Historical Library/Book XIV/Chapter V

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Chapter V[edit]

The war between Cyrus and his brother Artaxerxes king of Persia. Cyrus routed. The Grecian forces in difficulty; their brave behaviour; and long and troublesome march out of Persia into Greece.

AT the end of the year Exenetus was made archon or lord chancellor of Athens, and six military tribunes, Publius Cornelius, Cæsio Fabius, Spurius Nausius, Caius Valerius, Marcus Sergius, and Junius Lucullus, executed the consular dignity at Rome. At this time Cyrus, chief of all the lord-lieutenants of the maritime provinces, now determined to prosecute the war against Artaxerxes, his brother, which he had long before been ruminating in his mind: for this young man was of a very high spirit, and much addicted to martial affairs. To this end he musters a great army of strangers, and furnishes himself with all things necessary for the expedition; but did not as yet discover to his army what he intended, but gave out that he raised an army to go against some tyrants in Cilicia who had rebelled against the king. He sent moreover an ambassador to the Lacedæmonians, to put them in mind of the services he had done them in the war against Athens, and to desire their aid in the design he had now on foot. Upon this the Lacedæmonians, conceiving this war would be to their advantage, forthwith decreed aid to be sent to Cyrus, and presently sent orders to Samus, the admiral of their fleet, to observe whatever was commanded him by Cyrus. Hereupon Samus having five-and-twenty gallies of three tier of oars under his command, with these passed over to Ephesus, to Cyrus's admiral, offering his assistance in every thing he should be commanded. The Lacedæmonians sent over, likewise, under the command of Chirosophus, eight hundred corseteers. One Tamos was admiral of the barbarian fleet, and had under his command fifty gallies well equipped. As soon as the Spartan fleet arrived, both fleets set sail, as if they intended for Cilicia.

When Cyrus had got together at Sardis the choicest soldiers of Asia, and thirteen thousand mercenaries, he made those Persians that were of his kindred, governors of Lydia and Phrygia, but the chief command of Ionia and Eolia he bestowed upon his trusty friend Tamos of Memphis. Having settled these matters, he then presently marched with his army towards Cilicia and Pisidia, a rumour being spread abroad that some of those nations had made a defection. He had out of Asia seventy thousand men, of which three thousand were horse: out of Peloponessus and other parts of Greece thirteen thousand mercenaries. Clearchus the Lacedæmonian was general of all the Peloponnesians, except the Achaians; Proxenus of the Bœotians; Socrates of the Achaians; and Menon commanded the Thessalians. The Persians led the barbarians, every one in their proper companies and regiments, and Cyrus was generalissimo; who had no discovered the design of this expedition to his officers, but wisely concealed it from the common soldiers, lest by the greatness of the attempt they should be discouraged, and so desert him. And further, considering the great journey they were to march, he took special care of the soldiers, was very familiar with every one, and made plentiful provision for them in every place.

