Latin for beginners (1911)/Teachers Manual

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Copyright, 1911



all rights reserved


The Athenæum Press


ginn and company • pro-
prietors • boston • u.s.a.



Note. In presenting this Manual the author wishes it clearly understood that it has been prepared primarily for inexperienced teachers of first-year Latin and that even for them its contents are to be taken as suggestive merely. Ultimately every strong teacher must develop his own method, and the stronger he is the less he will feel bound to follow the methods recommended by others.


1. As a rule pupils beginning Latin are not well prepared in English grammar. To meet this defect it has been customary to devote some pages to a review of English grammar before the Latin grammar is begun. It has seemed a wiser plan to combine the review of the former with progress in the latter. Accordingly, in this beginners' book explanations of grammatical terms and concepts are introduced at the points where the study of the Latin makes a knowledge of them necessary. Similarly the Latin syntax is compared with the corresponding English syntax. Pupils may, therefore, begin the Latin lessons at once with no preceding review of English grammar.


2. The first assignment of work will naturally be the Introduction. Call the pupils' attention to the Review Questions on p. 4, and use them in the recitation. Besides locating Latium and Rome on the map, pronounce the names and have the pupils locate the other districts of Italy and the surrounding seas. Also the Alps, Illyricum, Sicily, and Africa should be pointed out.


3. For the second class period, read over with the pupils the first seven sections and pronounce the Latin examples for them to imitate. Go over the examples again and again, for an incorrect pronunciation acquired at the outset is apt to persist. Assign the pronunciation of the examples and §§8—10 for the third class period.

Begin the third class period with the pronunciation of the examples in §§5—7. Then have the exercise in §10 written on the board and the words divided into syllables and pronounced, being careful about the placing of the accent. You will notice that the rule given for the division of combinations of two or more consonants differs from the one formerly observed and still given in many books. The old rule has been shown to be incorrect. For the fourth class period assign the following lesson: Memorizing of the Latin in the exercise in §10 and the study of §§ 11—16.

For the fourth class period have ready on the board a list of at least twenty words with long vowels marked, including, for the most part, words used before. First have the pupils recite individually and then in concert the Latin exercise in §10. Then, using the word list, let the pupils divide the words into syllables, give the length of each syllable, and pronounce the words. Pupils always confound length of vowel and length of syllable (cf. §13.2, note). Dwell on this point until the distinction is clear to all.

Spend the fifth class period in reviewing the whole subject of pronunciation and on the reading of the poem (§18). One or more stanzas may be assigned for memorizing. The recitation in concert of stanzas learned is sure to be stimulating.

As outlined above, the average class will be ready to begin Part II after five recitations. This does not mean that the subject of pronunciation is finished. Much patient effort for many weeks to come will be necessary before your pupils will pronounce even tolerably well.

4. Probably lack of time will prevent your securing during the first year more than the correct pronunciation of the individual words in a sentence. If you have the opportunity, however, and wish to train your pupils more thoroughly, the following suggestions are offered which will lead to musical, fluent, and effective reading.

a. When a vowel at the end of a word is followed by a word beginning with a vowel or h, the final vowel is only slightly sounded and is run on to the next vowel. Compare English the all-important day has come. Thus, atque alia, atque haec.[1]

If the two vowels are the same they sound like one vowel only: Galba arat like Galbarat.

b. So, too, final m before an initial vowel or h is sounded feebly or not at all, and the two vowels are run together as described above. Thus, tubam auream is pronounced tuba(m) auream, omnem hominem as omne(m) hominem.[1]

c. The words es, you are, and est, he (she, it) is, lose their vowel when preceded by a word ending in a vowel or m. Compare English you're, he's, she's, it's, mum's the word. Thus, tū es, ille est, meum est, are pronounced tūs, illest, meumst (sound the second m feebly or not at all).


5. For the past few years it has been customary to print Latin textbooks with marked quantities, to assist the pupil in giving the correct pronunciation. Pupils have sometimes been required to mark all the long quantities in their written work. This, in my judgment, is a mistake, especially in the first year, when so many vital matters of far more relative importance are demanding attention. For the beginner the quantity of the penult and that of the ultima are of more importance than the quantity of the other syllables, — the former because it determines the word accent, the latter because it often differentiates one form from another. For this reason it is suggested that the marking of quantities on the part of the pupils be limited to vowels in the penult when long by nature and followed by a single consonant, as in dominārum, and to long vowels in the ultima. When a long vowel in the penult is followed by two consonants, as in īnfīrmus, the quantity mark is not needed to determine the accent because the syllable is long irrespective of the length of the vowel and the pupil will presumably pronounce the word correctly without marking the vowel. Some go so far as to say that pupils who mark all the quantities pronounce no better than those who mark none. This is, indeed, an exaggerated statement; but there is no doubt that the importance of marking quantities during the first year has been much overdrawn and has led to the neglect of weightier matters. The course that is here suggested seems to me reasonable in demand and has been proved practical in results.


6. The Recitation Period. Always devote the first five minutes of the recitation period to the explanation and development of the work for the next day. Make the assignment definite and do not give more than the class can learn and than you are sure you can cover in the time allotted. Explain all rules. Pronounce paradigms and vocabularies and have the class repeat them. Do not allow pupils to accent the final syllables when repeating paradigms.

After the lesson for the next day has been assigned, review rapidly the work of the preceding day. Insist on quick and accurate replies to your questions. Blundering and hesitation are to be expected in the advance; but the pupil should be made to understand that they are not excusable in the review.

Allowing that one third of the recitation period has been spent as outlined above, the remaining two thirds can be devoted to the lesson of the day. Emphasize its proper subject strongly in the recitation of each pupil. Each pupil should be called on at least once, and work at the board as well as oral recitation should be the daily rule.

7. Memorizing. Insist on the thorough memorizing of paradigms, vocabularies, and rules. The importance of this cannot be overestimated. Without it progress is impossible. Forms must be known so well that they are recognized at once and without deliberation. Pupils should be able to give instantly the English for the Latin or the Latin for the English of the words in a vocabulary, and to recite rules accurately and without hesitation.

8. Learning the Forms. To learn the forms thoroughly incessant drill is necessary, both orally and by the use of the blackboard. The inflectional system must be mastered the first year, and requires far more practice than any textbook can provide.

When a noun is to be declined either orally or at the board, train pupils always to give the meaning, the gender, and the base before giving the declension. In the written work have them put a hyphen between the base and the case termination and have them mark the long vowels in the terminations. In the third declension the stem should be given as well as the base in order that consonant stems and i-stems may be clearly distinguished.

When declining an adjective follow the same method as with nouns.

When a verb is to be conjugated either in full or in part, always have its meaning, its principal parts, and its stems given first. It is far better for pupils to learn the verb by stems than by moods. Knowing the stems, tense signs, mood signs, and personal endings, and what stem to use for whatever form, the pupil is soon able to recognize any form at sight and to give instantly any form of any verb of which he knows the principal parts. He should be made to understand that until he can do this he does not know the verbs.

