent a fusion, from every ptiint of view most natural, of Babylonian and I'.gyptian elements. The dragon is primarily Babylonian : it is Tiamat ( = cinn ; see Crk.ATIon, 2/). Behemoth may be ultimately identified with Tiamat's consort Kingu. Being ignorant of the mythic monsters in question, the poet naturally filled u|) the gaps in his knowledge from two monsters of the Nile which the Egyptians regarded as represent- atives of the evil god Sit. *

Coming now to (/), Is. 27, we note that the writing belongs to a prophetic passage which has a strong apocalyptic tinge, and stands at the head of the period which produced the aix)calypse of Daniel.* Nowhere perhaps in the OT is the phraseology more distinctly

1 Hommel {Der hah. L'rsf>r. der iifry/>t. Kultur, 1892, p. 40) connects Ajxjpi or Apep with Hab. ahiihu, 'storm-flood.' Apopi is the Tiamat of heaven. His head is .split by the conquering Re' into two parts ; Tiamat's body is so treated by Marduk.

2 Reading VT^ narSa IDK, with Hudde (improving slightly on Gunkel). The 'sons of pride' (if j-ntr 's correct) may be a phra.se equivalent to ' Rabab's helpers. If so, mythic monsters are referred to.

nn-'Va'? is probably a corruption of n;n Sj-aV (Che.), leviathan w.as made to be lord of living creatures (i.e., those of the ocean-depth, tchum, just mentioned).

  • Che. Expositor, July 1897.
  • Cp Maspero's StruggU 0/ ihe Nations. Plutarch (De Is.

et Osir. 56) well knew the connection of the two Nile-monsters with Typhon or Sit.

  • Che. Intr. Is. 150/, 155^ ; Lyon, JBL, 1895, p. 131,

quoting Smith's Chaldaan GeHtsis, ed. Sayce, p. 90.

mythical. ' I>eviathiln the fleeing serpent ' finds its explanation in the carving on a seal representing Marduk with a dagger pursuing the tiragon which flees before him in the shape of a .ser[x;nt, and ' I^-viathiln the coiled serix.'tit ' is the mythic phrase for the ocean which surrounds the earth. '

In (_i,'), Bs. 74 14, a psalmist gives a somewhat different view of I.eviathan. To him the destruction of leviathan is past. This is, of course, the original view represented in the Babylonian Creation-story (see Crkation, 2). The passage should most probably Ix; read thus : Thou didst shatter the head of Leviathan, And gavcst up his [carcase] as food for the jackals.

There is no reference to the unburied corpses of the I'^gyptians (Ex. 14 30); 'the people inhabiting the wil- derness is an impossible rendering of a corrui)t text (see ?\)X). We have here sinjply an amplification of a mythic detail in the story of Tiamat (see the Babylonian Creation-tablet iv. /. 104 1 the same detail which explains a fme passage in the latter part of Isaiah (Is. 5I9).

Taken by itself {h), Ps. 104 26, it must be admitted, gives no confirmation to our mythological interpreta- tions. Leviathan appears as one of the monsters of the sea, and we are told that Yahwe himself ' formed ' him as its ruler. The writer may know nothing of mythology. He has heard this said, and repeats it.

We now turn to {i) and (j), the apocryphal passages.

The former (Knoch (i07-9) runs in Charles's transhition from the Kthiopic version (155) : '.Xnd in that day will two monsters be partecf, a female monster named Levirahan, to dwell in the depths of the ocean over the fountains of the waters. But the male is called Hehemoth, who occupies with his breast (?) a waste wilderness named Dcndain, on the east of the garden. . . . And I besought that other angel that he should show me the might of these monsters, how they were parted on one day, and the one was placed in the depths of the sea and the other in the mainland of the wilderness.'

The latter (4 Ksd. O49-52) is as follows : ' Et tunc conseruasii duo animalia, nomen uni uocasti Hehemolh et non\en secundi uocasti Leuiathan. Et separasti ea ab alterutro, non enim poterat septima pars ubi erat aciua congregata capere ea. Et dedisti Behemoth unam partem qu.x siccata est tertio die, ut inhabitet in ea, ubi sunt montes mille ; Leuiathan autem dedisti septimam partem humidam : et seruasti ea ut t'lant in deuorationeni quibus uis et quando uis.' (I'ehemoth becomes uehemoth in cod. Si and Enoch in codd. .S.\ [so AV].)

