Latin for beginners (1911)/Latin-English vocabulary

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Table of contents A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Translations inclosed within parentheses are not to be used as such; they are inserted to show etymological meanings.


ā or ab, prep. with abl. from, by, off. Translated on in ā dextrō cornū, on the right wing; ā fronte, on the front or in front; ā dextrā, on the right; ā latere, on the side; etc.
ab-dō, -ere, -didī, -ditus, hide, conceal
ab-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus, lead off, lead away
abs-cīdō, -ere, -cīdī, -cīsus [ab(s), off, + caedō, cut], cut off
ab-sum, -esse, āfuī, āfutūrus, be away, be absent, be distant, be off; with ā or ab and abl., §501.32
ac, conj., see atque
ac-cipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus [ad, to, + capiō, take], receive, accept
ācer, ācris, ācre, adj. sharp; figuratively, keen, active, eager (§471)
acerbus, -a, -um, adj. bitter, sour
aciēs, -ēī, f. [ācer, sharp], edge; line of battle
ācriter, adv. [ācer, sharp], compared ācrius, ācerrimē, sharply, fiercely
ad, prep. with acc. to, towards, near. With the gerund or gerundive, to, for
ad-aequō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, make equal, make level with
ad-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus, lead to; move, induce
ad-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus, go to, approach, draw near, visit, with acc. (§413)
ad-ferō, ad-ferre, at-tulī, ad-lātus, bring, convey; report, announce; render, give (§426)
ad-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [ad, to, + faciō, do], affect, visit
adflīctātus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of adflīctō, shatter], shattered
ad-flīgō, -ere, -flīxī, -flīctus, dash upon, strike upon; harass, distress
ad-hibeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [ad, to, + habeō, hold], apply, employ, use
ad-hūc, adv. hitherto, as yet, thus far
aditus, -ūs, m. [adeō, approach], approach, access; entrance. Cf. adventus
ad-ligō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, bind to, fasten
ad-loquor, -loquī, -locūtus sum, dep. verb [ad, to, + loquor, speak], speak to, address, with acc.
ad-ministrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, manage, direct
admīrātiō, -ōnis, f. [admīror, wonder at], admiration, astonishment
ad-moveō, -ēre, -mōvī, -mōtus, move to; apply, employ
ad-propinquō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, come near, approach, with dat.
ad-sum, -esse, -fuī, -futūrus, be present; assist; with dat., §426
adulēscēns, -entis, m. and f. [part. of adolēscō, grow], a youth, young man, young person
adventus, -ūs, m. [ad, to, + veniō, come], approach, arrival (§466)
adversus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of advertō, turn to], turned towards, facing; contrary, adverse. rēs adversae, adversity
aedificium, aedifi'cī, n. [aedificō, build], building, edifice
aedificō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [aedēs, house, + faciō, make], build
aeger, aegra, aegrum, adj. sick, feeble
aequālis, -e, adj. equal, like. As a noun, aequālis, -is, m. or f. one of the same age
aequus, -a, -um, adj. even, level; equal
Aesōpus, -ī, m. Æsop, a writer of fables
aestās, -ātis, f. summer. initā aestāte, at the beginning of summer
aetās, -ātis, f. age
Aethiopia, -ae, f. Ethiopia, a country in Africa
Āfrica, -ae, f. Africa
Āfricānus, -a, -um, adj. of Africa. A name given to Scipio for his victories in Africa
ager, agrī, m. field, farm, land (§462.c)
agger, -eris, m. mound
agmen, -inis, n. [agō, drive], an army on the march, column. prīmum agmen, the van
agō, -ere, ēgī, āctus, drive, lead; do, perform. vītam agere, pass life
agricola, -ae, m. [ager, field, + colō, cultivate], farmer
agrī cultūra, -ae, f. agriculture
āla, -ae, f. wing
alacer, -cris, -cre, adj. active, eager. Cf. ācer
alacritās, -ātis, f. [alacer, active], eagerness, alacrity
alacriter, adv. [alacer, active], comp alacrius, alacerrimē, actively, eagerly
albus, -a, -um, adj., white
alcēs, -is, f. elk
Alcmēna, -ae, f. Alcme'na, the mother of Hercules
aliquis (-quī), -qua, -quid (-quod), indef. pron. some one, some (§487)
alius, -a, -ud (gen. -īus, dat. ), adj. another, other. alius … alius, one … another. aliī … aliī, some … others (§110)
Alpēs, -ium, f. plur. the Alps
alter, -era, -erum (gen. -īus, dat. -ī), adj. the one, the other (of two), alter … alter, the one … the other (§ 110)
altitūdō, -inis, f. [altus, high], height
altus, -a, -um, adj. high, tall, deep
Amāzonēs, -um, f. plur. Amazons, a fabled tribe of warlike women
ambō, -ae, -ō, adj. (decl. like duo), both
amīcē, adv. [amīcus, friendly], superl. amīcissimē, in a friendly manner
amiciō, -īre, ——, -ictus [am-, about, + iaciō, throw], throw around, wrap about, clothe
amīcitia, -ae, f. [amīcus, friend], friendship
amīcus, -a, -um, adj. [amō, love], friendly. As a noun, amīcus, -ī, m. friend
ā-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus, send away; lose
amō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, love, like, be fond of (§488)
amphitheātrum, -ī, n. amphitheater
amplus, -a, -um, adj. large, ample; honorable, noble
an, conj. or, introducing the second part of a double question
ancilla, -ae, f. maidservant
ancora, -ae, f. anchor
Andromeda, -ae, f. Androm'eda, daughter of Cepheus and wife of Perseus
angulus, -ī, m. angle, corner
anim-advertō, -ere, -tī, -sus [animus, mind, + advertō, turn to], turn the mind to, notice
animal, -ālis, n. [anima, breath], animal (§465.b)
animōsus, -a, -um, adj. spirited
animus, -ī, m. [anima, breath], mind, heart; spirit, courage, feeling, in this sense often plural
annus, -ī, m. year
ante, prep. with acc. before
anteā, adv. [ante], before, formerly
antīquus, -a, -um, adj. [ante, before], former, ancient, old
aper, aprī, m. wild boar
Apollō, -inis, m. Apollo, son of Jupiter and Latona, brother of Diana
ap-pāreō, -ēre, -uī, —— [ad + pāreō, appear], appear
ap-pellō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, call by name, name. Cf. nōminō, vocō
Appius, -a, -um, adj. Appian
ap-plicō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, apply, direct, turn
apud, prep. with acc. among; at, at the house of
aqua, -ae, f. water
aquila, -ae, f. eagle
āra, -ae, f. altar
arbitror, -ārī, -ātus sum, think, suppose (§420.c). Cf. exīstimō, putō
arbor, -oris, f. tree (§247.1.a)
Arcadia, -ae, f. Arcadia, a district in southern Greece
ārdeō, -ēre, ārsī, ārsūrus, be on fire, blaze, burn
arduus, -a, -um, adj. steep
Arīcia, -ae, f. Aricia, a town on the Appian Way, near Rome [ram
ariēs, -etis, m. battering-ram (p. 221),
arma, -ōrum, n. plur. arms, armor, weapons. Cf. tēlum
armātus, -a, -um, adj. [armō, arm], armed, equipped
arō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, plow, till
ars, artis, f. art, skill
articulus, -ī, m. joint
ascrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scrīptus [ad, in addition, + scrībō, write], enroll, enlist
Āsia, -ae, f. Asia, i.e. Asia Minor
at, conj. but. Cf. autem, sed
Athēnae, -ārum, f. plur. Athens
Atlās, -antis, m. Atlas, a Titan who was said to hold up the sky
at-que, ac, conj. and, and also, and what is more. atque may be used before either vowels or consonants, ac before consonants only
attentus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of attendō, direct (the mind) toward], attentive, intent on, careful
at-tonitus, -a, -um, adj. thunderstruck, astounded
audācia, -ae, f. [audāx, bold], boldness, audacity
audācter, adv. [audāx, bold], compared audācius, audācissimē, boldly
audāx, -ācis, adj. bold, daring
audeō, -ēre, ausus sum, dare
audiō, -īre, -īvī or -iī, -ītus, hear, listen to (§§420.d, 491)
Augēās, -ae, m. Auge´as, a king whose stables Hercules cleaned
aura, -ae, f. air, breeze
aurātus, -a, -um, adj. [aurum, gold], adorned with gold
aureus, -a, -um, adj. [aurum, gold], golden
aurum, -ī, n. gold
aut, conj. or. aut … aut, either … or
autem, conj., usually second, never first, in the clause, but, moreover, however, now. Cf. at, sed
auxilium, auxi´lī, n. help, aid, assistance; plur. auxiliaries
ā-vertō, -ere, -tī, -sus, turn away, turn aside
avis, -is, f. bird (§243.1)


ballista, -ae, f. ballista, an engine for hurling missiles (p. 220)
balteus, -ī, m. belt, sword belt
barbarus, -ī, m. barbarian, savage
bellum, -ī, n. war. bellum īnferre, with dat. make war upon
bene, adv. [for bonē, from bonus], compared melius, optimē, well
benignē, adv. [benignus, kind], compared benignius, benignissimē, kindly
benignus, -a, -um, adj. good-natured, kind, often used with dat.
bīnī, -ae, -a, distributive numeral adj. two each, two at a time (§334)
bis, adv. twice
bonus, -a, -um, adj. compared melior, optimus, good, kind (§469.a)
bōs, bovis (gen. plur. boum or bovum, dat. and abl. plur. bōbus or būbus), m. and f. ox, cow
bracchium, bracchī, n. arm
brevis, -e, adj. short
Brundisium, -ī, n. Brundisium, a seaport in southern Italy. See map
bulla, -ae, f. bulla, a locket made of small concave plates of metal fastened by a spring (p. 212)


