Last Will and Testament of Cecil Rhodes

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I am a natural-born British subject and I now declare that I have adopted and acquired and hereby adopt and acquire and intend to retain Rhodesia as my domicile.Being thus domiciled in Rhodesia his estate is not subject to the death duties levied on those domiciled in England. === His Burial Place in the Matoppos. ===His last resting place. I admire the grandeur and loneliness of the Matoppos in Rhodesia and therefore I desire to be buried in the Matoppos Mr. Bertram Mitford says:–

For grim, gloomy savagery of solitude it is probable that the stupendous rock wilderness known as the Matoppo Hills is unsurpassed throughout earth's surface. Strictly speaking, the term 'hills' scarcely applies to this marvellous range, which is rather an expanse of granite rocks extending some seventy or eighty miles by forty or fifty, piled in titanic proportions and bizarre confusion, over what would otherwise be a gently undulating surface, forming a kind of island as it were, surrounded by beautiful rolling country, green, smiling, and in parts thickly bushed. High on the outside ridge of this remarkable range, about twenty miles distant from Bulawayo, towards which it faces, there rises a pile of granite boulders, huge, solid, compact. It is a natural structure; an imposing and dominating one withal, and appropriately so, for this is the sepulchre of the warrior King Umzilikazi, founder and first monarch of the Matabele nation.

Rhodesia says:–

It would appear, according to the discovery of a Native Commissioner, that the hill on the summit of which the remains of Cecil Rhodes have been laid is known in the vernacular as "Malindidzimo." The literal translation of this is given as "The Home of the Spirit of My Forefathers," or, without straining the meaning unduly, "The Home of the Guardian Spirit." It does not appear that Mr. Rhodes was aware of this rendering when he expressed a desire to be buried on that spot after his race was run.

on the hill which I used to visit and which I called the "View of the World" in a square to be cut in the rock on the top of the hill covered with a plain brass plate with these words thereon–"Here lie the remains of Cecil John Rhodes" and accordingly I direct my Executors at the expense of my estate to take all steps and do all things necessary or proper to give effect to this my desire and afterwards to keep my grave in order at the expense of the Matoppos and Bulawayo Fund hereinafter mentioned. The Shangani monument.I direct my Trustees on the hill aforesaid to erect or complete the monument to the men who fell in the first Matabele War at Shangani in Rhodesia the bas-reliefs for which are being made by Mr. John Tweed and I desire the said hill to be preserved as a burial-place (c) but no person is to be buried there unless the Government for the time being of Rhodesia until the various states of South Africa or any of them shall have been federated and after such federation the Federal Government by a vote of two-thirds of its governing body says that he or she has deserved well of his or her country.

His Property in Rhodesia.[edit]

I give free of all duty whatsoever my landed The Bula- propertv near Bulawayo in Matabeleland Rhodesia 7„^^° J*"^

11-'-' inyanga

and my landed property at or near Inyanga Estates, near Salisbury in Mashonaland Rhodesia to my Trustees hereinbefore named Upon trust that my Trustees shall in such manner as in their uncontrolled discretion they shall think fit cultivate the same respectively for the instruction of the people of Rhodesia.

I give free of all duty whatsoever to my The Matop Trustees hereinbefore named such a sum of P°^ ^^^ money as they shall carefully ascertain and in Fund. their uncontrolled discretion consider ample and sufficient by its investments to yield income amounting to the sum of ^4,000 sterling per annum and not less and I direct my Trustees to invest the same sum and the said sum and the investments for the time being representing it I hereinafter refer to as " the Matoppos and Bulawayo fund " And I direct that my Trustees shall for ever apply in such manner as in their uncontrolled discretion they shall think fit the income of the Matoppos and Bulawayo Fund in preserving protecting maintaining adorning and beautifying the said burial-place and hill and their surroundings and shall for ever apply in such manner as in their uncontrolled discretion they shall think fit the balance of the income of the Matoppos and Bulawayo Fund and any rents and profits of my said landed properties near Bulawayo in the cultivation as aforesaid of such property And in particular I direct my Trustees that a portion of my Sauerdale property a part of my said landed property near Bulawayo be planted with every possible tree and be made and preserved and maintained as a Park for the people of Bulawayo and that they complete the dam id) at my Westacre property if it is not Westacrc

Park, its

{d) \ Daily 7"^/^^;-^//; correspondent, writing from Bulawayo ^^^ on Oct. 14, 1 901, gives the following account of the dam referred to in the will : — " Mr. Rhodes's Matoppo Dam is to be used in connection with the irrigation of a portion of his farm near Bulawayo. This farm is situated on the northern edge of the Matoppos, eighteen miles from Bulawayo, and through it runs the valley of a tributary from the Malima River. This tributary is dry eight months in the yeir, and the land around consequently parched. Mr. Rhodes has built a huge earthwork wall to dam the tributary. The work was commencetl in May, 1899. It will render possible the cultivation of some 2,000 to 3,000 acres of the most fertile soil. The total cost up to date has been something under ^30,000. The total capacity of the reservoir is 900,000,000 gallons. A small body of water was conserved last season, and fifty acres of lucerne planted as a commencement. It is doing extremely well under irrigation. The site of the works, the northern edge of the Matoppos, is very picturesque. The green lucerne makes a delightful contrast against the dull and hazy browns


completed at my death and make a short railway line from Bulawayo to Westacre so that the people of Bulawayo may enjoy the glory of the Matoppos from Saturday to Monday.

I give free of all duty whatsoever to my Thelnyanga Trustees hereinbefore named such a sum of ^""^• money as they shall carefully ascertain and in their uncontrolled discretion consider ample and sufficient by its investments to yield income amounting to the sum of ^2,000 sterling per annum and not less and I direct my Trustees to invest the same sum and the said sum and the investments for the time being representing it I hereinafter refer to as "the Inyanga Fund," And I direct that my Trustees shall for ever apply in such manner as in their absolute discretion they shall think fit the income of the Inyanga Fund and any rents and profits of my said landed property at or near Inyanga (e) in

of the surrounding country which prevail during the dry season. An hotel has been built on some rising ground overlooking the dam, and it is expected that it will be very popular as a holiday resort for the youth and beauty of Bulawayo — become, in fact, the African replica of the famous Star and Garter at Richmond."

