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Index:A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages-Volume I .pdf

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A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages-Volume I .pdf

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- - - - subtitle - title colo preface  iv  v  -  toc  viii  ix  x  xi  xii  xiii  xiv 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 082 083 084 085 086 087 088 089 090 091 092 093 094 095 096 097 098 099 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 - - - - -

CONTENTS.

BOOK I. ORIGIN AND ORGANIZATION OF THE INQUISITION.

CHAPTER I. THE CHURCH.

Page
Domination of the Church in the Twelfth Century 1
Causes of Antagonism with the Laity 5
Election of Bishops 6
Simony and Favoritism 7
Martial Character of Prelates 10
Difficulty of Punishing Offenders 13
Prostitution of the Episcopal Office 16
Abuse of Papal Jurisdiction 17
Abuse of Episcopal Jurisdiction 20
Oppression from the Building of Cathedrals 23
Neglect of Preaching 23
Abuses of Patronage 24
Pluralities 25
Tithes 26
Sale of the Sacraments 27
Extortion of Pious Legacies 28
Quarrels over Burials 30
Sexual Disorders 31
Clerical Immunity 32
The Monastic Orders 34
The Religion of the Middle Ages 39
Tendency to Fetishism 40
Indulgences 41
Magic Power of Formulas and Relics 47
Contemporary Opinion 51

Chapter II.—HERESY

Page
Awakening of the Human Intellect in the Twelfth Century 57
Popular Characteristics 50
Nature of Heresies 60
Antisaccrdotal Heresies 62
Nulity of Sacraments in Polluted Hands. 62
Tanchelm 64
Éon de l'Étoile 66
Peculiar Civilization of Southern France 66
Pierre de Bruys 68
Henry of Lausanne 69
Arnaldo of Brescia 72
Peter Waldo and the Waldenses 76
Passagii, Joseppini, Siscidentes, Runcarii 88

Chapter III.-THE CATHARI

Attractions of the Dualistic Theory 89
Deriation of Catharism from Manichæism 89
Belief and Organization of the Catharan Church 93
Missionary Zeal and Thirst for Martyrdom 102
Not Devil-worshipers. 105
Spread of Catharism from Slavonia 107
Diffusion throughout Europe in the Eleventh Century 108
Increase in Twelfth Century. 110
Comparative Exemption of Germany and England 112
Growth in Italy. Efforts of Innocent III. 114
Its Stronghold in Southern France 117
Its Expected Triumph. 121
Failure of Crusade of 1181 124
Period of Toleration and Growth 125

CHAPTER IV.-THE ALBIGENSIAN CRUSADES

Policy of the Church towards Heresy 129
Suppression of Heresy in the Nivernais 130
Translations of Scripture forbidden at Metz. 131
Power of Raymond VI. of Tonlouse 132
Condition of the Church in his Dominions 134
Innocent III. Undertakes the Suppression of Heresy 136
The Prelates Refuse their Aid 137
Page
Arnaud of Citeaux Sent as Chief Legate 139
Fruitless Effort to Organize a Crusade in 1204 139
The Bishop of Osma and St. Dominic Urge Fresh Efforts in 1206 141
Attempt to Organize a Crusade in 1207 144
Murder of Pierre de Castelnau, Jan. 16, 1208 145
Crusade successfully Preached in 1208 147
Raymond's Efforts to Avert the Storm 149
His Submission and Penance; Duplicity of Innocent III. 150
Raymond Directs the Crusade against the Vicomte de Béziers 153
Sack of Béziers.—Surrender of Carcassonne 154
Pedro of Aragon and Simon de Montfort 157
De Montford Accepts the Conquered Territories.—His Difficulties 159
Raymond Atacked.—Deceit Practised by the Church 162
His Desperate Efforts to Avert a Rupture 166
First Siege of Toulouse—Raymond Gradually Overpowered 167
Intervention of Pedro of Aragon 170
Raymoud Prejudged.—Trial Denied him 173
Pedro Declares War.—Battle of Muret, Sept. 13, 1213 175
De Montfort's Vicissitudes.—Pious Fraud of the Legate 178
Raymond Deposed and Replaced by De Montfort. 179
The Lateran Counel—It Decides in De Montfort's Favor 181
Rising of the People under the Younger Raymond 184
Second Siege of Toulouse in 1217.—Death of De Montfort 185
Crusade of Louis Cuœr-de-Lion.—Third Siege of Toulouse 187
Raymod VII. Recovers his Lands.—Recrudescence of Heresy 189
Negotiations Opened.—Death of Philip Augustus 190
Louis VIII. Proposes a Crusade.—Raymond Makes Terms with the Church 191
Duplicity of Honorius III—Council of Bourges, Nov. 1225 193
Louis Organizes the Crusade in 1226 197
His Conquering Advance.—His Retreat and Death 199
Desultory War in 1227.—Negotiations in 1228 201
Treaty of Paris, April, 1229.—Persecution Established 203

