Encyclopaedia Biblica/Eglon (town)-Egypt

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( ; GBAL commonly ⲟⲇⲟⲗⲗⲙ ; GL in Josh. 1036 12121539, ⲉⲅⲗⲱⲛ), a town in the Shĕphēlah of Judah, mentioned with Lachish and Bozkath (Josh. 1539 ⲓⲇⲉⲁⲇⲁⲗⲉⲁ [BA]). Debir, its king, joined the league against Joshua which was headed by Adonizedek [q.v.], and perished with the other kings (Josh. 10 1-37 [v. 5 οδολλαχ (A); v. 36 BA om.]; cp 1212 αιλαμ [B], εγλων [F], -μ [A]). That Adullam takes its place in G of Josh. 10 is plainly a mistake, which has led Eusebius and Jerome astray (OS 25345 11821). The name of Eglon survives in that of Kh. 'Ajlān,[1] 16 m. NE. of Gaza, and 2 m. N. of Tell el-Hesy (Lachish). On this site, however, 'there is very little extent of artificial soil, very little pottery, and what there is shows Roman age.' On the other hand, there is a tell, 3+12 m. S. of Tell el-Hesy, the site of which Petrie considers only second in importance to that of Tell el-Hesy, and, though he has not explored it, he pronounces it to be the ancient Eglon. So far as can be seen on the surface, Tell Nejīleh (so it is called) is of the same age as Tell el-Hesy, though it may have been ruined earlier (PEFQ, 90, p. 162). Unluckily, however, it is wholly covered with an Arab cemetery (Flinders Petrie PEFQ, 90, p. 226). Tell 'Ajlān may represent the ruins of a later town, built after the overthrow of the ancient city; this is a suggestion which may or may not be confirmed by excavation. T.K.C.


  • Name (1).
  • Description ( 2-9).
  • People, Language, etc. ( 10-12).
  • Religion (13-19).
  • Literature ( 20-26).
  • Institutions (8 27-32).
  • Trade, etc. (33-35).
  • Art (36-37).
  • Miscellaneous (38-40).
  • History (41-44).
  • Old Empire (45-48).
  • Middle Empire (49-52).
  • New Empire (53-60).
  • Dynasties 20-25 (61-66).
  • Dynasties 26-34 (67-74).


  • 1. Egypt proper (after col. 1240).
  • 2. Oases (see Nos. i and 4).
  • 3. Course of Nile (after col. 1208, No. i).
  • 4. Nile and Euphrates (ib., No. 2).
  • 5. Geological (after col. 1208, No. 3)
  • 6. Egypt and Sinai, pluvial period (col. 1205).

1. Name.[edit]

The name used by us, after the example of the classic nations,[3] for the country on the banks of the Nile, seems to have been really the designation of the capital Memphis — Ha(t)-ka-ptaḥ, cuneiform Ḫikubta (An. Tub. nos. 53, 37), translated Ἡφαιστία = Egypt — and more primitively that of its chief temple (see Noph).[4] On the Semitic name[5] see Mizraim, § I. Poetical names in the OT are Rahab and 'land of Ham' (see Rahab, Ham, i. ).

The Egyptians themselves called their country Kēmet[6] Coptic ⲕⲏⲙⲉ or ⲭⲏⲙⲉ [7] (Northern Coptic ⲕⲏⲙⲓ) i.e., 'the black country' from its black soil of Nile mud, in contrast with the surrounding deserts, the dešret or 'red country.' This etymology is given correctly by Plutarch (De Iside 33, χημία = μελάγγειος; see also Ἑρμοχύμιος, Steph. Byz., by the side of μελάμβωλος). Poetic names were, e.g., (P)-to-mere, '(the) land of inundation' (Steph. Byz. Πτιμυρις, equal to Δέλτα), in later time Beḳet (perhaps 'land of the baḳet shrub'). The most common designation was, however, simply 'the two countries', touï, referring to the division of Egypt into S. and N. country (see below, § 43).

2. Land[edit]

Egypt is situated in the NE. corner of Africa ; but the ancients reckoned it more frequently to Asia than to Libya i.e., Africa. It lies between N. lat. 31 35 (the Mediterranean) and 24 4 23" (the first cataract at Asuan). Longitudinally its limits may be given as from Solum, 28 50 E. , to Rhinocolura, the modern el- Arish (see EGYPT, RIVER OF )> 33 5 E. ; but the limits of cultivable ground would rather fix the frontier at about 32 32 (the site of ancient Pelusium). It is not correct to include in Egypt the large deserts of stone and sand lying on both sides, or even the N. parts of the Sinaitic peninsula regions of more than 1,000,000 sq. m. , which are wandered over by only a few foreign nomads. Egypt is, strictly, only the country using Nile water, N. of Syene (Asuan), as it was correctly defined even by Herodotus (2 18). If we reckon only cultivable ground (Nile Valley and Delta), Egypt has an area of not much more than 13,000 square miles. 1

1 The mod. Ajlan occurs frequently to the E. of Jordan (cp EGLAIM).

2 First proposed by Brugsch, Geog. Inschriften, \ 7383. For the manifold senseless etymologies from Greek, Semitic, etc., see the classical dictionaries, s.v. Cp also Reinisch, SWAW 30 397 8647, On the names of Egyrjt.

3 It occurs in hieroglyphics only in names of foreigners, such as Ma-sa-r-Ai.c., Hfesrai (Rec. de Trav. 1462).

. Rrtigsch s Diet. Gfog. (1877-80) contains the g^ names of Egypt, its divisions, cities, etc. (to be & used with caution ; his Geographische Inschriften, 1867, is antiquated).

s Absolutely unconnected with Noah s son HAM (q.v. i).

[here goes SKETCH MAP OF EGYPT, SINAI, &c. in the Pluvial Period, after Map in The Survey of Western Palestine].

The extent of land really under cultivation changes continu ally. Under the bad government of the Mamluks in 1797, it was estimated at 5469 sq. m. ; recently, over 11,000 were assumed as cultivable, of which 9460 were really in cultivation. The census of 1887 gave 20,842 sq. kil. (12,943 sq. m.) as arable, of which Upper Egypt (some parts of Nubia even being included) has the smaller half. In antiquity, the amount was certainly not more, probably less.

The surrounding deserts make access to Egypt difficult, and explain its somewhat isolated history. The shape of the country may be likened to that of a fan with a long handle. The handle, Upper Egypt, from Memphis to Syene, is a narrow valley, averaging 12 m. in width (near Thebes, only 2^-4 m.).

1 The total area of Belgium is 11,373 square miles, of the Netherlands 12,648, and of Switzerland 15,976. See the Statesman s Year Book.

3. Geology.[edit]

The view of ancient writers that Egypt north of Memphis, the so-called Delta (from its form, like an inverted Gr. A), was originally a gulf of the sea and was filled in by the deposits of the Nile, is correct (see the accompanying sketch-map : fig. i) ; but it is an exaggeration to place this process within historic time. 1 As far as our historical know ledge goes, the country has always been the same ; the yearly deposits have raised the bed of the Nile slightly. (On exaggerations of the fact that the river had formerly a greater volume of water than now, see below, 7, note. )

The fact that the level, e.g., of ancient Alexandria is now below that of the sea is to be ascribed to a sinking of the sandy north coast. The Burlus and Menzaleh Lakes are indeed, in part, recent formations, caused by the influx of the sea, although the Edku and Maryut (Mareotis) lakes are old, and ancient inscriptions speak continually of the swamp-lands, n-aif/tou , Na0w (Herod.) Neovr (Ptol.) in the N. Strabo knows the Balfih lakes.

The substratum of the Northern Nile valley and the characteristic stone of the tableland of the Libyan (Western) 2 desert is limestone in different formations ; the material of the great pyramids is tertiary nummulitic lime stone. The valley is shut in by limestone crags, about 300 ft. in height, which sometimes come very near to the river. Above Edfu, the sand stone formation that prevails through Nubia begins, forming also the first natural frontier of Egypt, the mountain-bar at Silslleh. This quartzy stone furnished the excellent material used for most of the ancient temples. The first cataract at Aswan is the result of the river being crossed by a bar of red granite, syenite, and other rock, from which the famous obelisks were taken. The Eastern (Arabian) desert is of varying formation, full of mountains which rise in part to a height of over 6000 ft. (The highest point is Jebel Gharib. ) See geological map (no. 3).

These mountains furnished the rich material for the finer sculptures of the ancient Egyptians diorite (near Hammfimilt), dark red porphyry (Jebel Dokhan, 6900 ft.), black granite, alabaster (near Asyut), and basalt. Emeralds (Jebel Zabara) and gold (Wady Allaki) also were found there, but few useful metals (there were some iron and insignificant copper mines in Nubia). In antiquity, therefore, metals were imported. Other minerals, such as salt, alum, natron (this from the Natrun valley S. of Alexandria), come more from the Libyan desert.

1 [Cp Report on Boring Operations in the Nile Delta," Proc. Roy. Soc. 97, p. 32. The Royal Society carried out borings in the Delta to try to get down to the bed rock. At ZakazTk they reached 345 feet or 319 feet below sea-level without striking solid rock. At 115 feet there was a noteworthy change. Below that depth was a mass of coarse sand and shingle, with one band of yellow clay at 151 feet; above 115 feet it was blown sand and alluvial mud. Totally different conditions must have prevailed when these shingle beds were laid down. They are the product of ordinary fluviatile action. The geological age of these shingle beds is not yet determined. The pebbles ot which they are composed all belong to the rocks found in situ in the Nile Valley. The coast at the mouths of the Nile appears to be sinking, the coasts in the Gulf of Suez to be rising.]

2 Cp Zittel, Ceol. der lilysclten Wiistc, 83.

4. Oases[edit]

The Oases (avdfffis, Egyptian wah, modern Arabic wah, meaning unknown) of the Libyan desert are depressions in this barren table land where the water can come to the surface and create vegetation. See maps.

Their present names (from N. to S.) are : (1) Slwah (Oasis of Amon ; perhaps also called sekhet atnu, date-field ; but this is quite doubtful), very far to the west ; (2) Bahriye, the small oasi.s ; (3) Farilfra (7 o-e/ie, cowland ); (4) Dakhela (Zeszes) \ (5) The (ireat Oasis, now called the exterior oasis, el- khar(i)geh (anciently Heb, Hibis, or the Southern Oasis).

In ancient times these islands in the desert be longed politically to Egypt (from Dyn. 18?) ; but their inhabitants were Libyans and became Egyptianised only later. The population of the remote oasis of Amon, however, although it adopted the Egyptian cult of Amon, remained purely Libyan, and has retained to the present day the Libyan (Berber) language.

The population of these five oases is, at present, about 58,000. The Fa(i)yum also (see below, 50) is really an oasis. On the Wady Tiimilat, see GOSHEN i. ; on the Fa(i)yum, below, 50.

5 Climate.[edit]

The climate is extremely hot, but has great changes, especially during the night. The ancient Egyptians prayed that after death, as in life, they might have the cool north wind, considering this the greatest comfort. This wind blows in summer for six months. On the other hand, at intervals during the fifty days preceding the summer solstice, there blows a terrible hot wind, now called Hamstn (i.e., fifty ), full of sand from the Western desert. At most other times, proximity to the deserts renders the air very dry and salubrious. The yearly inundation has dangers which explain why so frequently, from the time of Moses onwards, the plague has found a home in Egypt (Am. 4 10). Eye diseases caused by the abundant dust were, and are, very common.

6. Nile.[edit]

The Nile, the only river of Egypt, seems to have its present name (Gk. NetXoj) from the Semitic nahal (Sm), stream, this designation (*nehel} 1 being probably due to the Phoenicians. The Egyptians called it Ha pi (w0t, of uncertain etymology),- in poetry ueru ( the great one ) ; but in the vernacular language it was simply the river yetor (later after 2000 B.C. pronounced ye-or, yd or], or else the great river" ye(t}er-o, yar-o, Coptic eiepo. Of the last two expressions the former became in Hebrew -ijr, whilst the second, according to the N. Egyptian pronunciation (i&po), is found in the Assyrian Yaru u, Nile. On the Heb. name Shihor, and on the phrase the river of Egypt, see SHIHOR, and EGYPT, RIVER OF.

This river is the second longest in the world 3 (its source now being assumed at 3 S. lat. ; for the whole course of the river see map 2, on opposite page), although not so majestic and voluminous (1300 ft. wide at Thebes, 2600 at Asyut) as some shorter rivers. It forms the principal characteristic of Egypt, the gift of the Nile (Herod.). The Egyptians believed that it sprang from four sources at the twelfth gate of the nether-world, at a place described in ch. 146 of the Book of the Dead, and that it came to light at the two whirl pools of the first cataract, the so-called Kerti (Kp>(f>i and fj.u><t>i, Herod. ). Even in the latest times, when they knew the course of the river beyond Khartum, 4 their theology still held that primitive view.

The Nile divides N. of Memphis. Of the seven branches, however, which once formed the Delta (see large map), only two 5 are really left, the rest being more or less dried up. A branch (now called Bahr-Yusuf), 1 losing itself in the Libyan desert, forms the oasis of the Fa(i)yum in Middle Egypt.

1 The asterisk indicates a conjectural form.

2 Later theology combined it with the Apis (Hapi) bull. He was allowed to drink only from wells, not from the Nile.

  • Perthes, Taschen-Atlas, statistical tables.

4 But hardly the source from the mountain of the moon, known in Roman times.

6 Viz., the first and the third, counting from the west con tinued, however, in their lower portions, in the channels of the second and the fourth respectively. The latter, the Bolbinitic and the Bucolic mouths, are said to have been artificial canals (?). The Bucolic of Herodotus (217) is called Phatnitic or rather Pathmetic(thns Ptol.and Pomp. Mela) j>.,the Northern (fa-to m/iitf) by other writers.

7. Water supply.[edit]

The annual inundation is produced by the spring rains in the Abyssinian highlands and the melting of the mountain snow, which cause an immense increase of the Eastern or Blue Nile (now el-Bahr el-Azrak, from its turbid water), whilst the principal stream, the White Nile (el-Bahr el Abyad, from its clearness), has a more steady volume of water. In Egypt the increase is felt in June ; July brings rapid swelling of the reddening turbid stream ; the slow subsidence of the waters begins in October. During winter, the stagnant water remaining on the fields dries up, and the Nile mud, originally the dust washed from the Abyssinian mountains, settles upon the soil, acting as a valuable fertilizer. Thus in course of innumerable years the sand or stone of the valley has been covered with from 30 to over 40 feet of black soil. This shows, usually, an astonishing fertility : Egypt looks like one great garden (Gen. 13io) ; but a small Nile i.e., an insufficient inundation has always brought years of dearth. 2 Even a great Nile, 3 however, cannot cover the whole valley and reach all fields. Dykes have to be built, and canals dug, in order that the water may be distributed. A good government has to give great care to such public con structions, the neglect of which will make the desert reconquer vast regions. Higher fields always had to be watered by (primitive) machinery, such as the con trivance called at present shaduf. (On Dt. 11 10 see below, col. 1225, n. 10. )

After all, Egypt had much more regular harvests than Palestine and Syria, where the only irrigation, by rain, very often failed. The abundant inundation of Egypt was proverbial among the Hebrews: cp Am. 88, and, as some think, Is. 59 19 6 (SBOT). We repeatedly find Egypt s Asiatic neighbours depending upon its abundance of grain. The Egyptians knew quite well that their country owed its existence entirely to the good god Nile, whom they represented as a fat androgynous blue or green figure. 4 Being nearly (but not completely) rainless, Egypt depends upon the Nile not only for the irrigation of its fields, but also for its drink ing-water (which is very palatable, and was kept cool, then as now, in porous vessels). The OT prophets know no worse way of threatening Egypt with complete ruin than using the symbolical expression, The Nile will be dried up. The river was also the chief highway of the country.

1 Not from the biblical Joseph.

2 Such calamities, sometimes in several successive years, are mentioned repeatedly. A legend from the Ptolemaic period (inscription at the first cataract, found by Wilbour, translated by Brugsch, Die Biblischen 7 Jahre der Hungersnot, 1891, and by Pleyte) reports seven years of famine before 3000 B.C. The strange water-marks on the rocks of Nubia, 25 ft. above the modern level, are difficult to explain. They cannot well be used as a proof that former inundations were so much higher, for that would involve our assuming that all ruins now existing were, in antiquity, under water.

3 Of the so-called Nilometers wells with measures marked for use in official estimates of the rise that of Phils remains from antiquity.

(wearing water flowers on the head, and offering fresh water and water flowers).

8 See especially Loret, La Flore PharaoniqucV-} [ 92]; Woenig, Die Pflanzcn iin alt. Aeg. [ 86] ; and various essays by Schweinfurth.

[here goes MAP OF (i.) COURSE OF NILE] [here goes MAP OF (ii.) NILE AND EUPHRATES]' [here goes MAP OF (iii.) GEOLOGY OF EGYPT AND SINAI]'


Parentheses indicating articles that refer to the place-names are in certain cases added. The alphabetical arrangement ignores prefixes : el ( the ), J. (Jebel, mi. ), L. (lake), tell ( mound ), -wady ( -valley ).

Abu Hamed, i. 64 Abu Simbel, i. A3 (EGYPT, 37) Abydos, i. A2 (EGYPT, 44) Alasia, ii. A.2 (CYPRUS, i) L. Albert, ii. A5 Alexandria, i. Ai tell el- Amarna, i. Aa Amor, ii. A.2 (CANAAN, 8) (Anti), i. B 3 (ETHIOPIA, 4) Arko (Island), i. A4 Aswan, i. A3 Asyut, i. A2 (EGYPT, 3, 6) Atbara (river), i. 64

Babil, ii. 62 Bahr el-Ghazal, ii. AS Bahren 1. , ii. B3 jebel Barkal, i. A4 el-Behneseh, i. A2 Beni Hasan, i. A2 (EGYPT, 50) Berber, i. 84 Bitter Lakes, i. Ai Blue Nile, ii. A4

Cairo, i. Ai i Cataract, i. A3 2 Cataract, i. A3 3 Cataract, i. A4 4 Cataract, i. A4 5 Cataract, i. B4 6 Cataract, i. B4 (ETHIOPIA, 4)

Dakke, i. A3 Damietta, i. Ai L. Demba a, ii. A4 Dendera, i. A2 ed-Derr, i. A3

Edfu, i. A2 Ekhmim, i. j\2 el-Faiyum, i. A2 (EGYPT, 6, 50) el-Farafra, ii. A3 Fashoda, ii. A4

Gutu, ii. Ba

wady Haifa, i. A3 wady Haminamat, i. 62 el-Hejaz, ii. B3 Heta, ii. A2 (HITTITES) Hierasycaminus, i. A3

Ibrim, i. A3

el-Khartum, i. A4 (ETHIOPIA, 4, 5 a) Khor, ii. A2 Kordofan, ii. A4 (ETHIOPIA, 5 a) Korosko, i. A3 Korti, i. AS Ko s, ii. A3 (EGYPT, 50) Kummeh, i. A3 (EGYPT. 50) el-Kurneh (Pyramid), i. A4

Libyans, ii. A.2, 3 Lullu, ii. 82

Mallus, ii. A2 Mazay, i. B4, ii. A4 (ETHIOPIA) Mecca, ii. 83 el-Medina, ii. 63 Medum (Pyramid), i. As Memphis, i. A2 Meroe, i. 64 (ETHIOPIA, 5 1>) Mittani, ii. B2

Naharin, ii. Ba (ARAM-NAHARAIM) Negroes, ii. A4, 5 Niiri (Pyramid), i. A4

Oases (five), ii. A3 (EGYPT, 4)

Pnubs, i. A3 Port Said, i. Ai Punt, i. B3, ii. A^, 4 (EGYPT, 48) Pselchis, i. A3

Rosetta, i. Ar Ruins, i. A4 Ruins, i. A4 Ruins, i. A4 Ruins, i. 64 Ruins, i. B4

Semneh, i. A3 (EGYPT, 50; ETHIOPIA, 4) Sennar, ii. A4 (ETHIOPIA, 4) Shaba, ii. 64 J. Silsileh, i. A3 Soleb, i. A3 Somali, ii. B4 (EGYPT, 48) nahr Subat, ii. AS Suez, i. A2

Tankassi (Pyramid), i. A4 Thebce, i. A2 Timsah (L. ), i. Ai Troglodytae, i. Ba, 3 (ETHIOPIA, 4)

L. Victoria, ii. AS

Wawat, i. A3, ii. A3 (EGYPT, 50, ETHIOPIA, 2) White Nile, ii. A4

Zahi, ii. A.2

8. Flora.[edit]

The flora 8 was poor in species. Ancient Egypt had not such a cosmopolitan vegetation as the modern. Forests were quite unknown. Besides fruit-trees viz., the date-, dom- (now only above Asyut) and argiin-palm, fig, sycomore, nabak (Zisyphits Spina Christi, the so-called Lotus-tree), and pomegranate 1 only a few tamarisks (ose\_i], cp WN), willows, and, especially, various kinds of acacias (sonsef uiONT , cp nap, Egyptian loan-word ; see SHITTAH) grew. Timber had mostly to be imported from Nubia and Syria. As principal fuel, dung was used, as now. The vine was always cultivated ; but the national beverage was a kind of beer. The chief cereals were barley (yot), most important of all, wheat (SHO), and the African millet or sorghum, now called dura (bodef). Cp Ex. 9si/. flax, barley, wheat, spelt (this perhaps for dura ?). The

principal food-stuffs of the modern inhabitants, legumin ous plants viz., lentils (Egyptian arsan), and beans (Egyptian////), perhaps also peas (Coptic <\poo). lupines, and chick-peas have Semitic names, and were declared unclean by the priests even in Roman times ; but among the peasants they had already become popular as early as the i4th century B.C. Of vegetables, onions, leeks, and garlic were as much in demand then as now ; there were also radishes, melons, gourds, cucumbers, bamia (Hibiscus esculentus ; resembles American okra), meluhiya ( Corchorus olitorius ; a mucilaginous vegetable [somewhat] resembling spinage ), etc. ( Cp the lamenta tion of the Israelites over the lost delicacies of Egypt, Nu. lls.) Of ily plants, sesame and olives were not very popular, olive oil being mostly imported from Asia. Unguents were taken from several balsam -shrubs, especi ally the baket ; for cooking and burning, castor oil (see GOURD) was most commonly in use, as now among the Chinese. The cultivation of flax was very extensive ; whether cotton also was grown is quite doubtful.