C. abbreviation for Gāius, Eng. Caius
cadō, -ere, ce'cidī, cāsūrus, fall
caedēs, -is, f. [caedō, cut], (a cutting down), slaughter, carnage (§465.a)
caelum, -ī, n. sky, heavens
Caesar, -aris, m. Cæsar, the famous general, statesman, and writer
calamitās, -ātis, f . loss, calamity, defeat, disaster
calcar, -āris, n. spur (§465.b)
Campānia, -ae, f. Campania, a district of central Italy. See map
Campānus, -a, -um, adj. of Campania
campus, -ī, m. plain, field, esp. the Campus Martius, along the Tiber just outside the walls of Rome
canis, -is, m. and f. dog
canō, -ere, ce´cinī, ——, sing
cantō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [canō, sing], sing
Capēnus, -a, -um, adj. of Capena, esp. the Porta Cape´na, the gate at Rome leading to the Appian Way
capiō, -ere, cēpī, captus, take, seize, capture (§492)
Capitōlīnus, -a, -um, adj. belonging to the Capitol, Capitoline
Capitōlium, Capitō´lī, n. [caput, head], the Capitol, the hill at Rome on which stood the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus and the citadel
capsa, -ae, f. box for books
captīvus, -ī, m. [capiō, take], captive
Capua, -ae, f. Capua, a large city of Campania. See map
caput, -itis, n. head (§464.2.b)
carcer, -eris, m. prison, jail
carrus, -ī, m. cart, wagon
cārus, -a, -um, adj. dear, precious
casa, -ae, f. hut, cottage
castellum, -ī, n. [dim. of castrum, fort], redoubt, fort
castrum, -ī, n. fort. Usually in the plural, castra, -ōrum, a military camp. castra pōnere, to pitch camp
cāsus, -ūs, m. [cadō, fall], chance; misfortune, loss
catapulta, -ae, f. catapult, an engine for hurling stones
catēna, -ae, f. chain
caupōna, -ae, f. inn
causa, -ae, f. cause, reason, quā dē causā, for this reason
cēdō, -ere, cessī, cessūrus, give way, retire
celer, -eris, -ere, adj. swift, fleet
celeritās, -ātis, f. [celer, swift], swiftness, speed
celeriter, adv. [celer, swift], compared celerius, celerrimē, swiftly
cēna, -ae, f. dinner
centum, indecl. numeral adj. hundred
centuriō, -ōnis, m. centurion, captain
Cēpheus (dissyl.), -eī (acc. Cēphea), m. Cepheus, a king of Ethiopia and father of Andromeda
Cerberus, -ī, m. Cerberus, the fabled three-headed dog that guarded the entrance to Hades
certāmen, -inis, n. [certō, struggle], struggle, contest, rivalry
certē, adv. [certus, sure], compared certius, certissimē, surely, certainly
certus, -a, -um, adj. fixed, certain, sure. aliquem certiōrem facere (to make some one more certain), to inform some one
cervus, -ī, m. stag, deer
cessō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, delay, cease
cibāria, -ōrum, n. plur. food, provisions
cibus, -ī, m. food, victuals
Cimbrī, -ōrum, m. plur. the Cimbri
Cimbricus, -a, -um, adj. Cimbrian
cīnctus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of cingō, surround], girt, surrounded
cingō, -ere, cīnxī, cīnctus, gird, surround
circiter, adv. about
circum, prep. with acc. around
circum'-dō, -dare, -dedī, -datus, place around, surround, inclose
circum'-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus, go around
circum-sistō, -ere, circum'stetī, ——, stand around, surround
circum-veniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventus (come around), surround
citerior, -ius, adj. in comp., superl. citimus, hither, nearer (§475)
cīvīlis, -e, adj. [cīvis], civil
cīvis, -is, m. and f. citizen (§243.1)
cīvitās, -ātis, f. [cīvis, citizen], (body of citizens), state; citizenship
clāmor, -ōris, m. shout, cry
clārus, -a, -um, adj. clear; famous, renowned; bright, shining
classis, -is, f. fleet
claudō, -ere, -sī, -sus, shut, close
clāvus, -ī, m. stripe
cliēns, -entis, m. dependent, retainer, client (§465.a)
Cocles, -itis, m. (blind in one eye), Cocles, the surname of Horatius
co-gnōscō, -ere, -gnōvī, -gnitus, learn, know, understand. Cf. sciō (§420.b)
cōgō, -ere, coēgī, coāctus [co(m)-, together, + agō, drive], (drive together), collect; compel, drive
cohors, cohortis, f. cohort, the tenth part of a legion, about 360 men
collis, -is, m. hill, in summō colle, on top of the hill (§247.2.a)
collum, -ī, n. neck
colō, -ere, coluī, cultus, cultivate, till; honor, worship; devote one's self to
columna, -ae, f. column, pillar
com- (col-, con-, cor-, co-), a prefix, together, with, or intensifying the meaning of the root word
coma, -ae, f. hair
comes, -itis, m. and f. [com-, together, + , go], companion, comrade
comitātus, -ūs, m. [comitor, accompany], escort, company
comitor, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb [comes, companion], accompany
com-meātus, -ūs, m. supplies
com-minus, adv. [com-, together, + manus, hand], hand to hand
com-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus, join together; commit, intrust. proelium committere, join battle. sē committere with dat, trust one's self to
commodē, adv. [commodus, fit], compared commodius, commodissimē, conveniently, fitly
commodus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, fit
com-mōtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of commoveō, move], aroused, moved
com-parō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, intensive, + parō, prepare], prepare; provide, get
com-pleō, -ēre, -plēvī, -plētus [com-, intensive, + pleō, fill], fill up
complexus, -ūs, m. embrace
com-primō, -ere, -pressī, -pressus [com-, together, + premō, press], press together, grasp, seize
con-cidō, -ere, -cidī, —— [com-, intensive, + cadō, fall], fall down
concilium, conci'lī, n. meeting, council
con-clūdō, -ere, -clūsī, -clūsus [com-, intensive, + claudō, close], shut up, close; end, finish
con-currō, -ere, -currī, -cursus [com-, together, + currō, run], run together; rally, gather
condiciō, -ōnis, f. [com-, together, + dīcō, talk], agreement, condition, terms
con-dōnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, pardon
con-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus, hire
cōn-ferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātus, bring together. sē cōnferre, betake one's self
cōn-fertus, -a, -um, adj. crowded, thick
cōnfestim, adv. immediately
cōn-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [com-, completely, + faciō, do], make, complete, accomplish , finish
cōn-fīrmō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, make firm, establish, strengthen, affirm, assert
cōn-fluō, -ere, -flūxī, ——, flow together
cōn-fugiō, -ere, -fūgī, -fugitūrus, flee for refuge, flee
con-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus [com-, intensive, + iaciō, throw], hurl
con-iungō, -ere, -iūnxī, -iūnctus [com-, together, + iungō, join], join together, unite
con-iūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, together, + iūrō, swear], unite by oath, conspire
con-locō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, together, + locō, place], arrange, place, station
conloquium, conlo'quī, n. [com-, together, + loquor, speak], conversation, conference
cōnor, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb, endeavor, attempt, try
cōn-scendō, -ere, -scendī, -scēnsus [com-, intensive, + scandō, climb], climb up, ascend. nāvem cōnscendere, embark, go on board
cōn-scrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scrīptus [com-, together, + scrībō, write], (write together), enroll, enlist
cōn-secrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, intensive, + sacrō, consecrate], consecrate, devote
cōn-sequor, -sequī, -secūtus sum, dep. verb [com-, intensive, + sequor, follow], pursue; overtake; win
cōn-servō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, intensive, + servō, save], preserve, save
cōnsilium, cōnsi'lī, n. plan, purpose, design; wisdom
cōn-sistō, -ere, -stitī, -stitus [com-, intensive, + sistō, cause to stand], stand firmly, halt, take one's stand
cōn-spiciō, -ere, -spēxī, -spectus [com-, intensive, + spiciō, spy], look at attentively, perceive, see
cōnstantia, -ae, f. firmness , steadiness, perseverance
cōn-stituō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus [com-, intensive, + statuō, set], establish, determine, resolve
cōn-stō, -āre, -stitī, -stātūrus [com-, together, + stō, stand], agree; be certain; consist of
cōnsul, -ulis, m. consul (§464.2.a)
cōn-sūmō, -ere, -sūmpsī, -sūmptus [com-, intensive, + sūmō, take], consume, use up
con-tendō, -ere, -dī, -tus, strain; hasten; fight, contend, struggle
con-tineō, -ēre, -uī, -tentus [com-, together, + teneō, hold], hold together, hem in, contain; restrain
contrā, prep. with acc. against, contrary to
con-trahō, -ere, -trāxī, -trāctus [com-, together, + trahō, draw], draw together; of sails, shorten, furl
contrōversia, -ae, f. dispute, quarrel
con-veniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventus [com-, together, + veniō, come], come together, meet, assemble
con-vertō, -ere, -vertī, -versus [com-, intensive, + vertō, turn], turn
con-vocō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, together, + vocō, call], call together
co-orior, -īrī, -ortus sum, dep. verb [com-, intensive, + orior, rise], rise, break forth
cōpia, -ae, f. [com-, intensive, + ops, wealth], abundance, wealth, plenty. Plur. cōpiae, -ārum, troops
coquō, -ere, coxī, coctus, cook
Corinthus, -ī, f. Corinth, the famous city on the Isthmus of Corinth
Cornēlia, -ae, f. Cornelia, daughter of Scipio and mother of the Gracchi
Cornēlius, Cornē'lī, m. Cornelius, a Roman name
cornū, -ūs, n. horn; wing of an army, ā dextrō cornū, on the right wing (§466)
corōna, -ae, f. garland, wreath; crown
corōnātus, -a, -um, adj. crowned
corpus, -oris, n. body
cor-ripiō, -ere, -uī, -reptus [com-, intensive, + rapiō, seize], seize, grasp
cotīdiānus, -a, -um, adj. daily
cotīdiē, adv. daily
crēber, -bra, -brum, adj. thick, crowded, numerous, frequent
crēdō, -ere, -didī, -ditus, trust, believe, with dat. (§501.14)
cremō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, burn
creō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, make; elect, appoint
Creōn, -ontis, m. Creon, a king of Corinth
crēscō, -ere, crēvī, crētus, rise, grow, increase
Crēta, -ae, f. Crete, a large island in the Mediterranean
Crētaeus, -a, -um, adj. Cretan
crūs, crūris, n. leg
crūstulum, -ī, n. pastry, cake
cubīle, -is, n. bed
cultūra, -ae, f. culture, cultivation
cum, conj. with the indic, or subjv. when; since; although (§501.46)
cum, prep, with abl. with (§209)
cupidē, adv. [cupidus, desirous], compared cupidius, cupidissimē, eagerly
cupiditās, -ātis, f. [cupidus, desirous], desire, longing
cupiō, -ere, -īvī or -iī, -ītus, desire, wish. Cf. volō
cūr, adv. why, wherefore
cūra, -ae, f. care, pains; anxiety
cūria, -ae, f. senate house
cūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [cūra, care], care for, attend to, look after
currō, -ere, cucurrī, cursus, run
currus, -ūs, m. chariot
cursus, -ūs, m. course
custōdiō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus [custōs, guard], guard, watch


Daedalus, -ī, m. Dæd'alus, the supposed inventor of the first flying machine
Dāvus, -ī, m. Davus, name of a slave
, prep, with abl. down from, from; concerning, about, for (§209). quā dē causā, for this reason, wherefore
dea, -ae, f. goddess {§461.a)
dēbeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [dē, from, + habeō, hold], owe, ought, should
decem, indecl. numeral adj. ten
dē-cernō, -ere, -crēvī, -crētus [de, from, + cernō, separate], decide, decree
dē-cidō, -ere, -cidī, —— [dē, down, + Cadō fall], fall down
decimus, -a, -um, numeral adj. tenth
dēclīvis, -e, adj. sloping downward
dē-dō, -ere, -didī, -ditus, give up, surrender. sē dēdere, surrender one's self
dē-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus [dē, down, + dūcō, lead], lead down, escort
dē-fendō, -ere, -dī, -fēnsus, ward off, repel, defend
dē-feroō -ferre, -tulī, -lātus [dē, down, + ferō, bring], bring down; report, announce (§426)
dē-fessus, -a, -um, adj. tired out, weary
dē-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [dē, from, + faciō, make], fail, be wanting; revolt from
dē-fīgō, -ere, -fīxī, -fīxus [dē, down, + fīgō, fasten] , fasten, fix
dē-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus [dē, down, + iaciō, hurl], hurl down; bring down, kill
de-inde, adv. {from thence), then, in the next place
dēlectō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, delight
dēleō, -ēre, -ēvī, -ētus, blot out, destroy
dēliberō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, weigh, deliberate, ponder
dē-ligō, -ere, -lēgī, -lēctus [dē, from, + legō, gather], choose, select
Delphicus, -a, -um, adj. Delphic
dēmissus, -a, -um [part, of dēmittō, send down], downcast, humble
dē-mōnstrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [dē, out, + mōnstrō, point], point out, show
dēmum, adv. at last, not till then, tum dēmum, then at last
dēnique, adv. at last, finally. Cf. postrēmō
dēns, dentis, m. tooth (§247.2.a)
dēnsus, -a, -um, adj. dense, thick