It is needless to pause long on the purely Jewish elements in these descriptions.- That Behemoth was created on the fifth day was an inference from Gen. 1 21 ; the reference to the ' thousand mountains ' comes from a faulty reading in Ps. 50 10 (where r-^ should be Vn) combined with an aljsurd interpietation of nima in the same passage. The chief points to notice are these : Bfihemuth and Leviathan are not two great water- monsters, but have their habitation, the one on the dry land, the other in the deep ; ' the Dcndain of Enoch may possibly be the Babylonian danninu, which is a synonym of irsitim, 'the earth," and is hterally 'the firm. ' .According to Gunkel, the female monster Leviathan is Tiamat, and the male monster BihOmoth is Kingu, Tiamat's husband (on whom see Creation- tablet iv. //. 119-122). In the Babylonian story these monsters met their fate at creation ; in Enoch the assignment of their resjx-ctive dwellings is an incident of the judgment at Noah's flood ; in 4 Ezra again it is a detail of creation. It is not safe, however, to dogmatise too freely on the sources of the apocryphal writers. Their notions were probably a strange compound, in which there were exegetical inferences side by side with corrupted statements of Oriental tradition. One of these statements appears to have related to the habiuition of Behemoth at least, if we may accept Zimmerns explanation of DOndain, which Dillmann and Charles

1 Cp the mythological .serpent in one form of the Babylonian Deluge-story (see Dki.cge, S 6-q).

2 For details on the late Jewish fancies, see Drummond, Jewish Afessiah, 352-355 ; Weber, /*(</. Thtol. 160, ao2, 4o-.i, 404.

S C. H. Toy, Judaism and Christianity, 162.

  • So Zimmern, in SchSpJ. 6j ; cp Jensen, Kosmol. 161, DeL

I Ass. Hll B 225.

unconvincingly connect with pi p-n (comparing Dudael, Enoch 10 4, which is certainly not a mere ' fiction of the author '). The view here taken is, of course, quite con- sistent with Charles's theory [Bar. 53) that the writers of 4 Esd. 630-725 and Bar. 27-30 both used the text of an earlier work which contained the story of the six days of Creation. This lost hexahemeron, just as much as 4 Esd. 638-64, represents not a homogeneous tradition, but a medley of notions derived from different sources, Jewish and Oriental.

On ihe subject of this article consult Gunkel, SchSpf. 41-69 ; Di.'s, Ru.'s, and Du.'s commentaries on Job; Che. 'The 15ook of Job,' etc., Expositor, July, 1897, and 'The Text of Job,' IQli, April 1897. See also Dragon, 4/, Rahab, i. and cp Hii'i'oi'OTAMUs, Crocodile. On the oscillation of mythic and semi-mythic statements between the dragon and the crocodile as the enemy of the Sun-god, cp Clermont-Ganneau, Horus et Saint Georges (e.xtrait de ia rev. archtol.), 1877, pp. 8, 25.

T. K. C.


RV Beka (rf?!), Ex. 3826. See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.


('pg ; ei'^^AQ BhALoc]. '^^s). Ass. Hlu, like 7L'3 (Rial), is a simple appellative meaning 'lord' quite as often as it is a proper name (see Phcenici.'\). In the .Assyrio-Iiabylonian pantheon it is borne by two deities (see B.\HYi.oNi.\, 26), the younger of whom, identified with Marduk (see Merooac}!), finds mention in writings of the Babylonian and Persian periods (Is. 46 1 Jer. :.U2 \_--ra\ 51 44 ( omits)).i

The extent of the cultus of this god in later times appears from the many proper names compounded with Bel in Phoenician, and more especially in Palmyrene inscriptions.^ lacob of Serug states that he was the g6d of Edessa (ZDMG 29 131).


See Daniel, ii. 21, and cp 10, 19.


(y?3, ' that which is swallowed up'?: cp Jer. 51 44; BaA&k [A/5L], -AAA [E in Gen. 142]), one of the five royal cities in the vale of Siddim at the time of the invasion of Chedorlao.mer [q.v., 2), Gen. 14 2 8, where the name receives the geographical explanation, 'that is Zoar.' In fact, in Gen. 19 20-23 we hear of a small city near Sodom, the name of which was called Zoar ('/..), to commemorate the escape of Lot from the catastrophe of Sodom and the other ' cities of the plain.' The writer of the explanation in Gen. 142 8 evidently means us to suppose that the original name of Zoar was Bela. The author of Gen. 19 (J), however, does not appear to have known this. In 13 10 the same writer speaks of Zoar as bearing that name before the catastrophe of Sodom, and a comparison of the phrase- ology of 2030 makes it probable that the etymological myth in 19 20-22 does not really presuppose a change of name. It is probable that, had the name of Bela been known in the comparatively early period when Gen. 19 was written, an etymological myth would have grown up to account for it ' Therefore that region is called Bela, because the ground opened her mouth and swallowed it up' (cp Xu. I630).

