Handbook to the Primates

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ALLEN'S NATURALIST'S LIBRARY.

Edited by R. BOWDLER SHARPE, LL.D., F.L.S., etc.

A HAND-BOOK

TO THE

PRIMATES.

BY

HENRY O. FORBES, LL.D., F.Z.S., etc.,

DIRECTOR OF MUSEUMS, LIVERPOOL,

Author of "A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago,"
etc., etc., etc.

LONDON:

W. H. ALLEN & CO., LIMITED,

13, WATERLOO PLACE, S.W.

1894-97.


SYSTEMATIC INDEX.

VOLUME I. PAGE
ORDER PRIMATES 1
SUB-ORDER I. LEMUROIDEA 8
FAMILY I. CHIROMYIDÆ 14
I. Chiromys, Cuvier 14
01. madagascariensis (Gm.) 14
FAMILY II. TARSIIDÆ 18
I. Tarsius, Storr. 18
01. tarsius (Erxl.) 20, 286
02. fuscus, Fischer 21
FAMILY III. LEMURIDÆ 22
SUB-FAMILY I. LORISINÆ 24
I. Perodicticus, Bennett 26
01. calabarensis, Smith 27
02. potto (Geoffr.) 28
II. Loris, Geoffr. 31
01. gracilis, Geoffr. 31
III. Nycticebus, Geoffr. 33
01. tardigradus (Linn.) 33, 286
SUB-FAMILY II. GALAGINÆ 37
I. Galago, Geoffr. 38
01. garnetti (Ogilby) 40
02. senegalensis, Geoffr. 41
03. alleni, Waterh. 43
04. demidoffi, Fischer 44
05. monteiri, Bartlett 46
06. crassicaudata, Geoffr. 47
II. Chirogale, Geoffr. 49
01. milii, Geoffr. 50
02. melanotis, Forsyth Major 51
03. trichotis, Günth. 52
04. crossleyi, Grandid. 53
III. Microcebus, Geoffr. 54
01. minor (Gray) 55
02. myoxinus, Peters 56
03. smithii (Gray) 57
04. furcifer (Blainv.) 59
05. coquereli (Grandid.) 60
IV. Opolemur, Gray 61
01. samati (Grandid.) 62
02. thomasi, Forsyth Major 63
SUB-FAMILY III. LEMURINÆ 64
I. Lemur, Linn. 65
01. varius, Is. Geoffr. 68
02. macaco, Linn. 69
03. mongoz, Linn. 71
α. rufipes 72
β. rufifrons 72
γ. cinereiceps 72
δ. collaris 72
ε. rufus 73
ζ. nigrifrons 73
η. albifrons 73
04. nigerrimus, Scl. 73
05. albimanus, Is. Geoffr. 74
06. coronatus, Gray 75
07. rubriventer, Is. Geoffr. 76
08. catta, Linn. 76
II. Mixocebus, Peters 78
01. caniceps, Peters 78
III. Hapalemur, Is. Geoffr. 79
01. griseus (Geoffr.) 81
02. simus, Gray 82
IV. Lepidolemur, Is. Geoffr. 83
Section A.—Species Majores.
01. mustelinus, Is. Geoffr. 86
02. ruficaudatus, Grandid. 86
03. edwardsi, Forsyth Major 87
04. microdon, Forsyth Major 88
Section B.—Species Minores.
05. globiceps, Forsyth Major 89
06. grandidieri, Forsyth Major 89
07. leucopus, Forsyth Major 89
SUB-FAMILY IV. INDRISINÆ 90
I. Avahis, Jourdan 94
01. laniger (Gm.) 94
II. Propithecus, Bennett 96
01. diadema, Bennett 98
α. sericeus 99
β. edwardsi 99
02. verreauxi, Grandid. 100
α. deckeni 101
β. coquereli 102
02a. majori, Rothschild 286
03. coronatus, Milne-Edwards 102
III. Indris, Cuv. et Geoffr. 105
01. brevicaudatus, Geoffr. 105
EXTINCT LEMUROIDEA 110
FAMILY I. MEGALADAPIDÆ 112
01. Megaladapis, Forsyth Major 112
FAMILY LEMURIDÆ 22, 114
FAMILY ANAPTOMORPHIDÆ 114
01. Microchærus, Wood 115
02. Mixodectes, Cope 116
03. Cynodontomys, Cope 116
04. Omomys, Leidy 117
05. Anaptomorphus, Cope 117
FAMILY ADAPIDÆ 119
01. Adapis, Cuvier 120
02. Tomitherium, Cope 120