dē-pendeō, -ēre, —, —, [dē, down, + pendeō, hand], hang from, hang down
dē-plōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [dē, intensive, + plōrō, wail], bewail, deplore
dē-pōnō, -ere, -posuī, -positus [dē, down, + pōnō, put], put down
dē-scendō, -ere, -dī, -scēnsus [dē, down, + scandō, climb], climb down, descend
dē-scrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scrīptus [dē, down, + scribō, write], write down
dēsīderō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, long for
dē-siliō, -īre, -uī, -sultus [dē, down, + saliō, leap], leap down
dē-spērō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [dē, away from, + spērō, hope], despair
dē-spiciō, -ere, -spēxi, -spectus [dē, down], look down upon, despise
dē-sum, -esse, -fuī, -futūrus [dē, away frqm, + sum, be], be wanting, lack, with dat. (§ 426)
deus, -ī, m. god (§ 468)
dē-volvō, -ere, -volvī, -volūtus [dē, down, + volvō, roll], roll down
dē-vorō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [dē, down, + vorō, swallow], devour
dexter, -tra, -trum (-tera, -terum), adj. to the right, right, ā dextrō cornū, on the right wing
Diāna, -ae, f. Diana, goddess of the moon and twin sister of Apollo
dicō, -ere, dīxī, dictus (imv. dic), say, speak, tell. Usually introduces indirect discourse (§ 420. a)
dictātor, -ōris, m. [dictō, dictate], dictator, a chief magistrate with unlimited power
diēs, -ēī or diē, m., sometimes; f. in sing., day (§ 467)
dif-ferō, -ferre, distulī, dīlātus [dis-, apart, + ferō, carry], carry apart; differ. differre inter sē, differ from each other
dif-ficilis, -e, adj. [dis-, not, + facilis, easy], hard, difficult (§ 307)
difficultās, -ātis, f. [difficilis, hard], difficulty
dīligenter, adv. [dīligēns, careful], compared dīligentius, dīligentissimē, industriously, diligently
dīligentia, -ae, f. [dīligēns, careful], industry, diligence
dī-micō, -āre, -āvī, -ātua, fight, struggle
dī-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus [dī-, off, + mittō, send], send away, dismiss, disband. dīmittere animum in, direct one's mind to, apply one's self to
Diomēdēs, -is, m. Dī-o-mē'dēs, a name
dis-, dī-, a prefix expressing separation, off, apart, in different directions. Often negatives the meaning
dis-cēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessus [dis-, apart, + cēdō, go], depart from, leave, withdraw, go away
dia-cernō, -ere, -crēvī, -crētus [dis-, apart, + cernō, sift], separate; distinguish
disciplina, -ae, f. instruction, training, discipline
discipulus, -ī, m. [discō, learn], pupil, disciple
discō, -ere, didicī, ——, learn
dis-cutiō, -ere, -cussī, -cussus [dis-, apart, + quatiō, shake], shatter, dash to pieces
dis-pōnō, -ere, -posuī, -positus [dis-, apart, + pōnō, put], put here and there, arrange, station
dis-similis, -e, adj. [dis-, apart, + aimilis, like], unlike, dissimilar (§307)
dis-tribuō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus, divide, distribute

diū, adv., compared diūtius, diūtissimē, for a long time, long (§ 477)
dō, dare, dedī, datus, give, in fugam dare, put to flight, alicui negōtium dare, employ some one
doceō, -ēre, -uī, -tus, teach, show
doctrīna, -ae, f. [doctor, teacher], teaching, learning, wisdom
dolor, -ōris, m. pain, sorrow
domesticus, -a, -um, adj. [domus, house], of the house, domestic
domicilium, domici'lī, n. dwelling, house, abode. Cf. domus
domina, -ae, f. mistress (of the house), lady (§ 461)
dominus, -ī, m. master (of the house), owner, ruler (§ 462)
domus, -ūs, f . house, home, domī, locative, at home (§ 468)
dormiō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus, sleep
dracō, -ōnis, m. serpent, dragon
dubitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, hesitate
dubius, -a, -um, adj. [duo, two] (moving two ways), doubtful, dubious
du-centī, -ae, -a, numeral adj. two hundred
dūcō, -ere, dūxī, ductus (imv. due), lead, conduct
dum, conj. while, as long as
duo, duae, duo, numeral adj. two (§479)
duo-decim, indecl. numeral adj. twelve
dūrus, -a, -um, adj. hard, tough; harsh, pitiless, bitter
dux, ducis, m. and f. [cf. dūcō, lead], leader, commander


ē or ex, prep, with abl. out of, from, off, of (§ 209)
ebumeus, -a, -um, adj. of ivory
ecce, adv. see! behold! there! here!
ē-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus [ē, out, + dūcō, lead], lead out, draw out
ef-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [ex, thoroughly, + faciō, do], work out; make, cause
ef-fugiō, -ere, -fūgī, -fugitūrus [ex, from, + fugiō, fleel], escape
egeō, -ēre, -uī, —, be in need of, lack, with abl. (§ 501.32)
ego, pers. pron. I; plur. nōs, we (§ 480)
ē-gredior, -ī, ēgressus sum, dep. verb [ē, out of, + gradior, go] go out, go forth, ē nāvī ēgredī, disembark
ē-iciō, -ere, -iēci, -iectus [ē, forth, + iaciō, hurl], hurl forth, expel
elementum, -ī, n., in plur. first principles, rudiments
elephantus, -ī, m. elephant
Ēlis, Ēlidis, f. Ē'lis, a district of southern Greece
emō, -ere, ēmī, ēmptus, buy, purchase
enim, conj., never standing first, for, in fact, indeed. Cf. nam
Ennius, Ennī, m. Ennius, the father of Roman poetry, born 239 B.C.
eō, īre, iī (īvī), itūrus, go (§ 499)
, adv. to that place, thither
Ēpīrus, -ī, f. Epi'rus, a district in the north of Greece
eques, -itis, m. [equus, horse], horseman, cavalryman
equitātus, -ūs, m. [equitō, ride], cavalry
equus, -ī, m. horse
ē-rigō, -ere, -rēxī, -rēctus [ē, out, + regō, make straight], raise up
ē-ripiō, -ere, -uī, -reptus [ē, out of + rapiō, seize], seize; rescue
ē-rumpō, -ere, -rūpī, -ruptus [ē, forth, + rumpō, break], burst forth
ēruptiō, -ōnis, f. sally

Erymanthius, -a, -um, adj. Erymanthian of Erymanthus, a district in southern Greece
et, conj. and, also. et . . . et, both . . . and. Cf. atque, ac, -que
etiam, adv. (rarely conj.) ['et, also, + iam, now], yet, still; also, besides. Cf. quoque. nōn sōlum ... sed etiam, not only . . . but also
Etrūscī, -ōrum, m. the Etruscans, the people of Etruria. See map of Italy
Eurōpa, -ae, f. Europe
Eurystheus, -ī, m. Eurys'theus, a king of Tiryns, a city in southern Greece
ē-vādō, -ere, -vāsī, -vāsus [ē, out, + vādō, go], go forth, escape
ex, see ē'
exanimātus, -a, -um [part, of exanimō, put out of breath (anima)], adj. out of breath, tired; lifeless
ex-cipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus [ex, out, + capiō, take], welcome, receive
exemplum, -ī, n. example, model
ex-eō, -īre, -iī, -itūrus [ex, out, + , go], go out, go forth (§413)
ex-erceō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [ex, out, + arceō, shut], (shutout), employ, train, exercise, use
exercitus, -ūs, m. [exerceō, train], army
ex-īstimō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [ex, out, + aestimō, reckon], estimate; think. judge (§ 420.c). Cf. arbitror, putō
ex-orior, -īrī, -ortus sum, dep. verb [ex, forth, + orior, rise], come forth, rise
expedītus, -a, -um, adj. without baggage
ex-pellō, -ere, -pulī, -pulsus [ex, out, + pellō, drive], drive out
ex-piō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [ex, intensive, + piō, atone for], make amends for, atone for
expIōrātor, -ōris, m. [explōrō, investigate], spy, scout
explōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, examine, explore
ex-pugnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [ex, out, + pugnō, fight], take by storm, capture
exsilium, exsi'lī, n. [exsul, exile], banishment, exile
ex-spectō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [ex, out, + spectō, look], expect, wait
ex-struō, -ere, -strūlxō, -strūctus [ex, out, + struō, build], build up, erect
exterus, -a, -um, adj., compared exterior, extrēmus or extimus, outside, outer (§312)
extrā, prep, with acc. beyond, outside of
ex-trahō, -ere, -trāxī, -trāctus [ex, out, + trahō, drag], drag out, pull forth
extrēmus, -a, -um, adj., superl. of exterus, utmost, farthest (§312)


fābula, -ae, f . story, tale, fable
facile, adv. [facilis, easy], compared faciiius, facillimē, easily (§322)
facilis, -e, adj. [cf. faciō, make], easy, without difficulty (§307)
faciō, -ere, fēcī, factus (imv. fac), make, do; cause, bring about, impetum facere in, make an attack upon. proelium facere, fight a battle, iter facere, make a march or journey. aliquem certiōrem facere, inform some one. facere verba prō, speak in behalf of. Passive fiō, fierī, factus sum, be done, happen, certior fierī, be informed
fallō, -ere, fefellī, falsus, trip, betray, deceive
fāma -ae, f. report, rumor; renown, fame, reputation

famēs, -is (abl. famē), f. hunger
familia, -ae, f. servants, slaves; household, family
fascēs, -ium (plur. of fascis), f. fasces (p. 225)
fastīgium, fastī'gī, n. top; slope, descent
fātum, -ī, n. fate, destiny
faucēs, -ium, f. plur. jaws, throat
faveō, -ēre, fāvī, fautūrus, be favorable to, favor, with dat. (§ 501.14)
fēlīx, -īcis, adj. happy, lucky
fēmina, -ae, f. woman. Cf. mulier
fera, -ae, f. [ferus, wild], wild beast
ferāx, -ācis, adj, fertile
ferē, adv. about, nearly, almost
ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus, bear, graviter or molestē ferre, be annoyed (§498)
ferreus, -a, -um, adj. [ferrum, iron], made of iron
fidēlis, -e, adj. [fidēs, trust], faithful, true
fidēs, fideī or fidē, trust, faith; promise, word; protection. in fidem venīre, come under the protection, in fidē manēre, remain loyal
fīlia, -ae (dat. and abl. plur. fīliābus), f. daughter (§ 461.a)
fīlius, fīlī (voc. sing, fīlī), m. son
finis, -is, m. boundary, limit, end; in plur. territory, country (§ 243.1)
finitimus, -a, -um, adj. [finis, boundary], adjoining, neighboring. Plur. finitimī, -ōrum, m. neighbors
fiō, fierī, factus sum, used as passive of faciō. See faciō (§ 500)
flamma, -ae, f. fire, flame
flōs, flōris, m. flower
fluctus, -ūs, m. [cf. fluō, flow], flood, wave, billow
flūmen, -inis, n. [cf. fluō, flow], river (§464.2.b)
fluō, -ere, flūxī, fluxus, flow
fluvius, fluvī, m. [cf. fluō, flow], river
fodiō, -ere, fōdī, fossus, dig
fōns, fontis, m. fountain (§ 247.2.a)
fōrma, -ae, i. form, shape, appearance; beauty
Formiae, -ārum, f. Formiae, a town of Latium on the Appian Way. See map
forte, adv. [abl. of fors, chance], by chance
fortis, -e, adj. strong; fearless, brave
fortiter, adv. [fortis, strong], compared fortius, fortissimē, strongly; bravely
fortūna, -ae, f. [fors, chance], chance, fate, fortune
forum, -ī, n. market place, esp. the Forum Rōmānum, where the life of Rome centered
Forum Appī, Forum of Appius, a town in Latium on the Appian Way
fossa, -ae, f. [cf. fodiō, dig], ditch
fragor, -ōris, m. [cf. frangō, break], crash, noise
frangō, -ere, frēgī, frāctus, break
frāter, -tris, m. brother
fremitus, -ūs, m. loud noise
frequentō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, attend
frētus, -a, -um, adj. supported, trusting. Usually with abl. of means
frōns, frontis, f. front, ā fronte, in front
frūctus, -ūs, m. fruit
frūmentārius, -a, -um, adj. pertaining to grain, rēs frūmentāria, grain supplies
frūmentum, -ī, n. grain
frūstrā, adv. in vain, vainly
fuga, -ae, f. [cf. fugiō, flee], flight. in fugam dare, put to flight

fugiō, -ere, fūgī, fugitūrus, flee, run; avoid, shun
fūmō, -āre, —, —, smcke
fūnis, -is, m. rope
furor, -ōris, m. [furō, rage] madness. in furōrem incidere, go mad