Wild vegetation grew only in the many marshes the common reed (see REED, FLAG), the papyrus (see PAPYRUS), and the beautiful blue or white lotus-flower (so[s~\sen, from which Hebrew |BhE> ; see LILY). The papyrus and the lotus-flower are now found only in the Sudan. 2 All these wild plants were utilised even the lotus, the seed of which was eaten. The papyrus, 3 in particular, was of the greatest importance for ancient Egypt, furnishing the material, not only for writing on, but also for making ropes, mats, sandals, baskets, and small ships (cp Ex. 2s ; Is. 18z ; Job926). The desert vegetation consists mostly of a few thorny shrubs.

9. Zoology.[edit]

Of domestic animals, the ass, an African animal, was used more as a beast of burden than for riding. Horses (sesmet, 5 later htor), introduced by the Hyksos after jgoo BC) for chariot s of war and of pleasure, were never very common, pasture being scarce ; but their race was good. Cp Dt. 17i6 i K. 1028/ (but see MIZRAIM, 2 ; HORSE, 3). The biblical passages which speak of the camel in Egypt (Gen. 12 16 Ex. 9s) seem to need criticism, for this unclean animal was, to all appearance, foreign to ancient Egypt and became a domestic animal only after the Christian era (see CAMEL, 2). Cattle, of a hump backed race, were more common than now ; likewise goats ; but sheep (es ou, Sem. word, nb, Arab. Xd. ) were rare. Swine (rire], the most unclean of animals, offen sive to the Sun-god, seem to have been kept, in biblical times, only in the nomos of Eileithyia (now el-Kab), perhaps because of Nubian elements in the population. In the earliest period they seem to have been more generally bred. The dog was held in esteem. Strong greyhounds for hunting were imported from the southern countries. The cat became a domestic animal first in Egypt (but rather late), perhaps by the side of the weasel and ichneumon. 1

1 That this tree, at least, was an importation from Syria in historic times is shown by the name (k)erman i.e., }E>\ The persea (faubet ; Coptic, soue\be\, Mimusops Schimperi, after Schweinfurth) and other trees may have had a similar history.

2 Whether the Eragrostis abyssinica, a species of grain, called tef in A.byssinia, the poisonous oshar (Calotropis pro- cera), and other plants of modern times were known is uncertain, but probable, as they are African plants.

3 Pa-p-yoor, the (plant) of the river. Cp Bondi, in ZA 3064 [ 92].

4 Not much investigated. Hartmann s studies, ZA 1864, were not continued.

5 The word is related to o^p (Assyrian sisii, Aram, susya, etc.) ; but the relationship is not (juite clear.

Noblemen undertook hunting expeditions into the desert where most wild animals of Africa were found. The various antelopes of the steppe (especially the gazelle), the oryx,- the ibex, 2 etc., were caught and then domesticated, or, at least, fattened at home. It is not certain whether the hare was eaten.

Of wild animals the jackal, the fox, the hyaena, and the ichneumon reached Egypt ; in the earliest times also (but only occasionally) the lion, the lynx, and the leopard. The tusks of the elephant and of the rhinoceros (both called Yebu*) were only imported from Nubia Yeb(u), Elephantine (i.e. , ivory place ), on the first cataract, being the emporium for this important trade. The Nile was infested by malicious hippopotamuses 5 and crocodiles, both now extinct. That the name Behemoth (Job 40 15) is by no means a Hebraised Egyptian word, as has frequently been asserted, may be noted in passing (so, independently, BEHEMOTH, i).

The marshes were covered with innumerable birds in winter especially wild geese, cranes, fishing birds (such as the pelican, 8 the ibis, and others), and smaller birds of passage from Europe. The pursuit of these was both a favourite sport and a useful occupation ; they were fattened at home, but (with the exception of the pigeon) not domesticated. The domestic fowl became known, it would seem, only in Greek times Diod. (1 74) and Pliny (1054) describe hatching-ovens as in common use in their day. Of rapacious birds, the bald-headed vulture 8 was most common. Bats in immense numbers filled the mountain clefts.

Many kinds of fish (as also the soft tortoise, trionyx) were obtained from the Nile, and were incredibly cheap cp C3n, for nothing (Nu. lls; cp Is. 19s); but they are not praised by modern travellers. Some e.g., the oxyrhynchus 9 (i.e. , sharp- snouted ), and the na r^ (a silurus) were unclean. The later theology, at least in ./Ethiopia, tried (though without success) to declare all fish unclean. 11 Air-dried fish were much eaten.

Multitudes of frogs, lice, flies, scorpions, and locusts remind us of the ten plagues. Of poisonous serpents, the uraeus ( ar at) 12 enjoyed special veneration (see SERPENT, 3).

10. People.[edit]

Owing to the fertility of the country, it has always been very thickly peopled : the present population amounts to six millions i.e. , it exceeds even that of Belgium in density (cp 2).

The ancient writers who speak of 30,000 towns (!), and seven (or even seven and a half : Jos. BJ ii. 16 4) millions of people, somewhat exaggerate.

The race of the ancient Egyptians, who called them selves romet, i.e., men is admirably determined in the Table of Nations (Gen. 106), where they are classified with the Hamites i.e. , the light - coloured Africans. They were consequently relations ( i ) of the Libyans (see LUBIM, LEHABIM), extending from the Senegal to the Oasis of Sfwah, at present interrupted by many Arab immigrants ; (2) of the Cushites (in linguistic, not in biblical, sense), who now extend from the desert of Upper Egypt to the equator, comprising (a) the Bisharln and Hadendoa, (b] the Afar (Danakil), and Saho on the coast of Abyssinia, (c) the Agaii tribes of Abyssinia (Bogos or Bilin, Khamir, Quara), in the S. called Siddama (Kafa, Kullo, etc.), and (d) the Somali and Galla.

1 jinn, later Hebrew for weasel (TSSA, 9i6i, and see CAT), Egyptian Hatul, oeoA ichneumon (cpPSBA, 7 194 [64])

2. [hieroglyph picture]

3. [hieroglyph picture]

4 Compared by some scholars, following erroneous transcriptions, such as abu, with Heb. Q anOeO ivory. Etymological connection is not probable.

5. [hieroglyph picture]

6. [hieroglyph picture]

7. [hieroglyph picture]

8. [hieroglyph picture]

9. [hieroglyph picture]

10. [hieroglyph picture]

11 Worshippers were always advised to abstain from fish some time before appearing before the gods to sacrifice. See below ( 19), on the laws of purity. See FISH, 8^

12. [hieroglyph picture]

Anthropologically, the Egyptians seem to have been more closely akin to the Cushites who all show a slight admixture of Negro blood, received at a very remote date than to the purely white Libyans. They were tall and lean, with strong bones, small hands, thin ankles, reddish -brown skin (coloured, on their own paintings, in the case of men, dark red, and in the case of women, yellow), with long but slightly curled black hair, scanty beard, very slightly prognathous chin, full lips, almond-shaped black eyes, and long (?) skulls.

Linguistically, Egyptian is not the bridge between Libyan and Cushitic, as one might expect it to be : it forms, rather, an independent branch. The Libyan- Cushitic and the Egyptian branches both show affinity with Semitic, apart from the strong Semitic influence upon both, an influence which dates partly from pre historic periods, partly from about 1000 B.C., and partly from Islamic times. 1 Which branch separated itself first from the Proto-Semites (in Arabia?) remains to be shown. (In Egypt, however, no Asiatic immigration can be found in historical times : see 43. ) Some Egyptian traditions point correctly SE. , not to Nubia (erroneous traditions of Greek time), but to the coasts of the Red Sea i.e., Punt (see below, 48) and indicate affinity with the Hamitic Trog(l)odytes. On the other neighbours in the South viz., the Nigritic Nubians see ETHIOPIA, -z/.

11. Language.[edit]

The language 2 was, therefore, by no means a primitive stammering, or a monosyllabic language like the Chinese, as was asserted by earlier scholars who derived false conceptions from the writing. Egyptian has preserved something of the vocalic flexibility of the Libyan and Semitic against the agglutinative tendencies of the Southern Hamitic languages. It shows the system of triliterality more clearly than any other Hamitic branch. The assertion that it contains elements from Negro languages is unfounded : the Hamito-Semitic roots only underwent great changes. The sounds (e.g., Ain, h, ft, s) confirm the view of the relation of Egyptian here adopted. The vernacular dialect used from 1400 to 1000 K.C. in letters, etc., is called by modern scholars Neo-Egyptian. 3 The inscriptions tried more or less to preserve the archaic style of the earliest periods not always successfully, after 500 B.C. wretchedly. For the rest, even the earliest language is less concise and much less obscure than, e.g. , Hebrew. On the many loan-words from Semitic, 4 see below 7 , 39 (end). Coptic i.e., the language of Christian Egypt (Arabic Kibt, Kobt] is the same language as that which used to be written in hieroglyphics, but much changed (many forms, e.g. , being shortened), as might be expected, after a development of 3000 years. 5

Coptic has four principal dialects (Sahidic i.e., $a Jdl or Upper Egyptian Middle Egyptian, represented best by the papyri of Akhmim, Fa(i)yumic formerly wrongly called Bash- niuric and Boheiric or Lower Egyptian), diverging sometimes strongly ; already about 1300 B.C. a payrus states that a man from the N. frontier cannot well understand an Egyptian from Ele phantine. (On Coptic dialects, see further TEXT, 37).

1 Nothing trustworthy has been written on these relations, nothing at all on the position within the Hamitic family. It is to be wished that the only competent scholar, Prof. Reinisch of Vienna, would address himself to this question soon. Ethnographers (e.g., Hartmann, Die Nigritier) generally exaeeerate the fact that all white Africans pass gradually over into the Negroes, with whom they are more or less mixed.

2 The latest and best grammar, although very brief, is that of Erman, 1894 (in the series, Porta Linguarum Orienialiunr, German and English). Brugsch’s Hieroglypisch-DentotiscA~s Worterbzch, 1867-80, is the leading dictionary, but must be used with the greatest possible caution. Those of Birch (in Bunsen, vol. 5), Pierret, and S. Levi, cannot be recommended. A Thesaurus verborwti sEgyptiacorutn by Erman and other scholars is in preparation. The stage reached by Egyptian philology is best characterised by the statement (after Erman) that the age of deciphering is at an end, we [begin to] read. It is, however, a great exaggeration to state, as some have done, that we read Egyptian as a Latinist reads his Cicero. See, e.g., below (col. 1232, note i), on the difficulties of transliteration. A better analogy would be the way in which good Phoenician inscriptions are read ; but the greater excellence and abundance of his material gives the advantage, to a considerable extent, to the Egyptologist.

8 See Erman, Neuagyptische Gramtnatik ( 80), who has also published a treatise on the earlier vernacular style, Die Sprache ties Tapyrus I f estcar ( &&lt;)).

  • A small collection by Bondi, Dem hebriiisch-plwnizischcn

S prachzivcige angclwrige LehnwSrter, etc., 1886. An exhaus tive dictionary by the present writer is in preparation.

6 The standard grammar is Stern, Koptische Grain. (1880). (Steindorf s small grammar in the Porta series [ 94] may also be used : no older book). The best dictionary is still that of Peyron, Lex. Lingua Copticcf, 1835 (reprinted 1896) ; but a new one is a crying need (those of Tattam and Parthey are un trustworthy).

12a. Phonetics.[edit]

As the vowels in ancient Egyptian were in general not indicated, their determination, though it is sometimes possible through late Egyptian (Coptic), and, in the case of some proper names (see below, col. 1232, n. i), through Greek and other authors, cannot usually be effected with precision.

Certain grammatical terminations ( and i), however, were sometimes indicated by the signs for the consonants iv and y, and later the ideographic sign for the dual assumed a vocalic value (i or I).

Foreign words, however, demanded exceptionally complete representation of the vowels.

In the Middle Empire, accordingly, sprang up the practice of using the symbols for w, K, and and the signs for certain syllables ending in these consonants, to indicate the vowels in the transliteration of foreign words, often in direct imitation of the cuneiform vowels. This has been called the syllabic system. 1

The 24 consonants distinguished in the script were originally the following : ) (N, not always consonantal, never = ain), I (better y, to ex press both and [later] K ! the Middle Empire created a special y)> i " i btfi/i ft, u, r (distinguished from /only in Demotic), //, h, h, h (from very early times not distinguished from K), s (from early times not distinguished from s), s, s, >fr, k,g, t, t (an unknown sibilant), d (not, as sometimes maintained, originally = e), 2 d (better z or /), similar to Semitic s (cp the Ethiopian s later (s).

The principles of transliteration of Semitic names in the New Empire have not been completely explained yet (see As. u. Eur. chap. 5); but the following are the commonest equivalences that are not obvious.

N is represented by the /; 3 by f (K) or k; -\ by d; \ by t, s; Bbyf(orrf); D by 1 (rarely s) ; tj by / or (never [in early texts] initially)/; x by rf (2 or .?) ; iy by j (/) ; and y by s or (before two consonants, etc.) s.

12b. Writing.[edit]

The hieroglyphics which constitute the national system of writing (called the scripture of sacred words, and said to have been invented by the god Dhouti j w i; r - a name less correctly written Thot) have arisen from a pictographic system very much like that of the Mexicans, just as did the Babylonian (to which it is very strikingly analogous) and the Chinese writing. Our rebus is based upon the same principles.

A man Vy& (route f), a head fi\ (def), or a tree (am) can easily be painted entirely. Wood (hct) can be represented by a twig **^-r~ , water (inou) by three water lines /vww>> and here we pass over more and more to symbolism 1 night by star-on-heaven ^ * , to go by legs _f\^, to bring (inet) by a vessel + going l\ , to give (dy) by sacrificial cake (?) in a hand to fight %h ( /: ) by weapons in use [_h J> to write (ss) by the writing materi; Thus a great many ideas may be symbolised.

This would lead, however, to top many combinations, besides leaving it uncertain how to read signs which admit synonymous translations, and providing no means for the expression of any inflection. Some further contrivances, therefore, were necessary. Hence, just as an English pictograph might perhaps express I by an eye J^^. , homophonous words are expressed by one sign, heny to row \^, e.g., standing also for henu (to be) turbulent. Thus this symbol becomes a syllabic sign, /;. Similarly II kap, claw, is used also for kop to hide, kope to fumigate, etc. i.e., as a syllabic sign = ty, etc.

Finally, some of these syllabic signs, consisting of only one firm consonant, 3 came to be used for single consonants. In this way, e.g., *^c=*^fay (three consonants, but two of them semi vowels; in Heb. letters something like ;), slug (originally bearer ), became the simple,/; ^d, kay, high ground (repre senting a declivity), became the letter k, p ; and so on. By such letters (from 24 to 26 ; Plutarch, 25), all inflections, and many words, were written. (On the treatment of the vowels see above, I2.)

1 Cp WMM, As. u. Eur. 58-91.

2 Finally, all sonant consonants were confounded.

3 The only exception is N s, from sts(~>), bar of a door. The popular explanation by an acrophonic principle is incorrect.

As an additional safeguard a syllabic sign, such as \ >J mentioned above, is commonly followed (sometimes preceded) by an alphabetic sign (in this case an) for the sake of clearness (thus XT hn + ). This is the so-called phonetic complement.

The last element of the system consists of what are called determinatives, the method of employing which will appear from the following examples : Thus, e.g., Tjlol means to write. Followed by the determinative man, thus rjl i Vwi . it means writer i.e., scribe. If we place after it a book, ll, thus , it means writz,f i.e. , book (both words from a stem ss, r/g^ j ( . a > nno, but differently vocalised). Again ^jj-j) ^T^i *-f-, an elephant + a piece of skin (where the second sign, the determinative, could also be omitted), means elephant (jrebu); but in the sign of a city indicates that Yebu, the city (Elephantine), is meant. Similarly M marks the end of every man s name, _w that of a woman s name ; words for small plants receive ^Jv at the end, trees M , and so on. This is a great help to the reader, and compensates somewhat for the absence of vowels.

Thus a very perfect system was formed whereby, by the employment of several thousand signs (of which, however, only a few hundred were in common use), anything whatever might be expressed a complicated system, it is true, but not so complicated and ambiguous as, e.g. , the later Babylonian cuneiform writing. The accomplishments of reading and writing were not rare. 1

1 Such papyri of non-magic character as are found in the tombs are mostly old copy-books used by the deceased in their schoolboy days. The mention of women bringing the meals for their sons to the school proves that the poor also aspired to the advantages of education.

2 This word may be taken as an illustration of the old connection between Hamitic and Semitic (cp n) ; it is prehistoric in Egyptian and may have sounded lawe(). Cp Hamitic lubak (Saho and Afar), libdh (Somali), with Semitic lain lion (which migrated back to Egypt as A&BOl), Heb. N 27.

[FIG. 2]. To illustrate the development of Egyptian writing. Partly after Erman and Krebs.

The hieroglyphs, or sculptured writing-signs, were admirably suited for monumental and ornamental purposes ; but when used for writing books upon papyrus, they had to be abridged and adapted to the pen, exactly as our written letters differ from the printed forms, (i. ) Thus the picture of a lion became in cursive writing y , the man Vfp, C^ , and so on. This is called Hieratic writing so called as being, like the hieroglyphic, a sacred script, though not, like it, designed for monumental use. (ii. ) In course of time was developed, by the progress of abridgment, a regular shorthand, called by the Greeks Demotic or popular, because in their time it was the style of writing used in daily life. 1 It is also called epistolographic, or letter-style (Egyptian shay-en-$ay). In this script the lion becomes / or / . The illustration (fig. 2) gives three letter signs and two word signs : in hieroglyphs, in five forms of hieratic, and in demotic.

All cursive writing runs from right to left (like Heb. etc. ), hieroglyphics in both directions (though never bustrophedon) ; but originally both ran mostly from top to bottom, like the oldest Babylonian and like Chinese. The opinion 2 that the Semitic (Phoenician) letters were derived from the hieratic script has become very popular, but is in every way improbable. The latest hieroglyphic inscription is one at Esneh, giving the name of the Roman emperor Decius (250 A. D. ) ; the latest demotic text is one at Philae, dated 453 A. D. If the earliest translations of the Christian Scriptures into Coptic i.e. , Egyptian in its latest form were made, as is usually assumed, about 200 A. D., 3 there should be a continuous tradition. As a living language, Coptic died out about 1500 A. D. ; at present only a very few, even of the Coptic priests, possess any understanding of the Coptic liturgic service. Coptic is written with Greek letters and six demotic signs ( CJ f, <gK h, O h, *. dj, O gj [a palatal sound of doubtful value, later pronounced like //or ^.], ft- ii}.*

The knowledge of the earlier systems of writing was com pletely lost, 5 after the whole country was subjected to Christianity. The key to the decipherment of the hiero glyphic and demotic was at last recovered by F. Champqllion 6 in 1822, by the help of the Rosetta stone with its trilingual inscription (a decree of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes in Egyptian [in hieroglyphic and demotic characters] and in Greek ; found in 1799, now in the Brit. Mus.). Thus the decipherment was indirectly a consequence of Napoleon s expedition to Egypt in 1798.

The chief writing material of ancient Egypt was papyrus, a kind of paper made from papyrus stalks, which were sliced, beaten, and pasted together. Its colour was brown or yellowish brown. The chief defect was its brittleness ; never theless, the writing was often washed off and the papyrus used again. Both sides could be written on. Red ink marked divisions and corrections, as in mediaeval MSS. Books were in roll form. (Among the Hebrews the same writing material was in common use : cp Jer. 8023.) Documents of great importance were written on leather, drafts mostly on potsherds (pstraca).

1 The Demotische Gram, of H. Brugsch ( 55) is quite anti quated. The scholar who has paid most attention to demotic lately is E. Revillout {Chrtstomathit Demotique, etc. ; to be used with caution).

Ef2 Expressed first by De Rouge, MLm. sur I’Origine gyjiienne de ?Alphalet PhLnicien, [‘741. Still more untenable is Halevy’s attempt to derive the Semitic from the hieroglyphic letters. See WRITING.

3 See, however, TEXT, 36, 38, where a later date (circa 300) is argued for.

4 Dialects preserve the ancient /; <JJ "^ as ^^

5 The few traditions about the hieroglyphics found in Greek writers (especially Horapollo, Hieroglyphica)s.rzno\\ recognised as being all more or less correct ; but for the decipherment they were in various respects insufficient.

6 The attempts of Th. Young (1819), which came near finding the key, but nevertheless missed it, have been well estimated by Le Page Renouf, PSBA Ifi88 [ 96].

7 Le Page Renouf, Lect. on the Origin and ..Growth of Religion [ 82] ; Wiedemann, Die Rel. der alien Agyfter ( 90, ET g6; useful), brief; also Brugsch, Rel. K. Myth. [1884-88] (the fullest, but labouring under the great defect of following by preference the systems of the latest Egyptian theology) ; Lie- blein, Egyptian Rel. [ 84] ; Maspero, La myth. gyptiennc [ 89 ; critical]; Petrie, Religion and Conscience in Anc. Egypt [ 98]; Lange in Chantepie de la Saussaye, Rel.-gesch.V}, vol. i. For pictures the best work of reference is Lanzone, Dizionario di MitohgiaEgizia [ 8i](cp alsoChampollion, PantheonEg., 25).

13. Primitive religion.[edit]

The religion 7 of Ancient Egypt, always retaining so many remnants of barbarous primitive times, stands in striking contrast to the high civilisation of that country. Originally it was not very different from the low animism or fetishism of the negro races. Every locality had its own spirit haunting it.