Such a myth did, as a fact, spring up, but long afterwards, and not as a fruit of the popular imagination. In the Targum of Jonathan the phrase the king of Bela" (Gen. 14 2) is para- phrased as ' the king of the city which consumed its inhabitants.' The same interpretation was given by R. Meir and his con- temporary Joshua b. Karcha (Bacher, Die Agad t der Tan- naiten, 38), and is repeatedly given on the authority of ' the Hebrews' by Jer. (Qucfst. in Gen. 14 2 19 30; Comin. in Jes. 15s); it has also naturally enough found a place in the Midrash (Ber. rabba, par. 42). Hommel (/I //7" 195-198) boldly identifies Bela with the ancient city of Malka, which he surmises to h.-ive been in the trans-Jordanic region ; but his authurity for giving

1 The evidence of some proper names, however, may seem to show that Bel was not unknown in Canaan at an earlier date (see .\sniiEL, BiLUAU, Ebal, and cp, doubtfully, Balaam and Reuben).

2 Whether the Palm. 713 is a bye-form of 7'3 = 73, as Hoffmann supposes (Ausziigc aus d. Syr. Act. Pers. Mart., 1880, p. 21, n. 159), is uncertain.

this situation to Malku is a tablet which refers not to Malka but to Melkart (Johns, Expos., Aug. 1898, p. j6o).

It is remarkable that no name is given to the king of Bela. When we consider the (probable) corruptness of other names in the passage, it is reasonable to suppose that the name, being uncouth, early dropped out of the text. To supply ' Bela," with Bishop Hervey (Smith's Z?^-'), is unnatural. T. K. C.


(r'pS). I. (BaAak [ADEL], -Ack [E in Gen. 3633]). The first Edomite king, son of Beor (or perhaps Achbor ; see Baai.-Hanan [i]), of the city of Uinhabah (Gen. 36 32/. =1 Ch. 1 43/ ). It is singular that a diviner famous in legend was called ' Bil'am (Balaam) son of Beor." With NiJldeke (L'nlersuch. 87) and Hommel (AHT 153) we may venture to identify Bela' and Bil'an), and all the more confidently if Bil'am belonged to a region adjoining Edom (see Petiior). Obviously the temptation which the name presented to an imaginative narrator must have been irresistible. Targ. Jon. and Targ. I Ch. 1 44 had already suggested the identifica- tion. The list which contains the name Bela ben-Beer is regarded by Sayce as a piece of an Edomite chronicle. It comes before us, however, as a thoroughly Hebrew document, and is correlated with the history of the b'ne Israel (Gen. 3631-39 ; probably J E). Certainly it is no sport of the idealistic imagination ; a true interest in the fortunes of a kindred people prompted its preservation. It may be incomplete, or it may have had some lacuntc filled up ignorantly, not to speak of the undeniable corruptions of the text. Let us lake the list as it stands, and see what we can gather from it.

The list contains eight names (or rather seven, for Baal-hanan has come in through a scribe's error). Four kings have their fathers' names given ; ' six are distinguished by the name of their city, and one is described as of a certain region (Hu.sham). The names both of the cities and of the persons (or apparent persons) are not all correct. Dinhabah, Matkeu, and Me- ZEHAB are corrupt, and the corruptions efface the im- portant fact that Bela (whose city was not Dinhabah but Rehoboth ; cp z/. 37) and Mehetabel came from the N. Arabian land of Musri or Musur (see MiZRAi.M, 2 i^). It will be noted that one of the names occurs twice (in v. 39, ' Hadar ' is certainly a wrong reading) : it is properly the name of a god of the Aramaean god Hadad. From this name, and from two other items ' Bela the son of Beor ' and ' Saul of Rehoboth by the river' Bishop A. C. Hervey inferred (Smith's Z?5,(-*j.i'. 'Bela') that there had been an Aramaean conquest of Edom. The references to Bela and Saul, however, are not really in point (cp Balaam, 3), and all that the doubly attested Hadau, 3 [i. 2] together with Bedad can be held to suggest is that Aramaean influence was early felt as far south as Edom.