Gāius, Gāī, m. Gaius, a Roman name, abbreviated C, English form Caius
Galba, -ae, m. Gaiba a Roman name
galea, -ae, f. helmet
Gallia, -ae, f. Gaul, the country comprising what is now Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, and France
Gallicus, -a, -um, adj. Gallic
gallīna, -ae, f. hen, chicken
Gallus, -ī, m. a Gaul
gaudium, gaudī,
Genāva, -ae, f. Geneva, a city in Switzerland
gēns, gentia, f. [cf. gignō, beget], race, family; people, nation, tribe
genus, -eris, n. kind, variety
Germānia, -ae, f. Germany
Germānus, -ī, m. a German
gerō, -ere, gessī, gestus, carry, wear: wage. bellum gerere, wage war. rēs gestae, exploits. bene gerere, carry on successfully
gladiātōrius, -a, -um, adj. gladiatorial
gladius, gladī, m. sword
glōria, -ae, f. glory, fame
Gracchus, -ī, m. Gracchus, name of a famous Roman family
gracilis, -e, adj. slender (§ 307)
Graeca, -ōrum, n. plur. Greek writings, Greek literature
Graecē, adv. in Greek
Graecia, -ae, f. Greece
gramnuticis, -ī, m. grammarian
grātia, -ae, f . thanks, gratitude
grātus, -a, -um, adj. acceptable, pleasing. Often with dat. (§ 501.16)
gravis, -ē, adj. heavy; disagreeable; serious, dangerous; earnest, weighty
graviter, adv. [gravis, heavy], compared gravius, gravissimē, heavily; greatly, seriously, graviter ferre, bear ill, take to heart
gubernātor, -ōris, m. [gubernō, pilot], pilot


habēna, -ae, f. halter, rein
habeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus, have, hold; regard, consider, deem
habitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [cf. habeō, have], dwell, abide, inhabit. Cf. incolō, vīvō
hāc-tenus, adv. thus far
Helvētiī, -ōrum, m. the Helvetii, a Gallic tribe
Herculēs, -is, m. Hercules, son of Jupiter and Alcmena, and god of strength
Hesperidēs, -um, f. the Hesperides, daughters of Hesperus, who kept the garden of the golden apples
hic, haec, hoc, demonstrative adj. and pron. this (of mine); as pera. pron. he, she, it (§481)
hīc, adv. here
hiems, -emis, f. winter
hinc, adv. [hīc, here], from here, hence
Hippolyrtē, -ēs, f. Hippolyte, queen of the Amazons
ho-diē, adv. [modified form of hōc diē, on this day], to-day
homō, -inis, m. and f. (human being), man, person
honestus, -a, -um, adv. [honor, honor], respected, honorable

honor, -ōris, m. honor
hōra, -ae, f. hour
Horātius, Horā'tī, m. Horatius, a Roman name
horribilis, -e, adj. terrible, horrible
hortor, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb, urge, incite, exhort, encourage (§493)
hortus, -ī, m. garden
hospitium, hospi'tī, n. [hospes, host], hospitality
hostis, -is, m. and f. enemy, foe (§465.a)
humilis, -e, adj. low, humble (§ 307)
Hydra, -ae, f. the Hydra, a mythical water snake slain by Hercules


iaciō, -ere, iēcī, iactus, throw, hurl
iam, adv. now, already. nec iam, and no longer
Iāniculum, -ī, n. the Janiculum, one of the hills of Rome
iānua, -ae, f. door
ibi, adv. there, in that place
Īcarus, -ī, m. Ic'arus, the son of Dædalus
ictus, -ūs, m. [cf. īcō, strikel, blow
īdem, e'adem, idem, demonstrative pron. [is + dem], same (§ 481)
idōneus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, fit
igitur, conj., seldom the first word, therefore, then. Cf. itaque
ignis, -is, m. fire {§§ 243.1; 247.2:a; 465.1)
ignōtus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + (g)nōtus, known], unknown, strange
ille, ilia, illud, demonstrative adj. and pron. that (yonder); as pers. pron. he, she, it (§481)
illīc, adv. [cf. ille], yonder, there
im-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus [in, against, + mittō, send], send against; let in
immolō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [in, upon, + mola, meal], sprinkle with sacrificial meal; offer, sacrifice
im-mortālis, -e, adj. [in-, not, + mortālis, mortal], immortal
im-mortālitās, -ātis, f. [immortālis, immortal], immortality
im-parātus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + parātus, prepared], unprepared
impedīmentum, -ī, n. [impediō, hinder], hindrance; in plur. baggage
impedītus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of impediō, hinder], hindered, burdened
im-pellō, -ere, -pulī, -pulsus [in, against, + pellō, strike], strike against; impel, drive, propel
imperātor, -ōris, m. [imperō', command], general
imperium, impe'rī, n. [imperō, command], command, order; realm, empire; power, authority
imperō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, command, order. Usually with dat. and an object clause of purpose (§501.41). With ace. object, levy, impose
impetus, -ūs, m. attack, impetum facere in, make an attack upon
im-pōnō, -ere, -posui, -positus [in, upon + ponō, place], place upon; impose, assign
in, prep, with acc. into, to, against, at, upon, towards; with abl. in, on. in reliquum tempus, for the future
in-, inseparable prefix. With nouns and adjectives often with a negative force, like English un-, in-
in-cautus, -a, -um, adj. ['in-, not, + cautus, careful], off one's guard

incendium, incendī, n. flame, fire. Cf. ignis flamma
in-cendō, -ere, -dī, -cēnsus, set fire to, burn
in-cidō, -ere, -cidī, — [in, in, on, + cadō, fall], fall in, fall on: happen. in furōrem incidere, go mad
in-cipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus [in, on, + capiō, take], begin
in-cognitus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + cognitus, known] unknown
in-colō, -ere, -uī, — [in, in, + colō, dwell], inhabit; live
incolumis, -e, adj. sound, safe, uninjured, unharmed
in-crēdibilis, -ē, adj. [in-, not, + crēdibilis, to be believed], incredible
inde, from that place, thence
induō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus, put on
indūtus, -a, -um, adj. [part of induō, put on], clothed
in-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus [in, into, + , go], go into; enter upon, begin, with acc. (§413)
īn-fāns, -fantis, adj. [in-, not, + * fāns, speaking], not speaking. As a noun, m. and f. infant
īn-fēlīx, -īcis, adj. [in-, not, + fēlīx, happy], unhappy, unlucky
īnfēnsus, -a, -um, adj. hostile
īn'-ferō, īnfer're, in'tulī, inlā'tus [in, against, + ferō, bear], bring against or upon, inflict, with acc. and dat (§501.15). bellum īnferre, with dat., make war upon
īnfenis, -a, -um, adj. low, below (§312)
īn-finītus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + finītus, bounded], boundless, endless
īn-firmus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + firmus, strong], weak, infirm
ingenium, inge'nī, n. talent, ability
ingēns, -entis, adj. vast, huge, enormous, large. Cf. magnus
in-gredior, -gredī, -gressua sum [in, in, + gradior, walk], advance, enter
inimīcus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + amīcus, friendly], hostile. As a noun, inimīcus, -ī, m. enemy, foe. Cf. hostis
initium, ini'tī, entrance, beginning
initus, -a, -um, part of ineō. initā aestāte, at the beginning of summer
iniūria, -ae, f. [in, against, + iūs, law], injustice, wrong, injury, alicui iniūriās īnferre, inflict wrongs upon some one
inopia, -ae, f. [inops, needy], want, need, lack
in-opīnāns, -antis, adj. [in-, not, + opīnāns, thinking], not expecting, taken by surprise
inquit, said he, said she. Regularly inserted in a direct quotation
in-rigō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, irrigate, water
in-rumpō, -ere, -rūpī, -ruptus [in, into, + rumpō, break], burst in, break in
in-ruō, -ere, -ruī, —— [in, in, + ruō, rush], rush in
īn-sequor, -sequī, -secūtus sum, dep. verb [in, on, + sequor, follow], follow on, pursue
īn-signe, -is, n. badge, decoration (§465.b)
īnsignis, -e, adj. remarkable, noted
īnstāns, -antis, adj. [part, of īnsto, be at hand], present, immediate
īn-stō, -āre, -stitī, -statūrus [in, upon, + stō, stand], stand upon; be at hand; pursue, press on
īnstrūnentum, -ī, n. instrument
īn-etruō, -ere, -strūxī, -strūctus [in, on, + struō, build], draw up
īnsula, -ae, f. island
integer, -gra, -grum, untouched, whole; fresh, new
intellegō, -ere, -lēxī, -lēctus [inter, between, + legō, choose], perceive, understand (§420.d)
intentō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, aim; threaten
inter, prep, with ace. between, among; during, while (§340)
interfectus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of interficio, kill], slain, dead
inter-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [inter, between, + faciō, make], put out of the way, kill. Cf . necō, occīdō, trucīdō
interim, adv. meanwhile
interior, -ius, adj. interior, inner {§315)
inter-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus, leave off, suspend
interpres, -etis, m. and f. interpreter
inter-rogō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, question
inter-sum, -esse, -fuī, -futūrus [inter, between, + sum, be], be present, take part in, with dat. (§501.15)
inter-vāllum, -ī, n. interval, distance
intrā, adv. and prep, with ace. within, in
intro, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, go into, enter
in-veniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventus [in, upon, + veniō, come], find
invīsus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of invideō, envy], hated, detested
Iolāus, -ī, m. I-o-lā'us, a friend of Hercules
ipse, -a, -um, intensive pron. that very, this very; self, himself, herself, itself, (§481)
īra, -ae, f. wrath, anger
īrātus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of īrāscor, be angry], angered, enraged
is, ea, id, demonstrative adj. and pron. this, that; he, she, it (§481)
iste, -a, -ud, demonstrative adj. and pron. that (of yours), he, she, it (§481)
ita, adv. so, thus. Cf. sīc and tam
Italia, -ae, f. Italy
ita-que, conj. and so, therefore
item, adv. also
iter, itineris, vs.. journey, march, route; way, passage {§§247.1.a;468). iter dare, give a right of way, allow to pass. iter facere, march (see p. 159)
iubeō, -ēre, iussī, iussus, order, command. Usually with the infin. and subj. acc. (§213)
iūdex, -icis, m. and f. judge (§ 464.1)
iūdicō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [iūdex, judge], judge, decide (§420.c)
Iūlia, -ae, Julia, a Roman name
Iūlius, lūlī, m. Julius, a Roman name
iungō, -ēre, iūnxī, iūnctus, join; yoke, harness
Iūnō, -ōnis, f. juno, the queen of the gods and wife of Jupiter
Iuppiter, Iovis, m. Jupiter, the supreme god
iurō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, swear, take an oath
iussus, -a, -um, part, of iubeō, ordered