It is a good plan to write near the top of the blackboard before the recitation a number of nouns, adjectives, and verbs, one for each member of the class, choosing such words as occur in the lesson of the day. Send the pupils to the board and let each write the meaning of the word falling to him, give its inflection, and construct a sentence which shall contain the word in question. This exercise may be varied by the teacher writing beforehand English instead of Latin words. The pupils will then, first of all, have to write the equivalent Latin.

The rapid recitation of paradigms by successive pupils is helpful; for example, one giving the nominative, another the genitive, and so on. Daily practice with the blank declension and conjugation schemes to be explained later (see pp. 12, 27) is strongly recommended. It all comes to this, — that drill on forms cannot be overdone. Especially after the class has been over all the regular declensions and conjugations this drill should be constant and merciless. And the work is not done until every pupil knows every form.

9. Vocabulary. The learning of words is of no less importance than the learning of forms and cannot be emphasized too much. The special vocabularies should in each case be thoroughly mastered before beginning to read the accompanying exercises. Train pupils from the very outset to give nouns with the genitive and the gender, adjectives with their different gender terminations, and verbs with their principal parts. For example, in reply to the question “What is the word for master?” the pupil should answer, “dominus, dominī, masculine”; to the question “What is the word for good?” the pupil should answer, “bonus, -a, -um”; and to the question “What is the word for advise?” the reply should be “moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus.”

However well the vocabularies are learned, earnest efforts on the part of both pupil and teacher will be found necessary to retain them. Much reading of reviews and at sight will be of assistance. Attention should also be called to the kindred English words that are given in the vocabularies, and the pupil should be encouraged to think of others. In the textbook provision is made for thorough reviews of words at short intervals. The test on these should be rigid. Teachers will be able to devise various interesting methods of drilling on words. The following, which may be called the vocabulary roll call, has been found especially useful. When the class enters the room let it remain standing, each pupil at his place. Pronounce words to the different pupils, English words to be translated into Latin or vice versa, and let those that answer correctly take their seats, the others remaining standing until they have done the same. Much enthusiasm can be aroused by letting two pupils choose sides, as in a spelling match, for a vocabulary contest.

The textbook is so planned that all the words to be memorized are reviewed three times. This fact, as well as that no new vocabularies are assigned after Lesson LX, should give ample time and opportunity for drill and study.

10. Translation. Suggestions for translating from Latin into English are given in the textbook, p. 194. Call the pupils' attention to these early in the year and emphasize the importance of forming correct habits from the beginning. It is advisable at intervals to call for a written translation of passages of connected Latin. In these translations demand good idiomatic English. When you have corrected the papers, have two or three of the best ones read as models for the rest. This practice will do much to correct the translation jargon that pupils are prone to employ.

Pupils always find it much harder to translate from English into Latin than from Latin into English. For this reason more help should be given them for this work. For the first few weeks go over the English-Latin exercise with the class when you assign it, and explain all difficult points. Do not fail to insist upon a correct order of words. It is a good plan to train pupils to arrange the English sentence mentally in the proper Latin order before turning it into Latin.

If more practice seems to be needed in turning English into Latin than the book provides, invent some sentences yourself, or have the pupils, with closed books, translate into Latin at your dictation the English of the preceding Latin exercise.

Do not have the translation of the English sentences written in blank books, which are likely to be handed down from class to class. The Latin Composition Tablet, published by Ginn and Company, will be found serviceable for this purpose, and the system suggested there of marking the errors will save you much time.

11. Sight Reading. A distinguishing feature of the textbook is the large amount of simple Latin it contains in the form of dialogues and stories. This material will be found well adapted for sight translation, since the selections contain, as a rule, but few words not previously learned. Nothing develops reading power more quickly than work of this kind and it should be practiced as frequently as possible.

12. General Vocabulary and Index. Pupils need some instruction in the use of the general Latin-English vocabulary and the index. This instruction should be given as early as §136, where the general vocabulary must be used for the first time.

13. Reviews and Formulas. The lesson of the preceding day should always be reviewed before the work of the day is taken up (see above, §6). In addition the reviews provided for by the textbook at frequent intervals should be made thorough. You will find it profitable to make each the subject of a written test. The last three Lessons in the book provide for a review of all the constructions that have been discussed. An unusually careful Study of these Lessons is advisable just before taking up Caesar. It would be a good plan, therefore, to go over them a second time at the beginning of the second year.

To insure completeness and uniformity in the answers to certain constantly recurring questions, the following formulas are suggested, 1. For describing nouns: dominam, accusative singular from domina, dominae, feminine. Follow this with the rule for the case. 2. For describing adjectives: bonārum, genitive plural feminine from the adjective bonus, -a, -um to agree with the noun ————. Follow with the rule for the agreement of adjectives. 3. For describing relative pronouns: quōs, accusative plural masculine from the relative quī, quae, quod. It is masculine plural to agree with its antecedent ———— (give the rule for the agreement of the relative); it is in the accusative case because (give the reason), according to the rule (give the rule for the case of the relative). 4. For describing verbs : ament, active subjunctive present from amō, amāre, amāvī, amātus, third person plural number to agree with its subject ————. It is in the subjunctive mood because (give the reason for the mood and the rule).

It leads to better results for the teacher to designate in advance in the reading lessons such words as are to be inflected and parsed.


Part II contains sixty Lessons and Part III nineteen, the last three of which are reviews. This makes a total of seventy-six advance Lessons. A class of average ability should have no difficulty in completing the first sixty Lessons, with the accompanying reading selections, by the Easter recess. This will leave sufficient time for the completion of the book by the end of the year.

The first six Lessons are used to review and reëstablish certain fundamental grammatical principles and to develop the meaning and value of the case forms. American boys and girls have no conception of an inflected language, and it is of no profit to them to recite paradigms, be it ever so glibly, unless they have some comprehension of what inflection means. The different cases have, therefore, been introduced one at a time, and their fundamental values established as a prime essential to all progress. It is not until Lesson VII, after all the cases have been gone over individually, that the first declension is given in full. These first Lessons will be found very simple, but they have a peculiar value in laying the foundation for all that is to follow.


Note. References preceded by M. are to sections in this Manual. All others are to the textbook.

The object of this Lesson is to establish the simplest grammatical concepts. When assigning it, pronounce and have repeated by the class all the Latin sentences. Ask the pupils to prepare and be ready to give English sentences illustrating the subject, object, predicate, and verb or copula.

Place special emphasis upon § 22. a.


When assigning this Lesson, pronounce and have the class repeat not merely the Latin words in §§ 26,30, but also the Latin sentences, § 31. II.

There are three rules to be learned, §§ 25,28,29. Always make a point of having all rules memorized verbatim.


Pronounce and have the class repeat the Latin sentences in §§ 32.1, 34.

Point out that the gist of § 32 is contained in the last sentence in § 32.a.

In teaching § 33) have ready on the board the left half of the table which shows the English cases. Then construct the other half of the table in the recitation period at the dictation of the pupils.


When assigning this Lesson, turn to p. 283 and pronounce and have the class repeat the first vocabulary, and emphasize the importance of learning this thoroughly before beginning work on the exercises, § 39. There should be no need of turning back to the vocabulary if it is properly learned. (See M. 9.)