At length having passed through Libya and Phrygia, and the countries bordering on Cilicia, they came to the borders and gates leading into Cilicia. The passage there is very strait and rugged for the space of twenty furlongs, hemmed in on either side with vast and very high and inaccessible mountains; from these mountains on both sides a wall was drawn across the passage to defend it, in which were those gates before mentioned. When his forces had passed through this way, he entered into a champaign country, inferior to none in Asia for sweetness and pleasantness: through these pleasant fields he marched to Tarsus, the largest city of Cilicia, which he easily forced to submit. When Syennesis, king of Cilicia, heard of this great army, he was greatly perplexed what to do, because he was in no condition to cope with so great a force. But being sent for by Cyrus, with promises of safe conduct, he came to him, and being acquainted with the design, promised his assistance against Artaxerxes, and straitway joined Cyrus with a small party, under the command of one of his sons: but being a crafty man, and preparing for the worst, he sent the other secretly to the king, to inform him of the great forces that were coming against him; and that though he himself, much against his will, was forced to join with Cyrus, yet he was still loyal and faithful to the king, and would fall off and return to the king's standard when he had an opportunity. In the meantime Cyrus spent twenty days in refreshing his army, and inlisting more soldiers. Then breaking up his camp, he acquainted all the common soldiers, that this expedition was intended against Artaxerxes. Upon this every one weighing the thing seriously within himself, and considering the vast length of the way they were to march, and how many enemy's nations they were to pass through, took the matter very grievously: for a rumour was spread abroad that it was four months march to Bactria, and that the king had an army of four hundred thousand men: upon which the soldiers were so transported with fear and rage, that they resolved to kill all their officers as traitors. But when Cyrus (not without many entreaties) interposed his authority, and assured them that he did not intend to lead them against the king, but against a certain governor in Syria, the mutiny ceased: and upon the increase of their pay they all returned to their former love and esteem for their general. Having now marched almost through all Cilicia, he took shipping, at arrived at last by sea at Issus, the utmost city of that country near the sea side. At the same time the Lacedæmonian fleet arrived there, and landed their men, assuring him of the friendship of the Spartans, where they delivered to Cyrus eight hundred foot, under the command of Chirosophus: they pretended that these were sent privately to Cyrus, by his friends, when in truth, all was done by the decree and order of the Ephori. For the Lacedæmonians had not as yet proclaimed open war against the king, but kept their counsels secret till they spied a fit opportunity, and how things were likely to go. Decamping from thence, Cyrus moves toward Syria, and ordered the admirals to sail along near to the shore, and attend upon him as he marched by land. When he came to the Pylæ[1] (as they are called) and found the entrance without any guard, he was much pleased; for he was full of fear lest the passes should be seized before him; for the place is naturally very narrow, and defended by craggy rocks on every side, so that it may be kept by a very few men. For thehe are two mountains that rise up on either side near one to another, the one mounting up with sharp rocks of a prodigious height, and the other called Libanus, beginning at the very entrance of the only passage that leads through these places, and runs out as far as to Phœnecia. The space lying between these two mountains is about trhee furlongswide, strongly fortified, shut up with strait and narrow gates. When Cyrus had passed through this place, he discharged the fleet, an sent it back to Ephesus; for he had no occasion to use it, being now to march through the heart of the country.

After twenty days march, he came to Thapsacus, near to the river Euphrates. After he had continued here five days, and had gained the hearts of the soldiers by plenty of provision, and rich spoils and booties, he called a council, and discovered to them his whole design. But perceiving that the army was very uneasy upon what he said, he earnestly entreated all of them that they would not now desert him, and endeavoured to pacify them, by promising, besides other rewards, a mina a-piece to every man as soon as he came to Babylon: upon which, being thus encouraged, and having their expectations raised high, they at length consented. Hereupon Cyrus passed his army over the Euphrates, and went forward without making any halt; and as soon as he came to the borders of Babylon he gave leave to his army to refresh themselves.

Artaxerxes, the king, had some time before notice given him by Pharnabazus, of the secret preparations of Cyrus against him, but now having certain intelligence of his march, he called all his forces together from every place from Ecbatana in Media; and with what force he then had, marched against Cyrus, not being willing to stay for the aids from India and other nations, who he perceived would be too long in coming up to him by reason of the great distances of the several places from whence they came. His army (as Ephorus relates) amounted to no less than four hundred thousand horse and foot.

When he came within the borders of Babylon, he encamped at the Euphrates, purposing there to leave his heavy baggage: for he knew the enemy was not far off, and therefore had just cause to fear their desparate and daring attempt: he therefore drew a trench threescore feet in breadth, and ten in depth, and barricaded it with carts and carriages as with a wall; here he left his baggage, and those that were sick and weak, with but a slender guard, but he himself with a swift march made towards the enemy, who were then near at hand.

When Cyrus saw the king's army advancing, he forthwith commanded all his army to their arms. The Lacedæmonians and some mercenaries were in the right wing, stretched out to the river Euphrates, under the command of Clearchus the Macedonian, with whom were joined above a thousand Paphlagonian horse. The left wing was commanded by Aridæus, consisting of Phrygians and Lydians, and in this were about a thousand horse more. In the middle division was Cyrus himself, with a guard for his person, consisting of the best Persian soldiers and other barbarians, to the number of ten thousand men, before whom marched as a van-guard a thousand horse gallantly accoutred, with Grecian swords and coats of mail. On the other side, Artaxerxes placed a great number of hooked chariots in front of his whole army, and, committing the two wings to the command of Persian officers, he himself remained with the main body, guarded with no less than fifty thousand choice men.

