Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XXII

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141. Review the present, imperfect, and future active indicative, both orally and in writing, of sum and the verbs in § 129.

142. We learned in §43 for what sort of expressions we may expect the dative, and in §44 that one of its commonest uses is with verbs to express the indirect object. It is also very common with adjectives to express the object toward which the quality denoted by the adjective is directed. We have already had a number of cases where grātus, agreeable to, was so followed by a dative; and in the last lesson we had molestus, annoying to, followed by that case. The usage may be more explicitly stated by the following rule:

143. Rule. Dative with Adjectives. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is directed. Such are, especially, those meaning near, also fit, friendly, pleasing, like, and their opposites.

144. Among such adjectives memorize the following:

idōneus, -a, -um, fit, suitable (for)
amīcus, -a, -um, friendly (to)
inimīcus, -a, -um, hostile (to)
grātus, -a, -um, pleasing (to), agreeable (to)
molestus, -a, -um, annoying (to), troublesome (to)
fīnitimus, -a, -um, neighboring (to)
proximus, -a, -um, nearest, next (to)




  1. Rōmānī terram idōneam agrī cultūrae habent.
  2. Gallī cōpiīs Rōmānīs inimīcī erant.
  3. Cui dea Lātōna amīca nōn erat?
  4. Dea Lātōna superbae rēgīnae amīca nōn erat.
  5. Cibus noster, Mārce, erit armātīs virīs grātus.
  6. Quid erat molestum populīs Italiae?
  7. Bella longa cum Gallīs erant molesta populīs Italiae.
  8. Agrī Germānōrum fluviō Rhēnō fīnitimī erant.
  9. Rōmānī ad silvam oppidō proximam castra movēbant.
  10. Nōn sōlum fōrma sed etiam superbia rēgīnae erat magna.
  11. Mox rēgīna pulchra erit aegra trīstitiā.
  12. Cūr erat Niobē, rēgīna Thēbānōrum, laeta? Laeta erat Niobē multīs fīliīs et fīliābus.


  1. The sacrifices of the people will be annoying to the haughty queen.
  2. The sacrifices were pleasing not only to Latona but also to Diana.
  3. Diana will destroy those hostile to Latona.
  4. The punishment of the haughty queen was pleasing to the goddess Diana.
  5. The Romans will move their forces to a large field[1] suitable for a camp.
  6. Some of the allies were friendly to the Romans, others to the Gauls.


Cornelia and her Jewels

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Apud antīquās dominās, Cornēlia, Āfricānī fīlia, erat[2] maximē clāra. Fīliī eius erant Tiberius Gracchus et Gāius Gracchus. Iī puerī cum Cornēliā in oppidō Rōmā, clārō Italiae oppidō, habitābant. Ibi eōs cūrābat Cornēlia et ibi magnō cum studiō eōs docēbat. Bona fēmina erat Cornēlia et bonam disciplīnam maximē amābat.

Note. Can you translate the paragraph above? There are no new words.



  1. Why not the dative?
  2. Observe that all the imperfects denote continued or progressive action, or describe a state of affairs. (Cf. § 134.)