Horse shoes and horse shoeing: their origin, history, uses, and abuses

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The value of the Horse as a living Machine depends to a great extent upon his Feet. The care taken of them by Ancient People. Xenophon and his Advice. The necessity for Sound Feet. History of the Art of Shoeing. The Hoof in a Natural State. Effects of Domestication and Climate. The Persians, Ethiopians, Abyssinians, Tartars, Mongols, and other Nations. The Greeks. Difficulty in tracing the Origin of Shoeing. Scriptural Times. Homer, and ‘Brazen-Footed.’ Tryphiodorus. Bronze Shoes, and Shoeless Hoofs. Xenophon on the Management of Horses' Feet. Aristotle. Polydore Vergil. The Greek Marbles. Climate of Greece. Effects of Marching. Translators' and Commentators' Mistakes. Arrian and Artemidorus. The Coin of Tarentum.


The Horse with the Romans. Their Cavalry. Pliny. Camelshoeing. Silence of Roman Hippiatrists in regard to Shoeing. Cato, Varro, Horace, Virgil, Lucan, Claudianus, Fitz-Stephen. Roman Roads, and Couriers. Columella, Julius Pollux. Diocletian's Edict. Hoof Instruments. Apsyrtus, Palladius, Vegetius, Renatus, Renatus Flavins. Polybius. Carbatinai and Embattai. Soleæ Ferreæ. Catullus, Scaliger, Suetonius. Gold and Silver Soleæ. Extravagance of the Romans. Caligula, Nero, Poppæa, and Commodus. Theomnestus. Solea Spartea, and the Glante Ferreo. Hippopodes. Chariot-racing. Opinions as to the existence of Shoeing with the Ancients. Montfauçon, Winckelmann, Fabretti, Camerarius, Pancirolus, Vossius, Pegge, Smith, Heusinger, Rich. Supposed negative evidence of Written History and Sculpture. Temporary Shoes, and other expedients to preserve the Hoofs in Japan, China, Manilla, Singapore, etc. Straw Shoes. Iceland and Central Asia.

Overthrow of the Roman Empire by the Barbarians. The ‘Dark Ages.’ The Emperor Leo, and his ‘Tactica’. Ferrea Lunatico. The Emperor Constantine and ‘Selenaia.’ Archaeology. Ancient Customs of Europe. Chifflet's Description of King Childeric's Tomb. Douglas and the Abbé Cochet. Discovery of Antique Horse-shoes. Burial with Horses. The Ancient Germans and other Races; their Superstitions. The Gauls and Britons. Rarity of Horse-shoes in Graves. The Celts shod their Horses; their History. The Gauls as a Nation: Warriors and Agriculturists. The Druids. Gallic Names. An Equestrian Nation. Horses, Waggons, and Roads. Alesia and its Tombs. Primitive Farriery. The Druid's Workshop and Altar. The Pontiff Blacksmith. The Gaulish Cavalry. Defeat of Vercingetorix. Napoleon III. and his ‘Vie de Cæsar.’ Besançon and its Relics. Small-sized Horse-shoes. Gallo-Roman Shoes; their Peculiarities. Specimens found with Roman remains. Vaison and its Testimony. Creçy. Suppression of Druidism in Gaul. Invasion of the Franks, and Effeminacy of the Gaulish Nobles. The Franks not an Equestrian People. Levies of Cows instead of Horses. Absence of Horse-shoes from Merovingian Graves. The Carlovingian Dynasty. Advantages of Cavalry. Charlemagne and Revival of Equestrianism. Traditions. Shoeing in France in the 9th and subsequent Centuries. The Comte de l'Etable, and Ecuyer. Origin of Chivalry and its Constitution. Duties of the Knights. The Mareschal.

Horse-shoes found in Switzerland: their Antiquity and Shape. M. Quiquerez's Researches and Obervations. Valuable Indications afforded by the Shoes as to the Breeds of Horses, and the different Races of People. Forges in the Jura Alps. Very ancient Shoe. Prevalence of Shoes with Celtic Remains. Roman Camps. Horse-shoes of different Forms. The Burgundians and Grooved Shoes. Increase of Sizes. Shoes found in Belgium. Germany. Horse-loving Tribes. Inferior Horses. Ancient Horse-shoes of large and small sizes. Grosz's Description. Roman Camp of Dalheim. The Burgundian Groove. Steinfurt. Monument with Runic Inscription and Figure of a Horse-shoe. The Burgundii. The Farrier as Armourer. The Dwarf Regin. Saint Eloy's Day at the Burgundian Court. The Patron Saint. German History. Wide prevalence of the Grooved Shoe. Scandinavia. The Smith's Art. Golden Shoes. Peat-mosses and their contents.