When the armies came within three furlongs one of another, the Grecians sang the Pæan, and then silently led the van; and as soon as they came within the cast of a dart, they ran in upon the enemy in great fury; for so Clearchus had ordered them, conceiving that if they fought at a great distance, their whole bodies would be marks for their enemies during all the time of the fight; whereas, if they engaged close at hand, they would be less subject to the darts and arrows of the Persians. As soon as the main body with Cyrus came up to the king's, a shower of darts and arrows like a tempest fell upon them, as great as can be imagined might be discharged by an army of fifty thousand men. But, after they had fought awhile with their darts at a distance, at length they fell to it hand to hand. The Lacedæmonians and mercenaries at the first charge routed that part of the army that opposed them, far exceeding the barbarians both in dexterity of fight and the resplendent brightness of their arms; for all the barbarians were but lightly armed, and many of the regiments were of the meanest soldiers, and the greatest part but raw and inexpert in war. The Grecians, on the contrary, by so long and continual exercise of their arms in the late Peloponnesian war, were grown very skilful and excellent soldiers; so that they put their adversaries presently to flight, and made a great slaughter of the barbarians. It so happened, that both the generals, (who were contending for the kingdom), being in the main battle on either side, and weighing how fatal the issue would be, made one against the other, purposing to decide the controversy by their own hands; and destiny seemed now to engage these two brothers in a duel, as if it had been in imitation of that ancient and stout combat between Eteocles and Polynices, so memorized by poets in their tragedies. Here Cyrus made the onset, and at a distance threw his javelin with all his force at the king, and brought him down to the ground, who was presently taken up as dead, and carried out of the fight by them that were about him. Upon this Tissaphernes, a noble Persian, steps into the king's place, encourages the soldiers, and fights valiantly himself; and endeavouring to revenge the supposed death of the king, flew about into every place with the choicest of the troop, and made a dreadful slaughter wherever he came, insomuch as his heat and extraordinary courage was taken notice of by them that were at a great distance.

Cyrus, likewise, lifted up with the success of his arms, fiercely rushes into the midst of the battle, and signalized his courage with the slaughter of many of his enemies; but rashly running himself into eminent dangers, he at length received a mortal wound from a common soldier of the Persians, and there fell down dead; upon whose fall the spirits of the royalists revived, who renewed the fight, and at last, by the number of their forces, and confidence of success, wearied out their opposers.

Aridæus, Cyrus's general and commander in the other part of the army, at the first aliantly received the charge of the barbarians; but afterwards (the wing of the enemy stretching in length far beyond him, and the rumour of the death of Cyrus coming to him, as a further discouragement), he retreated with those under his command to a post very commodious for that purpose. Clearchus, perceiving the main body of their army to be routed, and the rest ready to fly, stopped his own men in their pursuit; for he feared that if the whole army of the barbarians should fall upon the Grecians, they would be all utterly cut off. In the mean time, the body where the Persian king immediately commanded, having routed the party that engaged them, rifled Cyrus's camp. Afterwards, (it now growing towards night), in one body they made against the Greeks, who valiantly (like men of brave and generous spirits) received the charge; the barbarians did not long stand their ground, but, being worsted by the valour and dexterity of the Grecians, were presently put to flight.

Clearchus, after he had made a great slaughter among them, (it being now dark) erected a trophy, and then retired to his camp, about the time of the second watch. The battle thus ended, an account was taken of those that were slain on the king's side, which amounted to above fifteen thousand, the greatest part of whom were killed by the Lacedæmonians and mercenaries, under the command of Clearchus. On the other hand, three thousand were slain of Cyrus's army. No account is given of any of the Grecians that were slain, but only a few wounded.

The next day Aridæus, who retired to his former post (as we have before related) sent to Clearchus, to desire him to join their forces, that so they might better secure themselves by the advantage of places near to the sea-side; for Cyrus being dead, and the king's forces now victors, a terror seized the whole army, and everyone repented himself of his bold and rash attempt to depose Artaxerxes.