More important is the historical notice connected with the name of Hadad, son of Bedad (see also Hush.\m). It tells us of the early occupation of what afterwards became the land of Moab by the Midianites, whom the Edomites under Hadad defeated. We can understand this notice in the light of Gideon's defeat of the same plundering hordes, described in Judg. 7. To make the two events contemporary, with Kautzsch in Riehm's //lVB(-> (art. ' Midian '), seems needless and hazardous.

Oftr most interesting as well as most certain result, however, is the antiquity of regal government among the Edomites ; and, from the fact that there is no trace of dynasties, and from the continual references to the cities of the respective kings, we may probably infer, with Winckler, that the kings were of the type of Abimelech, or at the most of Saul, and that their rule, except in time of war, was little felt save by their own tribe. It is true that this will not apply to Saul of Rehoboth of the River, for this place seems to have

^ Baal-hanan (<7.z'.) was perhaps really the father of Hadad II. ; ben Acnbor is a variant to ben Beor which has attached itself to the wrong name.

been in Musri, not in Kdoni ; but we should observe the variation in the phraseology of the account of Saul. It is not Kiid that his city was Rchoboth, but that he was ' of Rchoboth. ' We may suppose tiiat he entered by marriage into an Edomite family and then obtained a tribal sovereignty. He was a Musrite (a native of the N. .Arabian .\Iusri). The name of the last king (Hadar, or rather Hadad) is unaccompanietl by the historical notice which we should have e.xpected ; it is, however, followed exceptionally by the name of his wife, of whom we are told that she was a daughter of Matkkd, and a daughter of Mi:-zahab. The former name is a corrup- tion of Mizran (.Vlisran), the latter of Mizrim (Misrim). Misrim was really a correction of Misran. Mehetaljel, as well as fJela and Saul, was a Misrite. This is a fact with important historical bearings (see Hadad, i. 2).

T. K. c.

2. In Renealogy of I'.injamin [S 9 (i.)] (BaA [R.-M.]); Gen. 4ti2i (RV Hki.am, (SaAa [Ar)L])= Nu. 2(> 38 40 ; cp i Ch. 7 6 ^oAai IL ; r.A omit] 7 (/3aAae [L), ;3aAe [A], /3aAe [1!] ; in 7'. 6 a/3tpa in 15 takes the pl;u;e of lielu and 15echkk [i/.t.]) and 8 i (^eAeAojA [i!]), and the gentilic Belaite or rather Balite CvV?), Nu. 2t; 38 (/3aAe[e]i [15ArL|).

?. b. Az;iz, in genealogy of Reuben (^oAck [I!], -Ae [.\], -Aaa [LD, iCli. :,s.


(r?2). Gen. 4621 AV, RV Bhi.a, ii. 2.


( Bh AeMOC [BA]), i Esd. 2 16 = Ezra 4 7

Bl.siil.AM {i/.z:).


This is an imperfect reproduction of the Heb. /I?v3 (18 times in historical books, once in Job, thrice in Proverbs, thrice in Psalms, twice in the psalm- like passage prefixed to Nahum (ln-15 [2i], see RV]). On 2 Cor. G15, see below (1).

1 Usage and tradition.[edit]

It is generally taken to mean ' worthlessness,' whether "^"'"'^' " m^^t'^fial, so that the familiar I"-^*^; ' ^r ^' T"* f ,^'' u."""';' moan ' good-for-nothmg fellows ; RV"^- gives ' base fellows. '

So BDB, from '73, 'not,' and *?>"*, 'profit' (?) ; so, too, RVmj;. in 2.S. 23 6 and elsewhere. This rendering, however, is not supported by the earliest tradition ; for renders ' lielial ' by a'Ofi7)jio, OTO/xia, aTro<7Ta(Tia (.Aq. also gives aTrocTTacria), and the qualification ' of 15eli.il ' by acre^^s, a<l>puiv, Aot^os, TTopai'o/u.os, with or without ai/ija as the case may be. We find also viol napav6fiu}i/ (often), and (Symm.) ai-UTroTa/cTOi, on;rdaTaToi. These renderings may imply the etymology '^3 Viy, al'sijueju^oQcr.), and this etymology, though impossible, is yet more in harmony with biblical usage. Tg. gives K'Dl'^Ci ' oppressors.