L., abbreviation for Lūcius
labefactus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of labefaciō, cause to shake], shaken, weakened, ready to fall
Labiēnus, -ī', m. La-bi-e'nus, one of Cæsar's lieutenants
labor, -ōris, m. labor, toil
labōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [labor, labor], labor; suffer, be hard pressed
lacrima, -ae, f. tear
lacus, -ūs (dat. and abl. plur. lacubus), m. lake

laetē, adv. [laetus, glad], compared laetius, laetissimē, gladly
laetitia, -ae, f. [laetus, glad], joy
laetus, -a, -um, adj. glad, joyful
lapis,-idis, m. stone (§§247.2.a; 464.1)
Lār, Laris, m.; plur. Larēs, -um (rarely -ium), the Lares or household gods
lātē, adv. [lātus, wide], compared lātius, lātisaimē, widely
Latīnē, adv. in Latin. Latīnē loquī, to speak Latin
lātitūdō, -inis, f. [lātus, wide] width
Lātōna, -ae, f. Latona, mother of Apollo and Diana
lātus, -a, -um, adj. wide
latus, -eris, n. side, flank, ab utrōque latere, on each side
laudō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [laus, praise], praise
laurea, -ae, f. laurel
laureātus, -a, -um, adj. crowned with laurel
laus, laudis, f. praise
lectulus, -ī, m. couch, bed
lēgātus, -ī, m. ambassador; lieutenant
legiō, -ōnis, f. [cf. legō, gather], (body of soldiers), legion, about 3600 men (§ 464.2.a)
legiōnārius, -a, -um, adj. legionary. Plur. legiōnāriī, -ōrum, m. the soldiers of the legion
legō, -ere, lēgī, lēctus, read
lēnis, -e, Adj. gentle, smooth, mild
lēniter, adv. [lēnis, gentle], compared lēnius, lēnissimē, gently
Lentulus, -ī, m. Lentulus, a Roman family name
leō, -ōnis, m. lion
Lernaeus, -a, -um, adj. Lernæan, of Lerna, in southern Greece
Lesbia, -ae, f. Lesbia, a girl's name
levis, -e, adj. light
lēx, lēgis, f. measure, law
libenter, adv. [libēns, willing], compared libentius, libentissimē, willingly gladly
līber, -era, -erum, adj. free (§469.b)
līberī, -ōrum, m. [līber, free], children
līberō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [līber, free], set free, release, liberate
lībertās, -ātis, f. [līber, free], freedom, liberty
līctor, -ōris, m. lictor (p. 225)
līmus, -ī, m. mud
littera, -ae, f. a letter of the alphabet; in plur. a letter, epistle
lītus, -oris, n. seashore, beach
locus, -ī, m. (plur. locī and loca, m. and x.), place, spot
longē, adv. [longus', long], comp. longius, longissimē, a long way off; by far
longinquus, -a, -um, adj. [longus, long], distant, remote
longitūdō, -inis, f. [longus, long], length
longus, -a, -um, adj. long
loquor, loquī, locōtus sum, dep. verb, talk, speak
lōrīca, -ae, f. [lōrum, though, coat of mail, corselet
lūdo, -ere, lūsī, lūsus, play
lūdus, -ī, m. play; school, the elementary grades. Cf. schola
lūna, -ae, f. moon
lūx, lūcis, f. (no gen. plur.), light. prīma lūx, daybreak
Lȳdia, -ae, f. Lydia, a girl's name


M., abbreviation for Mārcus
magicus, -a, -um, adj. magic
magis, adv. in comp. degree [magnus, great], more, in a higher degree (§ 323)

magister, -trī, m. master, commander; teacher
magistrātus, -ūs, m. [magister, master}, magistracy; magistrate
magnitūdō, -inis, f. [magnus, great], greatness, size
magnopere, adv. [abl. of magnum opus], compared magis, maximē, greatly, exceedingly (§323)
magnus, -a, -um, adj., compared maior, maximus, great, large; strong, loud (§311)
maior, maius, -ōris, adj., comp. of magnus, greater, larger (§311)
maiōrēs, -um, m. plur. of maior, ancestors
mālō, mālle, māluī, —— [magis, more, + volō, wish], wish more, prefer (§ 497)
malus, -a, -um, adj., compared peior, pessimus, bad, evil, wicked (§ 311)
mandō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [manus, hand, + , put], (put in hand), intrust; order, command
maneō, -ēre, mānsī, mānsūrus, stay, remain, abide
Mānlius, Mānlī, m. Manlius, a Roman name
mānsuētus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of mānsuēscō, tame], tamed
manus, -ūs, f. hand; force, band
Mārcus, -ī, m. Marcus, Mark, a Roman first name
mare, -is, n. (no gen. plur.), sea.. mare tenēre, be out to sea
margō, -inis, m. edge, border
marītus, -ī, m. husband
Marius, Marī, m. Marius, a Roman name, esp. C. Marius, the general
Mārtins, -a, -um, adj. of Mars, esp. the Campus Martius
māter, -tris, f. mother
mātrimōnium, mātrimō'nī, n. marriage, in mātrimōnium dūcere, marry
mātūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, hasten. Cf. contendō, properō
mātūrus, -a, -um, adj. ripe, mature
maximē, adv. in superl. degree [maximus, greatest], compared magnopere, magis, maximē, especially, very much (§323)
maximus, -a, -um, adj., superl. of magnus, greatest, extreme (§311)
medius, -a, -um, adj. middle part; middle, intervening
melior, -ius, -ōris, adj., comp. of bonus, better (§311)
melius, adv. in comp. degree, compared bene, melius, optimē, better (§323)
memoria, -ae, f. [memor, mindful], memory, memoriā tenēre, remember
mēns, mentis, f. mind. Cf. animus
mēnsis, -is, m. month (§247.2.a)
mercātor, -ōris, m. [mercor, trade], trader, merchant
merīdiānus, -a, -um, adj. [meridiēs, noon], of midday
merīdiēs, —— (acc. -em, abl. -ē), m. [medius, mid, + diēs, day], noon
metus, -ūs, m. fear, dread
meus, -a, -um, possessive adj. and pron. my, mine (§98)
mīles, -itis, m. soldier (§464.1)
mīlitāris, -e, adj. [mīles, soldier], military, rēs mīlitāris, science of war
mīlitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [miles, soldier], serve as a soldier
mīlle, plur. mīlia, -ium, numeral adj. and subst. thousand (§479)
minimē, adv. in superl. degree, compared parum, minus, minimē, least, very little; by no means (§323)

minimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared parvus, minor, minimus, least, smallest (§311)
minor, minus, -ōris, adj. in comp. degree, compared parvus, minor, minimus, smaller, less (§311)
Mīnōs, -ōis, m. Minos, a king of Crete
minus, adv. in comp. degree, compared parum, minus, minimē, less (§323)
Minyae, -ārum, m. the Minyae, a people of Greece
mīrābilis, -e, adj. [mīror, wonder at], wonderful, marvelous
mīror, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb [mīrus, wonderfull], wonder, marvel , admire
mīrus, -a, -um, adj. wonderful
Mīsēnum, -ī, Mise'num, a promontory and harbor on the coast of Campania. See map
miser, -era, -erum, adj. wretched, unhappy, miserable
missus, -a, -um, part, of mittō, sent
mittō, -ere, mīsī, missus, send
modicus, -a, -um [modus, measure], modest, ordinary
modo, adv. [abl. of modus, measure, with shortened o], only, merely, just now. modo...modo,, sometimes...sometimes
modus, -ī, m. measure; manner, way; kind
moenia, -ium, n. plur. [cf. mūniō, fortify], walls, ramparts
molestē, adv. [molestus, troublesome], compared molestius, molestissimē, annoyingly. molestē ferre, to be annoyed
molestus, -a, -um, troublesome, annoying, unpleasant (§501.16)
moneō, -ēre, -uī, -itus, remind, advise, warn (§489)
mōns, montis, m. mountain(§247.2.a)
mōnstrum, -ī, n. monster
mora, -ae, f. delay
moror, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb [mora, delay], delay, linger; impede
mors, mortis, f. [cf. morior, die], death
mōs, mōris, m. custom, habit
mōtus, -ūs, m. [cf. moveō, move], motion, movement, terrae mōtus, earthquake
moveō, -ēre, mōvī, mōtus, move
mox, adv. soon, presently
mulier, -eris, f. woman
multitūdō, -inis, f. [multus, much], multitude
multum (multō), adv. [multus, much], compared plūs, plūrimum, much (§477)
multus, -a, -um, adj., compared plūs, plūrimus, much; plur. many (§311)
mūniō, -īre, -īvī or -iī, -ītus, fortify, defend
mūnītiō, -ōnis, f. [mūniō, fortify], defense, fortifcation
mūrus, -ī, m. wall. Cf. moenia
mūsica, -ae, f. music


nam, conj for. Cf. enim
nam-que, conj., a strengthened nam, introducing a reason or explanation, for, and in fact; seeing that
nārrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, tell, relate
nāscor, nāseī, nātus sum, dep. verb, be born, spring from
'nātūra, -ae, f. nature
nātus, part, of nāsoor
nauta, -ae, m. [for nāvita, from nāvia, ship], sailor

nāvālis, -e, adj. [nāvis, ship], naval
nāvigium, nāvi'gi, n. ship, boat
nāvigō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [nāvis, ship, + agō, drive], sail, cruise
nāvis, -is (abl. or -e), f. ship (§243.1). nāvem cōnscendere, embark, go on board, nāvem solvere, set sail, nāvis longa, man-of-war
ne, conj. and adv. in order that not, that (with verbs of fearing), lest; not. ne ... quidem, not even
-ne, interrog. adv., enclitic (see §§16,210 ). Cf. nōnne and num
nec or neque, conj. [, not, + que, and], and not, nor. nec ... nec or neque ... neque, neither ... nor
necessārius, -a, -um, adj. needful, necessary
necō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [cf. nex, death], kill. Cf. interficiō, occīdō, trucīdō
negō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, deny, say not (§420.a)
negōtium, negō'tī, n. [nec, not, + ōtium, ease], business, affair, matter. alicui negōtium dare, to employ some one
Nemaeus, -a, -um, adj. Neme'an, of Neme'a, in southern Greece
nēmō, dat. nēminī (gen. nūllīus, abl. nūllō, supplied from nūllus), m. and f. [, not, + homō, man], (not a man), no one, nobody
Neptūnus, -ī, m. Neptune, god of the sea, brother of Jupiter
neque, see nec
neuter, -tra, -trum (gen. -trīus, dat. -trī), adj. neither (of two) (§108)
nē-ve, conj. adv. and not, and that not, and lest
nihil, n. indecl. [, not, + hīlum, a whit], nothing, nihil posse, to have no power
nihilum, -ī, n., see nihil
Niobē, -ēs, f. Ni'obe, the queen of Thebes whose children were destroyed by Apollo and Diana
nisi, conj. [, not, + , if], if not, unless, except
nōbilis, -e, adj. well known; noble
noceō, -ēre, -uī, -itūrus [cf. necō, kill], hurt, injure, with dat. (§ 501. 14)
noctū, abl. used as adv. [cf. nox, night], at night, by night
Nōla, -ae, f. Nola, a town in central Campania. See map
nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, — [ne, not, + volō, wish], not to wish, be unwilling (§497 )
nōmen, -inis, n. [cf. nōscō, know], (means of knowing), name
nōminō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [nōmen, name], name, call. Cf. appellō, vocō
nōn, adv. [, not, + ūnum, one], not. nōn sōlum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also
nōn-dum, adv. not yet
nōn-ne, interrog. adv. suggesting an affirmative answer, not? (§210). Cf. -ne and num
nōs, pers. pron. we (see ego) (§480)
noster, -tra, -trum, possessive adj. and pron. our, ours. Plur. nostrī, -ōrum, m. our men (§98)
novem, indecl. numeral adj. nine
novus, -a, -um, adj. new. novae rēs, a revolution
nox, noctis, f. night. multā nocte, late at night
nūllus, -a, -um (gen, -īus, dat. ) adj. [, not, + ūllus, any], not any, none, no (§ 108)
num, interrog. adv. suggesting a negative answer (§210). Cf. -ne and nōnne. In indir. questions, whether
numerus, -ī, m. number
numquam, adv. [, not, + umquam, ever], never
nunc, adv. now. Cf. iam
nūntiō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [nūntius, messenger], report, announce (§420.a)
nūntius, nūntī, m. messenger
nūper, adv. recently, lately, just now
nympha, -ae, f. nymph