Hereupon Clearchus called a council of war of all the captains and officers of the army, to advise what was to be done in the present exigency of affairs. While they were in consultation, there came in to them messengers from the king, the chief of whom was one Philenus, a Grecian of the island Zacynthus. When they were introduced, they declared their message in this manner—Thus saith king Artaxerxes: Inasmuch as Cyrus is killed and I am now conqueror, lay down your arms, make haste to my gates, and consider how to appease me, that ye may find some favour. Upon these words all the officers answered, as Leonidas had done in time past when Xerxes sent to the guard at Thermopylæ to give up their arms, which was to this purpose—That if at any time after they should become Xerxes's friends, they should be more able to do him service with their arms than without them; and, if they were forced to be his enemies, they could better defend themselves in fighting against him. After Clearchus had returned this answer to the same effect, Proxemus the Theban said thus—We have now lost almost all we have, only our hearts and our arms are still our own, and as long as we keep these, we doubt not but by our courage we may be able to better our condition; but when we part with our arms, our valour is useless and unprofitable; and therefore bid them tell the king, that if he designed any attack upon them, they were ready with their arms to oppose him. Sophilus, likewise, one of the commanders, is reported to have said—That he wondered at the king's demands: for, says he, if the king thinks himself stronger than the Grecians, let him draw down his army upon us, and take our arms by force; but, if he means only to persuade us, and intends to give us thanks for the favour, let him first say so. To this Socrates the Achaian added—The king, said he, deals with us without sense or reason; for, that which he would have to be taken from us, he demands forthwith to be delivered to him, and that which we are to expect in return, we must seek for after as suppliants, by petition and entreaty. To conclude, if he be so ignorant how things stand, as that he thinks fit to command the conquerors, as if they were conquered, that he may learn the better to judge which side carries away the victory, let him set upon us with his innumerable army; but if he very well knows that we are conquerors, and yet seeks deceitfully with a lie to circumvent us, how can can we rely upon his promises for things to come?—The messengers were dismissed with these answers and so departed.

Clearchus afterwards marched with his squadron to the place where the rest of the army that escaped out of the battle were posted; and when all the forces were got together, they entered into a council of war concerning their marching back to the sea-side, and so from thence how to go on. In this consultation it was judged most adviseable not to return the same way they came; for that a great part of it was desert and barren, and the more hazardous, because the enemy would be pressing continually upon their heels. At length it was resolved, with a swift march to lead the army towards Paphlagonia, yet no so fast but that they might furnish themselves with provision in the way. But the king, as soon as he began to be healed of his wounds, and heard of the enemy's being retired, supposing that they fled, hastened after them with all speed; and, because they moved but slowly, at last he overtook them, and, night drawing on, encamped near at hand. About break of day next morning the Grecians drew up in battalia; upon which he sent messengers to them, and for that time granted to them a truce for three days; within which it was agreed that the king should suffer them to pass quietly through his country, and that he should allow them guides to the sea-side, and furnish them with provisions in their march for their money. And that all the mercenaries under the command of Clearchus and Aridæus should pass peaceably through all places, provided they committed no outrages. Upon which they commenced their journey, and the king marched back with his army to Babylon, and there rewarded them that behaved courageously in the battle; amongst whom Tissaphernes was judged the bravest man, and therefore he honoured him with many rich and princely gifts, and bestowed his daughter upon him in marriage, using him ever after as his fast and faithful friend. He made him likewise governor and lord-lieutenant of all the provinces that had been under the command of Cyrus upon the sea-coasts. But Tissaphernes perceiving that the king was irreconcilably incensed against the Grecians, promised to destroy them all if he would furnish him with an army, and he reconciled to Aridæus; for through him, he said, he should be able to circumvent all the Grecians in their journey.

This advice was very acceptable to the king, and therefore he suffered him to choose the best of the soldiers, and as many as he thought fit out of the whole army. With these in all haste he pursued the Grecians, and at length encamped not far from them, and sent messengers to them to desire that Clearchus, and the rest of the commanders would come to him and hear what he had to say to them. Upon which, almost all the colonels and captains (as became them) went along with Clearchus to Tissaphernes; and about two hundred soldiers followed after to buy provisions. Tissaphernes called all the colonels and chief officers into his tent, but the captains and other inferior officers stood without.. In a short time after, upon the putting forth a purple flag from the top of his pavilion, the commanders within were all seized, and others (appointed for that purpose) killed all the rest that stood without; and the other soldiers that came to buy victuals, were killed in every place here and there as they were found; only one made his escape to the camp, and there related the slaughter. Upon hearing of this bloody fact, the soldiers in great consternation ran in confusion to their arms, having neither general, colonel, nor almost any other officer.