Such a demon appeared here as a jackal, there as a lion, bird, frog, or snake, or in a tree or a rock. We can understand why, in the lakes of the Fa(i)yiim and in the whirlpool of the first cataract at Elephantine, a crocodile was the local deity (Sobk and Hnumu) ; why the god Amip(u), leading the dead to Hades, originally (it would seem) in the Memphitic (!) necropolis, was the black jackal of the desert ; and so on. We cannot easily understand, however, why , at Busiris, a wooden fetish of strange form, 1 the Dad, signified the highest local god, and why at a later date a he-goat represented there the soul(?) of the Dedi (Bi-n-ded[i], MfVfys Dedi meaning inhabitant of the Dad"), or why the earliest symbol of Osiris was a wine(V)-skin on a pole 2 (which caused the Greeks to identify this dead god with their joyful Bacchus), and so on.

Originally, sun, moon, and stars were considered to be divine ; but, with the exception of the sun-god Re , 3 the local gods had more temples and enjoyed more worship and sacrifices. At Memphis, the chief god was Ptah,* styled by his own priests the master-artisan, and, therefore, the creator, who with his hammer opened the chaotic egg-shaped world ; but even the western suburb of the city belonged to a different god, Sokari, a hawk sitting in a sledge shaped like a ship. 5 Thus the gods were almost innumerable in the earliest times. Their forms (human, animal, or mixed), colours (Xeith is green, Amon blue, and so on), symbols, etc., are of perplexing variety.

14. Changes.[edit]

Fortunately, the superior splendour of the deities in the large cities, with their great temples, led to the worship of the tutelary gods of the villages and small towns being more and more abandoned. Am(m)on, 9 .j r . , the god of the later capital Thebes (called NO-AMON \_q.v. ~\, Amon s city, in the OT), thus became the official god, and so the highest in the whole kingdom, circa 1600 B.C. (sacred animal the ram). The Egyptians themselves, indeed, seem to have been puzzled by their endless pantheon. They tried to reduce it by identifying minor divinities with great and popular ones, treating them as one being under different appearances e.g. , the lion -headed Sohmet (wrongly called Sehet or Paht) 7 of Leontopolis and the cat of Bubastus were identified, the one being explained as the warlike, the other as the benevolent, form. Very old is the system of uniting several local gods into a family, usually as father, mother, and child (in Thebes, e.g. , the solar Amon and Miit, and the lunar Honsit]. Subsequently, out of such triads, circles especially of nine divinities (enneads) were formed, and whole genealogies elaborated.

Even in prehistoric times, the progress of thought showed itself in the tendency to make forces of nature, especially solar divinities, out of the old meaningless fetishes ; but these attempts did not lead to a reason able, complete system.

On vocalisation, see below, 40 n.

The Tomb of Osiris, discovered near Abydos in i? . . is an ancient royal tomb. According to some scholars, Osiris is mentioned as "TDK (read * TDK) in Is. 10 4, and Apis as *F)n in Jer. 4615. On these readings see notes in Heb. edition of SSOT. Cp also AHIRA, PHINEHAS, ASSIR, APIS, HUK, HARNEMIER, and NAMES, 68.

To enumerate some of the earliest results : Osiris 8 of Abydos becomes, as the setting sun, the god of the lower world, king and judge of the dead. In this function he is assisted by the Moon-god Thout (Dhouti), an ibis or an ibis-headed god 9 originally god of Hermopolis who becomes a god of wisdom and writing. Aim bis ! assists, leading the dead to OsirU, like Hermes Psychopompos. Osiris himself (son of the goddess Nut) had been sent down to the dark region i.e., murdered by his wicked brother Set, 2rj0 (Typhon in Greek), the local god of N. Ombos, 2 who is figured as a poorly-sculptured ass(V). s This malicious god, who eventually (though only very late) became a kind of Satan, was explained as god of thunder and clouds (therefore identified with the cloud (?)-serpent Apop), in the latest period also as the sea or the desert i.e., all nature hostile to man. He is punished by Hor(us)4 (of Edfu), the young son of I sis (HCG), 5 the wife of Osiris (worshipped especially at Phila, often identified with Sothis, the Dog-star), who reunites the body of Osiris (the sun), hewn in pieces (the stars) by Set. The form of the myth which makes Isis go to Phoenicia in search of Osiris body, carried to Byblus by the Nile and the Ocean, is evidently quite late, identifying her with Heltis-Astarte. She educates Hor, hiding herself from Set and his seventy-two followers (later explained as the seventy-two hottest cays) in the Delta-marshes. Her sister Nephthys* (Nel>t-h6t) is the wife of Set and the mother of Anubis (by Osiris).

It was this circle of divinities that gained most popularity and became known even outside of Egypt. Possibly it is simply by accident (?) that we possess only fragments of the myths that grew up, representing those connected with the Osirian circle ; the rest of the gods might not look quite so lifeless if we knew the mythology referring to them.

We can see under what difficulties Egyptian theology laboured. Not only had it to admit that in the morning the sun was called Hej>re1 (a beetle rolling its egg across the heavens), later Hor (a cleity of whom there are seven forms), at noon AV, 8 both Hor and Re being hawks and evidently representing the sun flying across the heavens, and in the evening Atuin (at Heliopolis, where he was represented in human form sailing in a ship across the heavenly ocean) ; but it had also to acknowledge that other solar divinities were appearances of the same being.

Some were cosmical gods - Nun (Nouv) or Nuu is the abyss from whom all gods and things came chaos. The earth is the god Seb (or Ceb !) ; the heaven or celestial ocean bows herself over him as a goddess,^ Nut; w their child is the sun ( = Osiris). The space between them is the god Su (Sow, 2ws), a lion. His companion, Te/nut, represents, perhaps, the celestial moisture.

Other gods assume other special functions On Thout (Dhouti, moon) and Ptah as protectors of scribes and scholars and of artisans and builders, see above ( i -26, 1 3). Imhotep of Memphis was the god of physicians. Ithyphallic Min 11 became a harvest deity, like the serpent Remute(t), and as god of Coptos, the master of the Trog(l)odytes in the Nubian desert, just as Neit of Sais 12 ruled over the Libyans. The cow Hat- /tar (i.e., abode of the Sun-god) 13 became mistress of love and joy, but showed her solar nature in ruling all Eastern countries. Warlike gods were Onhur of This, Mantu of Hermonthis, and above all, the malicious Set, whose worship was abandoned more and more after 1000 B.C. (see above [first small type passage in this section]). This distribution of functions, however, is so contradictory that nowhere does an intelligent system result.

The sacred animals belonged to two categories Some, such as the black bull called Apis 14 (IJapi) at Memphis, that called Mnevis at Heliopolis, and the crocodile Sobk (Sovxos), were considered miraculous incarnations of the local god (pure fetishism) ; but at other places every cat was sacred (as at Bubastus), 15 or every letos-fish (as at Letopolis), and so forth (totemism?). So, while the crocodile was worshipped at some places (e.g., Ombos), it was sometimes persecuted from a sense of religious duty, even in a neighbouring city (as, e.g., at Edfu).



2 He must have played a most important part in prehistoric times. The sceptre which all divinities hold in their hands , seems to bear his head. His sacred colour was red, and red-haired men were despised as typhonic.


The heaven is, besides, frequently represented as a cow-, because the abyss on which the earth in its chaotic state floated was the cow Meht-weret.

J * (fetish aoo- ). 12 Symbol


! On a probable OT ref. to Apis see above, col. 1215, n. 8. 15 Hence the large cat cemetery near the modern Zakiizlk (now commercially exploited for manure).

15. Pantheism.[edit]

The great mass of the people never advanced beyond the traditional worship of the local idol (the town god ) or sacred animal. Among the priests, the most advanced thinkers came, it is true, to the result that all gods are only different forms of the same divine energy, a conclusion which, how ever, did not lead them to monotheism, as might have been expected, but to a kind of pantheism. Such ad vanced thought remained, of course, the property of a few educated persons, though it was not treated as a mystery. Other rationalists followed somewhat euhemeristic lines, treating all gods as deified pharaohs of the earliest period. On early traces of the deluge- and the paradise-traditions, see DELUGE, PARADISE ; of borrowing from Asia there is here no question.

In the sphere of cosmogony no reasoned system was ever developed : besides Ptah, the potter Hmtm(u) of Elephantine, 1 as well as other gods, claimed to have been creator. Nowhere can any uniform dogma be found (cp CREATION, 8).

16. Foreign cults.[edit]

It is interesting that, after 1600, the Egyptians had a strong tendency to increase their already endless pantheon by adding foreign divinities, especially gods of a warlike character. 2

We find the god Sutekh 3 of the Hittites (not of the Hyksos ; see 52) so popular as almost to displace Set. The Semitic god Raspu ( lightning, f]Bh), the goddesses Anut, Astart (rratfj;), Kedesh ( the holy one, Bhp), Beltis of BybJus-Gebal, Aslt, Adorn, etc. were recognised. Ba al and Astarte had their temples at Thebes and Memphis. Whether the strangely figured Bes* was a foreign (Babylonian ? Arabian ?) divinity is doubtful. This protector against wild animals and serpents, and patron of dancing, music, and the cosmetic art, had at least a much earlier cult. 5

17. Life after death.[edit]

If we find various accounts of the creation of the world and of man, various explanations of the daily course f ^ e sun . etc., we need not wonder that the belief in life after death 6 was never reduced to a dogma. According to the opinion of later times, the dead went down to the dark lower world (Amentet, A.fj.tvdris i.e. , the west), passed obstacles of every kind, opened many closed gates, and satisfied various guardians of monstrous form by the use of magic formulas previously placed in the coffins for this purpose. Finally the dead man reached the great judgment hall (iveshet) of Osiris, into which he was introduced by Anubis. His moral life was tested in a cross-examination by the forty-two monstrous judges (the answers denying the forty-two cardinal sins 7 were ready prepared in his magic book), and by the weighing of his heart in the balance of Me it, the goddess of justice. 8 Those who were declared to be wicked were sent to a hell full of flames, and were tortured by evil spirits (some seem to have supposed that they assumed the form of unclean animals). The good were admitted to the fields of Aaru- (or YaaruJ) plants, where they sowed and reaped on fields irrigated by the Nile of Hades. Small figures of slaves, or rather substitutes for the dead, made of porcelain or other material, were placed in the coffin to assist the deceased in this peasant life. Originally it may have been only persons belonging to the highest classes who claimed to ascend to heaven upon the ladder of the Sun-god, and to become companions of the sun during his daily voyage over the heavenly ocean ; but, later, this was anticipated for every one who should be found pure.

2 See Ed. Meyer, ZDMG 31 717 [ 77] ; WMM As. u. Eur.

3 On his representations see Griffith, PSBA 168 7 [ 94].

5 But Hat-hor has nothing to do with Astar ; nor has the (Nubian?) deity Anuket f at Elephan tine anything to do with Onka, a )| as Semitists have sometimes asserted. \\

6 Wiedemann, The Ancient Egyptian Doctrine of t!ie Im- m -rtality of the Soul ( 95), a popular manual by

E A. W. Budge, etc.

7 Murder, adultery, slander, theft, fraud, robbery of the dead, sacrilege, etc.

Every deceased person was even expected to become Osiris himself, and is addressed as Osiris So-and-So. The dead were allowed to visit the earth occasionally not at night but in the day-time assuming the form of different animals. 1 At night they returned to their tombs, or to the lower world, places which are rarely distinguished in a clear way.

Various conflicting doctrines are intermingled e.g., the belief that the souls of the departed are the stars or dwell in the stars (which are by others explained as the dispersed members of the slain Sun-god Osiris : see above, 14), that all shadows 2 must live in darkness and misery in the nether-world, persecuted by evil spirits, so that it is best for the dead person to become, by witchcraft, one of these evil monsters himself, and that the soul, in the form of a half-human bird 3 (bat), lives in or near the grave, hungry, and dependent entirely upon the offerings of food and drink deposited at the tomb. Sometimes the oases of the Western desert are identified with the fields of the dead. The Egyptian priests never put themselves to any trouble to harmonise these and other contradictory traditions ; they con tented themselves rather with providing that magic formulas and prayers adapted to each of them were made and collected. On these collections, see below, 20.

18. Worship of the dead.[edit]

The care bestowed upon the worship of the dead is very remarkable. The huge pyramids of the most ancient kings, the detached tombs of their officials (now called by Egyptologists mastabas - an Arabic word), the interior of which was covered with sculptures, and the long rock-galleries, especially at Thebes, testify that the Egyptians devoted greater zeal than any other nation on earth to the abodes and the memory of their dead, and to the sustenance of their souls by sacrifices. This care is shown also in the practice of embalming ; * cp EMBALMING.

Originally only the nobles were able to pay for mummifica tion, with its costly spices (and natron) and its skilful wrapping in layers of linen, by which means some mummies have sur vived 4000 years without great change. Later, however, cheaper methods, such as dipping the body into hot asphalt, made the custom almost universal. The forty days of embalm ing (Gen. 50 3) after removal of the intestines (which were then placed in the four jars, erroneously called canopes, representing often four tutelary demons) and the brain, and the seventy days of lamenting, are usual. The face was frequently gilt ; the wrapped body was put in one or two cases of wood or carton- nage, of human form, more or less painted and ornamented ; wealthy people enclosed these, again, in large stone sarcophagi.

All this seems to point to a primitive belief that the soul would live only as long as the body existed, though this is indeed nowhere expressly stated. Later, the reason was given that the soul liked to be near the body, and would sometimes even return into it or into a statue of the dead. The distinction between the soul (bai], the shadow (haibef), and the double (ka] which always accompanies a man in life and seems to receive the soul after death, was by no means clear even to Egyptian dogmatists, and is quite obscure for us.

The tombs had annexed to them a chapel for offering to the statue of the ka, 6 which stood in an adjoining small, dark room, the latter connected with the chapel by a small window or hole in order to let the smell of incense, etc. , penetrate to the soul in the statue.

Besides real offerings, pictures of food were given ; these had the advantage of durability, and were, by the help of magic, as efficacious as real bread and meat. Often a basin of water before the tomb furnished drink for the soul, and trees were planted round it, that the soul might sit under their shady branches. The sarcophagus was deposited in a pit, which was filled up with stones and sand (except in the case of rock tombs, already safe enough). The poor were, of course, less luxuriously housed. They were massed in simple pits leased by undertakers. All tombs were situated in the desert, the arable land being much too scarce and costly.

1 This was misunderstood by the Greeks. A migration of souls in the Indian sense was unknown to the Egyptians.

2 Ci 3 6\ 4 See The Mummy, by E. A. Wallis

iv\ Kudge, 1893.

&fflfc 50r; ^LJ.

19. Ritual.[edit]

Whilst it can hardly be proved that the religious ideas of the Egyptians ever influenced the belief of the Hebrews (the so-called golden calves [see CALF, 2] were certainly no imitation of the Apis cult, all kinds of animals being sacred at one place or another in Egypt), it cannot well be denied that the ritual laws and laws of purity of the Hebrews often seem to follow the analogy of the later Egyptian customs. The priests had to observe scrupulous cleanliness, to shave all hair (hence their bald heads, imitated in the Roman tonsure), to wear only linen, and to abstain from all unclean food, this being very much the same as among the Hebrews. 1 See above ( 9) on the uncleanness (especially) of the swine.

Some parts of every animal (the head ?) were forbidden. Eggs were not to be eaten. Contact with dead bodies defiled, notwith standing the cult of the dead. Embalmers, therefore, were unclean. Circumcision, for which, as for all ritual purposes, only stone knives were to be used (cp Josh. 5 2), was general for both sexes from time immemorial (see CIRCUMCISION). The method of killing and offering animals, the burning of incense (upon bronze censers of ladle form 2 ), the ablutions, and many other ritualistic details, were similar to those practised among the Israelites. Human sacrifices occurred in the earlier times (see ISAAC) ; later, cakes in human form seem to have been sub stituted.

The priests, called the pure, 3 u lb(u), formed a well -organised hierarchy in four (later five) classes (<j>v\a.l), with many degrees, from the common priest to the high-priest ruling over the principal temple of the nomos or over the temples of several nomes. 4 The priestly career seems to have been open, theoretically, to every boy of Egyptian descent who studied the canon of sacred books (forty-two, according to Greek tradition) in the temple-school ; whether this was the case in practice we do not know. The highest dignities at least were more or less in the hands of certain families of the aristocracy. 5 Women were not admitted to the regular priesthood. Priestesses appear later only under the title of singers of the divinity. They formed the choirs.

20. Religious literature.[edit]

The religious literature was not so rich as the masses of manuscripts from the tombs might lead one to suppose. The catalogue of the library of the large temple at Edfu enumerates only thirty-six books, mostly ritualistic. The earliest texts would be the old books from which come the inscriptions (of about 3000 lines) in five pyramids belonging to dynasties 5 and 6 (see below, 46) which were opened in 1881. More than any other religious texts, they bear a magical character. After 2000 B.C. another large collection came into use, the 1 Book of going out in daytime, now commonly called the Book of the dead. 6 This is not a theological compendium, the Bible of the Ancient Egyptians, as it has been very unsuitably designated. It contains mostly magic formulae, often of a very nonsensical character, for the protection and guidance of the dead in the lower world, and the confusion of doctrines of which we spoke above. Thousands of copies some over a hundred feet long and with very elaborate pictures, and others brief extracts, giving one or two of the chapters are among the chief attractions of our museums of antiquities. 7

1 These laws were less scrupulously observed in earlier times. See above ( 9 n.) on the restrictions with regard to fish. Those offering sacrifices had to abstain also from game, evidently be cause it was not properly bled.

3 [hieroglyphs]

  • The Ptolemaic documents and Clem. Alex., Strom. VI.,

would give us the following classification : high priest, prophet, stolist (superintending the clothing of the idols and the offerings), two classes of sacred scribes (the higher one being that of the irrepo<6poi or feather- wearers), the horoscopist (the name has been wrongly explained as meaning astronomer ; the correct meaning seems to be a priest officiating only occasionally ), the singer. This classification is neither exhaustive nor applicable to earlier times.

5 The fact of the king officiating as priest at sacrifices confirms the view that there was no priestly caste.

6 De Rouge incorrectly called it le rituel funeraire.

7 The text was published after very late and bad copies by Lepsius and De Rouge (both reprinted by Davis, 94). Of fac similes in colours the Papyrus of Ani in the Brit. Mus. ( 93, etc.) is best known (also Deveria, Pap. Sutimes, a copy in Leemans, Monuments; Pap. Nebked, etc.). The great edition of Naville ( 86) has shown the immense textual corruption of all manuscripts, which leaves much work to future scholars. Best translation by Le Page Renouf, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, 06 (those by Birch, "67, and Pierret, 82, are antiquated ; Budge, 98, is less critical).

The Book of respiration (Tay n sonsen), the book May tny name flourish, and the Book of passing through eternity \ are shorter imitations. The large Book of that ivhich is in the nether world (atni-duat, Lanzone [ 79] 2) a very fanciful and mysterious book, more of pictures than of texts, which ornaments many sar cophagi still awaits a critical edition (abridg. version, Jequier).

The scientific side of theology is represented by a fragment of a commentary (Berlin); other commentaries, consisting of symbolical expositions, form part of the ttuok of the Dead (ch. 17). Sacred geography was a favourite study (Pap. of Tanis and of Lake Moeris). 3 Rituals such as that for burial (ed. Schiaparelli, 82), that for embalming (Maspero), and that for the cult of Amon and Mut (Berlin) are found, and many hymns in praise of gods or temples. They are of little originality. 4 On contemplative and speculative religion not one line has been preserved, and certainly there was not much of it. The priests were too content with the old traditions.

21. Didactic literature.[edit]

The didactic literature bears a practical character and is entirely secular. The Exhortations of Any (Pap. Bulak 4, transl. by Chabas in l'Egyptologie ; also by Amelmeau in La Morale Egypt ^ are a really beautiful collection of moral rules. Small demotic ethical papyri have been published by Pierret and Revillout. 5

The Praise of Scholastic Studies (Pap. Sallier 2, Anast. 7) is full of sarcastic humour, but too prosy for modern taste ; the Papyrus Prisse (Chabas, Virey, partly Griffith ; see f Vorld s Best Lit. 5327) is of stilted obscurity. All these works belong to the classical period of the Middle Empire.

Several later imitations of the Praise of Scholastic Studies were frequently used as copying exercises for schoolboys, in order to instil love of study. For the rest, the many school- books contain .exercises of rhetorical aim. The Story of the Eloquent Peasant (Griffith it,), and The Man tired of Life (Erman [ 96]) belong to this category.

22. Science.[edit]

We see from inscriptions and other representations that the Egyptians had a tolerable knowledge of astronomy-the high priest of Heliopolis was called the chief astronomer. We owe to them our modern (Julian) calendar ; but they themselves used in common life a year of twelve months (of thirty days each) and five epagomena, or additional days (without any intercalation). The astronomical year, called Sothic because marked by the rising of Sothis (Sirius), was known, but not in popular use. 7

Ptolemy III. found a reform of the calendar to be an urgent need. His attempt to effect it, however, in 238 B.C., proved a failure. Much superstition in regard to these matters is dis cernible ; cp the Calentiar of lucky and unlucky days (transl. Chabas, 70). The hours were determined by observing the position of the celestial bodies with the instrument figured below. 8 No scientific astronomical work has come down to us ; but we have a mathematical handbook (London, ed. Eisenlohr) which shows that the Egyptians were not so far advanced in mathematics as, e.g., the Babylonians. 9 High admiration of Egyptian medicine was shown throughout the ancient world, and even mediaeval medicine is full of Egyptian elements. 111 The medical papyri (Berlin ed. Brugsch ; un- published MSS ot Berlin and London ; treatises on female diseases and veterinary art in Griffith s Kahun papyri ; above all, the great papyrus Ebers at Leipsic, written about 1600 B.C.) show, however, little practical knowledge, and a surprising ignorance of anatomy, as against an abundance of superstition and silly sorcery. 1

1 These three books have been edited by Brugsch, Lieblein, and Von Bergmann respectively.

2 Also in Bonomi, Sarcophagits of Oitneneptah ( 64), and (from the walls of the royal tombs) Mission franc. II. and III.

3 Petrie and Mariette ; the second discussed by Brugsch and Pleyte.

4 That on Amon, translated by Grebaut, is considered the best. It is, however, anything but an original composition. It is reprinted in RP 2 121. (This English work gives translations of almost the whole literature of Egypt ; but in the first series these are often of very questionable character. The second series shows improvement in this respect. Excellent translations by Griffith of a large part of the Egyptian literature have just appeared in The World s Best Literature [1897], p. 5225^ [the hymn in question, p. 5309].