Pronounce and have the class repeat the Latin sentences in §§ 39, 40.

In answering such questions as occur in the Conversations, as in § 40, train the class to answer by a complete sentence and not merely by a single word. For example, the answer to the first question is not merely dea, but Diāna est dea.

In the English-Latin exercise, § 39. II, insist upon proper order of words. Unless emphasis is laid upon this point from the very outset, pupils quickly get the idea that the order of words is of little consequence. Have the sentences written on the board and corrected. Then have them handed in for further correction. (See M. 10.)


This Lesson is especially important because it aims to give the fundamental concept of the dative case. In § 43 the pupil is warned against using the dative to express motion through space. If he is curious to know how such a relation is expressed, it will not do any harm to tell him that the Latin uses the accusative with ad or in. That mere statement will satisfy him without diverting his attention from the dative, the chief business of the hour. It will be well to have the class memorize the last sentence in §43, beginning “But the dative is used,” etc.

After the class has pointed out the dative relations in § 43. a, ask the pupils for other examples in English and give some of your own.

Treat the new vocabulary as in Lesson IV and continue the same method in the succeeding Lessons. Follow the suggestions in M. 9.

Pronounce and have the class repeat the Latin sentences in §47.I.

On the review it is often well for the teacher to read the Latin sentences to the class and have the class translate with books closed. In the same way, let the review English-Latin sentences be given orally from dictation.


This Lesson does for the ablative what Lesson V does for the dative and is equally important. The three fundamental relations expressed by the ablative (§50. 1, 2, 3) must be firmly fixed in mind.

After the ablative relations in §50.a have been pointed out, ask the pupils to give English sentences containing other examples.

In § 54 the statement is made that the ending of the adjective shows to which noun it belongs. This is true, but be careful not to say that the adjective and noun must have the same ending. See § 84.

In connection with § 55. a, have the class give additional examples in English of predicate and attributive adjectives.

In § 56 we have the first of the dialogues. It is a good plan to have some of these memorized and spoken in parts on the review.


In the written declension of the nouns (§ 59) insist on the correct marking of the quantities in terminations (see M. 5) and have the translation of each case written out as in § 57.

Effective drill on declension forms may be secured by placing on the board a blank declension scheme as follows:

Nom. Sing. ————
Singular Plural
Nom. ———— ————
Gen. ———— ————
Dat. ———— ————
Acc. ———— ————
Abl. ———— ————

Using a variety of nouns, point to the blank spaces at random calling for immediate replies. The exercise may be varied by your giving the English and calling on the pupil for the equivalent Latin form and its location in the scheme. Urge the students to make blank schemes of their own and drill by themselves.

Pupils will take an interest in giving the Latin names for the persons and objects in the picture (p. 27). Doubtless the best in the class will want to know the Latin for other objects than those covered by the preceding vocabularies. It will do no harm to satisfy this encouraging curiosity, though the pupils should not be expected to remember the words. Among these are the door (iānua) and window (fenestra) of the cottage; the wall (mūrus) at the left; the water jar (urna) at the right of the door; the vine (vītis) growing against the cottage; the oil flask (guttus) on the window sill; the bowl (patella) from which the farmer is eating; the basket (canistrum) from which the girl is scattering the grain (frūmentum); and the villa (vīlla) on the hill (collis) with its buildings (aedificia) and trees (arborēs).


Begin the recitation by asking the questions in § 63. The agreement of the nouns and adjectives will naturally lead up to drill on the rule, § 65.

When adjectives and nouns are declined together, either orally or at the board, do not permit pupils to give first the noun complete and then the adjective complete, but let each noun form be followed at once by its corresponding adjective, as, domina bona, dominae bonae, dominae bonae, etc.

Cultivate in your pupils from the very outset a proper regard for the order of words. In § 69 note the special emphasis resting on Longae in 1, on meā in 2, on lātā in 3, on altās in 4, on tuā and meā in 6, on lāta and Longā in 7, on fīliābus in 8, and on clāra in 9.


It would be well to spend two days on this review, devoting the first to a review of the vocabulary and the second to a review of the grammar. A good way to handle the vocabulary review is to allow two pupils to choose sides, and engage in a vocabulary contest, conducting it like a spelling match. Go over both the Latin- English and English-Latin vocabularies.

The grammar review may most profitably be made the basis of a written test. Fill out the summary, § 505, on the board, the pupils dictating; or include it in the written test.


Note that in the declension of nouns in -us the vocative singular should be given because it is different from the nominative.

Tell the pupils that in Early Latin the endings -us and -um were -os and -om. That will make clearer to them the reason for calling this the O-Declension.

Make a blank scheme of the Second Declension as you did of the First and drill in the same way.

Be sure that every pupil can repeat the five general rules for declension, § 74.a-e

When you pronounce the vocabulary (p. 285) emphasize the distinction between the sound of long and short o in such words as cōnstantia and oppidum. Note that equus is a word of two syllables (see § 7, sound of qu). Explain that the lēgātus, usually translated lieutenant, was, in the Roman army, an officer of high rank and second in command to the general himself.


The nouns and adjectives assigned for declension at the end of § 79 should be declined both orally and at the board.

Make a blank scheme of noun and adjective together and use it for drill.

In pronouncing the vocabulary (p. 285) the word populus needs special care. Pupils are prone to sound the o long or else to give it the sound of English short o, as in not.

In § 82.I.10, be sure that labōrant is accented on the penult

In § 82.II.1 and 3, refer the pupils to § 77, footnote 1, for the correct translation of does praise and does love.


Place on the board a blank scheme of the complete adjective declension and drill on it until replies are immediate.

§ 84 will need careful explanation and illustration.

In § 86.I. 4, drill on the pronunciation of Populus Rōmānus to bring out the distinction between long and short o.


Have the words assigned for declension at the end of § 89 declined both orally and at the board. Point out the fact that words in -ius and -ium are declined exactly like words in -us and -um except for the genitive and vocative singular.

In § 90.II we have the first selection of connected reading. Take special pains with the pronunciation and try to secure effective reading. Have the class review § 17.


When taking up this Lesson refer the class to § 71, and show that the nouns in -us and -um being disposed of, those ending in -er and -ir remain to be discussed. Emphasize the fact mentioned in § 92.b.

To the words assigned for declension in § 94 add servus pulcher and equus aeger (sick) to afford drill on a -us noun with an -er adjective.

Use blank schemes of the complete adjective and of adjective with noun for thorough drill on the whole subject of first- and second- declension nouns and adjectives.

When selection § 95 is read, the introductory map of Italy should be used for reference.

When the dialogue § 96 is read, have the pupils find in the picture the offensive and defensive weapons of the legionary.


The table of possessives in § 98 should be memorized. § 98.a is exceedingly important and will need careful explanation and full illustration.

In the vocabulary, p. 286, be sure that magister is accented on the penult.

§ 99.I.2. Est = there is. 4. Note the emphasis on tua as shown by its position. 7. Tua is emphatic. 8. Mea is emphatic. 11. Translate, Our camp is yours. 12. Cf. 2.