When none was willing to undertake the charge, they chose several officers from amongst themselves, and fixed upon one of those to be the general, which was Chirosophus the Lacedæmonian. The army hereupon being marshalled by these officers into that order which was judged best, set forward towards Paphlagonia. Tissaphernes in the mean time, sends the general and the other officers bound in chains to Artaxerxes, who put them all to death, but only Menon, whom he released: for he was supposed to have been willing to have delivered up the Grecians, because he was angry with them for not surrendering themselves. After this horrid act, Tissapherenes and his forces pursued the Greeks, and picked up stragglers here and there, but durst never face their whole army, because he was afraid of the rage and valour of men in a desperate condition. And therefore acting upon them now and then, only in such places as he judged most for his advantage, he made no great slaughter of them, but with small and inconsiderable loss on the part of the Grecians, pursued them as far as the country of the Carduchi. But then perceiving that he was not likely to gain any advantage by attacking the enemy thus in the rear, he marches his army to Ionia.

But the Grecians spent seven days in passing over the mountains of the Carduchi, and in that time suffered very much from the inhabitants, being a warlike people, and well acquainted with the passes in those parts. They were a free people, and enemies to the king, and very good soldiers, especially skilful and experienced in hurling great stones out of slings, and shooting with bows of a vast bigness, and more than ordinary strength. These people galled the Grecians from the rising grounds, killing, and miserably wounding many of them; for their arrows, being above two cubits long, pierced both their shields and breast-plates, so that no armour could repel their force. And it said that these sort of weapons were so extraordinarily big, that the Grecians used to cast these as Saunians, instead of their thong darts.

When they had passed this country with great difficulty, they came to the river Centrities, and passed over into Armenia, which was then under the government of Teribazus, lord-lieutenant to the king of Persia, with whom they had made a league, and so passed quietly as friends through his province. But as they marched over the mountains of Armenia, the snow was so very deep, they were in danger every man of being lost. For at first, when the wind begins to rise, the snow falls but leisurely and by degrees, so that it occasions no great molestation or trouble to the travellers: but then presently the wind increasing, the snow falls so tempestuously, and on a sudden covers the ground so thick and deep, that none can possibly see before them, nor know where they are. Hence fear and terror seized upon the whole army, seeing nothing but certain destruction was behind them if they returned, and no possibility to advance forward by reason of the depth of the snow; besides, winter was then very sharp, and coming on apace, and such a tempest of wind, with a storm of hail arose, and blew like a whirlwind in their very faces, that the whole army was forced to stand still. For none being able to endure so sad and lamentable a march, every man was necessitated to abide in the place where the storm found him: and though all were in extreme want, yet they patiently endured that whole night and day the sharpness of the winter's cold, attended with all manner of uncomfortable circumstances. For all their arms were covered with snow, which fell continually in great abundance. Their bodies were stiff and benumbed with ice, (which became more sharp and biting after the air was calm and still), and so grievous were the hardships they lay under, that they took no rest all the night long. Some indeed cherished themselves with a little fire they had kindled; others had their bodies so benumbed with cold, that little hopes of life remained, having all their fingers and toes perished. When the night was over, they found most of their carriage-horses and cattle lame and useless; many men dead; and not a few there were, who, though they had some life remaining, yet, through the sharpness of the cold, their bodies were immoveable; and some were as if they were struck blind by the whiteness of the snow: and every man had certainly perished if they had not, by going a little farther, found some small villages, where there was plenty of supplies for their necessities: here the people went down underground by steps, and the cattle by other passages made through the earth; and in these little cells were stored both hay for the cattle, and great plenty of all things necessary for the support and sustenance of man's life. After they had stayed here eight days, they came at length to the river Phasis.

There they abode four days, and then passed through the country of the Chaoniti and Phasians, where being fallen upon by the inhabitants in their march, they made a great slaughter among them, and possessed themselves of their towns, which were full of provisions, and other rich booty, and there they rested fifteen days. Thence marching through the country of the Chalcidonians, in the space of seen days they arrived at the river called Harpasus, four plethora broad. From thence they marched through the plains of the Tascutians, where they had plenty of all things, and spent three days in refreshing themselves. In four days after they came to the great city called Gymnasia; here the prince of the country entered into a league with them, and allowed them guides as far as to the sea; after fifteen days journey they came to the mountain Chenius, where they that were in the van, as soon as they discerned the sea afar off, were transported in exceeding joy, and gave up so great a shout, as they that were in the rear suddenly put themselves in a posture of defence, supposing some enemy had broke in upon them; but as soon as they all came to the top of the hill, from whence they might have a prospect of the sea, they lifted up their hands, and gave thanks to the gods, as if now they were past all danger for the future. There they got together great heaps of stones, and of them raised high altars, upon which they fixed the spoils taken from the barbarians, as eternal monuments of their expedition. They bestowed a silver cup and a Persian garment upon the guide; who, pointing to them the way to the Macrones, took his leave.