{e) Mr. Seymour Fort, writing in the Empire Heview for May, 1902, says : — "Apart from his position as managing director of the British South Africa Company, Mr. Rhodes is one of the chief pioneer agriculturists in Rhodesia, and has spared neither brain nor capital in endeavouring to develop the resources of its soil. In Manicaland he owns a block of farms on the high Inyanga plateau, some 80,000 acres in extent, where on the open grass country he is breeding cattle and horses, while a certain portion is fenced and placed under cultivation. Great things are expected from these horse-breeding experiments, as the Inyanga hills are so far free from the horse- sickness so prevalent in other parts of South Africa, This plateau forms a succession of downs at an elevation of some 6,000 feet above the sea. The soil is alluvial, of rich red colour and capable of growing every form of produce, and by the cultivation of such property and in particular irrigation I direct that with regard to such property irri- gation should be the first object of my Trustees.

F^or the guidance of my Trustees I wish to record that in the cultivation of my said landed properties I include such things as experimental farming, forestry, market and other gardening and fruit farming, irrigation and the teaching of any of those things and establishing and maintaining an Agricultural College.

(3.) Groote Schuur.

I give my property following that is to say House and my residence known as " De Groote Schuur" (/) ftiâ„¢iture.

merely scratching the surface the natives raise crops of mealies and other cereals superior to those grown elsewhere in Manica- land. It is an old saying in South Africa that you find no good veldt without finding Dutchmen, and several Transvaal Boers have settled in the neighbourhood. English fruit trees flourish, and Mr. Rhodes has laid out orchards in which the orange, apple, and pear trees (now five years old) have borne well. Very interesting also are the evidences of an old and practically unknown civilisation — the ancient ruins, the mathe- matically constructed water-courses and old gold workings which are to be seen side by side with the trans-African telegraph to Blantyre and Cairo which runs through the property, and connects Tete with the Zambesi."

(/) Mr. Garrett, writing in \\vq Pall Mall Magazine for May, 1902, says: — "If you would see Rhodes on his most winning side, you would seek it at Groote Schuur. It lies behind the Devil Peak, which is a flank buttressed by the great bastion of rock that is called Table Mountain. The house lies low, nestling cosily among oaks. It was built in accordance with Mr. Rhodes's orders to keep it simple — beams and whitewash. It was originally thatched, but it was burnt down at the end of 1896, and everything was gutted but one wing. From the deep-pillared window where Mr. Rhodes mostly sat, and the little formal garden, the view leads up to a grassy slope and over woodland away to the crest of the buttressed peak and the great purple precipices of Table Mountain. Through the open park la.nd and wild wood koodoos, gnus, elands, and

Approach to Groote Schuur.



situate near Mowbray in the Cape Division in the said Colony together with all furniture plate and other articles contained therein at the time of my death and all other land belonging to me situated under Table Mountain including my property known as " Mosterts " to my Trustees herein- Mosterts. before named upon and subject to the conditions following (that is to say) : —

(i.) The said property (excepting any Conditions, furniture or like articles which have become useless) shall not nor shall any portion thereof at any time be sold let or otherwise alienated, (ii.) No buildings for suburban residences shall at any time be erected on the said property and any buildings which may be erected thereon shall be used exclusively for public purposes and shall be in a style of architecture similar to or in harmony with my said residence.

(iii.) The said residence and its gardens ,^^^'^^"'^'^ °^ and grounds shall be retained for a residence premier, for the Prime Minister for the time being of the said Federal Government of the States

other African animals wander at will. Only the savage beasts are confined in enclosures. No place of the kind is so freely, so recklessly shared with the public. The estate became the holiday resort of the Cape Town masses ; but it is to be regretted that some of the visitors abused their privileges — maimed and butchered rare and valuable beasts, and careless picknickers have caused great havoc in the woods by fire. Sometimes the visitors treat the house itself as a free museum, and are found wandering into Mr. Rhodes's own rooms or composedly reading in his library. Brown people from the slums of Cape Town fill the pinafores of their children with flowers plucked in his garden, and wander round the house as if it were their own. The favourite rendezvous in the ground was the lion-house, a classical lion-pit m which the tawny form of the king of beasts could be caught sight of between marble columns."



of South Africa to which I have referred in clause 6 hereof my intention being to provide a suitable official residence for the First Minister in that Government befitting the dignity of his position and until there shall be such a Federal Government may be used as a park for the people iyg).

(g) Writing in the Times on the artistic side of Mr. Rhodes, Mr. Herbert Baker, his architect, says : — " Artistic problems first presented themselves to his mind when, as Premier of Cape Colony, he made his home in the Cape Peninsula. His intense and genuine love of the big and beautiful in natural scenery prompted him to buy as much as he could of the forest slopes of Table Mountain, so that it might be saved for ever from the hands of the builder, and the people, attracted to it by gardens, wild animals, and stately architecture, might be educated and ennobled by the contemplation of what he thought one of the finest views in the world. This love of mountain and distant view — the peaks of the South African plateaux are seen loo miles away across the Cape flats^ — was deep-seated in his nature, and he would sit or ride silently for hours at a time, dreaming and looking at the views he loved — a political poet.

But from these create he can Forms more real than living man, Nurshngs of Immortality.

There are many stories of him telling worried and disputing politicians to turn from their " trouble of ants " to the Moun- tain for calm, and in the same spirit he placed the stone Phoenician hawk, found at Zimbabye, in the Cabinet Council- room, that the emblem of time might preside over their deliberations. The ennobling influence of natural scenery was present in his mind in connection with every site he chose and every building he contemplated; such as a cottage he built, •where poets or artists could live and look across to the blue mountain distance ; a University, where young men could be surrounded with the best of nature and of art ; a lion-house, a feature of which was to have been a long open colonnade, where the people could at once see the king of beasts and the lordhest of mountains ; the Kimberley " Bath," with its white marble colonnades embedded in a green oasis of orange grove and vine trellis, looking to the north over illimitable desert. Such things would perhaps occur to most men, but with him






The Groote



(iv.) The grave of the late Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr upon the said property shall be protected and access be permitted thereto at all reasonable times by any member of the Hofmeyr family for the purpose of inspection or maintenance.

I give to my Trustees hereinbefore named such a sum of money as they shall carefully ascer- tain and in their uncontrolled discretion consider to be ample and sufficient to yield income amount- ing to the sum of one thousand pounds sterling per annum and not less upon trust that such income shall be applied and expended for the purposes following (that is to say) —

(i.) On and for keeping and maintaining its objects for the use of the Prime Minister for the time being of the said Federal Government of at least two carriage horses one or more carriages and sufficient stable servants.