CHAPTER V-PERSECUTION

Growth of Intolerance in the Early Church 209
Persecution Commences under Constantine 212
The Church Adopts the Death-penalty for Heresy 213
Duty of the Ruler to Suppress Heresy 215
Decline of Persecuting Spirit under the Barbarians 216
Page
Hesitation to Punish in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries 218
Uncertainty as to Form of Punishment 220
Burning Alive Adopted in the Thirteenth Century 221
Evasion of Responsibility by the Church 223
The Temporal Authority Coerced to Persecute 224
Persecution of the Dead 230
Motives Impelling to Persecution 233
Cruelty of the Middle Ages 234
Exaggerated Detestation of Heresy 236
Influence of Asceticism 238
Conscientious Motives 239

CHAPTER VI.-THE MENDICANT ORDERS.

Material for Reform within the Church 243
Foulques de Neuilly 244
Durán de Huesca anticipates Dominic and Francis 246
St. Dominic, his Career and Character 248
His Order founded in 1214.—Its Success 251
St. Francis of Assisi 256
His Order Founded.—Injunction of Poverty 257
He Realizes the Christian Ideal. 200
Extravagant Laudation of Poverty 264
Influence of the Mendicant Orders 266
Emotional Character of the Age.—The Pastoureaux.—The Flagellants 268
The Mendicants Rendered Independent of the Prelates. 273
Their Utility to the Papacy 274
Antagonism between them and the Secular Clergy. 278
The Battle Fought out in the University of Paris 281
Victory of the Mendicants.—Unappeasable Hostility 289
Degeneracy of the Orders 294
Their Activity as Missionaries 297
Their Functions as Inquisitors 299
Inveterate Hostility between the Orders 302

CHAPTER VII-THE INQUISITION FOUNDED.

Uncertainty in the Discovery and Punishment of Heretics 305
Growth of Episcopal Jurisdiction 308
Procedure in Episcopal Courts.—The Inquisitorial Process 309
System of Inquests 311
Page
Efforts to Establish an Episcopal Inquisition 313
Endeavor to Create a Legatine Inquisition 315
Fitness of the Mendicant Orders for the Work. 318
Secular Legislation for Suppression of Heresy 319
Edict of Gregory XI. in 1231.—Secular Inquisition Tried 324
Tentative Introduction of Papal Inquisitors 326
Dominicans Invested with Inquisitorial Functions 328
Episcopal Functions not Superseded 330
Struggle between Bishops and Inquisitors 332
Settlement when Inquisition Becomes Permanent. 335
Control Given to Inquisitors in Italy; in France; in Aragon 336
All Opposing Legislation Annulled 341
All Social Forces Placed at Command of Inquisition 342
Absence of Supervision and Accountability 343
Extent of Jurisdiction 347
Penalty of Impeding the Inquisition 349
Fruitless Rivalry of the Bishops 350
Limits of Extension of the Inquisition 351
The Northern Nations Virtually Exempt 352
Africa and the East 355
Vicissitudes of Episcopal Inquisition 356
Greater Efficiency of the Papal Inquisition 364
Bernard Gui's Model Inquisitor 367