After the Grecians entered the country of the Macrones, they made a league with them; in confirmation of which the Grecians received a spear from the barbarians, and gave another to them; for this was a certain pledge of the faithful observance of their leagues, received from their forefathers, as the barbarians alleged. When they had passed the mountains in these parts, they came down into the country of the Colchians, where a great body of the inhabitants came forth against them, whom the Grecians routed, and killed vast numbers of them: then possessing themselves of a hill, naturally defensible, thence they wasted the country, and bringing all the spoil thither, they plentifully refreshed themselves. In these place were multitudes of bee-hives, from whence might be had large honey-combs: but an astonishing mischief happened to them that tasted of them; for as many as eat every so little went presently mad, and lay upon the ground as if they were dead. And because many fed themselves with these combs, a great multitude lay up and down, here and there, as if they had been slain in a field of battle. This was a very sad day to the whole army, being amazed with the strangeness of the thing, and the number of those that lay grovelling upon the ground. But the next day, about the same hour, all came to themselves again, and rose up of sound and perfect mind, and found themselves in no other condition than as if health and strength had been restored to them by drinking of a medicinal potion. Being thus recovered, three days after, they came to Trapezus, a Greek city. This is a colony of Sinopians, and belonging to the Colchians: here they continued thirty days, being bountifully entertained by citizens, and there sacrificed to Hercules and to Jupiter Soter, and celebrated the Gymnic games. It is the common fame, that the ship Argos, with Jason and his companions, arrived here. Hence Chirosophus, the general, was sent to Byzantium to procure shipping to convey them thither; for he and Anaxibius, the Byzantine admiral, were accounted intimate and special friends; thither, therefore, he speedily sails. The Grecians in the mean time being furnished with two small vessels at Trapezus, made incursions both by sea and land upon the neighbouring barbarians. Thirty days they had waited for the return of Chirosophus; but hestaying longer than they expected, and their provisions now growing scanty, they departed from thence, and after three days arrived at Cerasus, which is likewise a Grecian city, built by the Sinopians. After they had staid here a few days, they marched into the country of the Mosynæci, but here they were assailed by the inhabitants in great bodies, and in an engagement killed a great number; those that escaped fled to a town they inhabited, defended by wooden towers, with seven stories of chambers one above another. This town the Grecians assaulted, and length took it by storm. His place was the metropolis, and chiefest fort of the country, and in the highest part stood the king's palace. It is the law of the country here, that the king must continue in this palace during his life, and thence issue all edicts to the people. The Grecians related that they passed through no nation more barbarous than this; for the men scruple not to have carnal knowledge of the women in open view; and the better and richer sort fatten their children with boiled walnuts; and are stigmatized with divers marks burnt into their flesh, both upon their backs and breasts. The Grecians marched through this country in eight days, and through the next called Tibaris in three. Thence they passed to Cotyora, a Greek city and colony of the Sinopians, where they abode fifty days, wasting and spoiling the barbarous nations bordering upon Paphlagonia. Here the Heracleans and Paphlagonians furnished them with shipping, in which both they and their cargo were conveyed into their own country.

Sinope was built by the Milesians, situated within the confines of Paphlagonia; of the greatest account and authority of any in those parts. Here Mithridates (so famous in our age by his wars against the Romans) kept his court. Chirosophus, who was sent away for shipping, but all in vain, returned to the army. But the other Simopians having entertained them with all the demonstrations of kindness and humanity, took care to convy them to Heracles, a city of the Megarensians. From thence the whole fleet arrived at a peninsula called Acherusias, where Hercules (as the fable is) drew Cerberus out of hell. Thence they marched by land through Bithynia, where they fell into great hazards and hardships by the attacks of the inhabitants, who assaulted them in every place as they passed. At last, however, with great difficulty, they came to Chrysopolis, a city of Chalcedonia, three thousand eight hundred being only left of ten thousand.[2]From hence some of them with ease and safety returned every man into his own country; the rest joined in a body at Chersonesus, and besieged a city bordering upon Thrace. And this was the issue of Cyrus's expedition against his brother Artaxerxes.


  1. Gates.
  2. This is a mistake, as appears afterwards by the number of those that went with Xenophon into Thrace. Vide postca. Olymp. 95.