(ii.) On and for keeping and maintaining in good order the flower and kitchen gardens appertaining to the said residence.

(iii.) On and for the payment of the wages or earnings including board and lodging of two competent men servants to be housed kept and employed in domestic service in the said residence.

(iv.) On and for the improvement repair renewal and insurance of the said residence furniture plate and other articles.

they were a passion, almost a religion. Of his more monu- mental architectural schemes few have been realised. For these his taste lay in the direction of the larger and simpler styles of Rome, Greece, and even Egypt, recognizing the similarity of the climate and natural scenery of South Africa to that of classic Southern Europe. He had the building ambition of a Pericles or a Hadrian, and in his untimely death architec- ture has the greatest cause to mourn."


The Hall. Dealers were in the habit of leaving curios in the hall for Mr. Rhodes s inspection.

A The Library.

Showing stone figure {Phxnician hawk) from ancient gold workings in Rhodesia.


The Billiard-room.

The Panelled Room.


I direct that subject to the conditions and trusts hereinbefore contained the said Federal Government shall from the time it shall be con- stituted have the management administration and control of the said devise and legacy and that my Trustees shall as soon as may be thereafter vest and pay the devise and legacy given by the two last preceding clauses hereof in and to such Government if a corporate body capable of accepting and holding the same or if not then in some suitable corporate body so capable named by such Government and that in the meantime my Trustees shall in their uncontrolled discretion manage administer and control the said devise and legacy.

(4.) Bequests to Oriel College, Oxford.

I give the sum of ^100,000 free of all duty whatsoever to my old college Oriel College in the University of Oxford {Ji) and I direct that the

(//) In the list of the Masters of Arts of Oriel College, in the year 1881, occurs this entry: "Rhodes, Cecil John," to- which a note is added, "late Premier of the Cape Colony."

Tradition says that Oriel was first founded by Edward IL, who vowed as he fled from Bannockburn he would found a religious house in the Virgin's honour if only Our Lady would save from the pursuing Scot. Edward III. gave the University the mansion called Le Oriole which stood on the present site of the College.

A porti-ait of Sir Walter Raleigh hangs on the walls of the College Hall.

The present income of the College is said to be not more than ;^7,5oo per annum. The revenue of the twenty-one Colleges of Oxford is ;;{^2o6,io2,or less than ^10,000 each.

The present Provost of Oriel is David Binning Monro : he is also Vice-Chancellor of the University. Among the hon. Fellows are Mr. Goldwin Smith, Lord Goschen, and Mr. Bryce.

Among the famous names associated with Oriel besides those of Raleigh and Rhodes are the following : — Archbishop


receipt of the Bursar or other proper officer of the

College shall be a complete discharge for that

legacy and inasmuch as I gather that the erection

of an extension to High Street of the College For College

buildings would cost about ^22,500 and that the buildings.

loss to the College revenue caused by pulling

down of houses to make room for the said new

College buildings would be about ^250 per annum

I direct that the sum of ^40,000 part of the said

sum of ^100,000 shall be applied in the first place

in the erection of the said new College buildings {i)

and that the remainder of such sum of ^40,000

shall be held as a fund by the income whereof

the aforesaid loss to the College revenue shall so

tar as possible be made good.

And inasmuch as I gather that there is a deficiency in the College revenue of some ^1,500 per annum whereby the Fellowships are impover- ished and the status of the College is lowered I

Resident Fellows.

Arundel, Cardinal Allen, Bishop Butler, Prynne, Langland, author of " Piers Plowman " ; Barclay, author of " The Ship of Fools " ; Gilbert White, author of the " Natural History of Selborne " ; Thomas Hughes, author of " Tom Brown's Schooldays"; Dr. Arnold, Bishop Wilberforce, Archbishop Whately, Cardinal Newman, Dr. Pusey, John Keble, Bishop Hampden.

(/â– ) The extension of Oriel College cannot at present take place. St. Mary Hall, which adjoins the College, belongs to the Principal (Dr. Chase), who was appointed to that position as far back as December, 1857. A statute made by the last Commission provided that upon his death St. Mary Hall shall be merged into Oriel College. The College has always con- templated, sooner or later, an extension of its buildings to High Street. The Hall runs close up to the houses facing the University Church, and the majority of these premises already belong to Oriel College. The northern side of the quadrangle of St. Mary Hall will ultimately be pulled down, together with the High Street shops, and the new buildings will face the main thoroughfare on the one hand and the quadrangle on the other.


The High Table.

Repair Fund.

Counsel to the childlike Dons.

direct that the sum of ^40,000 further part of the said sum of /'ioo,ooo shall be held as a fund by the income whereof the income of such of the resident Fellows of the College as work for the honour and dignity of the College shall be increased (y).

And I further direct that the sum of ^10,000 further part of the said sum of ^100,000 shall be held as a fund by the income whereof the dignity and comfort of the High Table may be maintained by which means the dignity and comfort of the resident Fellows may be increased.

And I further direct that the sum of ^10,000 the remainder of the said sum of ^100,000 shall be held as a repair fund the income whereof shall be expended in maintaining and repairing the College buildings.

And finally as the College authorities live secluded from the world and so are like children {k) as to commercial matters I would advise them to

(y) A senior member of Oriel when interviewed on the subject of Mr. Rhodes's bequests said : — •" The College revenues do not admit at present of their paying the Fellows as much as the Commission contemplated, and so far they had been at a disadvantage. Mr. Rhodes probably became aware of this fact, and wished to enable the College to reach the limit set by the Commission, ;^2oo a year, as the maximum. The limit imposed by the Commissioners will not apply to Mr. Rhodes's bequest, it being a new endowment, so that not only may the emoluments of the Fellowships reach the figure specified by the Commissioners, but go beyond that. So far Oriel College has not been able to rise to the level which the Commissioners considered a proper amount. As to the amount set apart for the High Table, we do not want more comforts or luxuries, we are quite happy as we are. We have enough to eat, but still, it was very kind of Mr. Rhodes to think of us in that way."