03. Laopithecus, Marsh 121
04. Pelycodus, Cope 121
05. Microsyops, Leidy 122
06. Hyopsodus, Leidy 123
SUB-ORDER II.—ANTHROPOIDEA 123
FAMILY I. HAPALIDÆ 129
I. Hapale, Illig. 131
01. jacchus (Linn.) 132
02. humeralifer, Geoffr. 133
03. aurita (Geoffr.) 133
04. leucopus, Günther 134
05. chrysoleuca, Wagn. 135
06. pygmæa (Spix) 135
07. melanura (Geoffr.) 136
II. Midas, Geoffr. 138
01. rosalia (Linn.) 138
02. geoffroyi (Pucher.) 139
03. œdipus (Linn.) 140
04. labiatus, Geoffr. 141
05. rufiventer, Gray 142
α. mystax, Spix 142
β. pileatus, Is. Geoffr. 143
06. weddelli, Deville 143
07. nigrifrons, Geoffr. 143
08. fuscicollis, Spix 144
09. chrysopygus (Wagner) 144
10. nigricollis, Spix 145
11. illigeri (Pucher.) 145
12. bicolor, Spix 147
13. midas (Linn.) 148
14. ursulus, Geoffr. 148
FAMILY II. CEBIDÆ 150
SUB-FAMILY I. NYCTIPITHECINÆ 152
I. Chrysothrix, Kaup 152
01. usta (Is. Geoffr.) 154
02. entomophaga (d'Orb.) 155
03. sciurea (Linn.) 156
04. œrstedi, Reinh. 158
II. Callithrix, Geoffr. 158
01. torquata (Hoffm.) 159
02. cuprea, Spix 160
03. amicta (Humb.) 161
04. cinerascens, Spix 161
05. moloch (Hoffm.) 162
06. ornata, Gray 162
07. personata, Geoffr. 163
08. nigrifrons, Spix 164
09. castaneiventris, Gray 164
10. melanochir, Neuwied 165
11. gigot, Spix 165
III. Nyctipithecus, Spix 166
01. trivirgatus (Humb.) 168
02. lemurinus, Is. Geoffr. 168
03. rufipes, Sclater 169
04. azaræ (Humb.) 170
05. felinus, Spix 170
SUB-FAMILY II. PITHECIINÆ 173
I. Brachyurus, Spix 174
01. melanocephalus (Humb.) 175
02. rubicundus, Is. Geoffr. 176
03. calvus, Is. Geoffr. 177
II. Pithecia, Geoffr. 182
01. monachus, Humb. and Bonpl. 182
02. pithecia (Linn.) 185
03. satanas (Hoffm.) 186
04. chiropotes (Humb.) 187
05. albinasa, Is. Geoffr. 188
SUB-FAMILY MYCETINÆ 189
I. Alouatta, Lacép. 192
01. seniculus, Linn. 192
02. nigra (Geoffr.) 195
03. beelzebul (L.) 197
04. ursina (Humb.) 198
05. villosa (Gray) 199
06. palliata (Gray) 202
SUB-FAMILY CEBINÆ 204
I. Cebus, Erxl. 204
01. hypoleucus (Humb.) 207
02. lunatus, F. Cuv. 208
03. flavus, Geoffr. 208
04. monachus, F. Cuv. 209
05. fatuellus (Linn.) 211
06. variegatus, Geoffr. 211
07. cirrifer, Geoffr. 212
08. robustus, Kuhl. 212
09. annellatus, Gray 213
10. albifrons (Humb.) 213
11. capucinus (Linn.) 215
12. vellerosus, Is. Geoffr. 217
13. flavescens, Gray 217
14. chrysopus, F. Cuv. 218
15. subcristatus, Gray 218
16. capillatus, Gray 219
17. azaræ, Rennger 219
18. fallax, Schl. 220
II. Lagothrix, Geoffr. 220
01. lagothrix (Humb.) 222
02. infumatus (Spix) 223
III. Brachyteles, Spix 224
01. arachnoides (Geoffr.) 226
IV. Ateles, Geoffr. 227
01. variegatus, Wagner 231
02. geoffroyi, Kuhl 233
03. rufiventris, Scl. 236
04. paniscus (Linn.) 237
05. marginatus, Kuhl 239
06. ater, F. Cuv. 241
07. grisescens, Gray 242
08. fusciceps, Gray 242
09. cucullatus, Gray 243
10. vellerosus, Gray 244
FAMILY CERCOPITHECIDÆ 249
SUB-FAMILY CERCOPITHECINÆ 252
I. Papio, Erxl. 253