8 In Rec. de Trar. 1, and Rn;. Egypt. 1.

6 Transl. by Maspero in his Etudes sur If genre fpistolaire.

7 The astronomical and the common year coincided every 1460 years a so-called Sothic period (see CHRONOLOGY, 19).

g | j^__- ] * Arithmetical fragments also in Griffith s

T Kahun papyri.

lo Shown first by Le Page Renouf, ZA 11 123

[ 73]. How this came (through the Arabs?) is discussed by G. Ebers, ZA 33 i [ 95].

23. Magic.[edit]

There are a good many books of magic (with many religious and some medical elements) partly lawful magic ( cp, * Chabas, Le pap. Magique Harris, 57), partly forbidden witchcraft ( Leyden ). The latter was threatened with capital punishment (cp pap. Lee). Thus we see that the country of Jannes and Jambres (2 Tim. 3 8) was the true home of all kinds of magic (Is. 19s). It would be quite wrong, however, to ascribe the miracles performed by the pharaoh s magicians (Ex. 7, etc. ) to anything else than jugglery (see SERPENT, 30), for there was far less knowledge of natural science in Egypt than, e.g. , in Greece.

24. History, etc.[edit]

Even historiography was not highly developed. There were chronicles of single reigns a panegyric specimen has been preserved in the great papyrus Harris I. , referring to Ramses III. (about the largest papyrus in existence ; ed. Birch) ; on the lists of kings see below, 41 ; but no larger works of scientific character were in the hands of Manetho when he undertook to compose a history of Egypt for the Greeks (see below, 41 ). The poverty of his material forced him to use even popular novels as sources. Nor was grammar ever studied in a scientific way, or textual criticism applied to the sacred writings. All literary works were, accordingly, more exposed to corruption than they were in any other country of antiquity.

If we find all ancient nations filled with bound less admiration for Egyptian science, 2 we can account for this only by the mysterious difficulty of all Egyptian writing, into the secrets of which a foreigner could rarely penetrate. In fact, the Babylonians as well as the Greeks were far superior to the Egyptians in everything that required serious thinking.

[FIG. 3]. Asiatics bringing tribute ; a painting (fragment) in the British Museum.

1 They seem to show that Herodotus s assertion about special ists for every part of the body is exaggerated.

2 Soine_ find evidence of this also in the apparent pride with which it is stated that Joseph had married a priest s daughter from On. See also i K. 4 30 [5 10] Acts 7 22.

3 They need not be enumerated here, as they can be consulted easily in the collections of Maspero, Contes pop. de FEgypte anc. [ 82], and Petrie, Egyptian Tales [ 95].

4 Collected by Maspero, Journ. As. [ 83], and by WMM, Die Liebespoesie der alien Agypter [ 99].

25. Tales and poetry.[edit]

What Egypt produced, however, in the way of literature designed to amuse and entertain is worthy of our highest admiration. The number of fanciful tales, very similar to those of the Arabian Nights, and of historical novels (with much imagination and little true history) is considerable, 3 and some e.g. , that of The Doomed Prince (a papyrus in London) are of charming form. Moreover, in their popular poetry, especially in their love songs, the Egyptians come much nearer to our taste than do most oriental peoples. 4 Many hymns in praise of kings and their deeds have survived. The only attempt at an epic, however, is the song, inscribed upon so many temple walls, commemorating the battle of Kadesh, won by Ramses II. ; for modern taste it lacks vigour and is too long. The other eulogies do not come up to it.

A satirical poem on bad minstrels, 1 and a collection of stories on animals, embodying ^Esopic fables (which seems to show that these fables originated, possibly, in Egypt), are to be found only in demotic copies. All poetry followed the parallelism of members (like Hebrew poetry) and certain rude rhythms (count ing only words with full accent, and disregarding the number of syllables) ; it sometimes observed alliteration, but never rhyme. Much more may be expected from recent finds.

26. Music.[edit]

Of the music connected with this poetry we cannot say much. All oriental instruments were known the simple monochord, 2 the large harp, s the flute, the tambourine, etc. Clapping of hands and shaking of the sistrum (ereio-Tpoi , a metal rattle) 4 accompanied the simple tunes. The professional musicians were mostly blind men. See MUSIC.

27. Government.[edit]

The government was the most absolute monarchy known to antiquity. The despotic power of the king was greatest in dynasties 4 to 5 and 18 to 20 (also 26) the periods of complete centralisation. On the decentralising tendencies of the counts or nomarchs (hereditary under weaker dynasties), and on the changing royal residences etc., see below, 41^ The most influential officer of the kingdom, the administrator of the whole empire, or grand-vizier, was the erpa'ti. The (a ti had the general administration of justice.

Among the titles of courtiers that of Fan-bearer at the left of the king" carried with it the greatest honour. After dynasty 18 the cup-bearers (wate, uba) of the king, although often only foreign slaves, became as influential as the Mamluks of the Middle Ages, because they were charged with the most confidential commissions. The titles of the court and of the officials of the royal palace, harem, stable, kitchen, brewery, etc., are just as abundant as the offices for the administration of the country and its counties (f.g., royal scribes, inspectors of the granaries, clerks of the soldiers, scribe of the nomos, etc.). Most of these scribes were at the same time priests. The king generally gave audiences from a balcony of the palace.

1 Ed. Revillout and Brugsch. The satirical vein of the Egyptians is often discernible in art (see caricatures in the papyri of Turin, partly given in Lepsius, A usiuaht) and literature.


5 Several works of E. Revillout on these Chrestomathic Detnotiqite ( So), Nouvelle direst. Demotique, etc. The de cipherment is in part much disputed ; cp 12. For some earlier material, see Griffith, Kahun Papyri.

6 What Diod. writes about Egyptian laws is not all certain. On those of the Greek period, see Wessely, SIVA IV, Bd. 124, Abh. 9.

7 Earlier inscriptions speak of thirty judges for the country.

8 Spiegelberg, Stud. u. Mat. zuin Rechtsivesen ( 92).

28. Law.[edit]

Of the laws we do not know much. We have sufficient material in the shape of legal documents only in demotic papyri from dynasty 26 downwards. 5 These documents are based upon the code of laws given or collected by the great legislator Bocchoris (about 730 B.C. ; see below, 65).

Former institutions are less known. 6 We find (only after 2000 B.C.) the remarkable institution of the jury, 7 a committee of officers and priests i.e. , educated men appointed by the government for every day to sit in judgment. They were paid by the litigants.

On criminal law 8 we possess acts relating to spoliations of tombs, to conspiracy against the king, and to forbidden sorcery. Criminals were examined by means of torture and blows. The rod was used as much as the kurbaj is at present. Bastinado (up to 100 strokes) upon hands and feet, cutting off the nose and the ears, deportation to frontier places (khinocolura, e.g., see EGYPT, RIVER OF, g i had its name from the exiles with muti lated noses ), to the oases, or to the gold mines in the glowing Nubian desert, and impalement ( hanged, KV of Gen. 4022 is incorrect), were the punishments. In the case of persons of higher rank suicide was allowed to take the place of capital punishment.

In civil law, we are struck with the fact that woman was on a perfect equality with man and occupied a higher position than she did in almost any other country of the ancient world. For example, a married woman could hold property of her own, and might lend from it to her husband upon good security, such as his house.

29. Marriage.[edit]

In marriage, the greatest divergence from later Hebrew custom was in sister-marriage, which in Egypt was as common as marrying the cousin is among the Semites. The majority had their sisters as wives : there seem to have been no forbidden degrees of relationship. Polygamy was permitted, but occurred rarely. Marriage was usually concluded on the basis of a financial agreement, such high indemnities being fixed for the wife in case of divorce or polygamy that expelling her without the most serious reasons should have become impossible. A wife with such legal security was called mistress of the house, and well distinguished from the concubine (called sister ). Nobles maintained secluded harems intheAsiaticmanner; but the wife always enjoyed as much liberty inside and outside of the house as our women, as is shown by the story of Potiphar s wife. 1 Veiling the face was unknown. Adultery was followed by capital punish ment for both offenders (contrast Gen. 39 20, J).

1 Accordingly, no evidence has been found, thus far, that eunuchs were kept. Lepsius, Dcnkm. 2 126, etc., represents fat old men, not eunuchs. This fact has not yet been considered in its relation to the designation of Potiphar as D lD in Gen. 39 1.

30. Character.[edit]

It will be seen, especially from our review of the literature, that the prevalent views with regard to the national character of the Egyptians are erroneous. They were quite religious (i.e. , superstitious) according to the views of such superstitious nations as the Greeks and the Romans. Far from being contemplative, however, they were rather superficial not only in religion, but also in science, literature, etc. and more inclined to the gay side of things. We nowhere find deep thinking, everywhere full enjoyment of life. Their art is full of humour ; even the walls of their eternal abodes or tombs are partly covered with drinking and playing scenes and with jokes for inscriptions. Their morality was rather lax. Drunkenness seems to have been not rare. To judge by the many complaints, the great host of officers in the service of the king or the temples were even more corrupt than the bureaucracy of other oriental states. Speaking generally, neither bravery nor honesty seems to have been a national virtue. 1

Even in the cult of the dead strange contradictions are visible. Paupers, of whom there were many, broke into most of the tombs of the wealthy soon after burial, and no military protection could prevent even the royal tombs from being ransacked. Even the educated, who expected to be examined by Osiris if they ever disturbed the rest of any dead person, would often appropriate for their own mummies the property, tomb, or equipment of a deceased person who was unprotected. Foundations of real estate for the support of the dead i.e., for furnishing the sacrifices never lasted long.

The best part of the population, undoubtedly, was to be found, not in the haughty scribes and priests (ideas for the most part coinciding), but in the peasants. These were just as simple in their habits, just as laborious, just as poor, and just as patient under their continual oppression, as the modern felldhin. Most of them were serfs of the king, or of temples, or of landowners. Their worst oppression was the hard taskwork described in Ex. 1. Serfs were branded with the owner s name. The cities held a large proletariate the free working men. 2

31. Classes.[edit]

It was formerly assumed that there were castes. This is, however, a mistake. The sons of the many priests would naturally acquire more easily than others the learning which distinguished their fathers. The eldest son, too, of a soldier inherited, with the field of his father, which was a fief from the government, also the duty of serving as /j.dxitAost.c. , ie. - soldier, or policeman. The tombstones, however, frequently represent families of whom one member was a soldier, another a priest, another an artisan, and so on. If, in the time of Herodotus, 3 the shepherds were despised and did not intermarry with the rest of the people, the explanation lies in their unclean foreign descent ( A me, Asiatic, was synonymous with shepherd ; cp Gen. 4832). Swineherds had a still lower position. The same may hold good of the sailors, merchants, and interpreters of foreign origin ; at that time, too, the soldiers were mostly descendants of foreigners (Libyans).

1 Cp the characteristic explanation in Steph. Byz. alyvirna^etv ra navovp ya. Kal 6Ata KOI vTrovAa Trpdrrfiv.

2 Interesting accounts of great strikes of the working men employed by the government have come down to our time. Cp Spiegelberg, Arbeiteru. Arbeiterbczvegung (^f)^).

3 He gives seven classes ; Plato and Diodorus, five.

32. Army.[edit]

[FIG. 4]. Ramses II. storming the Hittite fortress of Dapur {Da-pu-ni)\ from a wall picture on his temple at Thebes. See interpretation in Erman, 533. After Lepsius.

Formerly, when foreign elements in the country were few, the distinctions just referred to were less marked ; only the soldiers always had a strong foreign element. The Egyptians were not warlike, and, even in the earliest times, they employed by preference mercenaries.

The first to be employed were negroes and brown Africans (the name of the Mazoy archers from the Red Sea became synonymous with police ); after 1500 B.C. Syrians and Europeans; after 1200 B.C., in increasing numbers, Libyans (MasawaSa, etc.), who became the privileged mercenaries, and rebelled continually against the competition of Carians and Greeks after 650 B.C. (cp the mixed armies of Egypt, Jer. 4(5 9 Ezek. 27 10, etc.). The charioteers, 1 however, were mostly Egyptians. 2 Besides small fiefs of ground, the native soldiers seem to have received at least their maintenance during active service. The mercenaries had agricultural holdings also as part of their pay. Horses and equipment were lent by the government. The officers passed through a training school (zahabu, Semitic ?) as youths.

The national weapons were bow, throwing - stick 3 (only before 1600), war -axe, club, 4 scythe - formed sword, 5 short spear (rarely javelin), and straight sword. 6 Apart from the shield, 7 not much armour (coats- of-mail of leather, or thick linen, sometimes with metal scales) was used, except in the case of the charioteers. In sieges, the testudo and the battering-ram of the ancients appear, but none of the complicated war- machines used by the Assyrians. The soldiers marched to the sound of long hand-drums and at trumpet-signals. They were divided into regiments, each with its own standard, usually a god or divine symbol upon "s^"livi.

Lack of personal courage made the sea-trade of the Egyptians also very insignificant.

33. Commerce.[edit]

The import of olive oil (from Palestine), wine (from Phoenicia), beer (Asia Minor), wood, metal, wool, etc., and the export of grain (usually monopolised by the government), linen, papyrus, small works of art in glass, porcelain, metal, and ivory, were mostly in the hands of the Phoenicians. Naval expeditions on the Red Sea for incense were rare, owing (partly) to the great scarcity of wood in Egypt and on the desert coast of the Red Sea, where the ships had to be constructed.

Not till Persian times did the important commercial position of Egypt as forming the connecting link between the Red and the Mediterranean Seas, and between Europe, Asia, and Africa begin to be realised.

[FIG 5]. Syrian princes on Lebanon felling trees for Sethos I. After Rosselini.

[hieroglyphs] 2 Riding on horseback was unknown as among most nations of ancient Western Asia.

4 f\ This combines ^- X club and axe.

See AGRICULTURE, 3, fig- i-

34. Agriculture[edit]

The majority of the people always had agricultural occupations. Originally, the holdings of the priests (and soldiers) were exempt from the heavy taxation of one-fifth (Gen. 47 20 ff. ; see JOSEPH ii. , 9) ; later this immunity was interfered with because it withdrew too much from the income of the government - In agriculture, the most primitive implements were always used, such as wooden hoes, 8 and ploughs 9 drawn by oxen or by men. Such simple appliances presupposed the softening of the ground by the yearly inundation.

The irrigation of the higher fields was likewise effected with simple machinery. 1 Harvesting (in March with some growths two harvests are possible), treading out the grain by cattle (rarely threshing with the threshing wain, nic). winnowing, etc., were carried out very much in the same way as in Palestine (cp also AGRICULTURE, 2-10). On the granaries 2 see PITHOM.

35. Industries.[edit]

The industries were highly developed. The renowned Egyptian linen (the best kinds being called pa, fjfaffos - a Semitic word it would seem - and dd Egyptian ses ; see LINEN) was manufactured especially by the poor bondsmen of the temples, shut up at certain times in an athu or workhouse for weaving. The temples drew a large portion of their income from this linen manufacture. Cp Is. 19g (and v. 10, where read .Tntf with , see SHOT, ad loc.), Pr. 7i6 Ezek. 27?. In pottery only the more common ware was made. Glass seems to have been not a Phoenician but an Egyptian invention (cp PHOENICIA, GLASS, i ). The so-called Egyptian porcelain or glazed pottery (faience), mostly green or blue, in imitation of the two most precious stones (malachite and lapis lazuli), furnished the material for small figures, amulets (especi ally in the form of scarabs beetles that were supposed to bring good luck), and other ornaments, which found their way, through the Phoenicians, westwards even to Spain. The products of the goldsmiths, who also em ployed enamel very skilfully, are admirable ; the ivory- carvings were renowned. In general, the smaller articles (utensils, ornaments, etc. ) display the best taste ; all minute ornamentation was the delight of the Egyptians.

1 Cp 7. Water-wheels cannot be proved to have been known. The explanation of Dt. 11 10 as referring to such wheels turned with the foot is questionable ; most probably watering with the foot means carrying water.

2 HO 3 Consult Perrot and Chipiez, Hist, of Art [\| Ji_y| in Anc. Egypt (ET), 2 vols. 1883; Maspero,

Egyptian A rchceology (ET), 93 ; Fl. Petrie, Egyptian Decorative Art, 95.

4 The colours are in part made of ground glass (blue and green), and are all very durable.

5 Petrie, Amarna, pis. i, 12, is no exception, but an imitation in painting of sunk relief.

36. Art.[edit]

The art 3 of Egypt exercised a most powerful influence upon all surrounding countries, especially upon Phoenicia, Art wnere an imitation of the Egyptian style became the national art. Solomon s temple was in Egyptian style. The Egyptian ornaments, derived from the plants and flowers of the country, especially the lotus and papyrus, penetrated the whole ancient world. The paintings 4 ( preserved mostly as wall decoration) have a very childish appearance, from their lack of perspective and of shading; 5 but they possess the merit of great faithfulness e.g. , in all representations of animals, foreign nations, etc. (compare Fig. 3). The decorative sculp tures (rarely in relief, mostly incised or in a sunk relief, always painted) exhibit the same odd principles of perspective, in accordance with which, e.g., the face was always represented in profile, but the eye as though seen from the front, the shoulders from the front, the legs in profile, and so on. This was not awkwardness, but a principle traditionally handed down from the childhood of art ; and we can still observe how some sculptors struggled against this strait -jacket.

[Fig 6]. Statue of Ramses II. at Turin. After Riehm-Lepsius.

In spite of this disadvantage, some artists of the earliest times (dyns. 4-6) drew scenes full of vivacity and of delicate execution, much superior to the similar Assyrio - Babylonian and archaic Greek sculptures (which all had, by the way, similar perspective). Later, art became more and more conventionalised. The superiority of the earliest period appears also in the statues. The realism of some of the earliest portraits was never again attained. As early as 1600 u.c. the portraits began to lose in vigour and to betray a suspicious similarity one to another. The New Empire, in marked contrast with the Middle Empire (dyn. 12), looked more to quantity than to quality. After dynasty 26, art sank to a very low level. (On the realism of the Reformation period, 1 and the archaic renaissance in dynasty 26, see below, 67. ) Of course, the statues (almost invariably painted) have only a few conventional positions. The technical perfection, however, was always great (see Fig. 6), and it was for a long time a mystery how diorite and basalt could have been cut and polished with copper, bronze, and flint instruments. It seems that for the hardest work diamond or corundum cutters were used (see DIAMOND, i ). (On the excellent material available for sculptors, see above, 3. ) It may be mentioned here that in daily life flint instruments were, for reasons of economy, used long after 2000 B. C. The stone and the bronze ages, therefore, coincided, and touched upon the iron age (iron prevailing after 1000 B. C. , copper preceding the bronze). 1

1 Bronze was called hesmen, a word connected with 7CB n Brugsch), which may be an Egyptian loan-word (cp METALS).

2 rt V t7 5 After the manner of the caryatides of A M A Greek art, figures of Osiris are frequently Li ii ii used ; but these always lean against a pillar. The head of Hathor (with cow s ears) (perhaps originally an ox-skull) as a capital for columns is the only other ancient instance of the human form being employed in architecture.

37. Architecture.[edit]

[FIG. 7]. Ramses II. s Great Rock Temple at Abu-Simbel.

The architecture is well known for its massiveness. This was relieved by the abundance of ornaments upon walls and pillars, and by the polychromy.

That the ornamentation was originally derived from the forms of certain plants is seen especially in the ornamental columns - with capitals. 3 They represent the lotus-flower both in full bloom and in bud, bundles of papyrus, and palm-trees (often strongly conventionalised), and betray that their origin is to be sought in ancient wooden constructions. 1 The sloping walls show that originally Nile mud was another material in general use for all kinds of buildings. The arch was known from the earliest times(dyn.6?), but was rarely used for stone structures. The elliptic arch was preferred in the caseof buildings ofbrick. The foundations of temples, threatened by infiltration of ground water, were laid on thick layers of sand.

Some characteristic features of temple architecture may be mentioned.

A pair of obelisks 2 stood at the entrance (the surface often gilt, the pyramidal top frequently of metal : their religious probably solar meaning was forgotten ; but they remind us of the iiiassirbas of the Semites ; cp Is. 19 19 Jer. 43 13 3 ) ; galleries of sphinxes* the symbol of wisdom and of similar sacred beings led to the gate which was crowned by the symbol of the winged disk;* broad pylons " resembling fortress-walls pro tected the entrance on either side.

The largest existing temple, that of Karnak, was originally only a modest building of dynasty 12. Every great king added a new court or a hall, and the entrance pylons finally came to stand in the interior of the complex. Many temples had a. similar growth. The divinity, however, dwelt not in these courts or halls, but in a small dark chapel in the centre, where it usually sat in a sacred boat. Sacred lakes near the temples were frequent.

The principal temple ruins are at Karnak, Luxor, urna, Medlnet Habu (all included in ancient The bes), Abydos, Edfu, Esneh, Ombos, Philae ; in Nubia at DabOd, Kalabsheh, Bet el - Wali, Dendur, Gerf Husen, Dakkeh, Sebua, Amada, Abu-Simbel, Soleb. Jebel-Barkal (Napata) and Meroe are imitations by Ethiopian kings.

Secular architecture was much lighter, the only materials used be ing wood, and Nile mud mixed with stubble (Ex. 5 n ) made into sun-dried bricks. The many royal palaces have on this account all disappeared, although some of their sumptuous ornamentations (mosaics and glazed tiles) have remained.

Wealthy subjects had the same kind of house (with an open court in the centre) that we still find in the modern East ; the poor dwelt in mere clay huts, such as those occupied by the modern felldhln.

The tombs had an architecture of their own. Where possible, they were long galleries hewn in the rock (especially at Thebes). The pyramid was the characteristic form of royal tombs from dyn. 3 to dyn. 12, and was frequently imitated by private persons on a smaller scale, and in brick instead of stone.