§ 99.II.6. The camp is = castra sunt, because in Latin castra is plural


The important point to emphasize in this Lesson is that the expression of cause, means, accompaniment, and manner are all included in the with relation of the ablative (cf. Lesson XXX, where the from relation is discussed).

After disposing of § 106 the pupils should be asked to give other examples in English expressing similar relations.

In § 107.I, place the emphasis upon the different uses of the ablative.

In § 107.II.5, point out that not only with but also because of or for may be used in English to denote cause. Sometimes from has the same signification, but it is not included here because it is better to keep this preposition free for the expression of the separative ablative and not to confuse the pupil's mind by using it in other relations.


Be sure that the pupils accent the genitives in -īus on the penult.

Have the list recited several times and have it put on the board with English equivalents.

§ 111.I.7. Alterīus is used here instead of alīus. (See § 109.a.) So also in 9.

§ 111.II.4. In our fort = in castrīs nostrīs. 6. To the other town, not the dative.


§ 114. The comparison suggested between the declension of is and that of alius shows that the case terminations are practically the same.

§ 115. This table need not be memorized, but should be carefully read and used for reference.

§ 116. The distinction between suus and is expressing possession is of vital importance, and pupils are usually slow to grasp it. In the examples it may be pointed out that Galba eius filium vocat may mean also Galba calls her son, and Iūlia eius liberōs vocat may mean Julia calls his children. Ask the class to translate Virī eārum puerōs laudant.

In the vocabulary (p. 287) point out that the English word agriculture is regularly written in Latin as two words. The adverb quō is often translated where, but quō is always used with verbs of motion and is thus distinguished from ubi, where, used in expressions of rest. For example, Ubi est Galba? where is Galba? but Quō Galba properat? where is Galba hastening?

§ 117. The point should be made that while other adjectives, unless emphatic, usually follow their nouns, demonstrative adjectives usually precede them. We therefore say is carrus, ea fātma, etc.

In the dialogue (§ 118) departures from the normal order are shown by Neutrīus fīlius est puer; ad lātōs Sextī agrōs; Agricolaene sunt Gallī; Bellum amant Gallī, nōn agrī cultūram; Apud eōs; laudat eōs; saepe; Mala; saepe; miserī; multīs.


Conduct this review like the first one (see p. 13). The following Lesson should not be taken up until all the ground covered thus far has been mastered.


It will be well to make sure that the class can conjugate the regular English verb in the indicative before taking up the Latin conjugation.

§ 120. Compare the names given to the tenses in Latin with those used in English.

§ 123. The present stem of sum is es-, sometimes weakened to a-. An s between two vowels is regularly changed to r, hence eram, erō, etc. are for esam, esō, etc. The vowels following the stem in the present are thematic vowels, those following it in the imperfect and future are tense signs. These facts should be known to the teacher to meet possible inquiries of bright pupils. If no questions are asked, nothing need be said about them at this stage.

Be sure that your pupils give the correct sound of ē in these forms. They will sound it long if not warned.

Make a blank scheme of these three tenses and drill on them until the pupils can give any form and its translation instantly.

In writing these inflections, instruct the class to separate by a hyphen the personal ending of each form from what precedes.

The dialogue in § 124 brings into use every form of sum thus far learned. Have it memorized, or, on the review, have the class, with books closed, translate it sentence by sentence as you read it.

In § 125. 9, explain that because is not a conjunction but a preposition, and that because of industry is to be translated by an ablative of cause.


§ 126. The word stem is here used for the first time. It is explained in the footnote, but will need additional explanation from the teacher.

Instill from the outset correct methods of reciting and writing verb forms. (See M. 8.)

§ 129. Pronounce each verb in this list with its infinitive, and have the class repeat.

§ 130. In English the three forms of expression are called respectively the present, the progressive present and the emphatic present.

Vary the recitation of verbs by calling for the active indicative present of the verbs love and advise in English, requiring pupils to translate each person and number into Latin.


Have students at the board write both the present and imperfect of the verbs in § 129. Require them to separate the component parts of each form by hyphens, as, amā-s, amā-bā-s.

In the oral work make sure that the accent is properly placed.

Lay stress on § 134. After students have learned the perfect they are inclined to the error that either the imperfect or perfect may be used indiscriminately to express past time. The distinctive force of the imperfect should be made clear from the outset.

§ 136. Insist on the correct pronunciation of proper names. Here, for example, Ni'o-be has three syllables with the accent on the first.

At this point instruct the class in the use of the Latin-English vocabulary.


Conduct the written work as in the preceding Lesson. Students should now be asked to write the first three tenses of the verbs in § 129.

The accent of the future will give no trouble if pupils are shown that it rests throughout on the final vowel of the present stem.

§ 140. Note the emphatic order of Duōs līberōs habet Lātōna; quattuordecim habeō ego, and the emphatic position of mea.

After completing § 140 the whole story should be read through from the beginning.


Before taking up this Lesson read to the class, sentence by sentence, the story of Niobe, and have them translate it with books closed.

§ 141. Put on the board a blank scheme of these three tenses and use it for drill.

§ 145. 1. 9. Ask why ad silvam could not be expressed by the dative.

Vocabulary, p. 288. Gā-i-us is a word of three syllables. So also an-tī'quus. See § 7 for sound of qu.

§ 146. Let the class try to translate this selection at sight. Call attention to the difference between the Latin and English pronunciation of the name Cornelia. Note the emphatic position of magnō.


Be sure that the class knows the first three tenses of the first and second conjugations before taking up the third and fourth.

§ 147. Pronounce these paradigms before assigning them. Note that the e in regō is short.

§ 1 48. Require the class to learn the meanings of these verbs. Call for both oral and board work on these inflections.

After completing § 150 the whole story should be read from the beginning.

Ask the class to explain the different positions of meī and mea.


§151.4. Have some verbs of the first and second conjugations inflected along with those of the third and fourth.

§ 153. Make prominent the fact that the verbs in the list are intransitive in Latin, and that their meaning is such as to demand an indirect object.

§ 155. English-Latin sentences calling for the use of the dative with intransitive verbs will be found in § 158. II. 6-12.


§ 156. Pupils always find difficulty in mastering this tense because of the new tense sign and this Lesson will require an unusual amount of drill.

Have verbs of the first and second conjugations inflected in the future along with those of the third and fourth.

§158.11.6. The pronoun I (ego) needs expression here because it is emphatic. 7. The possessive our (nostrīs) should precede its noun because of the emphasis. 9. They is emphatic; express by .


% 160. Write on the board in parallel columns the first three tenses of audiō and capiō. Impress upon the class the resemblances and differences.

§ 160.2. Require the pupils to learn the meanings of these four verbs.

§ 161. The imperative mood is introduced at this point rather than later because of its being formed on the present stem, thus completing the formation of the active tenses on this stem in the indicative, infinitive, and imperative.


Conduct the vocabulary review like the first one (see p. 13). The number of words is less than usual to permit of more concentration on the review of the verb forms.