Shoeing among Eastern Nations. Brand-mark of Circassian Horses. Lycian Triquetra. The Hegira. Tartar Horse-shoes. The Koran. Introduction of Shoeing to Constantinople. Arab Traditions and Customs. Arab Shoes, and Management of the Hoofs. Syrian, Algerian, and Moorish Shoes. Horses on a Journey. Instinct of Arab Horses. Arab Method of Shoeing. Comparison between French and Arab Methods. Cenomanus. Strong Hoofs. Muscat. Portugal, Spain, and Transylvania. Central Asia. John Bell and Tartar Tombs. Marco Polo. Cossacks. Tartar Songs. Peking and its Neighbourhood. Chinese Shoeing. Shoeing Bullocks. North American Indians and Parflêche.

Britain, its Early Population. Their Manners and Customs. Equestrians. Cæsar's Invasion. Great numbers of Horses. Working in Iron. Chariots. Rarity of Ancient Horse-shoes. British Barrows. Silbury Hill and its Antiquities. The Great King. Old Horse-shoes. Clark's Specimens. Beckhampton Relics. Springhead and its Remains. York Specimens. Colney, London, and Gloucester. Excellent Illustrations. Cotswold Hills. Roman Villa at Chedworth. Cirencester. Pevensey Castle. Hod Hill and his Story. Spurs. Hoofpick. Uriconium and Conderum. Liverpool Examples. Repulse of the Britons. Laws of Howel the Good. Division of Wales. Trinal System. Welsh King's Court. The Judge of the Court and Groom of the Rein. Duties, Privileges, and Protection of the Smith. The Three Arts. Value of the Horse's Foot. List and Valuation of Smiths' Tools. Triads. Sons of the Bond. The Smith's Seat at Court. Sir Walter Scott and the ‘Norman Horse-shoe.’ King Arthur's Stone. Traditions of Hoof-prints. Renaud and the Black Rocks of Ardennes. The Chevalier Mason. Scythe-stone Pits of Devonshire. Strange Imprint. The Seat of a Zoophyte. The Anglo-Saxons. Their Horse-shoes. Equestrian Habits. Monks and Mares. Sporting Priests. Anglo-Saxon Laws. Value of Horses. Saxon Cavalry. Harold and the Danes and Normans. Saxon Weapons. Graves. Fairford, Caenby, Brighton Downs, Gillingham, Berkshire. Battle Flats. Anglo-Saxon Illuminations. Matthew of Paris. Shoeing Front Feet. Frost. Shoeing in Scotland. Norman Invasion. A Noble Saxon Farrier. Bayeux Tapestry. Shoeing with the Normans. Armorial Bearings. Simon St Liz. Earl Ferrers and Okeham. Curious Custom. Death of William the Conqueror.

Discovery of so-called ‘Hipposandals.’ Diverse Opinions. Various Models. Prevalence on the Continent and in England: their Characteristics. Three Types. Different Hypotheses. Discoveries at Dalheim. Pathological Shoes. Erroneous Conclusions. Hill of Sacrifices. M. Bieler. Chateau Beauregard, Vieil-Evreux, and Remencourt. M. Defays. Hipposandals on Hoofs. Mule and Ox-sandals. Third Type. English Specimens. Stuttgart. Are they Foot Defences? Arguments adverse to this Supposition. Quiquerez and Delacroix. Busandals. Cato the Censor. Liquid Pitch. Shoes or Skids for Wheels. Ancient References.

Probable Date of the Invention of Shoeing. Employment of Metals by Early Peoples. The 'Iron Age'. Ancient Iron Mines. Antiquity of Iron Weapons. Value of Legends. Wayland Smith and his Craft. Traditions. Cromlechs. Wayland Smith's Cave. The Armourer and Farrier of the Celts and Gauls. Wayland's Renown. Morte D' Arthur. Smiths, their Position and Traditions. Druid Smiths. St Columbus and Celtic Priests. Smith-craft among the Saxons. Domes-day Hook. Monkish Smith. St Dunstan and the Evil One. St Eloy and High worth Church. Zurich. Abyssinia. Arabia. Persia. Java. Acadie. Mysteries of Samothrace and Druidism. First of November. Reasons for Roman Ignorance of Shoeing. The Caledonian Wall. ‘Horse-shoe’ Medal. Change in Designation of the Farrier. Early Marechals and their Rank. Age of Chivalry. Apprenticeship of a Chevalier. Archbishop Hughes of Besançon. Rights of the Marechal. Normans in France. Origin of Marshall and Farrier. Fleta. The London Marescallis. Seal of Ralph. The Marshall Ferrer. Superstitions concerning Horse-shoes in various Countries. German Legends. Moonwort.

Shoeing in England after the Norman Conquest. Eustathius. Revival of Veterinary Science. Jordanus Ruffus. Petrus de Crescentius. Laurentius Rusius. Shod Oxen. Shoeing Forges. Counting the Horse-shoes and Hob-nails. Liber Quotidianus. The Dextrarias and Hobby. Hawking. Stratagem of Reversing Shoes. Robert Bruce and Duke Christopher of Wurtemberg. Value of Shoes and Nails for Horses in England in the 13th and 14th Centuries. Coal. The Revolt of the Duke of Lancaster. Tutbury Castle and the River Dove. Curious Discovery of Treasure and Horse-shoes. Froissart. Wars of Kings Edward II. and III. Gloucester Corporation Seal. Status of the Farrier. Different Breeds of Horses. Grooved imported Shoes. The Days of Chivalry. Family Coats of Arms. Lombardy and Flemish Horses. The Chatelaine of Warrenne. Hamericourt. Farriery in Scotland. An unjust Law. Statutes of Edward VI. Henry VIII, and Shoeing with Felt. Curious Customs and Extravagance. Gold and Silver Shoes. Farriers. Cæsar Fiaschi. Diversity of Shoes. German Writers. Carlo Ruini.