01. maimon (Linn.) 258
02. leucophæus (F. Cuv.) 260
03. doguera (Pucher. and Schimp.) 262
04. porcarius (Bodd.) 263
05. babouin (Desm.) 265
06. anubis (F. Cuv. and Geoffr.) 266
07. thoth (Ogilby) 268
08. ibeanus, Thomas 269
09. sphynx (Geoffr.) 269
10. hamadryas (Linn.) 272
11. langheldi, Matschie 275
II. Theropithecus, Is. Geoffr. 276
01. gelada (Rüpp.) 276
02. obscurus, Hengl. 278
III. Cynopithecus, Is. Geoffr. 280
01. niger (Desm.) 281
VOLUME II. PAGE
SUB-FAMILY CERCOPITHECINÆ (continued), 1
IV. Macacus, Lacép., 1, 213
01. inuus (L.), 4, 213
02. arctoides, Is. Geoffr., 8
03. rufescens, Anders., 11
04. maurus, F. Cuv., 11
05. fuscatus, Blyth, 13
06. leoninus, Blyth, 14
07. nemestrinus (L.), 16
08. silenus (L.), 18
09. assamensis, McClell., 20
10. rhesus (Audeb.), 22
11. lasiotis, Gray, 25
12. tcheliensis, Milne-Edw., 26
13. sancti-johannis (Swinh.), 28
14. cyclops, Swinh., 28
15. cynomologus (L.), 31
16. pileatus (Shaw), 33
17. sinicus (L.), 35
V. Cercocebus, Geoffr., 36
01. fuliginosus, Geoffr., 37
02. collaris, Gray, 38
03. æthiops (L.), 39
04. albigena, Gray, 40
05. aterrimus, Oudem., 40
06. galeritus, Peters, 41
VI. Cercopithecus, Erxl. 41
Group I.—Cercopitheci rhinosticti 44
01. petaurista (Schreb.) 44
02. signatus, Jentink 45
03. erythrogaster, Gray 46
04. buettikoferi, Jentink 47
05. martini, Waterh. 47
06. ludio, Gray 48
07. melanogenys, Gray 49
08. stampflii, Jentink 50
09. schmidti, Matschie 50
10. nictitans (L.) 51
11. erythrotis, Waterh. 52
12. cephus (L.) 53
Group II.—Cercopitheci chloronoti 54
13. cynosurus (Scop.) 55
14. sabæus (L.) 56
15. werneri, Geoffr. 58
16. callitrichus, Is. Geoffr. 58
17. pygerythrus, F. Cuv. 60
18. tantalus, Ogilby 62
Group III.—Cercopitheci erythronoti 63
19. patas (Schreb.) 63
20. pyrrhonotus, H. and E. 64
21. rufo-viridis, Geoffr. 65
Group IV.—Cercopitheci melanochiri 66
22. mona (Schreb.) 66
23. albigularis (Sykes) 67
24. boutourlinii, Gigl. 69
25. campbelli, Waterh. 70
26. samango, Sundev. 71
27. labiatus, Geoffr. 72
28. opisthostictus, Scl. 72
29. stairsi, Scl. 73
30. moloneyi, Scl. 74
31. neglectus, Schl. 75
32. leucampyx (Fischer) 75
Group V.—Cercopitheci auriculati 76
33. grayi, Fraser 77
34. pogonias, Bennett 78
35. nigripes, Du Chaillu 78
36. wolfi, Meyer 79
Group VI.—Cercopitheci barbati 79
37. diana (L.) 79
38. palatinus, Wagn. 81
39. brazzæ, Milne-Edw. 81
Group VII.—Cercopitheci trituberculati 82
40. talapoin, Erxl. 82
SUB-FAMILY SEMNOPITHECINÆ 83
I. Colobus, Illig. 85, 214
01. verus, Van Bened. 87
02. rufomitratus, Peters 88
03. kirki, Gray 89
04. ferrugineus (Shaw) 91
05. satanas, Waterh. 93
06. ursinus, Ogilby 93
07. vellerosus (Is. Geoffr.) 94
08. angolensis, Scl. 96
09. guereza, Rüpp. 97
10. caudatus, Thomas 98
II. Semnopithecus, F. Cuv. 100, 214
01. barbii (Blyth) 102
02. pileatus, Blyth 103
03. entellus (Dufr.) 104
04. schistaceus, Hodgs. 107
05. priamus (Blyth) 108
06. hypoleucus, Blyth 110
07. johni (Fischer) 111