ob, prep, with acc. on account of. In compounds it often means in front of, against, or is intensive, quam ob rem, for this reason (§ 340)
obses, -idis, m. and f. hostage
ob-sideō, -ēre, -sēdī, -sessus [ob, against, + sedeō, sit], besiege
obtineō, -ēre, -uī, -tentus [ob, against, + teneō, hold], possess, occupy, hold
occāsiō, -ōnis, f. favorable opportunity, favorable moment
occāsus, -ūs, m. going down, setting
occīdō, -ere, -cīdī, -cīsus [ob, down, + caedō, strike], strike down; cut down, kill. Cf. interfiō, necō
ōccupō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [ob, completely, + capiō, take], seize, take possession of, occupy. Cf. rapiō
oc-currō, -ere, -carrī, -cursus [ob, against, + carrō, run], run towards; meet, with dat (§426)
ōceanus, -ī, m. the ocean
octō, indecl. numeral adj. eight
oculus, -ī, m. eye
officium, offi'cī, n. duty
ōlim, adv. formerly, once upon a time
ōmen, -inis, n. sign, token, omen
o-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus [ob, over, past, + mittō, send], let go, omit. cōnsilium omittere, give up a plan
omnīnō adv. [omnis, all], altogether wholly, entirely
omnis, -e, adj. all, every. Cf. tōtus
onerāria, -ae, f. [onus, load], with nāvis expressed or understood, merchant vessel, transport
onus, -eris, n, load, burden
opīniō, -ōnis, f. [opīnor, suppose], opinion, supposition, expectation
oppidānus, -ī, m. [oppidum, town], townsman
oppidum, -ī, n. town, stronghold
opportūnus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, opportune, favorable
op-primō, -ere, -pressī, -pressus [ob, against, + premō, press], (press against), crush; surprise
oppugnātiō, -ōnis, f. storming, assault
oppugnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [ob, against, + pugnō, fight], fight against, assault. storm, assail
optimē, adv. in superl. degree, compared bene, melius, optimē, very well, best of all (§323)
optimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared bonus, melior, optimus, best, most excellent (§311)
opus, -eris, n. work, labor, task (§ 464. 2. b)
ōrāculum, -ī, n. [ōrō, speak], oracle
ōrātor, -ōris, m. [ōrō, speak], orator
orbis, -is, m. ring, circle, orbis terrārum, the earth, world
orbita, -ae, f. [orbis, wheel], rut
Orcus, -ī, m. Orcus, the lower world
ōrdō, -inis, m. row, order, rank (§247.2.a)
orīgō, -inis, f. [orior, rise], source, origin
orior, -īrī, ortus sum, dep. verb, arise, rise; begin; spring, be born
ōrnāmentum, -ī, n. [ōrnō, fit out], ornament, jewel
ōrnātus, -a, -um, adj. [part of ōrnō, fit out], fitted out; adorned
ōrnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, fit out, adorn


P., abbreviation for Pūblius
paene, adv. nearly, almost
palūdāmentum, -ī, n. military cloak
palūs, -ūdis, f. swamp, marsh
pānis, -is, m. bread
pār, paris, adj. equal (§ 471. iii)
parātus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of parō, prepare], prepared, ready
parcō, -ere, peper’cī (parsī), parsūrus, spare, with dat. (§501. 14)
pāreō, -ēre, -uī, —, obey, with dat. (§501.14)
parō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, prepare for, prepare; provide, procure
pars, partis, f. part, share; side, direction
parum, adv., compared minus, minimē, too little, not enough (§323)
parvus, -a, -um, adj., compared minor, minimus, small, little (§311)
passus, -ūs, m. step, pace, mīlle passuum, thousand paces, mile (331.b)
pateō, -ēre, patuī, —, lie open, be open; stretch, extend
pater, -tris, m. father (§464.2.a)
patior, -ī, passus sum, dep. verb, bear, suffer, allow, permit
patria, -ae, f. [cf. pater, father], fatherland, (one’s) country
paucus, -a, -um, adj. (generally plur.), few, only a few
paulisper, adv. for a little while
paulō, adv. by a little, little
paulum, adv. a little, somewhat
pāx, pācis, f. (no gen. plur.), peace
pecūnia, -ae, f. [pecus, cattle], money
pedes, -itis, m. [pēs, foot], foot soldier
pedester, -tris, -tre, adj. [pēs, foot], on foot; by land
peior, peius, -ōris, adj. in comp. degree, compared malus, peior, pessimus, worse (§311)
pellis, -is, f. skin, hide
penna, -ae, f. feather
per, prep, with ace. through, by means of, on account of. In composition it often has the force of thoroughly, completely, very (§340)
percussus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of percutiō, strike through], pierced
per-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus [per, through, + dūcō, lead], lead through. fossam perdūcere, to construct a ditch
per-exiguus, -a, -um, adj. [per, very, + exiguus, small], very small, very short
perfidus, -a, -um, adj, faithless, treacherous, false
per-fringō, -ere, -frēgī, -frāctus [per, through, + frangō, break], shatter
pergō, -ere, perrēxī, perrēctus [per, through, + regō, conduct], go on, proceed, hasten
perīculum, -ī, n. trial, test; danger
peristȳlum, -ī, n. peristyle, an open court with columns around it
perītus, -a, -um, adj. skillful
perpetuus, -a, -um, adj, perpetual
Perseus, -eī, Perseus, a Greek hero, son of Jupiter and Danaē
persōna, -ae, f . part, character, person
per-suādeō, -ēre, -suāsī, -suāsus [per, thoroughly, + suādeō, persuade], persuade, advise, with dat. (§ 501.14), often with an object clause of purpose (§ 501.41)
per-terreō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [per, thoroughly, + terreō, frighten], thoroughly terrify, alarm
per-vcniō, -īre, -vēnī, -yentus [per, through, + veniō, come], arrive, reach, come to
pēs, pedis, m. foot. pedem referre, retreat (§247.2.a)
pessimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared malus, peior, pessimus, worst (§311)
petō, -ere, -īvī or -iī, -ītus, strive for, seek, beg, ask; make for, travel to. Cf. postulō, quaerō, rogō
Pharsālus, -ī, f. Pharsa’lus or Pharsa'lia, a town in Thessaly, near which Cæsar defeated Pompey, 48 B.C.
philosophia, -ae, f. philosophy
philosophus, -ī, m. philosopher
pictus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of pingō, paint], colored, variegated
pīlum, -ī, n. spear, javelin (§462.b)
piscīna, -ae, f. [piscis, fish], fish pond
piscis, -is, m. fish
pīstor, ōris, m. baker
placeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus, please, be pleasing, with dat. (§501.14)
plānitiēs, -ēī, f. [plānus, level], plain
plānus, -a, -am, adj. level, flat
plēnus, -a, -um, adj. full
plūrimiun, adv. in superl. degree, compared multum, plūs, plūrimum, very much. plūlrimum valēre, be most influential (§322)
plūrimns, -a, -am, adj. in superl. degree, compared multus, plūs, plūrimas, most, very many (§311)
plūs, plōris, adj. in comp. degree, compared multus, plūs, plūrimus; sing. n. as substantive, more; plur. more, several (§311)
pluteus, -ī, m. shield, parapet
poena, -ae, f. punishment, penalty
poēta, -ae, m. poet
pompa, -ae, f. procession
Pompēiī, -ōrum, m. Pompeii, a city of Campania. See map
Pompēius, Pompē’ī, m. Pompey, a Roman name
pōmum, -ī, n. apple
pōnō, -ere, posuī, positus, put, place. castra pōnere, pitch camp
pōns, pontis, m. bridge (§247.2.a)
popīna, -ae, f. restaurant
populus, -ī, m. people
Porsena, -ae, m. Porsena, king of Etruria, a district of Italy. See map
porta, -ae, f. gate, door
'portō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, bear, carry
portus, -ūs, m. [cf. porta, gate], harbor
possideō, -ēre, -sēdī, -sessus, have, own, possess
possum, posse, potuī, —, irreg. verb [potis, able, + sum, I am], be able, can (§495). nihil posse, have no power
post, prep, with acc. after, behind (§340)
posteā, adv. [post, after, + , this], afterwards
(posterus), -a, -um, adj., compared posterior, postrēmus or postumua, following, next (§312)
postquam, conj. after, as soon as
postrēmō, adv. [abl. of postrēmus, last], at last, finally. Cf. dēmum, dēnique (§ 322)
postrīdiē, adv. [posterō, next, + diē, day], on the next day
postulō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, ask, demand, require. Cf. petō, quaerō, rogō
potentia, -ae, f. [potēns, able], might, power, force
prae-beō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [prae, forth, + habeō, hold], offer, give
praeda, -ae, f, booty, spoil, plunder
prae-dīcō, -ere, -dīxī, -dictus [prae, before, + dīcō, tell], foretell, predict
prae-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [prae, before, + faciō, make], place in command, with. acc. and dat (§501.15)
prae-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus [prae, forward, + mittō, send], send forward
praemium, praemī, n. reward, prize
praeruptus, -a, -um [part, of praerumpō, break off], broken off, steep
praesēns, -entis, adj. present, immediate
praesertim, adv. especially, chiefly
praesidium, praesi’dī, n. guard, garrison, protection
prae-stō, -āre, -stitī, -stitus [prae, before, + stō, stand], (stand before), excel, surpass, with dat (§501.15); show, exhibit
prae-sum, -esse, -fuī, -futūrus [prae, before, sum, be], be over, be in command of, with dat. (§501.15)
praeter, prep, with acc. beyond, contrary to (§340)
praetereā, adv. [praeter, besides, + , this], in addition, besides, moreover
praetextus, -a, -um, adj. bordered, edged
praetōrium, praetō’rī, n. prætorium
prandium, prandī, n. luncheon
premō, -ere, pressī, pressus, press hard, compress; crowd, drive, harass
(prex, precis), f. prayer
primō, adv. [prīmus, first], at first, in the beginning (§322)
prīmum, adv. [primus, first], first. quam prīmum, as soon as possible
prīmus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared prior, prīmus, first (§315)
prīnceps, -cipis, m. [prīmus, first, + capiō, take], (taking the first place) chief, leader (§464.1)
prior, prius, -ōris, adj. in comp. degree, superl. prīmus, former (§315)
prīstinus, -a, -um, adj. former, previous
prō, prep, with abl. before; for, for the sake of, in behalf of; instead of, as (§209). In composition, forth, forward
prō-cēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessūrus [prō, forward, + cēdō, go], go forward, proceed
procul, adv. far, afar off
prō-currō, -ere, -currī (-cucurrī), -cursus [prō, forward, + currō, run], run forward
proelium, proelī, n. battle, combat. proelium committere. join battle. proelium facere, fight a battle
profectiō, -ōnis, f. departure
proficīscor, -ī, -fectus sum, dep. verb, set out, march. Cf. ēgredior, exeō
prō-gredior, -ī, -gressus sum, dep. verb [prō, forth, + gradior, go], go forth, proceed, advance. Cf. pergō, prōcēdō
prōgressus, see prōgredior
prohibeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [prō, forth, away from, + habeō, hold], keep away from, hinder, prevent
prō-moveō, -ēre, -mōvī, -mōtus [prō, forward, + moveō, move], move forward, advance
prō-nūntiō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [prō, forth, + nūntiō, announce], proclaim, declare
prope, adv., compared propius, proximē, nearly. Prep, with acc. near
prō-pellō, -ere, -pulī, -pulsus [prō, forth, + pellō, drive], drive forth; move, impel
properō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [properus, quick], go quickly, hasten. Cf. contendō, mātūrō
propinquus, -a, -um, adj. [prope, near] near, neighboring
propior, -ius, -ōris, adj. in comp. degree, superl. proximus, nearer (§315)
propius, adv. in comp. degree, compared prope, propius,proximē, nearer (§323)
propter, prep, with acc. on account of, because of (§340)
prō-scrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scrīptus [prō, forth, + scrībō write], proclaim, publish. Cf. prōnūntiō
prō-sequor, -sequī, -secūtus sum, dep. verb [prō, forth, + sequor, follow], escort, attend
prō-sum, prōdesae, prōfuī, prōfutūrus [prō, for, + sum, be], be useful, benefit, with dat. (§§496; 501.15)
prō-tegō, -ere, -tēxī, -tēctus [prō, in front, + tegō, cover], cover in front, protect
prōyincia, -ae, f. territory, province
proximē, adv. in superl. degree, compared prope, propius, proximē, nearest, next; last, most recently (§323)
proximus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared propior, proximus, nearest, next (§315)
pūblicus, -a, -um, adj. [populus, people], of the people, public. rēs pūblica, the commonwealth
puella, -ae, f. [diminutive of puer, boy], girl, maiden
puer, -erī, m. boy; slave (§462.c)
pugna, -ae, f. fight, battle. Cf. proelium
pugnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [pugna, battle], fight, Cf. contendō, dimicō
pulcher, -chra, -chrum, adj. beautiful, pretty (§§469.b; 304)
Pullō, -ōnis, m. Pullo, a centurion
pulsō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, strike, beat
puppis, -is (ace. -im, abl. ), f. stern of a ship, deck
pūrē, adv. [pūrus, pure], comp. pūrius, purely
purgō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, cleanse, clean
purpureas, -a, -um, adj. purple, dark red
putō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, reckon, think (§420,c). Cf. arbitror, exīstimō
Pȳthia, -ae, f. Pythia, the inspired priestess of Apollo at Delphi