1 This can be said also of the famous fluted columns of Beni- hasan, which remind one strongly of the Doric column.

3 So Wi. ; see BETH-SHEMESH, 4 ; and tehen. cp MASSEBAH.


Female sphinxes (representing queens) are rare.

__ a

7 A . 8 For example, an obelisk at Thebes 108 feet high, or the colossus of Memnon (height 64 feet, weight 1175 tons). Fragments of a statue found at Tams indicate a figure originally 80-90 feet high. Each of these objects was sculptured from one stone.

The question has very often been asked how the Egyptians erected edifices of such stupendous size, and monolithic monuments 8 that would tax the skill even of our age of improved mechanical appliances. It would be very wrong to ascribe these achievements to the use of complicated machinery. Everything was done in the simplest possible way, by an unlimited command of human forces ; and we have to admire far more the energy than the engineering skill. Pictures show how immense monolithic monuments were moved over wooden rollers, smaller stones on a sledge (see Fig. 8).

[FIG. 8]. Dragging a statue of Dhut-hotep. After Lepsius.

The statue, resting on a sledge, is being dragged by four rows of men supposed to be in parallel lines on the ground. Above them are the whole population of the city come out to do homage. The man standing on the knee of the statue gives the signal to the men below ; the man on its foot pours water on the ground in front of the sledge. Above the latter is Her-heb with a vessel of incense (?). Below the statue are men with water-buckets and wood, also three overseers ; behind the statue the retinue of the governor.

38. Measures[edit]

The influence of Egyptian civilisation upon Syria appears strongly in its metrology. For example, the Egyptian corn-measure Ephah (otyi, Egyptian dpe[t]i.e., measure ) and the liquid measure Hin (Egyptian Aain(u), pot ) were adopted by the Hebrews. The weight system (i deben i.e. , 90-96 grammes or Ib. had 10 kidet of 140 grains) was decimal, in opposition to the Babylonian sexagesimal system. The cubits, however, the large or royal cubit of 0.525 metres (about 20^ inches), and the small cubit of 0.450 metres (about 17^ inches), which existed side by side (subdivisions being the span, palm, finger, etc. ) - are said to be borrowed from Babylonia (?). The subject is very complicated, and some measures such as the largest measure of area, the ffxqivos (said to contain 12,000 cubits?) present great difficulties.

On the other hand, it is certain that in Egypt a form of money very similar to our present coin was used rings or thick wire in spiral form (deben) l originally of copper, later also of gold, finally of silver. This metal, white gold, 2 not being found in Africa, had originally higher value than gold, but after 1600 B.C. it became more frequent, and soon was the common standard of money.

1 ) 2 This is what the hieroglyphic expression means. It would seem that electron, gold with an admixture of silver, called ivesein (the initial is doubtful, the connection with do->;/xos improbable) also had higher value than gold.

3 On this and most of the preceding subjects see Erman, Egyptian Life (ET 1894). The admirable pioneer work of Wilkinson, Manners and Custotiis ( 36), is, in its text at least, completely antiquated ; as also is the second edition, by Kirch ( 78). Very concise, and (in part) very readable, is Brugsch, Die sEgyptologie ( 81) ; but he is too much averse from Erman s critical division of periods. It would be out of place here to attempt to trace the various developments of Egyptian manners during 3000 years ; the biblical period (1600 to 500 B.C.) is what chiefly concerns us.

39. Dress, etc.[edit]

The manners and customs of Ancient Egypt, 3 which the Greeks found to be in as direct opposition as possible to their own, were less different from those of the settled Semites. The Egyptians prided themselves on their great cleanliness (cp Gen. 41i4). They shaved their faces and clipped their hair (the priests shaved it off), wearing artificial beards 4 (at least at religious ceremonies) and wigs. Indeed, the chief decoration of the upper classes consisted of wigs of enormous size. Garments were made not, as with the Semites, of wool, but mostly of cleanly white linen.

The shape of garments constantly varied, according to fashion ; but we can observe that in the earliest times men were satisfied with simple raiment, a short skirt being sufficient even for noble men. Later, these wore several suits, one over another, skilfully plaited. The fanciful and archaic dress of the king, with his manifold double and triple symbolical crowns, 1 would require a chapter for itself. Dignitaries were distinguished by their staffs, 2 also by the flagellum, 3 the signet-ring, 4 and the necklace. 8

For men and women alike the commonest adornment was the wearing of ornaments of precious metal, or at least flowers," round the neck. Such collars of gold were the principal decoration given by the king as a reward to faithful officers or brave soldiers. Princes and some priests had their hair tied in a tress 7 on one side of the head. Painting of the eyelids, which in Syria was reserved for women (2 K. 930), was practised by both sexes. A black stripe, formed by the so-called stibium (see PAINT), outlined the eyes above, a green stripe below. 8 Unguents for the hair and body played a great part. Sandals (especially of papyrus) were common ; shoes were rare. At night, the African head rest 9 was used (originally in order not to disarrange the artificial head-dress), and the face covered.

The Egyptians were just as ceremonious as other Orientals. The common mode of salutation was by dropping the arms ; 10 prostration ( kissing the ground ) marked highest respect ; in prayer the hands were lifted up. 11

Of their amusements the following may be mentioned : fowling (with the snare, or with the boomerang - or throwing-stick), fishing, and various games, such as that called mora by the modern Italians, and a kind of checkers, of which they were so fond that they sought to secure it by magic for the souls of the dead. Dancing was left chiefly to women, for the delight of spectators.

Although religion declared all foreigners unclean, the Egyptians were not hostile to foreign associations and influences. In dynasties 18-20 indeed imitation of Asiatic manners became such a fashion that the educated had to a large extent Semitic names and spoke a mixture of Egyptian and Canaanitish. A strong reaction, however, seems to have set in especially after 800 B.C.


c\ (originally the common sign of boyhood)- 6

The Asiatic custom of painting the nails red with hennah was also known.


12 The material is collected in Lieblein, Diet, efe noins ( 71 and 92). The fullest discussion, comparatively speaking, will be found in Erman, Egypt.

40. Names.[edit]

The names used by the Ancient Egyptians 12 were less poetic than those of the civilised Semites. Simple names, such as little (sery) sometimes even dwarf ( WOTi ^] r ^); fair-face; big-headed (sisoy), cross-eyed (komen), prevail, especially in the earlier period. I wished; I saw, he cried, etc. refer to circumstances of birth, etc. Maternal uncle (sen- mau[et], mother s brother ) is not uncommon (see KINSHIP). Some names are intended for good omens or to express parental pride : hou nofer, the good day ; nefer- (or was-}hau, good (or prosperous) circumstances ; usertesen, their wealth (i.e., of the parents) ; mother s ornament (bcs-n-mauet), the land in joy (ta-m-refout), gold in Heliopolis, gold on the way, coming in peace (or luck, y-m-hotep). Names of animals of all sorts are used: not only lion, monkey, dog, frog (krur), tadpole (hefe/iu), etc., but also names of unclean animals : mouse (pin) and pig (riret) are favourite girls names. Comical names, such as we should have expected a superstitious nation to dread as ill-omened, are met with. Thus, e.g. (Liebl. 1784), an unfortunate infant retained for life the designation offal-swallower ( m-bwd ). The Egyptians evidently attached less importance to the name than was usual with other nations. The many senseless syllables mere babblings, such as Ay, Ata, Teye which can be explained only as pet names (like the English Bob, Tom, and Dick) confirm this.

Names with a religious signification were, of course, quite frequent. They praise a god (Ptah is beautiful, powerful, etc.) e.g. , Set-naht(e) S. (is?) strong. A men-em-he t, Amon in the first place, extols a local god over the others. Beloved by or loving a god (mer [vulgar, mey-, mi-~\ Amun, 1 me(r)-en(e)- Ptah), Amon is satisfied (Amen-hotep), etc., are common ; even dog of Horus occurs. Sobk-em-saitf, the god S. (stands) behind him, and the like, boast of divine protection. The sons and daughters of all possible gods are very common ; but of brothers of a god only two or three doubtful examples are known. Amenv, Setoy, of Amon, of Set, 1 ns(i)-Bi-n-dede, belonging to Mendes, and the thankful p-ed-Amun, whom Amon gave, belong to the same category. Amon in (his) ship, in (his) festival (cp Har-em-Jiebe, of Horus), and in (his) rising, may be intended as comparisons. In Isis in the marshes and Horus in the lake we have examples of mythological allusions Ra-mes-su ( Pa/xecrcr^s), the sun begot him, Dhut(i)-mose, the god Thout born (i.e. , incarnate), say a good deal. Very remarkable is the late usage of employing the name of the divinity itself e.g. , /sis, Hor (not Osiris, which would be too ill-omened), Har-pe-hrad (H. the child), Har-si-esc (H. the son of Isis), Hons(u) deities of the Osirian circle and the goddess of love Hat-/wr, (paraphrased in mistress of Byblos ; cp 14) being, in particular, very common. 2

The more complicated names were introduced, for the most part, by the kings (e.g. , Nefer-ke-re , fine is the double of the Sun, etc.), who, from dynasty 5 onwards, always had two names ; these and the various regular titles and surnames were imitated or exaggerated by loyal subjects. Loyalty is frequently expressed by names such as King X. is satisfied, well, powerful, which were regarded as specially suitable for holders of office. Sometimes these names are as long as Babylonian names. Of foreign names, Semitic formations were quite popular from dynasty 18 onwards (see 39), Libyan names even before dynasty 22 ; later we meet with Ethiopic and other names.

1 Standing alone, or at the end of a compound name, the god s name was probably pronounced Amon, later Amun (Copt. AMOyN); elsewhere (cp Heb. construct state), Amen.

2 In the earliest examples, however, the possessive - ending may be supplied. This could be suppressed in writing, as was the case in the earliest Hebrew orthography.

3 Maspero s huge History of the Ancient Orient (three volumes, 1895 to 1Sq9) is perhaps best np to date, and specially valuable for its ample references; but its system of transliteration of names will be found confusing. Petrie's History of Egypt still [I 001 incomplete, is a very useful collection of material and the best available work in English. An English Meyer, however, i.e., a readable history by the side of the English Wiedemann (Petrie), is still a desideratum.

4 Another great difficulty is the transcription of names. The reader must hear in mind that Egyptian was written (like primi tive Hebrew, only still more defectively ) without vowels. It is full of abbreviations ; letters (especially liquid consonants) are often suppressed ; and some confusion of and , r and 1, etc., is allowed. The Coptic forms are our greatest help towards re covering the pronunciation ; but they frequently differ from the ancient language as much as might be expected after a develop ment of 3000 years. Hence the greatest confusion reigns in Egyptological literature, some names being current in as many as a dozen forms. Every change of philological theory brings about a change of transliteration, and those who see the trouble which this causes are returning, as much as possible, to the Greek transliterations, where there are such, of Herodotus, Manetho, etc. Where, as often, there are none, this way of escaping the difficulties of wild guessing at the pronunciation fails. [How a different theory, which has the same object, works out, may be seen from Petrie s History already referred to.] The present writer has tried to be as conservative of customary forms as possible.

41. Sources of History.[edit]

In treating the history 3 of Egypt, we find the greatest difficulty 4 in the chronology. The Egyptians had no eras, but reckoned by the years of their kings.

For practical use long lists of kings had to be kept. The only list preserved (at Turin) is very fragmentary, and the extracts from Manetho (Mave^uiv; Maveflujs in Euseb. ), a priest of Sebennytos, 1 about 270 B.C. , the only Egyptian historian in the Greek language, have come down in a greatly corrupted state. 2 Besides, even in their original state, both sources (especially Manfitho) seem to have been far from the attainment of absolute correctness.

[FIG. 9]. Part of Sety I. s tablet of kings at Abydos. The king, preceded by his son Ramses II. wearing the princely lock of hair over his ear, advances, censer in hand, to present offerings to Ptah-sokar-Osiris on behalf of 76 famous ancestors.

First line : Mny, Tty, etc.
Second line : Merenre -Meht-m-saf, Neterkare , etc.
Third line : Sety I. repeated.

For convenience sake, we retain Manetho s reckoning of thirty-one dynasties (down to the Ptolemies), although his dynasties are not always correctly divided, and his chronological data cannot be safely used without a searching criticism. The attempts to use astrological dates e.g. , the fixed or Sothis year (see CHRONOLOGY, 19) have been, so far, not very successful. 3

Champollion placed the beginning of dynasty i in 5867 n.c., Roeckh in 5702, Mariette in 5004 ; Petrie has placed it in 4777 ; Lepsius brought it down to 3892 ; and some have tried to bring it down much lower than 3000 B.C.

An accurate chronology for Egypt is possible, accordingly, only after 700 B.C. (CHRONOLOGY, 20). Approximate dates can be given thanks to the synchronism afforded by the Amarna tablets back to about 1600 (ib., 22). Thus far, there is no hope that the gaps in the Hyksos period and the preceding dynasties (13 and 14) will ever be filled up so as to allow similar certainty for the earliest times, although, e.g. , dynasty 12 is fairly well known now [but see col. 1237, n. 3]. Modern writers have therefore, for the most part, given up trying to form complete chrono logical systems. The material at command is in sufficient. At present the efforts of scholars are directed to finding minimum approximate dates.

1 Hardly high priest of Heliopolis, as later sources state. His dynasties are arbitrary groups of kings disagreeing with those, e.g., of the Turin papyrus.

2 Extracted by Julius Africanus, Eus., and Sync, (also partly in Jos.). Handy editions in C. Miiller (Historici Gra-ci Minores, ii.) and Bunsen, Egypt s Place in Universal History, i. The Turin fragments are best edited by Wilkinson [ 51]. Selections of kings names in the tablets of Abydus (2)(Seti I. ; see above, fig. 9), Sakkarah (private, temp. Ramses II.) and Karnak (Thutmosis III.). Cp De Rouge, Recherches sur Ics 6 premiers dynasties [ 66]. Also Brugsch and Bouriant, Le livrt des Rot s [ 87] (Lepsius, Kffnigsbuch [ 58], antiquated).

3 Lepsius, Chronologic der Agyptcr ( 49), etc., all antiquated. Recent attempts by Mahler, ZA, 897^, are followed by some, e.g., by Petrie, but disputed by others ; cp 50, 56.

42. Periods.[edit]

Apart from the division into thirty-one dynasties (down to Alexander, according to Mangtho), Egyptian history is commonly divided into three great periods :

  • i. the Ancient Empire (Memphitic), dynasties 1-6 ; dynasties 7-10 may already

be reckoned to

  • ii. the Middle Empire : dynasties 11-13

(Theban period) ;

  • iii. the New Empire, from dynasty 17-18

to the end (Theban, Bubastide, Sai tic, etc. periods).

The earliest history (before King Menes ; see below) is filled by Egyptian tradition thus : first with the successive reigns on earth of the various gods (on the chronology the Egyptians, of course, disagreed very greatly), and then for 13,400 years with those of the Semsu-Hor, followers of (the Sun-god) Horus an expression absolutely equivalent to ancestors (Mangtho renders it awkwardly by v^-i/ey or ?}/>wej). Egyptologists are agreed that most probably this long period of kings too obscure to be enumerated, was the time during which Egypt was still divided, and that the first historic king was the ruler who united the two kingdoms ; but see below on MENES, 44.

43. Prehistoric.[edit]

The Egyptian traditions are unanimous that originally there were two kingdoms. The first was that of the Southern Land *"*( ) ? with the twin cities Nehbet (Eileithyia, now El-Kab) and Nehen (Hieraconpolis, opposite Eileithyia) for capital, and a king styled s(nf)tni, who wore the white crown. 1 It had as emblem a kind of rush. 2 The second kingdom, whose rulers 3 wore the red crown, 4 and resided in Buto (anciently Pe), was to-emJivt(i), the Northern Land, which had as its emblem the lotus(?) 5 plant. B Even the Roman emperors were still styled king of the Upper and the Lower country, 7 and were represented as such with the two crowns combined. 8 It is unlikely, however, that any monument yet discovered goes back to the period of the separate kingdoms.

Still older is the division of Egypt into forty -two vofjioi or counties (thirty-six to forty-seven in Roman I times after many changes), twenty-one of Upper and j twenty-one of Lower Egypt. Each nomos had its own god (and totem?) and its own capital, and kept its dis tinct frontiers, its coat of arms, etc. down to very recent times. We may see in these counties, accordingly, traces of prehistoric kingdoms or tribes.

The beginnings of Egyptian civilisation reach back to this remote period. On the other hand, some barbarous survivals from it may be found in the later religion (see above, 13), as also, among other things, in the decoration of the king, who always wore a leather appendage fastened to his short skirt 9 (the whole re minding one of a lion s skin with tail). The recent attempts, especially those of Hommel, to prove the proto- Babylonian ( Sumerian ) origin of the whole primeval culture of Egypt, imply, at least, great exaggerations. Some Semitic (not Sumerian) elements of culture seem to be noticeable in prehistoric times, and one or another trace of indirect Babylonian influence (through the Semites) might be admitted ; but all these influences are very insignificant in comparison with the elements of native origin. Thus the general conception of pictographic writing might perhaps be borrowed from the Euphrates valley ; but not a single sign taken from the Babylonian system can be found. Egyptian writing bears a thoroughly African stamp, no less than Egyptian art, manners, etc.


3 They were called ?S*Q \\ _ (pronounce approximately ebyati). Griffith in Kenihasan 3, 9 (Arch. Survey, v.).


44. First dynasties.[edit]

Recent investigations have revealed many traces of the earliest population - that of about the time of the first historical dynasty. 1 The Egyptians were more pastoral then than later ; their food, their burial customs, and so forth were still barbarous. 2 Already, however, they possessed the art of writing (greatly differing in detail, indeed, from the later system), and, at least at the courts of the kings, most arts were practised (though not as highly developed as in dyn. 3). It is still an open question whether the tomb (not the burning-place) of the first historical king Meny (Menes of the Greeks) has recently been discovered at Nakadeh, 3 near the old city of ftubt (or Nebut, the same name as Ombos), the abode of the god Set (cp 15 ; fig. 9 shows a tablet found at the same place bearing in archaic writing the word mn). 4

[FIG. 10]. So-called Tablet of Menes.

An ivory plate found by De Morgan at Nakadeh : a, from a photograph ; fr, outlined from a photograph (/ after L. Borchardt, Sitzungsberichte der Berliniscken Akademie tier Wissenschaften, 8810547: [ 97]). It figures and describes the funereal outfit of the deceased king.

1 See (with reserve) De Morgan, Recherches sur les origines tie F I -gypte ( 96 and 97). He correctly refers Petrie s excavations in Nagada and Ballus ( 96) here.

2 For example, even the hyaena was fattened and eaten. The cannibalism that some have alleged, however, seems to be only the second burial (i.e., reburial after cleaning the bones of flesh), a practice that is still to be found, e.g., in New Guinea, and is to be connected with the first attempts at embalming. Cutting the dead in pieces in imitation of the fate of Osiris (cp 14) was also customary during the first dynasties. That several early kings were burned with their whole tomb, although the later Egyptians dreaded nothing more than incineration, is a theory that has not been confirmed. Most of the cities of Egypt go back to this primeval period; within it, Heliopolis (On) was, evidently, the most important city ; at least, its religious author ity reached far.

) De Morgan, Recherches, ii. ( 97), and SB A W, 97, p. 1054.

4 The word inn seems (so Wiedemann) to designate the tomb, not the king.

5 Amelineau, Fouilles cT Abydos ( 96^); more exhaustively, 99. Quibell s finds at Hieraconpolis, 1900, Petrie, Royal Toinl<s. An accurate arrangement and chronological determination of the earliest names of kings is not yet possible ; neither can their names be transliterated with certainty.

Tombs of eight kings (of about dyn. i ) have been excavated near Abydos (at Umm el-Ga ab) and the names of several other kings found there. 5 We see now why Mangtho said that dynasty i proceeded from This (Egyptian Tini, modern Girgeh?), near Abydos. That would explain the superiority of Upper Egypt over the northern country, perhaps also the spread of the Osiris-worship of Abydos over all Egypt. As regards the unification of Egypt see 42, although it may be that the later Egyptian scholars, in beginning history with Menes, I acted arbitrarily or on unknown grounds, omitting those of Menes predecessors whom they were unable to classify. It is not impossible that some of the ancient kings of This precede him. On the tradition that Menes built Memphis, and on the great sphinx near that city, cp MEMPHIS.

Of dynasty 2 (six to nine kings) we knew before only that the temple and worship of the kings Sendy (Sethenes in Manetho) and Per-eb-sen are mentioned perhaps a century later.

From dynasty 3 (nine kings) we have on monuments (hardly contemporary) the cult of Neb-ka or Ncbkau-re . King /.oser built the remarkable stepped {i.e., unfinished) pyramid at Sakkfirah. (The pyramid as a form of royal tomb does not seem to have been known in dynasties i and 2.) His name has been found engraved upon the mountains of the Sinaitic peninsula. We may conclude that the copper-mines of the Sinaitic desert, from which the Egyptians drew almost all the copper so neces sary for tools in the copper age, were already in the hands even of more ancient pharaohs. Later, various stories were carried back to the kings of the first three dynasties ; sacred books were reported to have been written by them, or found by, or under, them ; but all these traditions seem to be apocryphal.

The lists of kings drawn up in the fourteenth century B.C., upon which we have to rely for many names, are mere selections (not trustworthy even for the succession of the names). The whole period of dynasties i to 3, therefore, probably included at least 600 years (779, Manetho), possibly double that time. Thus Menes might be placed near 4000 B.C.

45. 4th Dynasty.[edit]

Dynasty 4 lies in the full light of history (soon after 3000 B.C.?). King Snefru(i), who founded it, seems to have been a great ruler. Later stories report that he had to fight with Asiatic tribes attacking Egypt near Memphis, where already earlier pharaohs had to build a large fortification, the king s wall, against raids through Goshen. Some places founded there by Snefru(i) confirm the essentially historical character of these reports. At Wady Magharah in the Sinaitic peninsula, he opened a new mine for copper and greenstone (malachite, which the Egyptians held in strange esteem). His tomb is the irregular pyramid of Meidum.