Another tradition, however, favours the use of Belial asa prop>er name. So in ^ Jud. 20 13 {j3f\ia/j.), Theod. , Judg. 1922, and occasionally in Vg. ; so, too, in the English versions including even RV (on RV'"8-, see above). This came about in the following way. How- ever we account for it, it is a historical fact that in the interval between the OT and the NT Belial (sometimes in the forms Beliar or Berial) was used as a synonym for the arch-demon Satan ; it is so used in 2 C^or. 6 15, where Paul asks. What harmony is there Ijetween Christ (parallel to ' light ') and Beliar (parallel to ' darkness ') ? [/ieXtap (BXC) ; cp Jer. 's explanation, cacum lumen, as if niK -^-2, in OSS-) 764]. lieliar stands for Satan also in Test. xii. Patr. (often ; e.g. Test. Rub. 2, 4, 6), the Asc. Isa. (Berial), and Jubilees (ch. 15, ed. Charles). In the Sib. Oracles (iii. 63^. iv. 137^) Nero, under the name of Beliar, is to lead the armies of Antichrist ^ (see Antichrist, 15) ; and, according to Bousset, the phrase 6 dfOpuvoi rijs dvofiia^ {ib. 4) in 2Thess. 23 (BX, Tisch. , Treg. , WH ; aixaprias for di^ouias has also good authority) may be a translation of Belial.

\v. H. B.

1 Cp Deane, Psevdcpigr. 22, 168, 249, and Bousset, Der Antichrist.

2. Meanings of word[edit]

Both for the sake of exegesis and on account of the importance of Jewish semi - mythological modes of

  • ^"Sht. it is needful to be clear as to
  • ^^ course of development of the meanings of Belial, and to form a probable conjecture as to the origin, or at least the nature, of the

word. G. F. Moore (on Judg. 19 22) gives a better rendering of Sy?3 'J3 than most conmienlators, viz. , 'vile scoundrels' ; this recognises the fact that '3 suggests not merely worthlessness or ordinary viciousness, but gross wickedness. He also describes the different etymologies of lielial as extremely dubious, and cannot find in the Hebrew language any analogy for the word. In fact the seemingly compound word ,"id"'?3 (Job 2(J7) is imaginary; it is a corruption of o"'?3n, 'utter vanity." But Moore passes over Lagarde's acute suggestion (in Proph. dial J., p. 47, cp Uebers. 139), that '?i"'73 13T in Ps. 418[9] (cp /. 2) suggests an etymology (a popular one?) from rhv" ?3, 'no rising up.' In Expos. ('95* 435-439) the present writer sought to show that Belial ('?;"'?3) is found in the OT in three sen.ses : (i) the sub- terranean watery abyss, (2) hopeless ruin, (3) great or even extreme wickedness. The third meaning is com- mon ; the first and second are rare, and found only in late passages (see Ps. I84 [5] = 2 S. 225, I's. 418[9J 101 3 [383 '7y'73, so read, = deeds of destruction] Nah. In 15 [2i]), but should, if naturalness of development is to count for anything, be more nearly original than the third. It is only in Ps. I84 [5] that Belial is used to denote the abyss, ^ and it may Ix; objected to the view that this is the primary meaning that in Asc. Jes. 4 2, Berial, like Sammael in Tg, appears as an angel of the firmament (cp I'2ph. 22). However, as Bousset has shown,- the eschatological tradition of Antichrist \_q-v., 13/], one of whose names is Belial, is derived ultimately from the old IJabylonian dragon-myth, and we know that the mythic dragon has lor his pro[)er sphere the sea, though in some mythic developments he appears as a temporary inhabitant of heaven, from which at last he and his angels are cast out (Rev. 12 7-9). It is, therefore, in perfect harmony with the old myth to suppose that Belial may have been originally an angel of the abyss, not of the firmament.