{k) Possibly Cecil Rhodes was thinking when he spoke of the childlike and secluded Don of a story current in his day at Oriel — and current still — of John Keble, who was better at


consult my Trustees as to the investment of these various funds for they would receive great help and assistance from the advice of my Trustees in such matters and I direct that any investment made pursuant to such advice shall whatsoever it may be be an authorized investment for the money applied in making it.

(5.) The Scholarships at Oxford.

Whereas I consider that the education of Objects of young Colonists at one of the Universities in the Educadon. United Kingdom is of great advantage to them for giving breadth to their views for their instruc- tion in life and manners (/) and for instilling into their minds the advantage to the Colonies as well as to the United Kingdom of the retention of the unity of the Empire.

Christian poetry than at worldly calculation. One day Keble, who was Bursar, discovered to his horror that the College accounts came out nearly two thousand pounds on the wrong side. The learned and pious men of Oriel tried to find the weak spot, but it was not until expert opinion was called that they found that Keble, casting up a column, had added the date of the year to Oriel's debts !

(/) Mr. Rhodes, speaking to Mr. Iwan Mliller on the subject of his scholarships, said : — " A lot of young Colonials go to Oxford and Cambridge, and come back with a certain anti- English feeling, imagining themselves to have been slighted because they were Colonials. That, of course, is all nonsense. I was a Colonial, and I knew everybody I wanted to know, and everybody who wanted to knew me. The explanation is that most of these youngsters go there on the strength of scholarships, and insufficient allowances, and are therefore practically confined to one set, that of men as poor as them- selves, who use the University naturally and quite properly only as a stepping-stone to something else. They are quite right, but they don't get what I call a University Education, which is the education of rubbing shoulders with every kind of indi- vidual and class on absolutely equal terms ; therefore a very poor man can never get the full value of an Oxford training."



Advantages ofResidence.




The Union of the English- speaking Peoples.

And whereas in the case of young Colonists studying at a University in the United Kingdom I attach very great importance to the University having a residential system such as is in force at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge for without it those students are at the most critical period of their lives left without any supervision.

And whereas there are at the present time 50 or more students from South Africa studying at the University of Edinburgh many of whom are attracted there by its excellent medical school and I should like to establish some of the Scholarships hereinafter mentioned in that University but owing to its not having such a residential system as aforesaid I feel obliged to refrain from doing so. And whereas my own University the University of Oxford has such a system and I suggest that it should try and extend its scope so as if possible to make its medical school at least as good as that at the University of Edinburgh {in).

And whereas I also desire to encourage and foster an appreciation of the advantages which I

(;//) " Mr. Rhodes," says " A Senior Member of Oriel," " suggests that the University shall develop a medical school of the kind they have in Edinburgh. That might involve a considerable expense on the University which it is hardly in a position to bear, being very short of money as it is. The question of a medical school has been often discussed, and so far the conclusion arrived at has been adverse to the idea of the establishment of a medical school at Oxford. It has been considered that the infirmary at Oxford is not big enough, and the cases are not sufficiently numerous to provide practical experience for the students. The idea has been that they should get their general knowledge at Oxford, and then obtain practical hospital work elsewhere."

Commenting upon this, a distinguished Oxford Professor said : — " The opinion expressed by a senior member of Oriel College of the present position of the Medical School in

Marble Bath-room, Groote Schuur.

Mr. Rhodes's Bedroom.

The bed was made by local craftsmen from a South African wood of great hardness.

C 2

Co/.yri^Jit >rsi->i'rd.]

From Mr. Tennyson-Cole's Portrait of Mr. Rhodes.

[Purchased by Oriel College, Oxford.)


implicitly believe will result from the union of the English-speaking peoples throughout the world and to encourage in the students from the United States of North America who will benefit from the American Scholarships to be established for the reason above given at the University of Oxford under this my Will an attachment to the country from which they have sprung but without

Oxford is in the main correct, but contains one sentence which conveys an erroneous impression of the present attitude of the University in relation to medical teaching,

"A medical education comprises three kinds of study, each of which must be of first-rate quality. One of these is preliminary, and consists in the theoretical and practical study of general science. The second comprises anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and hygiene. The third is purely professional, and corresponds to what used to be called walking the hospitals.

" The subject of the first, namely, inorganic and organic chemistry, natural philosophy, and biology are now amply provided for in the University. We have laboratories which are well equipped for present needs, though no doubt they may require extension at a future period ; and very complete collections for illustrating the instruction given in zoology and botany.

" The subjects of the second part are those which constitute the science of medicine as distinguished from its practice. A physiological department was established some fifteen years ago, the equipment of which will certainly bear comparison with any other in the country. More space is, however, required for the development of certain branches of the subject. The department of human anatomy has been completed for ten years.

"It has a museum, a commodious dissecting-room with all modern improvements, and all other adjuncts that are required for the teaching of a subject so important to medicine. The pathological laboratory was opened by the Vice-Chancellor six months ago. It is more closely related to practical medicine than the others, and constitutes a common ground between the University and the Radcliffe Infirmary. As regards the building and the internal arr?.ngements, it is all that could be desired, but the funds available for its complete


The Shangani Monument.

These are small reproductions of two of four bas-reliefs which are being made by Mr. John Tweed, the sculptor, for the monument to the men who fell in the first Matabele War at Shangani. (See page 4.)


I hope withdrawing them or their sympathies from the land of their adoption or birth.

Now therefore I direct my Trustees as soon Three-year as may be after my death and either simultaneously scholar- or gradually as they shall find convenient and if ships, gradually then in such order as they shall think fit to establish for male students the Scholarships hereinafter directed to be established each of which shall be of the yearly value of ^300 and be tenable at any College in the University of Oxford for three consecutive academical years {n).

â– equipment are inadequate, nor has the University as yet been able to provide sufficient remuneration for the teaching staff.

" The only branches of medical science, for the teaching of Avhich special departments have not yet been established, are pharmacology (action of drugs) and public health.

" As regards the third part of the medical curriculum, viz., instruction in the practice of medicine, the University had adopted the principle that the two or three years which its students must devote to their purely professional studies must be spent where the existence of great hospitals affords opportunities for seeing medical and surgical practice in all its branches.

" As regards medicine, Oxford has been for the last dozen years providing what it considers the best possible education. The practical difficulty which prevents many from taking advantage of it is the long duration of the total period of study. The Oxford student of medicine must spend some six or seven years, reckoned from the date of matriculation to the completion of his hospital work. This time cannot be shortened with advantage. For those who come with the income to which Mr. Rhodes's munificent bequest affords this difficulty will scarcely exist. The scholarship will abundantly provide for the years spent in Oxford and enable its holders to compete with advantage for the Hospital Scholarships which have been already mentioned."