The next kings, the Cheops, Chephren, and Mycerinus of Herodotus (Hufu(i), Ha f-rc , and Men-ka(u)-re of the monuments), are the builders of the three largest pyramids at Gizeh, stupendous works which were never surpassed (see MRMPHIS). Evidently the strength of Egypt was overtaxed by these gigantic constructions, for the pyramids of all subsequent kings (Rd-ded-f, epses-ka-f, 1 etc.) show a considerable falling-off.

46. 5th Dyn.[edit]

Dynasty 5 is called Elephautinic by Manetho. This would indicate that the warlike Nubians, already employed as mercenaries in that early time, acquired sufficient influence to establish their leaders as kings. 2 This dynasty (nine to eleven kings, reigning about 150 years) marks the zenith of Egyptian art (see above, 36). The last king, Unas ( \Venvs ; Onnos, ManStho), built the earliest of the five pyramids at Sakkarah which have preserved in the in-^ scriptions on the walls of their burial chambers so valu able a collection of religious and magical texts (see above, 20), texts dating in part from prehistoric times, and already in dynasty 5 not all perfectly intelligible. 3

Unas has left, in the so-called Mastabat-el-Far aun (Pharaoh's bench), near Sakkfirah, the basis of one of those strange colossal monuments of half -pyramidal character 1 which were erected by many of the kings of that time. Their purpose is obscure; we only know that they were, like the obelisks, for the cult of the Sun-god.

1 The romantic queen NitOcris of Herodotus is legendary. She is a disfigured princess of dynasty 26.

~ The hypothesis that Egypt was ever conquered by Nubians or Trog(l)odytes as a nation cannot be upheld. The soldiery of Egypt, however, was derived mostly from the southernmost counties, where the people, from the mountain range of Silsileh, were of some what mixed character (exactly as now), and therefore more warlike.

3 Maspero, Les Inscriptions ties pyramided de Saqqaralt, 1894 (reprinted from Recueil, 3 to 14), gives these texts along with meritorious attempts at full translations. The grammar of the pyramid-texts remains to be written. Their archaic style has preserved many inflections lost in later Egyptian.

47. 6th Dynasty.[edit]

Dynasty 6 (five kings, about 140 years, beginning with Tety or Atoty) had powerful rulers, especially Pepy (read Apopy? > ! " a great builtler

  • the founder of Memphis proper. He waged war, not only with the sand-dwelling nomads

of the Sinaitic desert, but also in Palestine, which he seems to have been the first (?) to claim as tributary terri tory. a The kingdom, however, was more and more decentralised, and at the end of dynasty 6 went to pieces. It must be mentioned that under Pepy (Apopy) II. Nefer- ka-re (reigning, according to the best traditions, ninety- four years, perhaps the longest reign in the world s history) we find records of a great commercial expedition, a nomarch of Elephantine being sent by the king to the Sudan near Khartum to obtain one of the dwarfs from the woods of Central Africa for the sacred dances. *

Most kings of dynasties 3-6 (Manetho calls dynasty 2 as well as dynasty i Thinitic, dynasties 3, 4, and 6 Memphitic) had their residences near Memphis, though not at the same place ; many kings built their city afresh, a work rendered easy by the light material employed.

The practice was for each king to build his pyramid west of his own city, in the desert ; it is this alone, in fact, that enables us to guess the site of the city. Gradually Memphis proper became the permanent capital.

48. Dynasties 7 to 11.[edit]

Dynasties 7 to 11 form an obscure period (only about twenty-five kings known, many more lost), full of the struggles of the Nomarchs, the princes of the small counties.

Dynasties 7 and 8 are called Memphitic, 9 and 10 came from Heracleopolis in Middle Egypt (see HANKS). These Heracleo- politans had unceasing wars with rival kings in Thebes, whom they seem never to have completely subdued. Manetho mentions only one great king among the Heracleopolitan kings, Achlhoes (Egyptian, Hty ; pronounce Ehtoy), whom he describes as cruel i.e., a powerful warrior.

Finally, the Theban rulers from whom the eleventh dynasty descended gained the superiority.

Almost all these kings, whose number is doubtful (Petrie nine, others five or six) had the name Antef or that of Mentuhotep. Of the last king^ of this dynasty, S anh-ka-re . we know that he sent an expedition through the desert east of Koptos to build a ship on the Red Sea and to sail to Punt for incense. Such ex peditions to Punt (the Abyssinian and Somali coast of our days) occur under several kings of the next (twelfth) dynasty : the earliest mentioned is one under Assa (Yssy) of dynasty 5.

49. 12th Dynasty.[edit]

The new line, of seven kings, was founded by Amen-em-he t I. , who subdued the rebel nomarchs after hard fighting. One of the classic books, the instructions of Amenemhet (i.e., in structions how to rule), 4 professes to have been written by him when, tired of reigning, he abdicated after escaping a conspiracy against his life. His son Usertesen (Wesertesen) /. erected the temple of which the obelisk of Heliopolis is the only trace. He was buried in the pyramid of Lisht. Usertesen II. , who succeeded Amenemhe t II., built the pyramid of Illahun. His workers inhabited the city on the spot now called Kahun, where Petrie found valuable antiquities. 8

1 t\ A similar monument from dynasty 5 has been found I ^ near Riga.

2 See the so-called inscription of Una, RPC& i i-io. For the reference to Palestine, see WMM, As. n. Kur. 33. Petrie found in Deshfisheh pictures from a similar war, which seem to belong to the same time (OLZ 1 248).

3 Tomb at Aswan ; inscription first published by Schiaparelli.

4 Best translation, Griffith, ZA, 97, p. 35 ; World s Best Lit. 5323.

8 The collection of the Petrie or Kahun papyri (ed. Griffith, 97), to which we have so often to refer.

50. Fa(i)yum.[edit]

Usertesen II. seems to have begun to favour the part of Egypt now called Fa(i)yum i.e. , the lake, in antiquity to-sei, the lake-country the Arsinoite nome of the Ptolemies . This is a depression in the Libyan desert into which the branch of the Nile now called Bahr-Yusuf flows, forming a lake, now called Birket-Karun, and irrigating one of the most fruitful parts of Egypt (properly an oasis ; see above, 4). The Nile had been flowing into this depression even in prehistoric times ; 1 but some improvements must have been made in irrigation by the kings of dynasty 12, especially by Amenemhet III. , who succeeded Usertesen III. At least he is the king Moeris to whom Herodotus erroneously ascribed even the digging (!) of Lake Moeris (thirty-five miles long even now, much more in antiquity); his two pyramids (i.e., large bases), with colossal statues of king Moeris, 1 were discovered by Petrie near Biahmu. 2 The pyramid of Amenemhet III. stands at Hawara, where only insignificant remains betray the site of the labyrinth built by the same king. The classical writers describe it as a gigantic structure equal to the pyramids of Gizeh. Amenemhet IV. and a queen Sebk-nofru (or -neferu) close this dynasty (194 years, beginning about 2100 B.C.?), 3 which the Egyp tians, not without justice, considered as the greatest of all. The land was flourishing, art well developed, and literature in its golden age, at least according to Egyptian taste. Most of the works used as classics in the schools were written while this dynasty reigned (see above, 21). Many temples and public construc tions were erected. Conquests were made in Nubia (not in Syria ; 4 only the old copper mines near Sinai were used). All kings were active in subduing Wawat (N. of Nubia) and Kosh (Cush of the Bible, in the S. ) for the sake of the gold mines of that country ; Usertesen III. finally fixed his frontier south of the second cataract and fortified it by two large fortresses (now called Semneh and Kummeh) on the two banks of the Nile.

For the student of the OT the most interesting monument of this period is the famous wall-painting of Beni Hasan (part of it given in colours in Riehm, HlVBV i) which was formerly ex-

Slained as representing the immigration of Abraham or Jacob (cp JOSEPH ii. , 8). The inscriptions that accompany the painting inform us, however, that a caravan of 37 Asiatics from the desert-country came, not as immigrants, but as traders 9 with metallic eye-paint (inesdcniet ; cp 39), evidently from the copper mines near Sinai. The chief, Ab-sa(y) (i.e., ABISHAI?), presents two ibexes to his customer, the nomarch. In Middle Egypt such direct commercial relations seem to have been less frequent than in the north. The illustration of the costumes of the age of Hebrew immigration is most valuable (observe the weapons, the war-axe, the boomerang an elaborate one, as the sign of the chief the travelling shoes, the lyre, etc.).

51. 13th and 14th Dyns.[edit]

Dynasties 13 and 14 again show the consequences of decentralisation anarchy, wars of nomarchs competing for the crown; some kings ruling only a few months, altogether at least 140 princes, many evidently contemporaneous. The names of many kings, which imitate the names of dynasty 12, or at least point to the Faiyum and its god Sobk (such names as Sebk-sauf, Sebk-hotep], show that they claimed descent from dynasty 12. Dynasty 14 is said to have come from Xois, in the W. Delta, and perhaps shows us Libyan elements penetrating into Egypt.

1 Maspero, Dawn of Civ. 447.

2 Petrie (Illahfin) thinks, with Major Brown, that the special merit of these kings consisted, not in digging basins, but in dyking off ground from the lake. The inscriptions furnish no evidence one way or the other. At present, the surface of the lake is considerably below the level of the sea. Some urge that this is due to the hollowing out of the bed, and that, in antiquity, it may have been high enough to allow use of the lake as a reservoir for the irrigation of the country with the help of sluices, as described by classical writers (Strabo, etc.). This view, however, is now more and more abandoned.

3 Recently discovered papyri seem to furnish (by a dated rising of Sirius) an exact astronomical date for Usertesen III. According to this the beginning of his reign fell between 1876 and 1873 B.C. This would assign to the i2th dynasty the period 1996-93 to 1786-83.

  • It is very questionable whether the story of the Egyptian

nobleman Se-nuhyt (spelt also Sanehat, etc.) who, under User tesen I., fled to Palestine, and as adventurer became a prince there, contains any considerable historical element. It is trans lated in KPV) 2 ii.

S See WMM, As. u. Eur. 36.

52. Hyksos.[edit]

At the height of this confusion (about 1800 B.C.?) came the foreign invasion of the so-called Hyksos (or Hykussos?), who overran Egypt easily. Much has been conjectured as to the origin of these mysterious strangers ; but nothing certain can be stated. It seems that they were not Semites (the etymology Hyk[u]-sos, shepherd-kings, is probably not from Mangtho himself), but Mitannians, Hittites, or similar intruders from Eastern Asia Minor, who conquered Syria and then Egypt. 1 The Hyksos kings Heydn, etc. (seven mutilated names in Manetho) ruled over all Egypt and northwards as far as N. Mesopotamia. Later, they permitted Upper Egypt to have its own viceroys of Egyptian blood. These viceroys of Thebes (dynasty 17, three to five kings) finally threw off the yoke of the Hyksos Apopy II. The kings Skenenre (III.?) and Ka-mes (or -mose) died (the former, it would seem, in battle) during the long war ; finally Amosis I. ( Ah- or Y ah-mose) took the last stronghold of the foreigners, their large fortress Avapis ( Ha[t~\wa ret], on the eastern frontier S. of Pelusium, somewhat after 1600 B.C. (Mahler- Petrie, 1583).

The duration of the Hyksos period is very uncertain ; it seems necessary to abandon Manfitho s corrupted traditions (500 to 800 years in three dynasties) and to estimate it at about 200 years (?). 2 The foreigners are said to have worshipped their own (?) war-god ; 3 in all other respects they were soon Egyptianised. The immigra tion of Israel has been assumed by patristic writers and many modern scholars (partly on very feeble grounds) to have occurred during their rule (under an"A7rw</>ts).

53. 18th Dynasty.[edit]

Amosis I. (see above), the founder of dynasty 18, begins the New Empire, a period in which Egypt shows her power as a conquering nation. The warlike spirit had been aroused by the long war of independence ; an army had been created ; and the country was thoroughly centralised (the hereditary monarchs having given place to royal officers). All energy turned outwards, especially towards Asia. Amosis pursued the Hyksos, and conquered Palestine and Phoenicia. Amenophis I. (Amenhotep, circa 1570 B.C. ; Mahler -Petrie, 1562) occupied Nubia again, at least to the third cataract. This king and his mother Nofret-ari (or -ere] became, later, divine protectors of a part of the necropolis of Thebes, and are, therefore, frequently painted black as divinities of the nether world. Thutmosis I. (Dhut[i]-mose; the transliteration Thothmes found in many books is not correct), circa 1560 B.C., completed the conquest of Nubia and pene trated into Syria as far as to the Euphrates. We may, however, doubt whether he gained lasting results in the North. Even during his lifetime, the princess ffa t- sepsut (or sepsewet, but not Hatasu, as was formerly read) or Makare came into power, and, after his death, she reigned, recognising her co-regents Thut mosis II. and III. 4 at best as puppets.

After her death Thutmosis III., in fierce hatred, tried to blot out her memory. Many monuments show her as a male king (with beard, etc.), a fact which has been explained perhaps too seriously. Formerly Egyptologists concluded that she had an unusually strong and active mind ; she may have been only an instrument in the hands of a court-party. She built the magnificent temple of Amon at ed-Der el-Bahrl, commemorating in it, as one of the greatest events, the sending of several ships to the divine country, the frankincense coast of Punt (cp 48).

1 The only inscription referring to their nationality (Stabl- Antar, Rec. trav. 6) states that they brought with them many ante i.e., Syrians or Palestinians but were themselves foreigners i.e., of a different race. All alleged sculptures with Hyksos portraits really belong to earlier periods : no Hyksos type has yet been found. The Kassite invasion of Babylonia hardly reached so far west. See on these questions, WMM, Mitt. I orderas. Ges. 98, p. 107^

2 If we adopt the recently proposed date for the 12th dynasty ( 50 n.) we can assign the Hyksos only about 100 years, or even less, beginning about 1680 H.C.

3 We have, however, no evidence that they tried to force this cult as a monotheism upon the Egyptians. The later tradition, that their god had the Hittite name Sutek, seems erroneous : he was nothing but the Egyptian form of Set worshipped in Auaris.

  • The succession and relationship of these three regents have

recently been much disputed. According to some, they were all children of Thutmosis I., and Ha t-sepsut, the legal heiress to the crown, was married to Thutmosis III. More probably she was the wife of Thutmosis II. and the aunt of his son (by a concubine), Thutmosis III.

54. Thutmosis III.[edit]

Thutmosis III. (who reigned alone from about 1515 B.C. [Mahler, 1480], his official 23rd year) was, of the pharaohs, the greatest warrior. He defeated an alliance of the Syrians at Megiddo and made Syria as far as the Euphrates tributary, taking Carchemish, and ravaging even north western Mesopotamia (Milan n i ; see ASSYRIA, 28, and MESOPOTAMIA). His reports of fourteen campaigns, 1 and his lists of subjugated Palestinian cities, 2 of embassies from Asiur, Sangar (middle of N. Mesopotamia), Cyprus, etc. , are valuable sources of information on ancient Western Asia. The enormous spoils and the tribute he commanded enabled him to be an active builder, especially in Karnak.

Amenophis II. (about 1485; Petrie, 1449) maintained his Syrian dominion, which n-ached to the city of Ni (on the Kuphrates or Orontes?), subduing revolts; so did Thutmosis IV., who also fought in Nubia. The latter, in consequence of a dream, dug out from the sand which covered it the great sphinx near the pyramids a pious act which was, of course, useless.

1 Translation* tf/>(l)2i 7 (doubtful); Griffith in Pctrie s History.

2 See KP) .125, but with caution. The editors are not Egyptologists. Maspcro treated parts in Trans. I ict. lust. and /.A, 1881, p. 119. The present writer hopes to publish a detailed study.

55. Amarna Tablets.[edit]

Amenophis (Amen-hotep] III. (1450?) is remarkable for the love shown by him everywhere to his fair wife Teye, a (Libyan?) woman not of royal blood. The great find of Tell el- Amarna, an archive of cuneiform tablets * containing despatches from princes of N. syria, Assyria, Babylonia, Cyprus (Alasia), and from Amenhotep's vassal-kings in Jerusalem, Megiddo, etc., gives us a wonderful insight into his diplomatic relations, and into his marriages e.g. , with two princesses of Mitanrii (Osroene, capital probably Harran) but also shows a growing neglect of his Syrian provinces, which fell to pieces under his successor. Amenophis III. built a large temple, before which were erected the famous colossal statues one of which became the singing image of Memnon of the Greeks.

56. Amenhotep IV. circa 1415.[edit]

[FIG. 11]. Amenhotep IV. Supposed head of the mask that covered the mummy (?). (After Petrie.)

As we may conclude even from his portraits (figs. 10 and 11), Amenophis IV. (i4is 2 B.C.) was no ordinary man- Being dissatisfied with the confused religion of Egypt, he had the amazing boldness to introduce the worship of the sun-disk as the only god, 3 persecuting especially the worship of Amon, whose name he tried to have erased from all monuments where it occurred. He changed his own name, in consequence, into Ahu-n-aten (or Yeh(u)-n-aten), splendour (or spirit) of the sun -disk. This great religious reform was accompanied by a revolt against the traditional conventionalism in art, which was supplanted by a bold and ugly realism. The change in religious literature is not less remarkable. The hymns now composed in praise of the Sun-god are the best productions of Egyptian religious literature. Amenophis even gave up his palaces at Amon s city of Thebes, and built a new capital (at the modern el- Amarna in Middle Egypt), called horizon of the sun-disk. All these changes met with much resistance, and hardly had he died (about 1397) when all the results of his life-work were lost. His successor, Ay, had to return to the old traditions ; the temples of the sun-disk and the monuments of the heretical king were razed to the foundations, and Egyptian religion became more than ever mummified.

[FIG. 12]. Amenhotep IV. (and his wife) worshipping the solar disk ; the rays proceeding from which end in hands. (After Krman-Lepsius.)

Amenhotep IV's son-in-law Sinenli- (others read Sa-) kn-re , the former priest ( divine father, a low rank) Ay, and Tuet- ank-amun did not reign long in this turbulent time ; f far-cut- lu bi (1380 B.C.?), formerly general and governor, established peace and a firm government. To the delight of the priests, he completed the religious reaction.

1 Best and most complete translations in KB 5 by Wi. ( 96). Knudtzon has published the results of a fresh collation of the tablets in licitr. zu Ass. 4101-154 I 991- The language of these letters is Babylonian (the pharaoh s own foreign despatches were written in this language of diplomacy), mixed with Canaanitish words or phrases ; often in a very faulty style. Some specimens of the non-Semitic languages of Mitanni and Cyprus occur.

a This approximate date, serving as a basis for our chronology of dynasties 18 and 19, is inferred from the Babylonian synchron ism (see CHRONOLOGY, g 22). BurnaburiaS II. and Amenhotep IV. seem to have come to the throne about the same time. Assyriolonists must obtain a better agreement on Burnahurias II. and Iris predecessor KadaSman-Bel. From an exclusively Kgyptological standpoint, the present writer would determine about 1380 (Petrie, 1383) as the minimum date. 1415 may be a trifle too high, but not much. Wi. s date for Burnaburias (14^6 B.C.) seems decidedly too high ; likewise Host s date (Mitt. I orderas. Ges. 2228), 1438.

3 This must not be ascribed to Asiatic influences. Although the Syrians were advanced enough to recognise the forces of nature in their gods more clearly than the Egyptians, the monotheistic idea was entirely a new creation.