For reviewing the verb, place upon the board the following blank scheme and use a variety of verbs for drill on the different conjugations:

Verb Present Infinitive Present Stem
sing. plur.
Present 1. —— 1. ——
2. —— 2. ——
3. —— 3. ——
Tense Sign -bā-
1. —— 1. ——
2. —— 2. ——
3. —— 3. ——
Future 1. —— 1. ——
Tense signs I, II, -bi- 2. —— 2. ——
III, IV, -ǎ-, -ě- 3. —— 3. ——
Present 2. —— 2. ——

§ 511. Make the review questions the basis of a written lesson.


Be sure that the active forms are thoroughly learned before taking up the passive.

§ 164. Require the pupils to write side by side the active and the passive personal endings for the purpose of comparison.

§ 165. When assigning these paradigms pronounce them and have the class repeat. You may have to do this several times before they are given correctly. The future will give the most trouble.

In written work require the pupils, as in the case of the active forms, to separate the component parts — stem, tense sign, personal ending — of each form by hyphens.

§ 166. Intransitive verbs are sometimes used impersonally in the passive, as mātūrātur, it is hastened, but there is no advantage in burdening the beginner's mind with that point at this time.

§ 167. II. 3 and 5. It is well to remember that the verb move is always transitive in Latin and in a sentence would have an object. Such expressions, therefore, as you move and you will move are inserted simply for practice on the paradigms.

Vocabulary, p. 288. Have the declension of deus'/', § 468, learned at this time.


§ 169. Treat this article the same as § 165.

§ 169. c. Assign some verbs of the first and second conjugations for inflection along with those of the third and fourth.

Vocabulary, p. 288. In connection with autem teach the class the meaning of the word postpositive.

§ 171. Call attention to the emphatic position of Mala and the emphatic order of Eam amābat Cēpheus maximē.


§ 172. In connection with work on the -iō verbs assign for inflection some verbs of the fourth conjugation for comparison.

Vocabulary, p. 289. The word locus has also the regular masculine plural locī; but this does not mean localities, but places or passages in books.


§ 177. In synopses give first the active voice throughout and then the passive. This exercise may be varied by giving an active form and then its corresponding passive. Also the teacher may give the synopsis in English and call for the corresponding Latin. The emphasis in synopses is laid on the third person, singular and plural, because these forms occur in reading much more frequently than the others.

§ 178. The constructions flowing from the from relation of the ablative are as important as those based on the with relation. (See Lesson XV.) They are all embraced under the separative ablative so called, but it is well to make sparing use of this term to avoid confusion in the beginner's mind between it and the ablative of separation. By using the expression the ablative denoting from for the general term all danger of confusion is avoided.

§ 181. While the English idiom requires the use of by in translating ā or ab with the ablative of the personal agent, it is important for the pupil to remember that to the Roman the preposition always meant from.

§ 181.b. Write on the board a number of simple Latin sentences to illustrate this point.

§ 181.c. This point will require clear explanation and many illustrative examples.

Vocabulary, p. 289. In absum do not forget that b before s has the sound of p. (See § 7.)

§ 182.I. Place, in the dative. 3. Island, ad with the accusative. 5. They are kept from the land, ā terrā prohibentur.


With this Lesson we take up the perfect stem and the tenses formed from it

§ 185. Require the class to inflect some regular English verbs in the present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect active. Oftentimes failure to translate the Latin tenses correctly is due to ignorance of the meaning of the corresponding English tenses.

§ 186. Observe that these endings are not called personal endings though they do serve to point out person and number. Historically they are made up of personal endings and other elements, some of which are of unknown origin. (See Allen and Greenough, § 163.a, footnote 3.)

§ 187. Pronounce and let the class repeat these paradigms before assigning them as a lesson. The perfect is the tense that will make the most trouble owing to the shifting accent.

§ 188. Note the emphatic position of Aliī, multum, Dubia, magnō, semper, saepe.

§ 189. 7. Observe that the English present are may have the force of the future perfect and must then be so translated.


§ 190. It will pay to spend considerable time on this article. Use a variety of English sentences to illustrate the difference between the perfect definite, the perfect indefinite, and the imperfect. Pupils usually fail to distinguish between the perfect indefinite and the imperfect.

§ 191. The perfects of all four conjugations are here given together. This is contrary to the usual custom, but, as the formation is exactly the same for all, nothing would be gained by separating them, and there would be a loss of time and of unity of treatment. Pronounce the paradigms before assigning them.

§ 191.1. It is obvious that the perfect is apt to be quite different in form from the present. It is generally formed in one of four ways:

1. By adding a suffix to the root or to the present stem, as, amāvī (amā-vī), monuī (mon-uī), rēxī (rēg-sī), audīvī (audī-vī). To this we may compare the English suffix -ed^ as in love^ loved.

2. By a change in the root vowel, as, Pres. capiō, Perf. cēpī; Pres. veniō, Perf. vēnī. Cf. English teach, taught.

3. By repeating the first letter of the verb, usually with a vowel, as, , I give, dedī, I have given; reperiō, I find, repperī, I have found (here only the p is repeated and no vowel appears). Compare English, do, did.

4. Sometimes the perfect stem is like the present stem,as, vertō, I turn, vertī, I have turned. Cf. English cut (pres.), cut (past).

How much of the above may be safely given to a class of beginners must be left to the judgment of the individual teacher.

§ 192. These verbs are already familiar to the class and the perfects are the only new forms.

§ 193. Review §§ 168, 171, before reading this selection.

Require the pupils to point out words and expressions that are emphatic.


This Lesson completes the consideration of the forms based on the perfect stem. All four conjugations are treated together as in the preceding Lesson. Pronounce the paradigms and have the class repeat before assigning them.


§ 197. Pupils should be able to reproduce this table of tense formations from memory.

§ 198. Emphasize the importance of being able to give synopses rapidly and accurately, and make the drill on the verbs in § 198. i severe.

§199. The verbs in this list together with those in §192 include all the verbs studied in the preceding lessons excepting the regular verbs of the first conjugation.

§ 200. Ask the pupils to close their books, and read to them, sentence by sentence, the preceding portion of the story, and call on individuals for the translation.

Ask for the principal parts and inflection in the tense used of all the verbs in this paragraph.


This Lesson is of unusual importance because it introduces the participial stem and the tenses and forms built on it.

§ 203. Emphasize the point that a participle is declined like an adjective and agrees with its noun in gender, number, and case.

§ 204. A compound tense is one made up of a participle and an auxiliary verb.

Write on the board a number of simple Latin sentences to illustrate this principle of agreement, and, leaving off the termination of the participle in each case, call on the class to supply the proper terminations.

§ 206. Call attention to the fact that the future active participle and its allied form, the future active infinitive, are the only forms in the active voice based on the participial stem. [2]

§ 207. The point to emphasize in this exercise is the agreement of the participle.

In I.7, ask what vocātī sumus would have meant.


§ 208. See to it that the principal parts and meanings of these verbs are thoroughly learned.

Caution against mistakes in accent and pronunciation, especially in the following:






Point out the changing quantity of i in videō and of e in veniō, and have the class distinguish between such forms as vīdēre and vidēre, venit and vēnit.