08. cephalopterus (Zimm.) 112
09. sabanus, Thomas 116
10. hosii, Thomas 117
11. thomasi, Collett 119
12. everetti, Thomas 120
13. cruciger, Thomas 121
14. ursinus (Blyth) 122
15. obscurus, Reid 123
16. holotephreus, Anders. 124
17. germaini, Milne-Edw. 124
18. maurus (Schreb.) 125
19. femoralis, Horsf. 126
20. rubicundus, S. Müll. 128
21. natunæ, Thomas and Hartert 129
22. phayrii (Blyth) 131
23. rutledgii, Anderson 133
24. frontatus, S. Müll. 133
25. nemæus (L.) 134
26. nigripes, Milne-Edw. 135
27. melanolophus (Raffl.) 136
28. mitratus (Esch.) 137
29. roxellanæ, Milne-Edw. 139
III. Nasalis, Geoffr. 140
01. larvatus (Wurmb.) 140
FAMILY SIMIIDÆ 143
I. Hylobates Illig. 148, 216
01. agilis, F. Cuv. 151
02. leuciscus (Schreb.) 154
α. leuciscus (Schreb.) 154
β. concolor, Schl. 155
03. leucogenys, Ogilby 158
04. lar (L.) 159
05. hoolock, Haslan. 161
06. hainanus, Thomas 164
07. syndactylus (Desm.) 166
II. Simia, L. 170, 217
01. satyrus, L. 170, 217
III. Gorilla, Is. Geoffr. 180
01. gorilla (Wyman) 180
IV. Anthropopithecus, Blainv. 187, 217
01. troglodytes (L.) 194
02. calvus (Du Chaillu) 199
FAMILY HOMINIDÆ 203, 218
I. Homo, L. 203
01. sapiens, L. 203
α. Ethiopian Race 207
β. Mongolian Race 207
γ. Caucasian Race 208
EXTINCT ANTHROPOIDEA 209
FAMILY HAPALIDÆ 210
I. Hapale, Illig. 210
01. grandis, Lund 104, 210
FAMILY CEBIDÆ 210
Sub-Family Nyctipithecinæ:
I. Protopithecus, Lund 210
01. brasiliensis, Lund 210
II. Callithrix, Geoffr. 210
01. chlorocnomys, Lund 210
02. primæva, Lund 210
Sub-Family Mycetinæ:
III. Alouatta, Lacép. 210
01. ursina (Humb.) 210
Sub-Family Cebinæ:
IV. Cebus, Erxl. 210
01. macrognathus, Lund 210
02. fatuellus (L.) 210
03. cirrifer, Geoff. 210
V. Homunculus, Amegh. 211
01. patagonicus, Amegh. 211
VI. Anthropops, Amegh. 211
01. perfectus, Amegh. 211
FAMILY CERCOPITHECIDÆ.
Sub-Family Cercopithecinæ:
I. Papio, Erxl. 212
01. sub-himalayamus (Meyer) 212
02. falconeri (Lydekker) 212
03. atlanticus, Thomas 212
II. Oreopithecus, Gerv. 212
01. bambolii, Gerv. 212
III. Macacus, Lacép. 1, 213
01. sivalensis, Lydekker 213
02. priscus 213
03. inuus, Gervais 4, 213
04. florentinus, Cocchi 213
05. suevicus, Heding. 213
06. trarensis, Pomel 213
IV. Dolichopithecus, Depéret 214
01. ruscinensis, Depéret 214
V. Mesopithecus, Wagn. 214
01. pentelici, Wagn. 214
Sub-Family Semnopithecinæ:
I. Colobus, Illig. 85, 214
01. grandævus, Fraas. 214
II. Semnopithecus, F. Cuv. 100, 215
01. monspessulanus, Gerv. 215
02. palæindicus, Lydekker 215
FAMILY SIMIIDÆ 215
I. Pliopithecus, Gerv. 215
01. antiquus, Gerv. 215
02. chantrei, Gerv. 216
II. Hylobates, Illig. 148, 216
01. leuciscus (Schieb.) 216
III. Dryopithecus, Lartet. 216
01. fontani, Lartet. 217
IV. Simia, L. 170, 217
01. satyrus, L. 170, 217
V. Anthropopithecus, Blainv. 188, 217
01. sivalensis (Lydekker) 217
FAMILY HOMINIDÆ 218
I. Homo, L. 218
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE PRIMATES 225
ALPHABETICAL INDEX 265