{n) The Rev. W. Greswell, M.A., wrote to the Times on April 9th as follows : — " A scholarship foundation given during his lifetime by the Right Hon. C. J- Rhodes has already been in force at the Diocesan College, Rondebosch, near Cape Town. This year two members of the college — W. T. Yeoman and F. Reid — have been awarded ^175 per annum

I direct my Trustees to establish certain Scholarships and these Scholarships I some-

and ^125 per annum respectively in order to help them to go to one of the colleges at Oxford and continue the studies they have begun at the Cape. Originally the endowment was of ^^250 per annum for a single scholarship, tenable for three years at Oxford; but quite recently, by an additional act of generosity on the part of the donor, ;^5o per annum was added to the value of the scholarship, bringing it up to £,2,^0 per annum. At the same time a discretionary power was given to the Diocesan College to apportion the whole sum, pro hac vice, between the first two competitors, if it seemed ex- pedient to do so and if the parents were willing and able to add something of their own. For Mr. Rhodes always thought that a student coming to Oxford should have a thoroughly sufficient, if not good, allowance, in order that he might enter into every phase of University life without the ever-present thought of the 'res angusta domi.' The scholars-elect are still continuing their studies at the college at Rondebosch until such time as they are ready to proceed to Oxford in 1903. Mr. Rhodes made, in the case of the Diocesan College, some- what the same stipulation as to tests and proficiency as in his subsequent magnificent endowments."

The Bursar of Christ Church being questioned as to the point whether the ^^300 a year would close the gates of Christ Church to the Rhodes scholars, Mr. Skene pointed out that it all depended on the question whether the ^300 a year was to keep the scholars the whole year through, both in term time at the University and in vacation elsewhere, or merely during the University years of six months. " If the latter," he said, " then ;^3oo a year will keep them comfortably enough at Christ Church, and will enable them to enter into the social and varied life of the House. But if this amount is also to serve for vacation expenses, the balance left for the University will make it impossible, or, at any rate, inadvisable, for them to come to Christ Church."

A senior member of Oriel says Mr. Rhodes contemplated that the sum he provides shall be sufficient to maintain the recipients, together with their personal expenses, travelling, clothing, etc., and to enable them to mix freely in the society of the place and take a position amongst men who are well equipped in this world's goods. An ordinary young man at Oxford^ — I don't say at this college — would be comfortably oif with an allowance of ^^250 a year, and many parents allow



times hereinafter refer to as Scholarships. "(^)

the Colonial

their sons that amount. Mr. Rhodes makes it ;^3oo — probably he took into consideration that people coming from abroad would have to face extra expenditure in the shape of travelling expenses.

{0) Mr. Stevenson, of Exeter College, says there already exists in Oxford a small Colonial club for occasional meetings and dinners and the supply of friendly information. But the Colonials whom I have known very readily merge in the surrounding mass of undergraduates. There are several Colonials and Americans, for example, at Balliol, and Corpus, and Lincoln, and St. John's, Morally they are strong men, and they are popular. Then they are good athletes. We had two Americans in the boat this year. If Mr. Rhodes's trust should be the means of our getting some gigantic Colonials — or even Boers, for he excludes no race — who can do great things, say, at putting the weight, we may be able to wipe out Cambridge altogether ! All Oxonians would agree that that would be a great achievement.

rhotogmpli l'y\

Oriel College, Oxford.

Taunt, O.x/ord.


The Colonial Scholar- ships.

The appropriation of the Colonial Scholarships and the numbers to be annually filled up shall be In accordance with the foliovving table : —

[Total No. Appro- priated.

South Africa 24

Australasia . 21


Atlantic lands ,


West Indies 3 Total . 60

To be tenable by Students of or from


The South African Col- 1 lege School in the I Colony of the Capef of Good Hope. I The Stellenbosch C0I-] lege School in the , same Colony J

The Diocesan College School of Ronde- bosch in the same Colony St. Andrew's CoUegel : . School Grahams-? town ) I

3 The Colony of Natal^i in the same Colony) 3 The Colony of Nevv^ South Wales V

3 I The Colony of Victoria 3 I The Colony of South ( Australia S

3 The Colony of Queens- ( land j

3 j The Colony of Western/! Australia S

The Colony of Tas-( mania S

The Colony of New^ Zealand S

The Province of Ontario in the Dominion of Canada The Province of Quebec in the Dominion of Canada The Colony or Island of Newfoundland and its Depen- dencies The Colony or Islands

of the Bermudas The Colony or Island) of Jamaica )

No. of Scholarships to be Filled up in each Year.

3 and no more I and no more

1 and no more^

I and no more

I and no more

I and no more

I and no more I and no more I and no more

I and no more

I and no more

I and no more

I and no more

I and no more I and no more

I and no more

I and no more I and no more

20 f ;^^



I further direct my Trustees to establish American additional Scholarships sufficient in number for ghips.^'^ the appropriation in the next following clause hereof directed and those Scholarships I some-

(/) The following is a list of Colonies to which no Scholarships have been appropriated : —


Canada ...

Nova Scotia

New Brunswick Prince Edward Island


North-West Territories British Columbia


Indian Ocean

fiibraltar Malta ... Cyprus...

Mauritius Ceylon ...

White. 459,000 331,000 103,250 246,500 220,000


^'est Indies



Leeward Islands


Windward Islands ...




Trinidad and Tobago





264, 000

10,000 10,000

about 100,000


38,000 122,500

92,500 180,000 262,000

095,000 179,000


360,000 3,562,000

Far East


New Guinea Hong Kong

Indian Empire



The following is the population of have been allotted : —

South Africa



Atlantic Islands West Indies


Cape Colony


New South Wales


South Australia... Queensland Western Australia New Zealand




Newfoundland ...































to which scholarships






II, coo

... 800,000






... 865,000


































Total 9,075,900 4,384,100 60

Thus a population of 13,460,000 persons in the British Colonies is allotted 60 scholarships. A population of 76,000,000 in the United States is only allowed loo scholarships. But a population of 7,405,000 persons, excluding India, Nigeria and Egypt, are allottetl no scholarships at all. The average of scholarships to population is one in 760,000 in the United States, and one in 224,000 in the fifteen British Colonies to which they have been allotted. If the omitted British Colonies were dealt with on the same scale as the fifteen, 33 new scholarships would have to be founded.



times hereinafter refer to as " the American Scholarships."