§ 209.1,2. These articles summarize preceding scattered work on prepositions. Show that by learning what prepositions govern the ablative we can recognize those that govern the accusative.

The complete list of prepositions governing the ablative includes also absque, cōram, prae, and tenus. They are omitted from the textbook because of their relatively infrequent use.

§ 210.a. The e in -ne has a very short, quick sound. The enclitic is added to the emphatic word in the question and that is usually the verb.

Vocabulary, p. 290. Caution on the accent of sinis'ter.

Note that the word ubi is never used in the sense of interrogative when. For that the Latin uses quandō.


This review, like the third, contains but a short word list, vocabularies in the preceding lessons having been reduced to a minimum to permit of greater concentration on the verb. To facilitate verb drill place on the board the following scheme and leave it there for daily use until the pupils can give instantly any form of any verb of which they know the principal parts.


Prin. Parts

Active Voice

Passive Voice

Pres. Stem Perf. Stem Pres. Stem Perf. Stem
Indicative Indicative
Pres. Perf. Pres. Perf.
Impf. (-bā-) Plup. (-erā-) Impf. (-bā-) Plup.
Fut.(-bi- or -ā- and -ē-) Fut. Perf. (-eri-) Fut.(-bi- or -ā- and -ē-) Fut. Perf.



Pres. Pres.



Pres. Perf. Pres. Perf.
Fut. (Part. Stem)


§ 212. When assigning the inflection of possum, pronounce its forms and have the pupils repeat. Caution on the accent, especially in the present and the perfect indicative.

§§ 213-216. Be sure that the pupils understand these English infinitive constructions before taking up the corresponding ones in Latin. To this end write on the board a number of simple English sentences illustrative of these different uses of the infinitive. After discussing them from the English standpoint, show how they would have to be expressed in Latin ; and, if the sentences are simple enough, they may be translated into Latin.

§ 214. You might explain that the subject of the infinitive was originally thought of as the object of the principal verb and for that reason it was placed in the accusative case.

§ 215. A verb of incomplete predication is one that requires another action of the same subject to complete its meaning.

Vocabulary, p. 291. Observe that vetō is an irregular verb of the first conjugation. Look out for the accent in ve'tuī, ve'titus.

§ 217. I. 2. Cibō et vīnō, ablative of separation with egēre, which is the subject of est. II. Id . . . occupārī, subject of erit. Rōmānīs, dative with grātum.


§221. Pronounce this paradigm when assigning it. Note the ending -ius in the genitive and -i in the dative, as in the nine irregular adjectives (§ 108).

§ 226. Quis is not infrequently used as an adjective, but it seems better not to mention it in this connection in order that the distinction between pronoun and adjective may be left as clear as possible.

§ 228. I. In this exercise place the emphasis upon the forms and constructions of the interrogatives and relatives. With the relative dwell especially upon the point that its case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause.

The cut on p. 1 00 should afford material for a brief discussion of the life and customs of the ancient Germans. Note the return home of the warriors, and the captive Roman with fettered hands. Perhaps you have enough ingenuity to construct a little Latin story with the picture as a text.

§ 229. Let the class try to read this passage at sight.


Up to this point, in discussing declensions we have worked from the base, as this is of more practical value to the student in learning the forms. In the third declension, however, the starting point must be the stem, because third-declension nouns are classified according to their stem ending. Take time to make clear to the pupils the difference between the base and the stem.

Vocabulary, p. 291. Call attention to the difference in quantity between pedes, a foot soldier, and pedēs, feet, the plural of pēs.

§ 234.11.1. The word to be used for ship is nāvigium. 4. Translate from by (see § 179. a).


§ 235. It is important to emphasize the point that nouns of Class II are exactly like those of Class I except for the absence of -s in the nominative singular. The multiplicity of paradigms is apt to confuse the beginner unless their practical identity is made very clear.

Vocabulary, p. 291. Point out that the declension of homō, hominis is exactly like that of ōrdō, ōrdinis.

§ 237.II.2. To your dwelling, why not render by the dative? 3. From wrong, what use of the ablative? 6. The baggage, etc., see § 213.


§ 238. Note that these neuter nouns also belong to Class II of consonant stems.

There is more difference here between the base and the nominative. This increases the importance of always learning the genitive with the nominative.

§ 238.I. The most important of these rules as applied to this declension is § 74.b.

§ 239.I.9. Bracchiīs suīs, in his arms, in Latin by his arms, abl. of means. 10. Virtūte, abl. of cause.

For saving the life of a citizen in battle the reward was a crown of oak leaves known as the corōna cīvica. See the cut, p. 106, of a coin bearing the corōna cīvica and the inscription ob cīvīs servātōs, for the savmg of citizens.


Dwell on this Lesson until you are sure that consonant stems of the third declension have been mastered.

In connection with the translation of this selection read to the class from some Roman history a short and spirited account of the invasion of the Cimbri and Teutones and the great battle in which they were destroyed by Caius Marius.

§ 240. Diū et ācriter pugnātum est, the battle was long and fiercely contested.


§ 241. Teach the class that the first thing always to be done with a noun of the third declension, before it can be declined, is to determine whether or not it is an i-stem. To do this, mastery of the rules in this article is absolutely essential. Call on each pupil to repeat them, and review them at frequent intervals.

§ 243. When writing declensions of i-stems, require pupils to write both the stem and the base, as shown in the paradigms.

§ 243.1. Require this list to be memorized.

§ 244.2. Animal and calcar are examples of the dropping of the final -i- of the stem. In īnsigne it has been changed to -e.

§ 244.3. Note the shortening of ā in the nominatives animal and calcar.

§ 245.I.7. In connection with this sentence and the cut below, refer the class to the description of the Roman galley in Wallace's "Ben Hur."

§ 245.II.1. Because of the lack, abl. of cause. 2. Imperātor should be placed first because it is the common subject of the principal and subordinate clauses. This rule of order is usually observed in careful writers.


§ 246. Point out that these nouns are irregular only in having two bases. Note the shortening of ī before m in vim (cf. § 12.2). Pronounce and have the class repeat the forms of iter. Show that in spite of irregularities they follow § 74.b,d.

§ 249.I. Refer to the historical fact that Caesar built the first bridge over the Rhine. Imperātor, vir clārus, in English simply the distinguished commander.

§ 249.II.7. On the position of foot soldiers see Manual on § 245.II.1.


Review the word lists in the usual way. Put the emphasis of the "Review Questions" on the third declension. Fill out the summary, § 520, on the board, the pupils dictating; or include it in the written test. In this review, as in all others, include questions on the conjugation of verbs. Drill on verbs cannot be overdone.


§ 254. Observe that in the declension of ācer the masculine and feminine forms are alike in all cases except in the nominative singular, and that the neuter ācre is declined just like īnsigne.

§ 256.1. As we are told in § 257, there are some adjectives of one ending having consonant stems. Many of these have adopted all the forms of i-stems, but frequently we find both and -e in the ablative singular.