quā dē causā, for this reason, wherefore
quāa rē, therefore, for this reason
quaerō, -ere, -sīvī, -sītus, seek, ask, inquire. Cf. petō, postulō, rogō
quālis, -e, interrog. pronom. adj. of what sort, what kind of. talis ... quālis, such ... as
quam, adv. how; after a comparative, than, with a superlative, translated as ... as possible, quam prīmum, as soon as possible
quantus, -a, -um, adj. [quam, how], how great, hortv much, tantus ... quantus, as great as
quartus, -a, -um, numeral adj. [quattuor, four] , fourth
quattuor, indecl. numeral adj, four
quattuor-decim, indecl. numeral adj. fourteen
-que, conj., enclitic, and (§16). Cf ac, atque, et
quī, quae, quod, rel. pron. and adj who, which, what, that ($482)
quia, conj. because. Cf. quod
quīdam, quaedam, quiddam (quoddam), indef. pron. and adj. a certain one, a certain, a (§485)
quidem, adv. to be sure, certainly, indeed, nē ... quidem, not even
quiēs, -ētis, f. rest, repose
quiētus, -a, -um, adj. quiet, restful
quindecim, indecl. numeral adj. fifteen
quīngentī, -ae, -a, numeral adj. five hundred
quīnque, indecl. numeral adj. five
quīntus, -a, -um, numeral adj. fifth
quis (quī), quae, quid (quod), interrog. pron. and adj. who? what? which? (§483)
quis (quī), qua (quae), quid (quod), indef. pron. and adj., used after sī, nisi, nē, num, any one, anything, some one, something, any, some (§484)
quisquam, quicquam or quidquam (no fem, or plur.), indef. pron. any one (at all), anything (at all) (§486)
quisque, quaeque, quidque (quodque), indef. pron. and adj. each, each one, every (§484)
quō, interrog. and rel. adv. whither, where
quō, conj. in order to, that, with comp. degree (§350)
quod, conj. because, in that. Cf. quia
quoque, conj., following an emphatic word, also, too. Cf. etiam
quot-annīs, adv. [quot, how many + annus, year], every year, yearly
quotiēns, interrog. and rel. adv. how often? as often as


rādīx, -īcis, f . root; foot
rapiō, -ere, -uī, -tus, seize, snatch
rārō, adv. [rārus, rare], rarely
rārus, -a, -um, adj. rare
re- or red-, an inseparable prefix, again, back, anew, in return
rebelliō, -ōnis, f. renewal of war, rebellion
recēns, -entis, adj. recent
re-cipiō, -ere, -cepī, -ceptus [re-, back, + capiō, take], take back, receive, sē recipere, withdraw, retreat
re-clīnātus, -a, -um, part, of reclīnō, leaning back
re-creātus, -a, -um, part, of recreō, refreshed
rēctus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of regō, keep straight], straight, direct
re-cūsō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, refuse
red-āctus, -a, -um, part, of redigō, reduced, subdued
red-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus [red-, back, + , go], go back, return (§413). Cf. revertō
reditus, -ūs, m. [cf. redeō, return], return, going back
re-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus [re-, back, + dūcō, lead], lead back
re-ferō, -ferre, rettulī, -lātus [re-, back, + ferō, bear], bear back; report, pedem referre, withdraw, retreat
re-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [re-, again, + faciō, make], make again, repair. sē reficere, refresh one’s self
rēgīna, -ae, f. [rēx, king], queen
regiō, -ōnis, f. region, district
rēgnum, -ī, n. sovereignty; kingdom
regō, -ere, rēxī, rēctus [cf. rēx, king], govern, rule (§490)
re-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus [re-, back, + iaciō, hurl], hurl back; throw away
re-linquō, -ere, -līquī, -lictus [re-, behind, + linquō, leave], leave behind, leave, abandon
reliquus, -a, -um, adj. [cf. relinquō, leave], left over, remaining. As a noun, plur. the rest
remōtus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of re-moveō, remove], remote, distant
re-moveō, -ēre, -mōvī, -mōtus [re-, back, + moveō, move], remove
rēmus, -ī, m. oar
re-periō, -īre, repperī, repertus, find
re-portō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [re-, back, + portō, carry], carry back, bring back, win, gain
rēs, reī, f. thing, business, matter, deed, event, circumstance (§467). quam ob rem, for this reason. rēs adversae, adversity. rēs frūmentāria, grain supplies. rēs gestae, exploits. rēs mīlitāris, science of war. rēs pūblica, the commonwealth. rēs secundae, prosperity
re-scindō, -ere, -scidī, -scissus [re-, back, + scindō, cut], cut off, cut down
re-sistō, -ere, -stitī, —— [re-, back, + sistō, cause to stand], oppose, resist, with dat. (§501.14)
re-spondeō, -ēre, -spondī, -spōnsus [re-, in return, + spondeō, promise], answer, reply (§420.a)
re-vertō, -ere, -ī, ——, or dep. verb re-vertor, -ī, -sus sum [re-, back, + vertō, turn], turn back, return. Usually active in the perf. system
re-vinciō, -īre, -vīnxī, -vīnctas [re-, back, + vinciō, bind], fasten
rēx, rēgis, m. [cf. regō, rule], king
Rhēnus, -ī, m. the Rhine, a river of Germany
rīpa, -ae, f. bank
rogō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, ask. Cf. petō, postulō, quaarō
Rōma, -ae, f. Rome. See map
Rōmānus, -a, -um, adj. [Rōma, Rome], Roman, follows its noun. As a noun, m. and f. a Roman
rosa, -ae, f. rose
rōstmm, -ī, n. beak of a ship. In plur., the rostra, the speaker's stand in the Roman Forum
rota, -ae, f. wheel
Rubicō, -ōnis, m. the Rubicon, a river in northern Italy. See map
rūmor, -ōris, m. report, rumor
rūrsus, adv. [for reversus, turned back], again, tn turn
rūs, rūris (locative abl. rūrī, no gen., dat., or abl. plur.), n. the country (§501.36.1). Cf. ager, patria, terra


Sabīnus, -a, -um, adj. Sabine. As a noun, m. and f. a Sabine. The Sabines were an ancient people of central Italy. See map
sacnun, -ī, n. [sacer, consecrated], something consecrated, sacrifice; usually in plur., religious rites
saepe, adv., compared saepius, saepissimē, often, frequently
saevus, -a, -um, adj. cruel, savage
sagitta, -ae, f. arrow
saliō, -īre, -uī, saltus, jump
salūs, -ūtis, f. safety; health, salūltem dīcere, send greetings
salūtō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [salūs, health], greet, salute
salvē, imv. of salveō, hail, greetings
sanguis, -inis, m. blood (§247.2.a)
sānitās, -ātis, f. [sānus, sound], healthy sanity
sapiēns, -entis, adj. [part, of sapiō, be wise], wise, sensible
satis, adv. and indecl. noun, enough, sufficient, sufficiently
saxum, -ī, n. rock, stone
scelus, -eris, n. crime, sin
scēptrum, -ī, n. scepter
schola, -ae, f. school, the higher grades. Cf. lūdus
scientia, -ae, f. [sciēns, knowing], skill, knowledge, science
scindō, -ere, scidī, scissus, cut, tear
sciō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus, know (§420.b). Cf. cognōscō
scrībō, -ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus, write
scūtum, -ī, n. shield, buckler
, see suī
sēcum = + cum
secundus, -a, -um, adj. [sequor, follow], following, next, second; favorable, successful, rēs secundae, prosperity
sed, conj. but, on the contrary, non sōlum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also
sēdecim, indecl. numeral adj. sixteen
sedeō, -ēre, sēdī, sessus, sit
semper, adv. always, forever
senātus, -ūs, m. [cf. senex, old], council of elders, senate
sentiō, -īre, sēnsī, sqēnsus, feel, know, perceive (§420.d). Cf. intellegō, videō
septem, indecl. numeral adj. seven
septimus, -a, -um, numeral adj. seventh
sequor, -ī, secūtus sum, dep. verb, follow (§493)
serpēns, -entis, f. [serpō, crawl], serpent, snake
sertae, -ārum, f. plur. wreaths, garlands
servitūs, -ūtis, f. [servus, slave], slavery, servitude
servō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, save, rescue, keep
servus, -ī, m. slave
sēsē, emphatic for
sex, indecl. numeral adj. six
Sextus, -ī, m. Sextus, a Roman first name
, conj, if
sīc, adv. thus, in this way. Cf. ita, tam
Sicilia, -ae, f. Sicily. See map
sīc-ut, just as, as if
signifer, -erī, m. [signum, standard, + ferō, bear], standard bearer (p.224)
signum, -ī, n. ensign, standard; signal
silva, -ae, f. wood, forest
similis, -e, adj., compared similior, simillimus, like, similar (§307)
simul, adv. at the same time
simul ac or simul atque, conj. as soon as
sine, prep, with abl. without (§209)
singulī, -ae, -a, distributive numeral adj. one at a time, single (§334)
sinister, -tra, -trum, adj. left
Sinuessa, -ae, f. Sinues’sa, a town in Campania. See map
sitis, -is (acc. -im, abl. -ī, no plur.), f. thirst
situs, -a, -um, adj. [part, of sinō, set], situated, placed, lying
socius, socī, m. comrade, ally
sōl, sōlis (no gen. plur.), m. sun
soleō, -ēre, solitus sum, semi-dep. verb, be wont, be accustomed
sollicitus, -a, -um, adj. disturbed, anxious
sōlum, adv. [sōlus, alone], alone, only. nōn sōlum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also
sōlus, -a, -um (gen. -īus, dat. -ī), adj. alone, only (§108)
solvō, -ere, solvī, solūtus, loosen, unbind, nāvem solvere, set sail
somnus, -ī, m. sleep
soror, -ōris, f. sister
spatium, spatī, n. space, distance; time; opportunity
spectāculum, -ī, n [spectō, look at], show, spectacle
spectō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, look at, witness
spērō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [spēs, hope], hope, expect (§420.c)
spēs, speī, f. hope (§273.2)
splendidē, adv. [splendidus], compared splendidius, splendidissimē, splendidly, handsomely
splendidus, -a, -am, adj. brilliant, gorgeous, splendid
Stabiānus, -a, -um, Stabian
stabulum, -ī, n. [cf. stō, stand], standing place, stable, stall
statim, adv. [cf. stō, stand], on the spot, at once, instantly
statua, -ae, f. [sistō, place, set], statue
statuō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus [status, station], decide, determine
stilus, -ī, m. iron pencil, style (p.210)
stō, -āre, stetī, status, stand
strātus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of sternō, spread], paved (of streets)
strepitus, -ūs, m. [strepō, make a noise], noise, din
stringō, -ere, strīnxī, strictus, bind tight; draw, unsheathe
studeō, -ēre, -uī, ——, give attention to, be eager, with dat. (§501.14)
studium, studī, n. [cf. studeō, be eager for], eagerness, desire, zeal, devotion
stultus, -a, -um, adj. foolish, stupid
Stymphālis, -idis, adj. f. Stymphalian, of Stymphā’lus a lake in southern Greece
Stymphālus, -ī, m. Stympha’lus, a district of southern Greece with a town, mountain, and lake, all of the same name
suādeō, -ēre, -sī, -sus, advise, recommend, with subjv. of purpose {§501.41)
sub, prep, with acc. and abl. under, below, up to; at or to the foot of
sub-igō, -ere, -ēgī, -āctus [sub, under, + agō, drive], subdue, reduce
subitō, adv. [subitus, sudden], suddenly
sub-sequor, -ī, -secūtus sum, dep. verb [sub, below, + sequor, follow], follow close after, follow up
suc-cēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessus [sub, below, + cēdō, go], follow, succeed
suī, reflexive T^ron. of himself (herself, itself, themselves) (§480). sēcum = + cum. sēsē, emphatic form of
sum, esse, fuī, futūrus, irreg. verb, be; exist (§494)
summus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared superus, superior, suprēmus or summus (§312), supreme, highest; best, greatest, in summō colle, on the top of the hill
sūmō, -ere, sūmpsī, sūmptus, take up; assume, put on. sūmere supplicium dē, inflict punishment on
super, prep, with acc. and abl. over, above
superbia, -ae, f. [superbus, proud], pride, arrogance
superbus, -a, -um, adj. proud, haughty
superior, comp. of superus
superō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [superus, above], go over; subdue, overcome; surpass, excel
super-sum, -esse, -fuī, ——, be over, survive, with dat ($501.15)
superus, -a, -um, adj., compared superior, suprēmus or summus, above, upper (§312)
supplicium, suppli’cī, n. [supplex, kneeling in entreaty], punishment, torture, supplicium sūmere dē, inflict punishment on. supplicium dare, suffer punishment
surgō, -ere, surrēxī, ——, [sub, from below, + regō, straighten], rise
sus-cipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus [sub, under, + capiō, take], undertake, assume, begin
suspicor, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb, suspect, surmise, suppose
sus-tineō, -ēre, -tinuī, -tentus [sub, under, + teneō, hold], hold up, bear, sustain, withstand
suus, -a, -um, reflexive possessive adj. and pron., his, her, hers, its, their, theirs (§98)