I appropriate two of the American Scholar- ships to each of the present States and Territories of the United States of North America, [q] Pro-

{ij) The following is a list of the States and Territories of the United States, with their population at the time of the last census : —

Population — United States, 1900.














Kentucky .


Maine .




Minnesota .

Mississippi .




Nevada .

New Hampshire

New Jersey .

New York .

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio . .

Oregon .


POPULATION. 1,828,697


















2 420,982

1,751,394 1,551,270 3,106,665

243,329 1,068,539

42,335 411,588









Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah . . Vermont . Virginia . Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming .

428,556 1,340,316

401,570 2,020,616 3,048,710








45 States. Total 74,610,523

Territories, etc

Alaska . Arizona District of Col- \

umbia . j Hawaii . Indian Terri-^

tory . . 5 New Mexico . Oklahama . Persons ini


Stationed I

Abroad. I 5 Territories.

U.S. Total . .

63,441 122,931




195,310 398,245




vided that if any of the said Territories shall in my lifetime be admitted as a State the Scholarships appropriated to such Territory shall be appropriated to such State and that my Trustees may in their uncontrolled dis- cretion withhold for such time as they shall think fit the appropriation of Scholarships to any Territory,

I direct that of the two Scholarships appropriated to a State or Territory not more than one shall be filled up in any year so that at no time shall more than two Scholar- ships be held for the same State or Terri- tory, (r)

By Codicil executed in South Africa Mr. German Rhodes after stating that the German Emperor Scholar- had made instruction in English compulsory in German schools establishes fifteen Scholarships at Oxford (five in each of the first three years after his death) of ^250 each tenable for three years for students of German birth to be nomi- nated by the German Emperor for "a good understanding between England Germany and the United States of America will secure the

(r) Mr. Stevenson, of Exeter College, told an interviewer recently a good story of an American who came to Oxford without a scholarship or other aid. He was a wild Westerner, and unceremoniously walked into a college one day and asked to see the Head. He then asked to be admitted on the books. He had no particular references, but clearly was a strong man. After some time he was admitted. He read hard and played hard. In the long vacation he returned to America and worked for his living — at one time as a foreman of bricklayers — and brought back enough money to go on with. In the Christmas " vac." he went to America and lectured on Oxford and England, and again brought back more money. And so he gradually kept his terms and eventually took double honours. " He was very well read : most interesting : most enthusiastic. We could do with many like him."


peace of the world and educational relations form the strongest tie." (5) The selec- My desire being that the students who shall

scholars/ ^^ elected to the Scholarships shall not be merely bookworms I direct that in the election of a student to a Scholarship regard shall be had to

  • The four (i.) his literary and scholastic attainments

quahfica- ^jj^^ ]^jg fQ^Jnggs of and success in manly

outdoor sports such as cricket football and the like

(iii.) his qualities of manhood truth courage devotion to duty sympathy for the protection of the weak kindliness unselfishness and fellowship and

(iv.) his exhibition during- school days of moral force of character and of instincts to lead and to take an interest in his school- mates for those latter attributes will be likely in after-life to guide him to esteem the per- formance of public duty as his highest aim.

{s) I am assured, says the Daily Telegraph Berlin corre- spondent, that Kaiser Wilhelm himself was much struck by the donor's generosity, and by the motives which actuated him in thinking of Germany in this way. His Majesty was specially touched by the attention shown to himself, and forthwith signified his intention to comply with the stipulation that candidates for the scholarships should be nominated by himself. Tn due time they will be so selected by the Kaiser,

Mr. W, G, Black, of Glasgow, writes to the Spectator : — " Mr. Rhodes seems to have been impressed by the German Emperor's direction that English should be taught in the schools of Germany. It may not be uninteresting to note that his Majesty's first action on receiving Heligoland from Great Britain was to prohibit the teaching of English in the island schools. That was in 1890. The prohibition was bitterly resented by the people, who had since 18 10 been subjects of the British Crown, but they were, of course^ powerless,"


Apportion- As mere suggestions for the guidance of those

marks! ^\\o will have the choice of students for the

Scholarships I record that (i.) my ideal qualified student would combine these four qualifications in the proportions of three-tenths for the first two-tenths for the second three-tenths for the third and two-tenths for the fourth qualification so that according to my ideas if the maximum number of marks for any Scholarship were 200 they would be apportioned as follows — 60 to each of the first and third qualifications and 40 to each of the second and fourth qualifications (ii.) the marks for the several qualifications would be awarded independently as follows (that is to say) the marks for the first qualification by examination for the second and third qualifica- tions respectively by ballot by the fellow-students of the candidates and for the fourth qualification by the head master of the candidate's school and (iii.) the results of the awards (that is to say the marks obtained by each candidate for each qualification) would be sent as soon as possible for consideration to the Trustees or to some person or persons appointed to receive the same and the person or persons so appointed would ascertain by averaging the marks in blocks of 20 marks each of all candidates the best ideal quali- fied students, {t)

{t) The following account of the discussion which took place when the proportion of marks was finally settled is quoted from the Review of Reviews, May, 1902, p. 480. The discussion is reported by Mr. Stead, who was present with Mr. Rhodes and Mr. Hawksley : —

Then, later on, when Mr. Hawksley came in, we had a long discussion concerning the number of marks to be allotted under each of the heads.

Mr. Rhodes said : " I'll take a piece of paper. I have got my three things. You know the way I put them," he said


No Student shall be qualified or disqualified for No Racial election to a Scholarship on account of his race or Tests. '^*°"^ religious opinions.

Except in the cases of the four schools herein- Method of before mentioned the election to Scholarships shall be by the Trustees after such (if any) con- sultation as they shall think fit with the Minister


laughing, as he wrote down the points. " First, there are the three qualities. You know I am all against letting the scholar- ships merely to people who swot over books, who have spent all their time over Latin and Greek. But you must allow for that element which I call * smug,' and which means scholar- ship. That is to stand for four-tenths. Then there is ' brutality,' which stands for two-tenths. Then there is tact and leadership, again two-tenths, and then there is * unctuous rectitude,' two-tenths. That makes up the whole. You see how it works."