Explain that the letters S. P. Q. R. below the eagle in the cut stand for Senāltus Populusque Rōmānus. They were used with great frequency on all sorts of objects to mark the power or sanction of the Roman government. By an interesting survival the same letters may still be seen in modern Rome on fire engines, public wagons, and other objects belonging to the city government


Along with this Lesson conduct a brief oral review of the first, second, and third declensions.

§ 260. Pronounce the paradigms for the class when assigning them. Also write on the board the declension of exercitus and drill the class on the pronunciation and accent of the forms.


This Lesson may be simplified by pointing out that the different relations of place are regularly expressed by prepositions with their objects (cf. §§ 263-265), but that names of towns, small islands, domus and rūs omit the preposition (cf. § 266). The only thing that remains to be explained is the use of the locative case (§§ 267, 268). Simple as this whole matter is, you will find it necessary to do a good deal of drilling here.

Vocabulary, p. 294. Explain that propter with the accusative is somewhat more frequently used to express cause than the ablative, especially of a cause lying outside of the person affected.

§271. It will amuse and interest the pupils if you will read to them, in connection with this story, the travesty "Daedalus and Icarus," in the poems of John G. Saxe.


In connection with this Lesson you should assign for inflection nouns from all five declensions.

§ 273. Pronounce and have the class repeat these paradigms. Be especially careful about the sound of long and short e.

§ 275. Write on the board some simple English sentences which, if rendered into Latin, would illustrate this construction. Pupils will understand time when more readily than time within which.

§ 277. Note the emphasis on mīrum, I.6.


With this Lesson begins an intensive study of pronouns, which is continued through the next three Lessons. Review the possessive (§ 98), relative (§ 220), and interrogative (§ 225) pronouns by way of preparation for the consideration of the whole subject.

§ 280.1. Remind the pupils that the personal endings of the verb take the place of unemphatic personal pronouns used as subjects.

§ 282. In connection with this article remind the class that cum is similarly placed with relatives and interrogatives. (See p. 100, footnote 1.)

§ 283.I,1,2. Have the class explain the position of the possessives. 5. Why are and ego expressed?

II .1. Make you and I emphatic by expressing them. 4. Make we emphatic. 6. Make I emphatic. 7. Us and you are, of course, datives.

§ 284. Have the story read through from the beginning.


§ 285. Explain the meaning of intensive.

§ 287. Pronounce the forms in this paradigm and have the lass repeat. The class will find the accent troublesome. Insist on the distinction between īdem and idem.

Vocabulary, p. 295. Caution on the accent of corpus, cor'poris, etc., as distinguished from labor, labō'ris, etc.


§ 290. Explain that demonstrative means pointing out.

§ 291. Tell the pupils that the c of hic is the remnant of -ce, an enclitic particle added for emphasis. Compare the colloquial this here. Without this the dative singular would end in , like the dative singular of is or ipse. Call attention to the form haec as the only variation in the plural from the plural of bonus. Call for the declension of hic in combination with nouns that have lately occurred.

§ 292. Caution on the accent of istī'us and illī'us.

§ 293. Observe that the demonstrative adjective regularly precedes its noun.

Vocabulary, p. 295. Caution on the accent of līber'tās and prīs'tinus.

§ 294.I.1.5. Silvās, ferās, montēs, objects of timent.

The chief drill in this exercise should be on the declension and meaning of the demonstratives.


You will probably have to devote three recitation periods to this Lesson. Pupils always find difficulty with indefinite pronouns.

§ 297. This whole article needs very thorough study. Write on the board all the indefinite pronouns given and drill on their meaning and use.

§ 298.1.10. Observe that illius follows its noun. In this position ille has the meaning that well-known, that famous.

§ 298. II. 3. Caution on the position of Pompeii. 4. Something to some one, alicui aliquid. 6. Some one, aliquem; any one, quemquam. 7. Unless some one, nisi quis.

§ 299. Have the story read through from the beginning. I. 5. , indirect object of dedit.


This review is especially important and may well occupy the time of three recitation periods. One of these should be devoted to the vocabulary ; another to adjectives of the third declension, the fourth and fifth declensions, the expressions of place, and the ablative of time; the third to indefinite pronouns. Strong classes may combine the last two in a single written lesson.


§ 302. It may be well to tell the class that comparison by using adverbs is mostly poetic and that it is usual only with adjectives ending in -us preceded by e or i.

Vocabulary, p. 296. Caution on the accent of a'quila.

§ 306.I.5. Longius, quite long. 12. Quīdam usually follows its noun. Cf. quoddam in 10.

§ 306.II.5. Quite ill, aegrior. 6. Some, aliquōs or quōsdam according as the word is considered to be more or less indefinite.

"The Labors of Hercules" (p. 197), which may be begun at this point, will be found very easy to translate. It is recommended that with these selections translation at sight be practiced as much as possible. No exercise will be found more helpful in acquiring reading power. (See M.11.)


§ 307. Gracilis and humilis are not as common as the other words, but it is about as easy to learn the complete list of six as to learn four, and the knowledge will be useful later on.

Vocabulary, p. 296. Caution on the accent of a'lacris. The penult is short because it does not end in a consonant, the word being divided into syllables thus: a-la-cris. See §§ 9.2.a; 13.1.a.

§ 310.I. In the Latin-English sentences, have the pupils change such as contain the ablative after a comparative without quam into sentences using the alternative construction.

§ 310.II. Require the pupils to write the sentences containing a comparison (1, 2, 3, 8) both with and without quam.


The adjectives in §§ 311, 312, are very common and their comparison should be thoroughly learned.

§ 313. Observe that in the plural plūs is declined like an i-stem, excepting the form plūra.

§ 314.I.9. Maior cōpia, translate, quite a supply.


§ 315. The meaning and comparison of these adjectives should be memorized, but they need not be learned as a list.

§ 316. Review § 50 to make clear the point that the measure of difference is an ablative relation.

§ 317.a. Require the pupils to learn the meaning of these words.

Vocabulary, p. 297. Remind the class that b in obses has the sound of p.

§ 318.I.1. Call attention to the agreement of īnfīrmī with Rōmānī and refer to § 215.a. 4. Have this given without quam. 7. Note the emphatic position of optimōs.

§318.II.2. Have this sentence given both with and without quam.


§320.b. Of course the neuter accusative singular will be the same in form as the neuter nominative singular, but the comparative adverb is the accusative case of the adjective used adverbially (cf. § 322).

§ 323. Explain that magnopere is the ablative singular of magnum opus used adverbially.

Vocabulary, p. 297. Caution on the accent of cucur'rī. Note the change of quantity of e in gēns, gentis.

§ 326.I.7. Ask what aliquae would mean instead of quaedam.

Require the comparison of all the adjectives and adverbs in this exercise.


§ 328. Write several sets of Arabic numbers on the board before the recitation, one set for each pupil, and send the class to the board to write the Latin equivalents. Mistakes in spelling are sure to be made. Repeat this drill for several days. Drill orally also.

§ 329.b. Observe that trēs is declined exactly like the plural of omnis (§ 255), and that the plural of mīlle is like that of īnsigne (§ 244).