[Big, highly detailed map of Egypt, goes here]

Parenthesis indicating articles that refer to the place names are in certain cases added to non-biblical names having no biblical equivalent. The alphabetical arrangement usually ignores prefixes : 'Ain' (spring), 'Bakhr' (sea), 'Bir' (well), 'Gl' (the 'Gal' ?) J. ('Jebel', mt.), Kh. ('Khirbet', 'ruin'), L. (lake), Mt. 'Medinet' (town), N. ('Nakr', river), R. (river), 'Ras' (promontory), 'Tell' (mound), W. ('wadi', valley)

Abodu, D6 Abu Gar el-Kibli, Fg tell Abu IslSmHn, Dz (EXODUS, $ IO) tell Abu Sefeh, Ez Abu Sir, Dz Abukir, CI Abutig', Dg Abydos, D6 (EGYPT, $§ 44, 5;) Aelanitic Gulf, G3, 4 Ahnas el-Medineh, C3 (HANES) Abt-aten, Cg gulf of 'Akaba, G3, 4 (EXODUS, I 4) el-Aksur, E7 Alabaster Quarries, Dg Alexandria, BI (EGYPT, 72) tell el-'Amarna, c 5 (EGYPT, 6 55) Amet, Dz Anas el-Wo&d (I.), E8 Antinopolis, D6 (Anti?), E7 Aphroditopolis Pathyris, E7 Aphroditopolis, D3 Aphroditopolis, D6 $ 68) Apollinopolis Magna, E8 Apollinopolis Parva, E7 n. 5) Apotheke? Dg 'Arab Hetam, Dg Arabat el-Madfiineh, D6 el-'Arish, FI (EGYPT, RIVER OF^ wady el-'Arish, FI, 2. Gz (EGYPT, RIVER OF Ashmunen, Cg swHn, E8 (EGYPT, 0 z) syW Ds (EGYPT, $5 3, 6) jebel 'AtBka, E3 (BAAL-ZEPHON) Atfih, D3 Athribis, Dz Aun, Dz

Babylon, D3 (EXODUS, $ 12) Bahr bel5 M51, C3, B3-7 (NILE) Bahr Yusef, C3,4,5 (EGYPT, $8 6 , so) el-BalBh (L.), Ez (EXODUS, 8 15) Ball&, E7 lake Barallus, CI (EGYPT, 5 3) tell Basta, Dz Behbit el-HigLrah, DI el-Behneseh, C4 (GOSPELS, $86) Beni-Hasan, Cg (EGYPT, § 50) Beniswef, D3 (HANES) el-Bersheh, Cg Bilbeis, Dz (GOSHEN, 5 5) Bir (Abu) Rak, Ez el-BirbH, D6 Bir es-Seba', GI (BEER-SHEBA) Bitter Lakes, Ez (EXODUS, $14 ; EGYPT, Bolbitinic Mouth, CI (EGYPT, $ 6, Bubastus, Dz (GOSHEN, $9 z, 5) Bucolic Mouth, DI (EGYPT, $ 6 , n. 5) el-Buhera, CI Bukiris. CI Busiris, D2

Cairo, Dz Canopic Mouth, CI (EGYPT, 8 6, n. 5) Canopus, CI Chenoboskion, EG Cynopolis, C4

DBhtSd, E9 (EGYPT, $ 37) Dahshur, D3 Dakke, E9 (EGYPT, $ 37) Damanhur, CI Damietta, DI Damyat, DI Daphnae, Ez (EXODUS, § 13) (Darius Stele), Ez tell Defennii, Ez Dendereh, E6 ed-Der el-Bahri, E7 (EGYPT, 8 53) Deshasha, C4 (EcurJr, $ 47, n. z) Dime-n-Hor, CI Diniii, C3 Dionysias, C3 Diospolis Magna. E7 Diospolis Parva, E6 Dodeca Schenus, E9 Jebel DokhBn, FS (EGYPT, 8 3) Du-kau, D6

Edfu, E8 (EGYPT, § 37) L. Edfu, CI (EGYPT, I 3 ) (E)hn&s, C3 Elleithyiaspolis, E7 (EGYPT, $ 4 3 ) Ekhmim, D6 Elath, G3 Elephantine, E8 (EGYPT, $3 47) Enet [teniare?], E6 Er-Mont, E7 Ernient, E7 Esneh, E~,(EGYPT. F, 37) Etbat, E8 tell Etrib, Dz tell el-Fa@a, Ez el-Faiyum, C3 (EGYPT, s 50) medinet el-Faiyum, C3 Fakus, DZ (GOSHEN, 8 3) el-Farafra, As, 6, margin (Ec, tell FaramL, Ez Farshut, E6 tell el-Ferah, Cr Fostat, D3

Gaza, GI Gazat, GI Gebelen, E7 Geziret ez-Zahir (I.), E8 J. Ghurib. E4 Ghazza, GI Iseum, DI Gizeh, D3 (EGYPT, $ 45) Gosu, C g

medinet Haba, E7 (EGYPT, $ 61) Halwan, D3 W. Hammamat, EF7 Hanesi?), C3 (HANES) Hat-hri-(e)be, Dz Ha(t)-ka-ptah, D3 Hat-nub, D5 Hat-sehein, E6 Hawara, C3 (EGYPT, $ 50) Hebet, DI Hebron, HI Heliopolis, Dz (EGYPT, I§ 14, Henen-seten, C3 Henu, E8 Herakleopolis, (1; (Hxms, ELYPT Hermonthis, E7 (ELxP~, 0 14) Hermopolis Magna, C5 (EGYPT. $ 14) Hermopolis Parva, CI yPT, 8 4) Heroonpohs, Ez (BAAL-ZEPHON) tell el-Hesy, GI (LACHISH) Hierakonpolis, Dg Hierakonpolis, E7 (EwPr, $ 47) tell el-Hir, Ez Hmunu, Cs HE, E6 Hypsele, D5

tell Ibii es-Salsm, Dz el-IbrLhiiniyeh (canal), Cg Iskanderiyeh, €31 Itfu, D6

Jerusalem, HI

el-Kab, E7 (EGYPT, 8 43) ain Kndis, Gz (KADESH, $ I) Kainepolis, E6 Kalabsheh, E9 (EGYPT, $ 3 7 ) Kal'at el-'Akaba, G3 (Di-ZAHAB) el-Karnak, E7 (EcYP1, $9 37, 54) Karun, Birket, C3 (EGYPT, § 50) Kasion, FI (EXODUS, 8 13) Kasr es-Saiyad, E6 Kasrun, RES el-, FI 49) jebel Katrina, et-tell el-Kebir, Dz Kebtby(u), E7 Kene, E6 Kertassi, E9 el-Khabsa, GI (BEKED, ISAAC, 8 I) el-Khalil, HI (HERROA) Khesout-Xois ? CI Klysma, E3 (Exouus, $ 1 1 ) el-Kom el-Ahmar, E7 Kom-el-Kulzurn, E3 Kom Omb, E8 Koptos, E7 (EGYPT, I 14) el-Koseir, G6 old Koseir, G6 Krokodilopolis-Arsinoe, C3 Kuft, E7 el-Kurneh, E7 (EGYPT, $ 37) Kus, E7 Kusae, C5 el-Kuyiyeh, C5

el-Lahun, CD3 (EGYPT, § 49) Latopolis, E7 Leontonpolis, Dz (EGYPT, 5 72) Letopolis, Dz Limns, C3 Lisht, U3 (EGYPT, $ 49) Luxor, E7 (EGYPT, $ 37) Lykopolis. Dg

Wady Maghara, F3, 4 (EGYPT, 5 45) bir Maktal, Ez Mandesic Mouth, EI Net, E7 L. Mareotis, BI (ALEXANDRIA, 0 I) jebel Maryam, E2 (EXODUS, 0 IS) bahr Maryiit, BI (EGYPT, 0 3) tell el-Mashusa, Ez (EXODUS, 8, 1O ; GOSHEN 1, 4) Mer el-Kahireh, Dz On, Dz el Matarteb, Dz Medum, D3 (EGYPT, 8 45) Mellawi, C3 Memphis, D3 (EGYPT, § 47) Mendes, Dz (EGYPT, $ 70) Men'et-Hufu, C5 Menfe, D3 Men-nofer, D3 el-Menshiyeh, D6 L. Meiualeh, DEI (EGYPI $ 3) Mines, Egyptian, F3 el-Minya, C1 Mit Rabeueh, D3 L. Moeris, C3 (Echr, f 50) ras Mohammed, Gg (DI-ZAHAB) el-jebel el-Mokattain, D3 (GOSHEN; EXODUS, I 12) [Moph] D3 el wady el-Mukattab, F4 el-Muntiila (Pass), Ez (EXODUS, § 12) jebel Musa, F4 (?) (Di-ZAHAB) Myos Hormos, Fg (ALEXARDRIA, I)

Nakadeh, E7 (EGYPT, 0 44) wady en-Napfin, BCz (ECIYPT, $ 3) Naucratis, c2 Nebire, Cz Nebishe, Dz Nebut, E7 (EGYPT, I 44) Nebut, E8 (see Ombos) Nefisheh, Ez (EXODUS, § IS) Nehbet, E7 (EGv~T, 43) Nehen, E7 Net, E7 No-Ammon, E7 (EGYPT, $ 14) Noph, D3 Nubt, E8 (see Ombos)

Ombos, E8 (EGYPT, §S 37, 44) On, D2 Opet, E7 Oxyrhynchus, C4

Pa-gat (Kahi-n-nab?), CI Panopolis, D6 Pathmetic Mouth, D (EGYPT, $ 6,n. 5) P-Atum, Ez (EXODUS, $ IO; GOSHEN, § 4) Pr-hbeyt, DI Pelusiac mouth, Ez Pelusiuni, Ez (EGYPT, $8 z, 52) P(e)-sapdu, Dz Phakusa Dz, (GOSHEN, 8 3) Pharbzethus, Dz Phoebe, E8 (EGYPT 27) Phe, D2 Pi-beseth' Dz Pithom-Etham, $22 (EXODUS, 8 10) P-neb-ded, Dz Port Said, EI

Pselchis, E9 Psof D6 Ptolemais Hermiu, D6 P-ubaste, Dz Pi-lak, E8

Rafah, GI Ra-hone, CD3 Rakoti, BI (ALEXANDRIA, $ 1) Ramses ? Dz (EXODUS, B 10' canal of Ramses, Dz, E2 Raphia, GI (EGYPi, I 66 a) Rapih. GI er-Rashid, CI [valley of] Rehenu, EF7 Rhinocolura, FI (EGYPT, 2, 28) Rifeh, Dg River of Egypt, F1. 2, Gz Rosetta, CI tell Rotab(e), D2 tell Rub', Dz er-Ruhebeh, GI (RERED) jebel er-Rukhham, Dg

Sa el-Hagar, Cz Sabkhet Bardarwil, EFI Saft el-Henneh, Dz (GOSHEN, $ 3 ) Sai, Cz Sais, Cz (EGYPT, $6 14, 666) Sakhi, CI Sakkarah, D3 (EGYPT, $ 46) Samalut, C4 Sari, Dz Sa'ne, Dz Sarbaj el-KhHdim, F3 Sebennytic Mouth, CI (Ewirr, 5 6.11. 5) Sebennytos, Dz (EGYPT, § 70) Sehel (I.), E8 Sehem, Cz Sei-serk, Ez Semenniid, Dz jebel Serbal, Fq S(et)-behdeti, E8 jebel Silsileh, E8 (EGYPT, § 3) Silsihs, E8 Sirbonis Lake, EFI (EXODUS, $ 13) Shedet, C3 Sheikh Hana'adik, Ez (EXODUS, 15 ; BAAL-ZEPHON) Shem, D6 Southern Opet, E7 Speos Artemidos, Cg Stabe 'Antar, C5 es-Sues, E3 (EXODUS, § 12) bir es-Sues, E3 (Suez), E3 es-Suhagiyeh (canal), Dg. 6 Suhag', D6 es-Sughra, AB4 Swenet, E8 Syene, E8 Syout, Ds

Talmis, E9 Tanis, D2 (EXODUS, 8 13 ; EGYPT, 8 6r) Tanitic Mouth, E1 Teb-nuter, D~ Tentyra, E6 jebel et-T&r, C4 Te-met, E7 Thebes, E7 (EGYPT, 56$) This, D6 (EGYPT, $ 44) Thmuis, Dz wady et-Tih D3 (EXODUS, $ 12) et-Timskh (I,.), Ez (EXODUS, $$ 14-16; Tini, D6 (EGYPT, $ 44) Tmai el-Amdid, Dz To-schei, C3 Tukh, E7 Tuku, Ez (EXODUS, $3 IO) W. et-Tumiliit, Dz (GOSHEL, $1 2, 4 , 5 ,EXODUS, § 16) Turra, D3

Usim, Dz

Vicus Judaeorum, Dz

el-Wahat el-Bahriye or es-Sughra, AB4 (EGYPT, 4) el-Wahat el-Dakhila, AB7 (EGYPT, 4) el-Wahat el-Kharija, C7 (EGYPT, 4) Weset, E7

Yebu, E8 tell el-Yehiid. Dz tell el-Yehudiyeh, Dz

jebel Zabora, G8 (EGYPT, B 3) Zoan, Dz (EXODUS, 8 13 ; EGYPT, 8 6r)

57. Dyn. 19[edit]

With Ramses (Ra messu) I. we begin dynasty 19 (about 1355 ; Petrie, 1327). Sethos I. (often called Setil, Egyptian Set y X 35 B-C-). like his father, did not reign very long ; but he was active as a builder (Abydos, Thebes) and in foreign politics. He drove nomadic tribes (re minding one of the Midianites and Amalekites of the OT) away from S. Palestine, and tried to regain Middle Syria. The Hittites (Heta of the Egyptians, Hatte of the Assyrians) from E. Asia Minor (Cappadocia) had conquered N. Syria, beginning in the reign of Amenophis IV. when "Egypt was too weak to resist them.

58. Rameses II. circa 1340-1273.[edit]

Their influence reached even to Palestine, and Sethos became entangled with them in a war, waged in the Lebanon region south of Kadesh. This war was taken up more energetically by his son Ram(e)ses II. (Sesostris, circa 1340-12736.0.; see figs. 6, 12, and 4). He reconquered Phoenicia as far as Beirut in his second year, and in his fifth at tacked the most important city of central Syria Kadesh in the Amorite country (i.e. , near the N. end of the Lebanon , on the Orontes). His victory there over the Hittite force of war-chariots became (greatly exaggerated) the subject of many pictures and inscriptions (on the epic, see above, 25), because the king was (against his will) personally engaged in the fight. The war went on, however, till his twenty-first year, and Egypt was not always victorious otherwise all Palestine would not have revolted. Ramses had to take the strong mountain-cities of Galilee (year 8), to punish the territory of Ephraim add Dan, and even to storm Askaluna (Askelon) and Gezer in the S. The treaty of peace (engraved upon a silver plate and preserved in a copy) was, however, favourable, leaving Palestine (inscriptions of Ramses have lately been found east of the Jordan) 1 and half of Phoenicia to Egypt. Ramses married a daughter of Hetaser the great king of the Hittites. The rest of his long reign (sixty-seven years altogether) was peaceful. The conquests from Scythia to India, therefore, ascribed to him (Sesostris) by the Greeks, are pure fiction - a mere inference from his many buildings.

[FIG.13]. Mummy of Ramses II. After a photograph.

As a builder (temples of Luxor, the Ramesseum, Abydos, etc. ) Ramses surpassed all other pharaohs, although the amazing multitude of monuments bearing his name is largely due to his erasure of the names of the ancient builders and usurpation of their works. Nubia also, which as far as Ben-Naga, S. of Khartum, had long before his time become an Egyptian pro vince, was favoured with many constructions e.g. , the huge rock-temple at Abu-Simbel (see fig. 7). The special favour of this great king, however, was directed towards the land of Rameses or Goshen (see GOSHEN, i. 4). This desert-valley, which was formerly reached only very irregularly by the Nile, he rendered fruitful by a canal, colonised it (with Syrians, too, and among them the Apuri, frequently alleged to have been Hebrews), and built several cities in it, including a royal residence, the city of Rameses. Thus he would seem to be, according to Ex. In, the pharaoh of the oppression ; and his son Menephthes (Me\r~\neptah , see fig. 13; about 1273 B.C.) has, thus far, been generally assumed to be the pharaoh of the Exodus.

1 The so-called stone of Job, ZDPV, 92, p. 206, ZA, 31 100 ( 93). An Egyptian officer worshipped a Canaanitish goddess (called approximately .7-aa(?)-2(or f)apant) on this spot.

59. Israel.[edit]

The recent discovery of Meneptah s inscriptions mentioning Israel as defeated, and evidently dwelling in Palestine, makes this view very questionable. It is the opinion of the present writer that any chronological system of the Exodus must, at least, sacrifice Ex. 1:11 (Pithom and Raamses), which might be a gloss, and other details. Attempts to discover the name of Moses (the alleged Mesu ) in the time of Rameses II. have failed. There are indications that the Israelitish nation or, at least, some tribes e.g., ASHER (q. v. , i) were resident in Palestine at the beginning of dynasty 19, perhaps earlier (cp ISRAEL, 2). It must be left to future excavations to determine how far the biblical accounts need a critical revision, and whether the Exodus can be referred to earlier periods. 1 That the Habiri of the Amarna tablets (under Amenophis III. and IV., see above, SSf ) are identical with the immigrating Hebrews does not, however, seem to be satisfactorily proved (cp ISRAEL, 3).

60. Meneptah.[edit]

[FIG. 14]. Head of Meneptah, from a bas-relief at Thebes. After Lepsius.

Me(r)neptah had for long to fight hard both with Libyans, who plundered the western part of the Delta, and with pirates who ravaged the coasts of Egypt and Syria. Finally these pirates from Asia Minor (Shakarusa and Luku i.e. , Lycians) and Europe (Sardena, Akaiwasa and Tur(u)sa i.e. , Sardinians, Achasans, and Etruscans,) 2 joined the Libyans and marched against Memphis, in sight of which they met with a crushing defeat. 3

The reigns of kings Sethos II., Aiiten-inesse, Meneptah If. or Siptah were short and inglorious. One of them is called a Syrian usurper, which points to his being a royal officer who had originally been a Syrian slave or mercenary. Perhaps the reference is to Meneptah II., who became king by marrying queen T-usoret. After years of anarchy, dynasty 20 united the country again, under King Setnaht(e) and his son Ram(e)ses III.

61. Rameses III., etc. circa 1200.[edit]

Ram(e)ses III. (somewhat before 1200 B.C.) cleared the Western Delta of the Libyans, who had settled there. Several attacks were repelled, the Syrian provinces maintained, and the territory of the "Amorites and of petty Hittite kings N. of Palestine ravaged. (The great kingdom of the Hittites had broken up.) He fought also against the piratical Pulaste or Philistines who had settled in Palestine 4 (in the territory of the Avvim, Dt. 223), and ravaged Phoenicia as well as the Egyptian coasts.

Ramses III. sought to imitate also the architectural achieve ments of Ramses II. during his reign of thirty-two years; but his buildings (especially Medlnet Habu in Western Thebes) cannot be compared with those of his predecessor. The kings who followed Ram(e)ses IV. -XI I., the so-called Ramessides were short-lived and weak rulers (they ruled hardly over eighty years).

The Egyptian possessions in Syria were lost. For 400 or 500 years, with small intermissions, Palestine had been tributary to the pharaohs, and Egyptian garrisons had occupied several fortified cities (e.g. , Zaratuna ; see ZARETHAN). It must not, however, be assumed that this loose relation influenced the in habitants of Palestine in any considerable measure. The Egyptians did not often interfere in the continual feuds of the many petty kings. For evidence of this and the unsafe character of the land, see the Amarna letters.

1 Manetho s Exodus-narrative is a worthless distortion of the Hebrew account.

2 The DTH of Gen. 102 (read D1in> Turs). They are no where else mentioned in MT. [Perhaps, however, the name originally stood also in Ezek. 38 2 39 i. See ROSH, 1.]

3 Me(r)neptah s wars with Palestinian revolters do not seem to have been important. The Israel inscription speaks of Ashkelon, Gezer, and Yenu ama. The last mentioned place seems to have been in S. Lebanon (but cp JANOAH, 2). There is another new text (A*, trav. 17 159), which speaks of him, as forcing down Gezer. This looks as if S. Palestine was at the head of a rebellion against the Egyptian dominion.

4 See now MVG, 1900, i.

A fact of importance for the Exodus question is that the Apuri, for whom a connection with the Hebrews (nay "ny) has so often been claimed, still appear in great numbers in Egypt under these kings. Under Ram(e)ses III. they inhabited whole towns near Heliopolis i.e. , at the western opening of Goshen. The last word on this question has, evidently, still to be said, and it is not safe to decide either for or against the Hebrew records.

In this period, the paupers of Thebes began systematically to plunder the royal tombs, as is shown by many documents referring to spoliations and the measures taken to repress them.

The weakness of the later kings was largely due to the fact that the temples had amassed an unreasonable amount of property by bequests the high priest of Amon possessed such a large part of the country, owing chiefly to the liberality of Ram(e)ses III., that he surpassed the pharaoh in wealth. 1 This led finally to the deposition of Ram(e)ses XII. by the high priest Herihor (about 1 100 B. C. or somewhat later), who himself assumed the crown. 2

62. Dyn. 21.[edit]

Herihor, however, was not able to maintain it ; and king Smendes (Nes-bi-n-dedi) of Tanis (Zoan, Egyptian Sa'ne) founded a new dynasty, the twenty -first (seven kings, some 130 years), about 1090 B.C. These princes were prudent enough to give the important office of the Theban high priest to their own sons. Nevertheless, the Tanitic dynasty was not strong.

By these kings, all that remained of the mummies of the kings of dynasties 18-20 were finally hidden in the hole near Der-e!-bahri where they were discovered in 1881 so powerless were they to protect the royal necropolis. To their prudence we thus owe the preservation of the bodies of Ram(e)ses II. and III., Thutmosis III., etc. 3

After the time of Ramses III. the immigration of Libyans began again, and Libyan mercenary troops had now become so numerous that the generals of the Masawasa (a Libyan tribe) came next to the king in power.

1 For a suppressed rebellion of the high priest against Uam(e)ses IX. or his predecessors, see Spiegelberg, Rec. Trav. Wot.

2 The papyrus GolenischefT (WMM As. u. Eur. 395) reports the adventures of an embassy sent by Herihor to king Zakarba al uf Byblus (to buy Lebanon wood ), which visited also Dor, Tyre, and the queen of Cyprus. [See nowAVc. trav. 276, Mi G, 1900.]

3 On this great find see Maspero, Les Mommies royales, 1889, frlfm. Uliss. I- ran(. i. pt. 4.

63. Shoshenk. circa 950.[edit]

About 950, one family of Libyan officers had become so influential (also by intermarriage with the high priests of Memphis) that they could venture to put one of themselves upon the throne, Shoshenk I. This pharaoh, the contemporary of Solomon and his son (see SHISHAK), who reigned at least twenty-one years, was more energetic, and again exercised influence upon Syria. He seems to have assisted Israel against the Philistines, who evidently still raided the Egyptian coasts (see i K.. 9i6 and cp DAVID, 7); possibly he was the pharaoh (it was hardly his predecessor P-sii-(ia-m-ni or Psusennes II. ) who gave his daughter to Solomon as wife (see, however, GEZKR, i). A less friendly attitude is shown in i K. 11 18 (but see HADAD i. ,3; TAHPENES) ; and after the division of Solomon s empire he made an expedition against both Judah and Israel (perhaps to secure the throne to Jeroboam?), an expedition recorded in i K. 14zs and on the monuments of Karnak (see the extract given in Fig. 14). Cp SHISHAK.

[FIG. 15]. One line from Sosenk s list of Palestinian places on a wall of the great temple at Karnak. After Lepsius. The names (nos. 14-31) read thus :

14 Ta an(a)kfi (TAANACH), 15 Shanema (SHUNEM), 16 Biti-sanra, 17 Ruhaba (REHOB), 18 Hapuruma (HAPHAKAIM), 19 Ad(e)rumam (?), 20 . . ., 21 Shawad(i), 22 Mahan(ai)ma, 23 K(e)ba ana (GIBBON), 24 Biti-hwarun (BETHHORON). 25 KadfrtW Kar]t(e)m (KiRiA-

AIM), 26 A(i)yulun, 27 Mak(e)do (MF.r.mno), 28 Adir(u), 29 Yud-h(a)maruk (Yad-ham-melek?; see SHISHAK). 30. . ., 31 Ha-u-n(e)-m.

64. Dyn. 22.[edit]

It is very doubtful whether the other kings of the Libyan, or twenty-second, dynasty (from Bubastus? 1 ) retained a hold on Palestine. They bear for the most part Libyan names Sosenk (the name of four kings altogether), Osorkon (Wasarken, two or three kings), Tikel<Xore?)ti (Greek Takelothis: two kings), Pemay(one king) and the whole dynasty seems to have reigned (nominally) about 200 years. On the Zerah of Chronicles cp ZERAH, 5.