Then Mr. Hawksley read the draft clause, the idea of which was suggested by Lord Rosebery, I think. The scheme as drafted ran somewhat in this way :—

A scholarship tenable at Oxford for three years at ^{^300 a year is to be awarded to the scholars at some particular school in the Colony or State. The choice of the candidate ultimately rests with the trustees, who, on making their choice, must be governed by the following considerations. Taking one thousand marks as representing the total, four hundred should be allotted for an examination in scholarship, conducted in the ordinary manner on the ordinary subjects. Two hundred shall be awarded for proficiency in manly sports, for the purpose of securing physical excellence. Two hundred shall be awarded (and this is the most interesting clause of all) to those who, in their intercourse with their fellows, have dis- played most of the qualities of tact and skill which go to the management of men, who have shown a public spirit in the affairs of their school or their class, who are foremost in the defence of the weak and the friendless, and who display those moral qualities which qualify them to be regarded as capable leaders of men. The remaining two hundred would be vested in the headmaster.

The marks in the first category would be awarded by com- petitive examination in the ordinary manner ; in the second and third categories the candidate would be selected by the vote of his fellows in the school. The headmaster would of


having the control of education in such Colony, Province, State or Territory. Time of A qualified student who has been elected as

SdencT^ aforesaid shall within six calendar months after his election or as soon thereafter as he can be admitted into residence or within such extended time as my Trustees shall allow commence

course vote alone. It is provided that the vote of the scholars should be taken by ballot ; that the headmaster should nomi- nate his candidate before the result of the competitive examina- tion under (i), or of the ballot under (2) and (3) was known, and the ballot would take place before the result of the competitive examination was known, so that the trustees would have before them the names of the first scholar judged by competitive examination, the first selected for physical excellence and for moral qualities, and the choice of the headmaster. The candidate under each head would be selected without any knowledge as to who would come out on top in the other categories. To this Mr. Rhodes had objected on the ground that it gave " unctuous rectitude " a casting vote, and he said "unctuous rectitude" would always vote for " smug," and the physical and moral qualities would go by the board. To this I added the further objection that " smug" and "brutality" might tie, and "unctuous rectitude " might nominate a third person, who was selected neither by " smug " nor " unctuous rectitude," with the result that there would be a tie, and the trustees would have to choose without any information upon which to base their judgment. So I insisted, illustrating it by an imaginary voting paper, that the only possible way to avoid these difficulties was for the trustees or the returning officer to be furnished not merely with the single name which heads each of the four categories, but with the result of the ballot to five or even ten down, and that the headmaster should nominate in order of preference the same number. The marks for the first five or ten in the competitive examination would of course also be recorded, and in that case the choice would be automatic. The scholar selected would be the one who had the majority of marks, and it might easily happen that the successful candidate was one who was not top in any one of the categories. Mr. Rhodes strongly supported this view, and Mr. Hawksley concurred, and a clause is to be prepared stating that all the votes rendered at any rate for the first five or ten should be notified to the trustees, and also the


P!iotograf>lt by\

Mr. B. F. Hawksley.

VE. H. Mills.

D 2



residence as an undergraduate at some college in the University of Oxford.

The scholarships shall be payable to him from the time when he shall commence such residence.

I desire that the Scholars holding the scholar- Scholars to ships shall be distributed amongst the Colleges of t>e distri- the University of Oxford and not resort in undue coUeges!""^ numbers to one or more Colleges only.

order of precedence for five or ten to the headmaster. Mr. Rhodes then said he did not see why the trustees need have any responsibility in the matter, except in case of dispute, when their decision should be final. This I strongly supported, saying that provided the headmaster had to prepare his list before the result in the balloting or competition was known, he might be constituted returning officer, or, if need be, one of the head boys might be empowered to act with him, and then the award of the scholarship would be a simple sum in arith- metic. There would be no delay, and nothing would be done to weaken the interest. As soon as the papers were all in the marks could be counted up, and the scholarship proclaimed.

First I raised the question as to whether the masters should be allowed to vote. Mr. Rhodes said it did not matter. There would only be fourteen in a school of six hundred boys, and their votes would not count. I said that they would have a weight far exceeding their numerical strength, for if they were excluded from any voice they would not take the same interest that they would if they had a vote, while their judgment would be a rallying point for the judgment of the scholars. I protested against making the masters Outlanders, depriving them of votes, and treating them like political helots, at which Rhodes laughed. But he was worse than Kruger, and would not give them the franchise on any terms.

Then Mr. Hawksley said he was chiefly interested in the third category — that is, moral qualities of leadership. I said yes, it was the best and the most distinctive character of Mr. Rhodes's school ; that I was an outside barbarian, never having been to a university or a public school, and therefore I spoke with all deference ; but speaking as an outside barbarian, and knowing Mr. Rhodes's strong feeling against giving too much preponderance to mere literary ability, I thought it would be much better to alter the proportion of marks to be awarded for " smug" and moral qualities respectively, that is to say, I would reduce the " smug " to 200 votes, and put 400




The Annual Dinner.

Notwithstanding anything hereinbefore con- tained my Trustees may in their uncontrolled discretion suspend for such time as they shall think fit or remove any Scholar irom his Scholarship.

In order that the Scholars past and present may have opportunities of meeting and discussing their experiences and prospects I desire that my Trustees shall annually give a dinner to the past and present Scholars able and willing to attend at

on to moral qualities. Against this both Mr. Rhodes and Mr. Hawksley protested, Mr. Rhodes objecting that in that case the vote of the scholars would be the deciding factor, and the " smug " and " unctuous rectitude " would be outvoted. If brutality and moral qualities united their votes they would poll 600, as against 400.

It v/as further objected, both Mr. Rhodes and Mr. Hawks- ley drawing upon their own reminiscences of school-days, that hero-worship prevailed to such an extent among schoolboys that a popular idol, the captain of an eleven, or the first in his boat, might be voted in although he had no moral qualities at all. Mr. Hawksley especially insisted upon the importance of having a good share of culture in knowledge of Greek and Roman and English history. Then I proposed as a com- promise that we should equalise " smug " and moral qualities. Mr. Rhodes accepted this, Mr. Hawksley rather reproaching him for being always ready to make a deal. But Mr. Rhodes pointed out that he had resisted the enfranchisement of the masters, who were to be helots, and he had also refused to reduce "smug" to 200, and thought 300 was a fair com- promise. So accordingly it was fixed that it had to be 300 — 300 for " smug" and 300 for moral qualities, while " unctuous rectitude " and " biutahty " are left with 200 each.