LIST OF PLATES.

* Additional plates taken from 2nd. edition (1896)

VOLUME I.
I. —Aye-Aye Chiromys madagascariensis.
II. —Spectral Tarsier Tarsius tarsius.
III. —Javan Slow-Loris Nycticebus tardigradus.
IV. —Allen's Galago Galago alleni.
V. —Black-eared Mouse-Lemur Chirogale melanotis.
VI. —Smith's Dwarf-Lemur Microcebus smithii.
VII. —Red-ruffed Lemur Lemur ruber.
VIII. —Grey Gentle-Lemur Hapalemur griseus.
IX. —White-footed Sportive-Lemur Lepidolemur leucopus.
X. —Woolly Avahi Avahis laniger.
XI. —Coquerel's Sifaka Propithecus coquereli.
XII. —Endrina Indris brevicaudatus.
*XIII. —White-footed Marmoset Hapale leucopus.
XIII. —Geoffroy's Tamarin Midas geoffroyi.
XIV. —Red Titi Callithrix cuprea.
XV. —Red-footed Douroucouli or Night-Monkey Nyctipithecus rufipes.
XVI. —Bald Uakari Brachyurus calvus.
XVII. —White-nosed Saki Pithecia albinasa.
XVIII. —Red Howler Alouatta senicula.
XIX. —Smooth-headed Capuchin Cebus monachus.
*XXI. —The Bonneted Capuchin Cebus subcristatus.
XX. —Humboldt's Woolly-Monkey Lagothrix lagothrix.
XXI. —Variegated Spider-Monkey Ateles variegatus.
XXII. —Drill Papio leucophæus.
*XXV. —Celebean Black Baboon Cynopithecus niger.
VOLUME II.
XXVI. —St. John's Macaque Macacus sancti-johannis.
XXVII. —White-crowned Mangabey Cercocebus æthiops.
XXVIII. —Green Guenon Cercopithecus callitrichus.
XXIX. —Boutourlini's Guenon Cercopithecus boutourlinii.
XXX. —Erxleben's Guenon Cercopithecus grayi.
XXXI. —De Brazza's Guenon Cercopithecus brazzæ.
XXXII. —Talapoin Cercopithecus talapoin.
XXXIII. —Bay Guereza Colobus ferrugineus.
XXXIV. —White-tailed Guereza Colobus caudatus.
XXXV. —Hose's Langur Semnopithecus hosii.
XXXVI. —Everett's Langur Semnopithecus everetti.
XXXVII. —Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus.
XXXVIII. —Siamang Gibbon Hylobates syndactylus.
XXXIX. —Orang-utan Simia satyrus.
XL. —Gorilla Gorilla gorilla.
XLI. —Bald Chimpanzee Anthropopithecus calvus.
XLII. Map I. Showing the distribution of Living and Fossil Lemuroidea.
XLIII. Map II. Showing the distribution of the Family Tarsiidæ, and of the Sub-family Galaginæ of the Lemuridæ.
XLIV. Map III. Showing the distribution of the Family Chiromyidæ, and of the Sub-families Lemurinæ and Indrisinæ, and of the Sub-family Lorisinæ of the Lemuridæ.
XLV. Map IV. Showing the distribution of Living and Fossil Anthropoidea.
XLVI. Map V. Showing the distribution of the Families Hapalidæ and Cebidæ.
XLVII. Map VI. Showing the distribution of the Genera Papio, Theropithecus, Cynopithecus, Cercocebus, Cercopithecus, and Macasus.
XLVIII. Map VII. Showing the distribution of the Genera Semnopithecus, Nasalis, and Colobus.
XLIX. Map VIII. Showing the distribution of the Genera Hylobates, Simia, Gorilla, and Anthropopithecus.



PREFACE TO VOLUME I.