They first mark a tolerably quiet period of Egyptian history; but about 800 B.C. their dominion began to become weak. The generals commanding the large garrisons of Libyan soldiers in the great cities assumed the role of the ancient nomarchs or counts, and the pharaoh had little power over them.

65. Ethiopian Supremacy.[edit]

This weakness of the kingdom caused the Ethiopians to attack Egypt. Ethiopia (q.v. ) had been an Egyptian province down to the beginning of dynasty 21. Since that time, owing to the struggle between the secular rulers and the high priests of Thebes, it had become an independent kingdom. The kings of Napata were able to take possession of Thebes. Middle and Lower Egypt were, nominally, under the dominion of dynasty 23, the successors, or rather the contemporaries, of the last members of the twenty-second (Bubastid) 2 dynasty. Really the country was divided among about twenty petty rulers of Libyan descent. About 75o(?) B.C. the Ethiopian king P(i) anhy tried to subdue them. He met with little resistance from the nominal ruler, Osorkon III. of Bubastus ; but the prince Tefnaht(e) of Sai s, who had already subjugated central Egypt, was a formidable enemy. He submitted nominally to the Ethiopian, after the latter had taken Memphis; but the Delta remained in his hands, and Tefnaht(e) s son Bok- en-renf (Bocchoris of the Greeks) was able to extend his power again southwards. Bocchoris left the reputation of having been a great legislator (cp above, 28). The new Saitic Dynasty 24 (consisting, in Manetho, only of Bocchoris), however, was shortlived.

1 Naville, Bu/ astis, questions their being from this city.

2 Manetho seems to be wrong in calling them Tanitic. They reigned in Bubastus. His enumeration of four kings must be viewed with suspicion. The third (*aixju.ous) and the fourth (Xrjr ; read EJJT) seem to be simply the Ethiopians P anhy and his son Kseta (or Kesta), contemporaneous with dynasty 24. Consequently, only Pedubast (reigning at least nineteen years) and Osorkon III. remain, apparently belonging to a branch of dynasty 22. Their chronological relation to these kings (Sosenk IV.) is not certain.

66a. Sabako.[edit]

The Ethiopian king Sabako, the son of Kesta, invaded the country N. of Thebes, and took Bocchoris prisoner (according to one tradition he had him burned alive) about 7o6(?). Now, for the first time, the Palestinians and Phoenicians, who observed the approaching Assyrian colossus with growing anxiety, saw in the new dynasty of Egypt (25th) a power equal to the Assyrian, to which they could appeal fur help. 1 On . the ambassadors sent by Hoshea (to the governor of Lower Egypt), and on the governor Seve, who appeared in Syria to asbi.it king Hanno ( Hanunu) of Gaza, but was defeated at Raphia, S. of Gaza (ISRAEL, 34, SARGON), see, however, SO.

66b. Taharko 691.[edit]

About 696 Sabako :i seems to have been followed by Sabatako (the Sebichos of Mantho?), who in 691 was supplanted by the usurper T(a)harko (see TIRHAKAH) in Napata. At first the new king was compelled to be passive as far as northern affairs were concerned. This was the time of the revolt of the Philistines and of Hezekiah from Assyria (702) ; see ISRAEL, 34. Whether the kings of Musri who came in 701 to save Ekron from the Assyrians and met with a complete defeat at Altaku (Eltekeh) were Ethiopian vassals from the Delta (or Arabs ?) is again doubtful. On the plague in Sen nacherib s army, by which, according to 2 K. 19 35, Jerusalem, and consequently also Egypt, were saved, and on the distorted Egyptian tradition in Herodotus (2i4i), see HEZEKIAH, 2. The tranquillity of Egypt, however, was soon to be disturbed. In 671 or 670 B.C. , after Taharko had instigated the Phoenicians (Baal of Tyre) to a new but fruitless revolt, the Assyrian king Esarhaddon marched against Egypt ; in his passage through the arid desert west of the brook of Egypt, which always formed Egypt s best protection, he was supplied with water by the Arabs. It seems that an earlier attack upon Egypt (in 673) had failed. Now, however, the Assyrians had a complete success. Taharko was driven into Nubia ; Memphis was stormed ; and Egypt was parcelled out among twenty kings, descend ants of those Libyan nobles whom we have already met ( 63^). Among them Necho (Niku) of Sa i s, of the family of the princes forming the twenty-fourth dynasty, again stood first. Thus ManCtho dates the twenty- sixth dynasty even from his grandfather Stephinates ( =Tefnahte; see 65). Taharko invaded Egypt again about 669 or 668 (see TlEHAKAH), and his nephew and successor Tan(u)tamon (in cuneiform writing Tan- damani, not Urdamani) in 667 ; * but the Assyrians on both occasions maintained the Delta, quelled revolts of the Egyptians in Sai s, Mendes, and Tanis, and finally drove the Cushites back to Nubia. The reason was that the Ethiopian kingdom alone, with its scanty population, was unable to raise armies equal to those of Assyria, as it had always been powerless against united Egypt.

1 Whether the 1000 soldiers from Musri, who assisted the allied Syrian powers at Karkar in 854, were Egyptians (sent by Sosenk II.?) is, however, very questionable; later, the small kingdoms had no power to meddle in Syria. See MIZKAIM, 8 2 (a\

2 Wi. Ml G, 1891, p. 28, assumes with probability that the governor Sili i-So represented an Arab kingdom. The usual chronology (Sabako 728, T(a)harko 704) is certainly improbable.

! The chronology is not clear in every detail. (Cp Wi. Unters. 91 jff. and see CHRONOLOGY, at).

4 Wi. AOf ltfi.

5 The name is written -]E rDB. with Aramaic letters (CfS 2 no. 148). It isof Libyan(not Ethiopian) derivation. Onthealleged intermarriages between the Sa ites and the Ethiopians see ZA 35 29 [ 97].

67. Psametik. circa 660.[edit]

Necho s son Psa(m)etik (Psammetichus) 5 began his reign (663) as a vassal of the Assyrian king Asur-bani-pal. It may have been about 660 (but this is uncertain) that he felt strong enough to renounce his allegiance. As syria was, in fact, sinking. The rival kings, the Dodecarchs of Herodotus, had, of course, been previously subjugated by him, with the help (it would seem) of Carian troops, sent to him, perhaps, by Gyges of Lydia. ] He strengthened unmilitary Egypt by introducing a great quantity of Greek and Carian mercenaries. The terrible Cimmerian invasion was warded off by bribes and presents (about 620?).

68. Necho II. 609.[edit]

The new (26th) dynasty is a period remarkable for the revival of art (largely following archaistic tendencies) and architecture. In general, this last period of Egyptian independence seems to have been flourishing. The days of Egypt as a conquering power, were, how ever, past. Nekau or Neko II. (the Pharaoh-Necoh of 2 K. 28:29), who succeeded Psammetik in 609, tried to profit by the distress of the Assyrian empire during the ravages of the northern barbarians (see ASSYRIA, 34). It was easy for Necho to occupy Syria as far as the Euphrates in 608. On his victories over king Josiah 2 (and the Assyrian governors), and on the taxation which followed the victory, see JOSIAH i, 2/ ; JEHOIAKIM. The Egyptian conquest, however, lasted only to 604. Defeated at Carchemish by Nebuchadrezzar, the Egyptians were driven back for good (2 K. 24?), and had no better policy than that of first instigating the Syrians to rebel, and then letting them suffer through Egypt s remissness.

The most important construction undertaken by Necho was his digging the canal (completed : not, as Herodotus believed, abandoned) through Goshen to the Red Sea, partly on the track of the canal which Ramses II. had led from the Nile only to the Bitter Lakes. In connection with this, he sent Phoenician ships to circumnavigate Africa. He was followed by his less energetic son Psam(m)etik II. 594-588 B.C. Whether the second or the first Psammelik led an expedition against the weak Ethiopian kingdom is uncertain (Greek inscriptions at Abu Simbel).3

69. Apries. 588-569.[edit]

Apries(Uah-eb-re ), 588-569, took the last active steps to check the Babylonians, by aiding the Tyrians and the Jews in their resistance to Nebuchadrezzar (cp BABYLONIA, 66). An interruption was thus caused in the siege of Jerusalem (Jer. 37s). The revolt against GEDALIAH (q.v. , i) also must have been instigated from Egypt, whither so many Jews fled. From a fragment of his records it would appear that Nebuchadrezzar was still at war with the Egyptians in his thirty-seventh year (568-567). Whether he attacked Egypt herself is not quite certain ; 4 at any rate, the expectation of the prophets that he would punish faithless and insolent Egypt was not fulfilled in the measure expected. Defeated and humbled everywhere, Egypt maintained her independ ence. One more reign has to be chronicled, and then follows the catastrophe. Amasis II. ( Ahmose), who dethroned Apries 1 in 569, was a man of low birth, who obtained the crown through a rising of the native warriors against the Greek mercenaries. Amasis placed restrictions both on the mercenaries and on Greek commerce, but very prudently left Naucratis to the Greek merchants as a port and settlement. He closed a prosperous reign in 526, and was succeeded by his son Psammetik III., who did not reign one full year.

1 That he besieged Azotus (Ashdod ?) in Philistia for twenty- nine years (Herod. -157) is a statement of very suspicious character.

- At present the preference is mostly given to the Magdolun of Herodotus (2159) over the Megiddo of the Hebrew text (Wi. and already Mannert and Rosenmiiller). At any rate, Migdal could not be the Egyptian town. Josiah was unable to penetrate through Idumaea and the desert and to invade Palestinian Migdals, -probably the Migdal-gad of Judiea in the plain. See, however, the present writer's essay in MVG 1898, p. 163. Josiah fought (it would seem) at Megiddo a; subject of the Assyrian governor.

3 The report of the migration of 240,000 (!) warriors to Ethiopia under Psammejik I. must be greatly exaggerated (Herod. 2 30). Still, desertions on a moderate scale are known to have occurred (see 22, 228693 [ 84]; the garrison of Elephantine, for example, deserted to a port on the Red Sea under Apries). The Sembridre, mentioned by Greek writers as living near Khartiim do not seem to have been EEvDtian colonists (rather Kushiti: Hamites).

4 The fragment (published by Pinches, TSBA 7 218; better by Strassmaier, NabucJwdonossor, 194) has been discussed in greatest detail by Wi. (AOF\ 511). It seems to speak only of the preparations for war by king (Am)asu. The hypothesis of Wiedemann (Gesc/i. Aeg. von Psamntetich /. etc., 169), that Nebuchadrezzar conquered Egypt as far as Syene, is now generally rejected (cp Maspero, ZA, 2287-90, Brugscb, ib. 93-97 [ 84])-

70. Persians.[edit]

In 525, after the battle of Pelusium, Cambyses con quered Egypt. Apart from the (possibly unhistorical) cruelties of Cambyses, the treatment of the province of Egypt by the Persians was at first not unfair. In particular, Darius I. (521- 486) built temples (the largest in the S. Oasis, which he or Cambyses? seems to have conquered); he repaired Necho s canal to the Red Sea, in order to make Egypt more accessible. Under Xerxes (see AHASUERUS, i) the Libyan class of warriors, led by Khab(b)ash, rebelled for the first time in 487, and drove the Persians from Egypt. They could not, however, long hold out against Xerxes ; the country was again reduced to submission. A new revolution was set on foot (460-450) by Inarus, a Libyan of Marea (near Alexandria), who was aided by the Athenians. A more successful rebellion was that of Amyrtceus in 404, which made Egypt independent down to 342. This period was filled not only with hard fighting against the Persians (Artaxerxes II. Mnemon [405-362] and III. [362-338]), who continually tried to win Egypt back, but also with internal discord. Three dynasties (28-30 ; from Tanis, Mendes, and Sebennytus), and at least nine kings, of whom only Nectanebus I. (better -nebis ; Egyptian Neht-har-heb) and Nectanebus II. (Nehte-nebf) are remarkable, are mentioned. The Greek soldiers constantly made their influence felt, and showed their bad faith during these troublous times. Because of the incapacity of Nectanebus II. 2 (360-343), Artaxerxes III. Ochus (362-338) conquered Egypt again, and punished her cruelly.

71. Greeks.[edit]

It is not surprising that the destroyer of the Persian Empire, Alexander (336-323), was welcomed in Egypt (332 B.C.) as a deliverer. The history of Egypt after Ptolemy I. the son of Lagus had in 305 become a king instead of a Macedonian governor or hsatrapan i.e., satrap (as he is styled in an Egyptian inscription of 314 B.C.) belongs to that of the Hellenistic world. Under the Macedonian kings or Ptolemies, 3 the Egyptians were perhaps less op pressed than they were under the later Persians ; but as a class they were always treated as inferior in legal position to Macedonians and Greeks. They were never, therefore, completely Hellenised. They were also severely taxed. The great contrast between the native people and the foreign rulers who, for the most part, did not condescend even to learn the language of their subjects, and from Alexandria, their Hellenic capital, followed anything but an Egyptian policy was but little mitigated during the rule of this last dynasty. Hence the various revolts.

The great revolution of the native soldier-class against Ptolemies IV. and V. deserves special mention. It lasted twenty years (206-186) and, for the last time, placed nominal kings of Kgyptian speech on the throne of the ancient pharaohs. Those who held their ground the longest ruled in the Thebaid. This revolution was quenched in torrents of blood in 186 B.C. As a punish ment for assistance sent by the Ethiopians to the rebels, the N. of Nubia was occupied. Previously, the kingdom of Meroe (Napata was abandoned as capital some time before) had been on good terms with the Ptolemies ; economically weak, it naturally fell under Egyptian influence.

1 The theory that the battle at Momemphis only forced Apries to accept Amasis as co-regent (Wiedemann, Gesch. A eg. von Psam. 120) is successfully attacked by Piehl, ZA 28g [ go].

2 Said to have fled to Ethiopia. Cp, however (on his tomb near Memphis), Rec. trav. 10 142.

3 On the succession and chronology of the Ptolemies, see below, 73 ; Mahaffy, The Empire of the Ptolemies, 1895 ; Petrie, Hist, v.; Strack, Die Dynastic der Ptolemiier^i).


72. Jews.[edit]

Ptolemy II. caused a marvellous development of the trade on the Red Sea, exploring and colonising the African coasts. The growing commercial importance of Egypt increased the immigration of Jews and Samaritans. They gathered especially at Alexandria and on the Eastern frontier, in the ancient Goshen. 1 Under Ptolemy VI. they even built at Leontopolis a great Jewish temple (see DISPERSION, 8). In Alexandria they became strongly Hellenised : hence the Alexandrian version of the Scriptures ; hence too the gnostic tendencies in Judaism. See ALEXANDRIA, 2 ; DISPERSION, 7, 15^ ; HELLENISM, 10 ; TEXT.

The Ptolemies possessed Palestine from 320 down to 198 B.C., when Ptolemy V. Epiphanes lost it to Antiochus III., the Great, of Syria, Already his father had defended it against the Syrians with difficulty, and had kept it only by winning the battle of Raphia (216 B.C.), whilst Ptolemy III. Euergetes had been able to conquer the whole Syrian empire for a short time in 238.

73. Ptolemies.[edit]

The succession is as follows : Ptolemy I. Soter (323-284). Ptolemy II. Philadelphus (so called because, after the Egyptian custom, he married his own sister Arsinoe), to whom the exploration of Eastern Africa was due (285-247). Ptolemy III. Euergetes, the husband of the famous Berenike (a princess of Cyrene), the conqueror among the Ptolemies (247-222). Ptolemy IV. Philopator (222-205) waged war with Antiochus the Great. It was under this dissolute, cruel, and incompetent ruler that the great revolution began. Ptolemy V. Epiphanes came to the throne at the age of five, in 205, under the tutorship of the dissolute Agathocles. After the murder of his guardian by the Alexandrian mob, other generals held the post.* The Asiatic provinces were all lost, although Ptolemy retained their revenue by marrying Cleopatra, the daughter of Antiochus III., the Great, of Syria. After subjugating the rebellious Egyptians, Ptolemy became more and more dissolute ; he was poisoned while preparing war against the Syrians. Ptolemy VII. 3 Philometor (181-146) was a nobler personality, but unfortunate. Antiochus IV. Epiphanes, of Syria, took him captive at Pelusium, and would have conquered Egypt had it not been for the brusque intervention of the Romans (171). Ptolemy Philo metor had to accept as co-regent his younger brother (Euergetes, ironically called Kakergetes or Physcon), by whom he was exiled in 163 ; the Romans, however, brought him back. The ambitious Euergetes became the ruler of Cyrene. After the death of his brother Philometor (killed while intervening in the struggles of Syrian princes) and after the short reign of Ptolemy VIII. Neos Philopator, the restless Euergetes came back to Egypt as king. In 130, however, he was expelled, and his wife Cleopatra (widow and sister of Philometor) assumed the supreme power. In 127 Euergetes (Ptol. IX.) returned from Cyprus. After his death (117) ensued a long period of ceaseless struggle, which strengthened the influence of Rome. Ptolemy X. Soter II. ruled from 1 17-81, his brother Ptol. XI. Alexander I. (against him) 106-88, Ptol. XII. Alexander II. 81-80, Ptol. XIII. Neos Dionysps (or Auletes) 80-51. The history of all these rulers is complicated and repulsive. The famous Cleopatra ruled first with her brother Ptol. XIV. under the guardianship of the Roman senate ; ex pelled by Ptolemy in 48, she was brought back by Caesar in 47. Her younger brother Ptol. XV., co-regent 47-45, was murdered by her, and Ptol. XVI. Ctesarion, her son by Caesar, became her nominal co-regent. For ten years (41-31) she captivated the Roman triumvir Antony, and thus maintained her kingdom as a typical Ptolemaic ruler, not less able than wicked.

74. Rome.[edit]

The sea-fight at Actium and Cleopatra's tragic death brought Egypt's independence to an end. It now became a Roman province under prefects (o-Tparrryoi), and its history 4 is devoid of interest, till the Arab conquest in 640 A.D. (preceded by a Persian conquest in 619-629). Many, but insignificant, rebellions (one as early as 30-29 B.C.), chiefly directed against the excessive taxation, could be enumerated. On the popularity of Egyptian religion in Western countries, see 14.

On the introduction and. progress of Christianity, and on the Egyptian or Coptic versions of the Bible, see TEXT. In 62 Annianus was bishop of Alexandria (Mark was the legendary first bishop). The last remnants of heathenism were suppressed by Justinian (527-565) on the island of Philae, where the rapacious Ethiopian barbarians (the Blemmyans and Nobates) had maintained the worship of Isis. \v. M. M.

1 On Jewish settlers in the Fayum and the Thebaid, see Mahaffy, 86 ; on Samaritans, 178 ; on their infrequency in Memphis, 358.

- The alleged guardianship of the Roman senate does not seem to be a historical fact.

3 Here Ptolemy Eupator is inserted as sixth king in official documents. He does not seem to have reigned.

  • Compare J. G. Milne in Petrie, Hist. v. ( 98 ; very readable).



  1. See Dietrich in Merx. Archiv, 1342 ff.
  2. Repertories for Egypt in general are Jolowicz, Biblioth. Aeg. 1858-61, and Prince Ibrahim Hilmy, The Lit. of Egypt and the Sudan, 1886-88. The current literature is given in the Orientalische Bibliographie. For scientific investigations, the following journals must be consulted: Zt. f. Acg. Sprache u. Altertumskunde (Leipsic), Recueil de trav. rel. à la philol. el arch. Egypt. et Assyr. (here cited as Rec. trav.), and Rev. Egypt. (Paris), and Sphinx (Upsala). In England, scattered contributions, especially in TSBA and PSBA and Archæologia, etc. On the monuments of Egypt, the memoirs of the Mission Française au Caire, of the Egypt Exploration Fund (through which also the admirable 'Archæological Survey of Egypt' has been set on foot), and Prof. Flinders Petrie's Egypt Research Accounts, as also the Catalogue des Monuments et Inscriptions, begun recently by the Egyptian Government (edited by De Morgan), are in progress of publication. Of older works, Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Aeg. u. Aeth. (1849-58, a large and beautiful publication), Rosellini, Monumenti dell' Egitto, etc. (1842-44, faithful), Champollion, Monuments, etc. (1855-45, with Notices Manuscrits as supplement), also the publications of the Museums at London (Select Papyri, etc., ed. by Birch), Leiden (by Leemans, 1839, foll.), Berlin, Turin (Papyri by Pleyte and Rossi), Bulak (Mariette), are most useful for illustrations and inscriptions; the Descr. de l' Egypte of Napoleon's expedition is in part quite antiquated, and, generally, hardly anything earlier than Champollion continues to be of use. Philological studies very quickly become antiquated owing to the rapid progress of the young science. So far, none of the popular books on Egypt in relation to the Bible can be recommended (this is true of Brůgsch, Steininschrift und Bibehwort, 1891). Ebers, Aeg. u. die Bücker Mosis, 1868 (antiquated), was never completed. An Egyptological counterpart to KAT is promised. Here only a selection from the immense mass of literature can be made, preference often being given to the less highly specialised works, and those written in English or translated into it.
  3. Αἴγυπτος (Lat. Ægyptus) occurs first in Homer, where it denotes, as a feminine noun, the country, as a masculine, the river Nile.
  4. The mod. 'Ajlān occurs frequently to the E. of Jordan (cp Eglaim).
  5. First proposed by Brugsch, Geog. Inschriften, 17383. For the manifold senseless etymologies from Greek, Semitic, etc., see the classical dictionaries, s.v. Cp also Reihisch, SWAW 30 397 3647, 'On the names of Egypt.'
  6. It occurs in hieroglyphics only in names of foreigners, such as Ma-za-r-â — i.e., Meṣrai (Rec. de Trav. 1462). Brugsch's Dict. Geog. (1877-80) contains the names of Egypt, its divisions, cities, etc. (to be used with caution; his Geographische Inschriften, 1867, is antiquated).
  7. Absolutely unconnected with Noah's son Ham (q.v. I).