We all agreed that this should be done, half the marks are at the disposal of the voting of the scholars, the other half for competition and the headmaster. It also emphasises the importance of qualities entirely ignored in the ordinary com- petitive examinations, which was Mr. Rhodes's great idea. Mr Rhodes was evidently pleased with the change, for just as we were leaving the hotel he called Mr. Hawksley back and said, " Remember, three-tenths," so three-tenths it is to be.



which I hope my Trustees or some of them will be able to be present and to which they will I hope from time to time invite as guests persons who have shown sympathy with the views expressed by me in this my Will.

(6.) The Dalham Hall Estate.

The Dalham Hall Estate {it) is by Codicil dated January i8th 1902 strictly settled on Colonel Francis Rhodes and his heirs male with remainder to Captain Ernest Frederick Rhodes and his heirs male.

The Codicil contains the following clause : —

Whereas I feel that it is the essence of a proper life that every man should during some substantial period thereof have some definite occupation and I object to an expectant heir developing into what I call a " loafer."

And whereas the rental of the Dalham Hall Estate is not more than sufficient for the mainten- ance of the estate and my experience is that one of the things making for the strength of England is the ownership of country estates which could maintain the dignity and comfort of the head of the family but that this position has been abso- lutely ruined by the practice of creating charges upon the estates either for younger children or for the payment of debts whereby the estates become insufficient to maintain the head of the family in dignity and comfort.

And whereas I humbly believe that one of the secrets of England's strength has been the existence of a class termed " the country land-

{u) Dalham Hall Estate was purchased by Mr. Rhodes the year before his death. It is situate in Suifolk, not far from Newmarket, and is 3,475 acres in extent.


essence of a proper life."

On encum- bered Estates.

Country landlords the strength of England.



Conditions of tenure.

No encum- brance.

lords " who devote their efforts to the maintenance of those on their own property, {v) And whereas this is my own experience. Now therefore I direct that if any person who under the Hmitations hereinbefore contained shall become entitled as tenant for life or as tenant in tail male by purchase to the possession or to the receipt of the rents and profits of the Dalham Hall Estate shall attempt to assign charge or incumber his interest in the Dalham Hall Estate or any part thereof or shall do or permit any act or thing or any event shall happen by or in consequence of which he would cease to be entitled to such interest if

(v~) In the Fortnightly Review for May, 1902, Mr. Iwan- Miiller gives the following account of the reasons which Mr. Rhodes gave him for preferring country landlords to manufacturers : — " He told nie how during a recent visit to England he had stayed with an English country gentleman of very large estotes.

" ' I went about with him,' he said in effect, although I do not profess to be able to recall the exact wording of his sentences, 'and I discovered diat he knew the history and personal circumstances of every man, woman, and child upon his property. He was as well instructed in their pedigrees as themselves, and could tell how long every tenant or even labourer had been connected with the estate, and what had happened to any of them in the course of their lives. From there T went on to a successful manufacturer, a man of high .standing and benevolent disposition. He took me over his works, and explained the machinery and the different improve- ments that had been made, with perfect familiarity with his subject, but, except as to the heads of departments, foremen and the like, he absolutely knew nothing whatever about the lives and conditions of his " hands." Now,' he added, ' my manufacturing friend was a more progressive man, and probably a more capable man than my landlord friend. Yet the very necessities of the latter's position compelled him to discharge duties of the existence of which the other had no idea. The manufacturer built schools and endowed libraries, and received reports as to their management, but he never knew, or cared to know, what effect his philanthropy had upon the individual beneficiaries.' "



Ten years' work.

Serve in Militia or Volunteers.

the same were given to him absolutely or if any such person as aforesaid (excepting in this case my said brothers Francis Rhodes and Ernest Frederick Rhodes) (i) shall not when he shall become so entitled as aforesaid have been for at least ten consecutive years engaged in some profession or business or (ii.) if not then engaged in some profession or business and (such profes- sion or business not being that of the Army) not then also a member of some militia or volunteer corps shall not within one year after becoming so entitled as aforesaid or (being an infant) within one year after attaining the age of twenty-one years whichever shall last happen unless in any case prevented by death become engaged in some profession or business and (such profession or business not being that of the Army) also become a member of some militia or volunteer corps or (iii.) shall discontinue to be engaged in any profession or business before he shall have been engaged for ten consecutive years in some profession or business then and in every such case and forthwith if such person shall be tenant for life then his estate for life shall absolutely deter- mine and if tenant in tail male then his estate in tail male shall absolutely determine and the Forfeiture of Dalham Hall Estate shall but subject to estates if title, any prior to the estate of such person immediately go to the person next in remainder under the limitations hereinbefore contained in the same manner as if in the case of a person whose estate for life is so made to determine that person were dead or in the case of a person whose estate in tail male is so made to determine were dead and there were a general failure of issue of that person inheritable to the estate which is so made to determine.



Provided that the determination of an estate for Hfe shall not prejudice or effect any contingent remainders expectant thereon and that after such determination the Dalham Hall Estate shall but subject to estates if any prior as aforesaid remain to the use of the Trustees appointed by my said Will and the Codicil thereto dated the iith day of October 1901 during the residue of the life of the person whose estate for life so determines upon trust during the residue of the life of that person to pay the rents and profits of the Dalham Hall Estate to or present the same to be received by the person or persons for the time being entitled under the limitations hereinbefore contained to the first vested estate in remainder expectant on the death of that person.

After various private dispositions Mr. Rhodes in his original will left the residue of his real and personal estate to the Earl of Rosebery, Earl Grey, Alfred Beit, William Thomas Stead, Lewis Lloyd Michell and Bourchier Francis Hawksley absolutely as joint tenants.

The same persons were also appointed executors and trustees.

In a Codicil dated January, 1901, Mr. Rhodes directed that the name of W. T. Stead should be removed from the list of his executors.

In a second Codicil dated October, 1901, Mr. Rhodes added the name of Lord Milner to the list of joint tenants, executors and trustees.

In a third Codicil, dated March, 1902, Mr. Rhodes appointed Dr. Jameson as one of his trustees, with all the rights of other trustees.

This work was published before January 1, 1925, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.