CHAPTER VIII—ORGANIZATION

Simplicity of the Inquisition 369
Inquisitorial Districts.—Itinerant Inquests 370
Time of Grace.—Its Effieiency 371
Buildings and Prisons 373
Personnel of the Tribunal 374
The Records.—Their Completeness and Importance 379
Familiars.—Question of Bearing Arms 381
Resources of the State at Command of Inquisitors 385
Episcopal Concurrence in Sentence. 387
The Assembly of Experts 388
The Sermo or Auto de fé 391
Co-operation of Tribunals 394
Occasional Inquisitors-general 307

CHAPTER IX—The INQUISITORIAL PROCESS

Page
Inquisitor both Judge and Confessor 399
Difficulty of Proving Heresy 400
The Inquisitorial Process universally Employed 401
Age of Responsibility—Proceedings in Absentia. The Dead 402
All Safeguards Withdrawn.—Secrecy of Procedure 405
Confession not Requisite for Conviction 407
Importance Attached to Confession 408
lnterrogatory of the Accused 410
Resourees for Extractiug Confession.—Deceit 411
Irregular Tortures, Mental and Physical.—Delays 417
Formal Torture 421
Retricted by Clement V. 424
Rules for its Employment 426
Retraction of Confessions. 438

CHAPTER X.-EVIDENCE.

Comparative Unimportance of Witnesses 430
Flimsiness of Evidence Admitted 431
The Crime Known as "Suspicion of Heresy" 433
Number of Witnesses.—No Restrictions as to Character or Age 434
Mortal Enmity the only Disability 436
Secrecy of Confessional Disregarded 437
Suppression of Names of Witnesses 437
Evidence sometimes Withheld 439
Frequency of False-witness.—Its Penalty 440

CHAPTER XI.-The DEFENCE

Opportanity of Defenee Reduced to Minimum 443
Denial of Counsel 444
Malice of Witnesses the only Defence 446
Prosecution of the Dead 448
Defence practically Impossible.—Appeals 449
Condemmation virtually Inevitable 453
Suspicion of Heresy,— Light, Vehement, and Violent. 454
Purgation by Conjurators 455
Abjuration 457

CHAPTER XII.-THE SENTENCE

Page
Penance not Punishment 459
Grades of Penance 462
Miscellancous Penanccs 463
Flagellation 464
Pilgrimages 465
Crusades to l'alestine 466
Wearing Crosses 468
Fines and Commutations 471
Infulilled IPenance 475
Bail 476
Abuscs.-Bribery and Extortion 477
Destrnction of Jlouses 481
Arbitrary Penalties. 488
Imprisonment 484
Troubles about the Expenses 489
Treatment of Prisoners 491
Comparative Frequency of Different Penaltics 494
Modification of Sentences. 495
Penitents never Pardoned, althouglı Reprieved 496
Penalties of Descendants 498
Inquisitorial Exeommunication 500

CHAPTER XIII-CONFISCATION

Origin in the Roman Law 501
The Church Responsible for its Introduction 502
Varying Practice in Decreeing it . 504
Degree of Criminality Entailing it 507
Question of the Dowers of Wives 509
The Church Shares the Spoils in Italy. 510
In France they are Seized by the State 513
The Bishops Obtain a Share . 514
Rapacity of Confiscation 517
Alienations and Obligations Void 522
Paralyzing Influence on Commercial Development. 524
Expenscs of Inquisition, how Defrayed 525
Persccution Dependent on Confiscation 529

СHАРТER XIV.-ТHE STAKE.

Page
Theoretical Irresponsibility of the Inquisition 534
The Church Coerces the Secular Power to Burn Heretics 536
Only Impenitent Heretics Burned 541
Relapsc.-Iesitation as to its Penalty.-Burning Decided upon . 543
Difficulty of Defining Relapse 547
Refusal to Submit to Penance 548
Probable Frequency of Burning 549
Details of Execution 551
Burning of Books 554
Influence of Inquisitorial Methods on the Church 557
Influence on Secular Jurisprudence 559
APPENDIX 563