Horse-shoeing in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Influence of the Italian Hippiatrists. Different Forms of Shoes in England. Escape of Charles II. An Observant Farrier. The Farriers' Company. The Edinburgh Hammermens' Corporation. Marston Moor Shoe. Thomas Blundevil. Italian Technical Terms. Blundevil's Art of Shoeing. The ‘Butter.’ Its Derivation. Manner of Making and Putting-on Shoes. Unprofitable Devices. The German and Italian Anti-slipping Shoes. Shoes without Nails. Jointed Shoes. Every Gentleman could Shoe his Horse in Germany. The ‘Planche’ Shoe. Injurious Results of Blundevil's Teaching. Baret and Markham. Snape. France. The Marechaux Ferrants. Solleysel. Royal Farriers. Home's Translation of Solleysel. Shoeing in France.

The Establishment of Veterinary Schools in France. Treatises on Shoeing. Clumsy Specimens of Shoes. Lafosse, sen., the greatest Authority on Modern Farriery. The Evils of Shoeing. Destructive Paring. Improved Shoeing. The Short Shoe and the Incrusted Shoe. Opposition of the Parisian Farriers. Lafosse, junior. Bourgelat, the Founder of the Veterinary Schools in France. The Adjusted Shoe. Burning the Hoofs when fitting the Shoes. Jeremiah Bridges. The Influence of Locality on the Hoofs. The ‘Screw’ Shoe. Numerous Diseases of the Foot. Osmer. Complaint against Farriers. English Shoeing. Contracted Hoofs. Navicular Disease. The Evils of Paring. The Seated Shoe. Just Remarks. The Use of the Rasp. The Flat Shoe. Expansion of the Horse's Foot. Clark's Treatise. Prejudice against Improvements. The Earl of Pembroke. Unshod Horses. Management of the Hoofs. Defective Shoes. Clark's Shoe.

Establishment of the London Veterinary School. M. St Bel. Moorcroft. The Qualities of a good Shoe. Coleman. Errors in Physiology. Conclusions of Coleman as to Shoeing. Impracticable Shoeing. Bracy Clark. Exaggerated Notions and Re-discoveries. Futile Experiments. Various Writers. Mr Goodwin's Method. Its Recommendations and Appropriateness. Its Composite Character. Preparation of the Hoof and Application of the Shoe. Errors in this Method. The Bar and Jointed Shoe. Discouragement of Veterinary Science in Britain. The Unilateral Shoe. Youatt and his Teaching. Miles' Method of Shoeing. Its Fallaciousness. Hot-fitting. Hallen and Fitzwygram's Method. Its Disadvantages. Mayor's Patent Shoe.

Modern Farriery in France. Podometric Shoeing. The ‘Ferrure à Froid’ and ‘Ferrure à Chaud.’ Conflicting Evidence. Evils of Cold-fitting. Interesting Experiments. Conclusions. New Inventions. Sanfarouche. Anti-slipping Shoes. The ‘Ferrure Watrin.’ Naudin and Benjamin's Methods. Machine-made Shoes in France. The ‘Periplantaire’ or ‘Charlier’ Method of Shoeing. Its Description. M. Charlier's Account. Practice of Shoeing. Tools, and Fabrication of the Shoe. Its Application. Discussions. Modifications and Results. Shoeing in England. The latest Novelty. The Transatlantic ‘Invention.’ Its Admirers and Success. Steel-faced Shoes.
Importance of Shoeing to Civilization. The Greeks and Romans. Inconveniences attending the Employment of Unshod Animals. Roads and Cities. Manual Labour. Introduction of Shoeing and its Effects. Various Breeds of Horses. Changes in the Art of War. Increase in Cavalry. Armour. Riding Double. Heavy Equipment. Increasing Importance of Shoeing. Examples. Napoleon's Retreat from Moscow. Danish Retreat from Schleswig. Farriers' Strike in Paris.

Progress of the Art of Farriery. Futile Attempts to Improve it. Disadvantages of Shoeing. Functions of the Foot to be Studied. Advantages of the Ancient System. German Shoeing and Hoof-paring. Its Evil Results. Traditional Shoeing. Routine. Erroneous Theories. Maltreatment of the Horse's Foot. Lafosse's Teaching. Requirements of Good Shoeing. Structure and Functions of the Hoof. Bad Shoeing. Rules to be Observed. Best Form of Shoe, and Method of Application. Hereditary Diseases. Shoeing in America and Arabia. Effects of European Shoeing. Dangers of Improper Shoeing. Scientific Application of the Farrier's Art. An Appeal to Horsemen.