We now come to the origin of the word. Beliyya'al seems to be a Hebrew modification of some earlier word, planned so as to suggest a po[)ular etymo- logy, rhT ?3, ' (from which) one comes not up again ' (cp mat Id tdraf, the Ass. equivalent of a Sumerian title of the underworld meaning ' the land without return," Jensen, Kusiiiol. 218, 222). This earlier word was most probably borrowed from the Babylonian mythology of the underworld. The original word, which was Hebraised just asab/ifitt, 'deluge,' was Hebraised (see Dici.UGE, 7), may very possibly have been Belili,"* which is the name of a goddess of vegeta- tion, and hence of the underworld, the sister of Du'uzu or Tammuz, from whom she differs in being unable to ascend again to earth (see Descent of Isiar, /. 51 in Jeremias, Bab. -ass. Vorstell. 23 ; and cp Jensen, Kosiiiul. 225, 272, 275). There may have been a middle form between Belili (which appears to be Sumerian i.e., non-Semitic) and Ik-liyya'al which has been lost ; cp Nkphii.i.vi, 2. The Canaaniles and Israelites prob- ably took the name (which three times [i .^.2025 2 S. 16 7 I K. 21 13] has the article) as a synonym for the abyss of Sheol. Afterwards it seems to have become a symbol of insatiable and malignant destructiveness (cp niin). and hence the phrase "sons (son, daughter) of Belial'; but the older meaning was not forgotten, as we see from Ps. 184[5]. The objection of Bau- dissin (Herzog,) s.v. 'Belial"), that 'streams of the under-world" (Ps. I.e.) would be a unique phrase, is of no moment, for the whole context is in some important respects unique. It is not a flood from the sky that overwhelms the speaker ; it is a flood from below i.e., the 'waters of death,' which are a primitive element in Babylonian mythology (see CAINITES, 6).

1 In" 7/. 4 [sly: TWO, '7i"':3. Vixr. and nia are parallel, pio is the world of the dead (or its rulerX as 49 15 [16] ; 7y'^3 and SiXC should have the same meaning.

'i Op. cit. 60/., 86/, Q9-IOI.

8 Che. iij-/. Times, S423/ ['97].

3. Origin.[edit]

Hoinniel, while accepting this identification, proposes a modification of the theory. He thinks that the Assyrio- Babylonian phrase quoted above was simply translated ^y'?3 by the Canaanites, from whom the name was borrowed again by the Babylonians as Belili [E.xp. Times, 8 472). This is plausible ; but we should like to know how far this theory would lead us.

In Exp. Tiinrs, 'ia,off., Haudissin returns to the subject. He still maintains the derivation of Beliyyd al from -'^^ s.x\A^^-*, and thinks that some of the occurrences of the word may possibly be due to editorial manipulation, and that the word (explained as ' worthlessness ' = ' wickedness ') does not look very ancient. He also quotes a communication of Jensen, which Cheyne in his answer regards as favourable rather than other- wise to the new theory, though Jensen himself expresses his agreement with Haudissin. See Exp. Times, ix., x., and also Che. P>a/ms,^') on Ps. 1S4[5] (popular etymology from j;S3, 'to swallow up.' y, however, is intrusive, cp Kcjnig, Lehtgeb. ii. I402). I, \V. II. B. ; 2/, T. K. C.


(nS*?, properly ' instrument for blow- ing ' ; (JjYCHTHp). mentioned only in EVof Jer. 629^ in connection with lead-smelting ; see Metal.s, 2.

In Egypt bellows were used as early as the time of Thotmes III. A leather bag was fitted into a frame from which extended a long pipe to the fire. Two bags were used, upon each of which the operator pl.-iccd a foot, pressing them alternately, while he pulled up each exhausted skin with a string that he held in his hand (Wilk. Anc. Kg. 23127:). In one illustration Wilkinson notes that when the man left the bellows they were raised as if full of air, thus implying a knowledge of the valve. The earliest forerunner of the bellows seems to have been a mere reed or pipe, which was used by smiths in the age of Usertesen (i 234, illustration 413, fig. 3).

Whether hand-bellows were used by the Hebrews for domestic purposes is c|uite unknown ; for a description of a primitive kind still used in Egypt see Wilkinson (ii- 313)-


in the modern sense of the word, though used as ornaments at the present day in Syria, do not seem to ha\e been known to the ancient Hebrews. The words so rendered require examination.

I- Ii::i'3. p(i'ii>>iBn (\/ = to strike), used of the golden orna- ments which, .alternately with Pomegranates [,7.7'.], were worn upon the lower part of the Ephod (Ex.i;S33_/: 'i'.^^s/., KiaSiaveq; cp also in the Heb. of Ecclus. 457a and gn, and see Cowley and Neubauer tid loc). Their purpose is related in Ex. 28 35.

2. niS-S, 7ite}illdth(c-p c'PlSsD, 'cymbals'), upon which were inscribed the words, 'Holy unto Yahwe,' were worn by the horses in Zechariah's prophecy (Zech. 14 20, AV'mgr. ' bridles ' ; so *!3 xaXi.v6% and \g./ri.nuin).

In both cases small discs or plates are meant, the mSso being posSibly similar to the C'Jhnb; or crescents

(see Ni-:CKLACF.) of Tudg. 826.

  1. See, further, GASm. HG 616 ff.