T., abbreviation of Titus
taberna, -ae, f. shop, stall
tabula, -ae, f. tablet for writing
tālis, -e, adj. such, tālis ... quālis, such ... as
tam, adv. so, such. Cf. ita, sīc
tamen, adv. yet, however, nevertheless
tandem, adv. at length, finally
tangō, -ere, tetigī, tāctus, touch
tantum, adv. [tantus], only
tantus, -a, -um, adj. so great, such. tantus ... quantus, as large as
tardus, -a, -um, adj. slow, late; lazy
Tarpēia, -ae, f. Tarpeia (pronounced Tar-pē’ya), the maiden who opened the citadel to the Sabines
Tarquinius, Tarqui’nī, Tarquin, a Roman king. With the surname Superbus, Tarquin the Proud
Tarracīna, -ae, f. Tarraci’na, a town in Latium. See map
taurus, -ī, m. bull
tēctus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of tegō, cover], covered, protected
tēlum, -ī, n. weapon
temerē, adv. rashly, heedlessly
tempestās, -ātis, f. [tempus, time], storm, tempest
templum, -ī, n. temple, shrine
temptō, -āre, -āvī,-ātus, try, test; make trial of, attempt
tempus, -oris, n. time (§464.2.b). in reliquum tempus, for the future
teneō, -ēre, tenuī, ——, hold, keep
tergum, -ī, n. back, ā tergō, on the rear, tergum vertere, retreat,flee
ternī, -ae, -a, distributive numeral adj. three each, by threes (§334)
terra, -ae, f. earth, ground, land, orbis terrārum, the whole world
terror, -ōris, m. [cf. terreō, frighten], dread, alarm, terror
tertius, -a, -um, numeral adj. third
Teutonēs, -um, m. the Teutons
theātrum, -ī, n. theater
Thēbae, -ārum, f. Thebes, a city of Greece
Thēbānī, -ōrum, m. Thebans, the people of Thebes
thermae, -ārum, f. plur. baths
Thessalia, -ae, f. Thessaly, a district of northern Greece
Thrācia, -ae, f. Thrace, a district north of Greece
Tiberius, Tibe’rī, m. Tiberius, a Roman first name
tībīcen, -inis, m. [cf. tībia, pipe], piper, flute player
timeō, -ēre, -uī, ——, fear, be afraid of. Cf. vereor
timor, -ōris, m. [cf. timeō, fear], fear, dread, alarm. Cf. metus
Tiryns, Tirynthis, f. Ti’ryns, an ancient town in southern Greece, where Hercules served Eurystheus
toga, -ae, f. [cf. tegō, cover], toga
tormentum, -ī, n. engine of war
totiēns, adv. so often, so many times
tōtus, -a, -um (gen. -īus, dat. ), adj. all, the whole, entire {§108)
trā-dō, -ere, -didī, -ditua [trāns, across, + , deliver], give up, hand over, surrender, betray
trā-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus [trāns, across, + dūcō, lead], lead across
trahō, -ere, trāxī, trāictus, draw, pull, drag, multum trahere protract, prolong much
trā-iciō,-ere,-iēcī,-iectus [trāns, across, + iaciō, hurl], throw across; transfix
trā-nō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [trāns, across, + , swim], swim across
trāns, prep, with acc. across, over (§340)
trāns-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus [trāns, across, + go], go across, cross (§413)
trāns-fīgō, -ere, -fīxī, -fīxus [trāns, through, + figō, drive], transfix
trānsitus, —— (acc. -um, abl. ), m. [cf. trānseō, cross over], passage across
trēs, tria, numeral adj. three (§479)
trīduum, trīduī, n. [trēs, three, + diēs, days], three days’ time, three days
'trīgintā, indecl. numeral adj. thirty
triplex, -icis, adj. threefold, triple
trīstis, -e, adj. sad; severe, terrible
trīstitia, -ae, f. [titetis, sad], sadness, sorrow
triumphō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [triumphus, triumph], celebrate a triumph
triamphus, -ī, m. triumphal procession, triumph, triumphum agere, celebrate a triumph
trucīdō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, cut to pieces, slaughter. Cf. interficiō, necō, occidō
tū, tuī (plur. vōs), pars. pron. thou, you (§480)
tuba, -ae, f. trumpet
Tullia, -ae, f. Tullia, a Roman name
tum, adv. then, at that time
turris, -is, f. tower (§ 465.2)
tūtus, -a, -um, adj. safe
tuus, -a, -um, possessive adj. and pron. your, yours (§98)


ubi, rel. and interrog.adv. where, when
ubique, adv. everywhere
ūllus, -a, -um (gen. -īus, dat. -Ī, adj. any (§108)
ulterior,-ius,-ōris, adj. in comp. superl. ultimus, further, more remote (§315)
ultimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree (see ulterior), farthest (§315)
umbra, -ae, f. shade
umerus, -ī, m, shoulder
umquam, adv. ever, at any time
ūnā, adv. [ūnus, one], in the same place, at the same time
ūndecimus, -a, -um, numeral adj. [ūnus, one, + decimus, tenth], eleventh
undique, adv. from every quarter, on all sides, everywhere
ūnus, -ā, -um (gen. -īus, dat. -ī), numeral adj. one; alone (§108)
urbs, -is, f. city (§465.a)
urgeō, -ēre, uraī, ——, press upon, crowd, hem in
ūrus, -ī, m. wild ox, urus
ūsgue, adv. all the way, even
ūsus, -ūs, m. use, advantage
ut, conj. with the subjv. that, in order that, that not (with verbs of fearing), so that, to (§350.1)
uter, -tra, -trum (gen. -īus, dat. -ī), interrog. pron. which of two? which? (§108)
uterque, utraque, utrumque, indef. pron. each of two, each, both, ab utrāque parte, on both sides
ūtilis, -e, adj. [ūtor, use], useful
utrimque, adv. [uterque, each of two], on each side, on either hand
ūva, -ae, f. grape, bunch of grapes
uxor, -ōris, f. wife


vāgīna, -ae, sheath, scabbard
vagor, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb, wander
valeō, -ēre, -uī, -itūrus, be powerftil, be well; in the imperative as a greeting, farewell. plūrimum valēre, have the most power
valētūdō, -inis, f. [valeō, be well], health
validus, -a, -um, adj. [cf. valeō, be strong], strong, able, well
vallēs, -is, f. valley
vāllum, -ī, n. rampart, earthworks
varius, -a, -um, adj. bright-colored
vāstō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [vāstus, empty], (make empty), devastate, lay waste
vectīgal, -ālis, n. tax, tribute
vehementer, adv. [vehemēns, eager], compared vehementius, vehementissimē, eagerly, vehemently
vehō, -ere, vexī, vectus, convey, carry. In the passive often in the sense of ride, sail
vel, conj. or. vel ... vel, either ... or. Cf. aut
vēlōcitās, -ātis, f. [vēlōx, swift], swiftness
vēlōx, -ōcis, adj. swift, fleet
vēlum, -ī, n. sail
vēndō, -ere, vēndidī, vēnditus, sell
veniō, -īre, vēnī, ventus, come, go
ventus, -ī, m. wind
verbum, -ī, n. word, verba facere prō, speak in behalf of
vereor, -ērī, -itus sum, dep. verb, fear; reverence, respect (§493). Cf. timeō
Vergilius, Vergi’lī, m. Vergil, the poet
vergō, -ere, ——, ——, turn, lie
vērō, adv. [vērus, true],in truth, surely; conj. but, however, tum vērō, then you may be sure, introducing the climax of a story
vertō, -ere, -tī, -sus, turn, change. tergum vertere, retreat, flee
vērus, -a, -um, true, actual
vesper, -erī, m. evening
vester, -tra, -trum, possessive adj. and pron. your, yours (§98)
vestīgium, vestī’gī, n. [cf. vestīgō, track], footstep, track, trace
vestīmentum, -ī, n. [vestis, clothing], garment
vestiō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus [vestis, clothing], clothe, dress
vestis, -is, f. clothing, attire, garment, robe
vestītus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of vestiō, clothe], clothed
Vesuvius, Vesu’vi, m. Vesuvius, the volcano near Pompeii. See map
veterānus, -a, -um, adj. old, veteran
vetō, -āre, -uī, -itūs, forbid, prohibit
vexō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, trouble, annoy
via, -ae, f. way, road, street; way, manner. Cf. iter
viātor, -ōris, m. [via], traveler
victor, -ōris, m. [vincō, conquer], conqueror, victor. In apposition, with adj. force, victorious
victōria, -ae, f. [victor, victor], victory
vīcus, -ī, m. village
videō, -ēre, vīdī, vīsas, see, perceive. Pass, be seen; seem (§ 420.d)
vigilia, -ae, f. [vigil, awake], watch. dē tertiā vigiliā, about the third watch
vīgintī, indecl. numeral adj. twenty
vīlicus, -ī, m. [villa, farm, steward, overseer of a farm
vīlla, -ae, f. farm, villa
vinciō, -īre, vīnxī, vīnctus, bind, tie, fetter
vincō, -ere, vīcī, vīctus, conquer, defeat, overcome. Cf. sabigō, superō
vinea, -ae, f. shed (p.219)
vīnum, -ī, n. wine
violenter, adv. [violentus, violent], compared violentius, violentissimē, violently, furiously
vir, virī, m. man, husband; hero (§ 462.c)
virīlis, -e, adj. [vir, man], manly
virtūs, -ūtis, f. [vir, man], manliness; courage, valor; virtue (§464.1)
vīs, (vīs), f. strength, power might, violence (§468)
vīta, -ae, f [cf. vīvō, live], life, vītam agere, spend or pass life
vītō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, shun, avoid
vīvō, -ere, vīxī, ——, live. Cf. habitō, incolō
vīvus, -a, -um, adj. [cf. vīvō, live], alive, living
vix, adv. scarcely, hardly
vocō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, call, summon, invite. Cf. appeilō, nōminō
volō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, fly
volō, velle, voluī, ——, irreg. verb, will, be willing, wish (§497). Cf. capiō
volūmen, -inis, n. roll, book
Vorēnus, -ī, m. Vore’nus, a centurion
vōs, pers. pron. you (see ) (§480)
vōtum, -ī, n. [neut. part of voveō, vow], vow, pledge, prayer
vōx, vōcis, f. [cf. vocō, call], voice, cry; word
vulnerō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [vulnus, wound], wound, hurt
vulnus, -eris, n. wound, injury.
vulpēs, -is, f. fox
Latin for beginners (1911) 357.png