Dictionary of National Biography, 1901 supplement/Grant, Patrick (1804-1895)

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GRANT, Sir PATRICK (1804–1895), field-marshal, colonel of the royal horse guards (the Blues), governor of Chelsea Hospital, second son of Major John Grant, 97th foot, of Auchterblair, Inverness-shire, and of his wife, Anna Trapaud Grant, was born on 11 Sept. 1804. He obtained an ensigncy in the llth Bengal native infantry on 16 July 1820, and arrived in India on 6 Jan. 1821. His further commissions were dated: lieutenant, 11 July 1823; captain, 14 May 1832; brevet major, 30 April 1844; major, 15 June 1845; brevet lieutenant-colonel, 3 April 1846; brevet colonel, 2 Aug. 1850; lieutenant-colonel, 29 Aug. 1851; major-general, 28 Nov. 1854; colonel 104th foot, 30 Sept. 1862; lieutenant-general, 24 Oct. 1862; colonel Seaforth highlanders, 23 Oct. 1863; general, 19 Nov. 1870; field-marshal, 24 June 1883; colonel royal horse guards and gold-stick-in-waiting to the queen, 17 Oct. 1885.

Grant served in several native infantry regiments, was brigade-major in Oude in 1834, and in August 1836 was selected to raise the Hariana light infantry. In recognition of the efficiency of this corps he was posted by Sir Henry Fane [q.v.], commander-in-chief, on 22 Feb. 1838, to the adjutant-general's department as second assistant, was employed with Major-general Lumley, the adjutant -general, in organising for service the force on the north-west frontier in 1841, was appointed first assistant on 9 Nov. 1842, and deputy adjutant-general with the temporary rank of major on 27 Oct. 1843.

In this capacity he served under Sir Hugh (afterwards Lord) Gough [q.v.] in the Gwalior campaign at the battle of Maharajpur on 29 Dec. 1843, was mentioned in despatches for his services (London Gazette, 5 March 1844), and received the bronze star and a brevet-majority. In the Satlaj campaign of the first Sikh war Grant acted for Sir James Lumley, the adjutant-general, who was sick, at the battle of Mudki (18 Dec. 1845). He was twice severely wounded, and had his horse shot under him 'whilst urging on the infantry to the final and decisive attack of the enemy's batteries,' as mentioned in Gough's despatch of 19 Dec. (ib. 23 Feb. 1846). He was present on 21 and 22 Dec. at the battle of Firozshah and signed the returns, although incapacitated by his wounds from taking any active part. At the battle of Sobraon on 10 Feb. 1846, when still suffering from the effects of his wounds, 'nothing could surpass' his activity and intelligence in the discharge of duties, 'ever very laborious, and during this campaign overwhelming' (Gough's despatch, 13 Feb. 1846; London Gazette, 1 April 1846). Grant received the medal with three clasps, was promoted to a brevet lieutenant-colonelcy, and was made a C.B. on 3 April 1846.

On 28 March 1846 Grant was appointed adjutant-general of the Bengal army, and as such served under Gough through the Punjab campaign of the second Sikh war, took part in the battles of Chilianwala (13 Jan. 1849) and of Gujrat (21 Feb. 1849), was warmly thanked for his services in Gough's despatches of 16 Jan. and 26 Feb. 1849 (London Gazette, 24 Feb. and 3 March 1849), received the medal and two clasps, was promoted to be colonel in the army, and made aide-de-camp to the queen. Towards the end of the year and in the beginning of 1851 Grant served under Sir Charles James Napier [q. v.], the new commander-in-chief in India, against the hill tribes of the north-west frontier in the Kohat district, and received the medal and clasp.

On 25 Jan. 1856 Grant was appointed commander-in-chief of the Madras army, with the temporary rank of lieutenant-general, and on 2 Jan. 18o7 was made a K.C.B. After the outbreak of the mutiny and on the death of General the Hon. George Anson [q.v.], commander-in-chief in India, Grant was summoned to Calcutta by Lord Canning, the governor-general, to act provisionally in Anson's place. He arrived on 17 June, bringing with him Major-general Henry Havelock, who had just returned from the Persian campaign. Grant arranged the despatch of the force under Havelock to Allahabad for the relief of Cawnpore and Lucknow. Lord Can- ning had recommended to the home authorities that Grant should be confirmed in the command-in-chief in India; but Sir Colin Campbell had already been nominated, and arrived at Calcutta on 13 Aug. Grant then resumed the command at Madras, which he held until 27 Jan. 1861; he then returned home and was decorated with the grand cross of the Bath on 28 Feb. 1861. His services as temporary commander-in-chief in India at a very critical time were the subject of a warm eulogium in a despatch from the governor-general in council, which elicited an expression from the secretary of state for India of the full concurrence of the government in the statement thus placed on record.

On 15 May 1867 Grant was appointed governor and commander-in-chief of Malta, and at the end of the following year was decorated with the grand cross of St. Michael and St. George. He relinquished this government in 1872, and on 20 Feb. 1874 succeeded Lieutenant-general Sir Sydney Cotton [q. v.] as governor of the Royal Hospital, Chelsea, holding the post until his death there on 28 March 1895. He was buried with military honours at Brompton cemetery on 2 April.

Grant married first, in 1832, Jane Anne (d. 1838), daughter of William Fraser Tytler of Aldourie, Inverness-shire, and Sanquhar, Morayshire, by whom he had two sons Alexander Charles (b. 28 Feb. 1833), a colonel on the retired list; and Aldourie Patrick (b. 1835), a lieutenant in the 71st Bengal native infantry, killed in the Indian mutiny in 1857. He married, secondly, on 17 Sept. 1844, Frances Maria (d. 20 Jan. 1892), daughter of Field-marshal Viscount Gough [q. v.], by whom he had five sons.

There are two three-quarter-length portraits in oil of Grant by Mr. G. F. Watts one in uniform, in possession of the royal horse guards; the other in plain clothes, belonging to the family.

[India Office Records; Despatches; London Times, 29 March 1895; Army Lists; Gough and Innes's Sikhs and Sikh Campaigns; Thackwell's Second Sikh War; Archer's Punjab Campaign; Shadwell's Life of Lord Clyde; Marshman's Life of Havelock; Augustus Hare's Story of Two Noble Lives; Kaye's History of the Sepoy War; Malleson's History of the Indian Mutiny; private sources.]

R. H. V.