The great increase in our knowledge of animals which has taken place since the volume on Monkeys was published in "Jardine's Naturalist's Library" some sixty years ago, cannot be better illustrated than by the fact that our excellent contributor, Dr. H. O. Forbes, has found it impossible to compress that knowledge into a single volume of the present issue. There is, moreover, no Museum which contains such a complete series of skins of the Primates, as to render a perfect "monograph" of the Order possible. Dr. Forbes has endeavoured in these volumes to bring the subject up to date, and has devoted some years of study to the two which now appear under his name, and he has had the great advantage of having seen many of the species of which these volumes treat, in a state of nature. If diligent research and patient work, combined with a sound anatomical knowledge and an acquaintance with many species of Monkeys in their natural habitat, avail anything, then these volumes should present to the student a more concise epitome of the characteristics of the Primates than any other essay yet offered to the public. It has been found impossible to reproduce any of the plates in the old "Naturalist's Library" of Jardine. They would have formed, with appropriate inscriptions, a very good instalment of a series of "Comic Natural History" volumes, as they were, in fact, nothing but a set of extraordinary caricatures of Monkeys. I have, therefore, again to acknowledge the liberality of the publishers, in adopting my suggestion that a perfectly new set of illustrations should be prepared. These have been executed by Mr. J. G. Keulemans, with a result, I hope, that will satisfy the reader.

R. BOWDLER SHARPE.



INTRODUCTION TO VOLUME I.


In the first volume will be found an account of the Lemuroidea, and the Anthropoidea as far as the group of the Macaques of the family Cercopithecidæ. The second volume continues with the latter genus, and contains the rest of the Monkeys, and the Apes, as well as a summary of the geographical distribution of the species of the Order Primates.

I have not attempted to write a complete synonymy of the species of Monkeys. The literature is scattered over many, often obscure, periodicals, and without seeing the actual specimens described by some of the older writers, it would be easy to introduce a great deal of confusion into the synonymy. I have, therefore, only attempted to give the principal references.

I must express my obligation to Dr. Günther, F.R.S., the Keeper of the Zoological Department in the British Museum, for the facilities of study afforded to me in that institution. To Mr. Oldfield Thomas I am likewise greatly indebted for much assistance, and for many a kindly hint.

Dr. Forsyth Major, who is well-known as one of the foremost authorities on the Lemurs, not only gave me valuable information as to the species and literature of the Lemuroidea, but was even so good as to furnish me with the descriptions of several new species.

Lastly, to my friend the Editor, I have to return my sincere thanks for the patience with which he has revised my MSS., and for the verification of numbers of references, only to be found in the great libraries of London, and inaccessible to an author dwelling in the provinces.

HENRY O. FORBES.



PREFACE TO VOLUME II.


The prefatory remarks in the preceding volume explain the purport of the "Hand-book" of the Primates, which has been undertaken by Dr. Forbes. I hope that the portion of the work devoted to the geographical distribution of these animals will be found to be of some interest; but, as explained by the author, the meagreness of the material in Museums renders the definition of the exact habitats of Monkeys extremely difficult.

R. BOWDLER SHARPE.



INTRODUCTION TO VOLUME II.


I have little to add to the remarks given in the first volume of this "Hand-book." I may refer, however, to the interest which attaches to the study of the extinct forms of life, in relation to those which exist at the present day. Although I have endeavoured, to the best of my ability, to present to the student as complete a review of the species of Monkeys known to us at the present time, I am well aware that there is an enormous amount of work to be done before our knowledge of the Primates can be said to be complete. There is a natural repugnance to collecting specimens of Monkeys on the part of sportsmen. To shoot one feels like killing a sort of relation, and even our best collectors, who thoroughly understood the necessity of obtaining specimens in the interests of science, speak with a feeling of pain of the human-like distress which a wounded Monkey exhibits; and it is, therefore, difficult to induce travellers to shoot animals which offer so much of a "counterfeit presentment" to human beings.

The loose way in which the older naturalists expressed themselves in regard to geographical distribution, has also rendered a correct appreciation of the ranges of some of the Primates exceedingly difficult. Thus "Brazil" may mean any portion of the South American continent from the Argentine Republic to the Amazons, and "Mexique" has done duty in many Museums for any locality between Mexico and Panama. Much, therefore, remains to be done to define the exact areas which the different species of Primates inhabit.

HENRY O. FORBES.