§ 330. Warn the class against using a partitive genitive when the numbers and words of quantity include the whole and not merely a part. We must then use a case in agreement, and not the partitive genitive. For example, all of us would not be expressed in Latin by omnēs nostrum, but by omnēs nōs {we all).

§ 331.b. You will need to drill on the construction with mīlle. Dictate several simple examples to pupils at the board.

Vocabulary, p.297. Caution on the accent of mercā'tor and cog'nitus, and note the long i in mūnītiō.

§ 332.I.1. Ask the pupils to give the Latin for Casar burned all of the buildings.


§ 333. Conduct the work on the ordinals as on the cardinals.

§ 334. Only the first three of these are given, because they are the most frequently used.

§ 336. It is important that you point out to the class that the accusative expressions of time and space are adverbial in character and hence are used to modify verbs, adjectives, or adverbs. In Lesson LXXVI we shall see that adjective expressions of time and space are in the genitive, as, a march of ten days, a wall of ten feet.

Vocabulary, p. 298. Explain that novissimum agmen means literally the newest line, and that it signified the rear because that is where the newly enrolled soldiers marched. They could not be trusted in a place of danger or responsibility.

Caution on the accent of ce'cidī.

Explain that a Roman pace was the distance from where the foot left the ground to where the same foot touched the ground again. It is therefore not a single, but a double, step.

§ 337.I. Mention here that Caesar's seven years of campaigning in Gaul are the subject of his famous Commentaries.

§ 337.II. Call attention to the phrase For two hours in 6 and In three hours in 7. The former expresses extent of time, the latter time within which. What cases must be used?


§ 339. In § 493 the full synopsis of deponents is given. Students will, of course, learn the synopsis only as far as they have gone in their study of conjugation, omitting the subjunctive, etc.

§ 340. There is no profit in requiring pupils to learn this list. Have them learn simply the meanings. The case is different with the list of prepositions governing the ablative.

Vocabulary, p. 298. Caution on the accent of ē'gredī, cōn'sequor, īn'sequor, sub'sequor.

§341.I. 7-11. It may be well to tell the class something about Cæsar's invasion of Britain.


This review covers a larger vocabulary than any of the others. Its length, however, is more apparent than real. It will not appear so formidable to the pupils if you will point out to them the fact that irregular adjectives are given in their different degrees, and that the adverbs are, in general, known by the adjectives from which they are derived.

It is suggested that two days be devoted to this review, — the first, on the vocabulary; the second, a written lesson on the review questions.


Read over with the pupils the introductory note and discuss with them what remains to be done. Point out that the succeeding Lessons contain no special vocabularies and that the words already studied are to be gone over again.

"The Story of a Roman Boy" contains much general information pertaining to Roman life and customs, and still more of special information dealing with the Roman art of war. This is found especially in the latter part and is designed to form a suitable introduction to the reading of Cæsar.

It is suggested in the note that the story may be read either along with the Lessons or after the Lessons are finished. Experience seems to show that the former is the better plan. The successive chapters of the story illustrate the constructions discussed in the Lesson immediately preceding, and, coming as they do between the Lessons, pupils have a chance to digest what they have just learned before they are called upon to take up something new.


§ 344. Pronounce and have the class repeat these paradigms. Explain the formation fully in each conjugation and emphasize especially the importance of .the mood sign.

§ 346. The importance of a thorough mastery of this article cannot be overestimated. It lays the foundation for all future work on the syntax of the subjunctive. It would be well to have the class memorize , the Latin sentences with their translations.

§ 347. Write on the board other English sentences, some of which would in Latin require the subjunctive and others the indicative, and have the class specify in each case.


§ 350. Require the class to memorize this article and the examples in § 351.

§ 352. Dwell on the point that Latin prose does not use the infinitive to express purpose.

§ 353. Prepare additional simple sentences containing purpose clauses, which the class tan translate orally or at the board from dictation.


§ 354. Pronounce and have the class repeat these paradigms.

§ 356. The law of tense sequence is of great importance. Write the table in § 357 on the board, and keep it there until every pupil has mastered its theory and its practice.

§ 360.I. Change the principal verbs in these sentences to a primary tense and have the class make the necessary changes in the tenses of the dependent subjunctives.

§ 360.II. After these sentences have been correctly written assign them again, changing the tenses of the verbs from secondary to primary.


§§ 361-364. Pronounce and have the class repeat these paradigms. In the perfect and pluperfect passive subjunctive call attention to the similarity in formation between the subjunctive and indicative.

§ 366. Require the class to memorize these examples, and make clear, by reference to § 348, the reason for the use of the subjunctive mood.

§ 368. 1. 7. Explain that with petō, postulō, and quaerō the person from whom something is asked is expressed by the ablative with a preposition. The usual preposition with petō and postulō is ā or ab, with quaerō it may be ā or ab, dē, or ex. When a subjunctive clause follows these verbs the person asked may be omitted after the verb of asking and expressed merely as the subject of the subjunctive verb. See § 366, example 3.

§ 368.II.3. They will ask him, etc., cf note on I.7 above. 5. Cf. § 366, example 5.


§ 369. Pronounce and have the class repeat the paradigms of the subjunctive of possum. For the formation of the imperfect subjunctive, cf. § 354-

§§ 370,371. Dwell on the point that the reason for translating ut by that not and by that or lest is due to the difference between the English and Latin idioms, and that in the Latin itself ut and have the same meaning after verbs of fearing as after other verbs.


§ 374. Write on the board the participles, active and passive, of the English verb to love, and emphasize the point that Latin has no present passive participle {being loved) nor any perfect active participle {having loved).

§ 374.g. Require the pupils to give the meanings of the participles as well as the forms.

§ 375. This article is very important, especially the point made in a that the perfect participle of a deponent verb is passive in form but active in meaning.

§ 377. Insist on a careful study of these model sentences, and lay stress on the fact that as a rule a participle should be translated by a clause.


§ 379. The tenses of these verbs which will give most difficulty are the present indicative and the present and imperfect subjunctive. Give them especial attention. Be sure that the pupils accent the penult in the first and second persons plural of the present and imperfect subjunctive, and compare the similar tenses of possum. For the formation of the imperfect subjunctive, cf. § 354.

§§ 380, 381. Possibly no Latin construction is so much used as the ablative absolute, and you will do well to make the work on these articles exceedingly thorough. Among the points to be emphasized are:

a. The ablative absolute must not be used when a noun and participle form the subject or object of a sentence (sec § 381, note 2).

b. The ablative absolute should not as a rule be translated literally (see § 380.b).

c. An English absolute construction containing a perfect active participle must be changed to the passive voice unless the verb happens to be deponent (see § 381, note 3).

§ 382.I.6. Translate, On hearing the shouting, etc. 7. Translate, After Cæsar had encouraged the legions, etc. 8. Translate, When this was known, etc.

§ 382.II.4. To advance, the subjunctive of purpose. 5. Since Cæsar was leader, see § 381, note 1.


§ 384. The reason for the use of the subjunctive to express result is not discussed, being a subject too difficult for the average beginner to understand. It is better for him to accept the fact than to labor with the theory. (Teachers are referred to Allen and Greenough's Grammar, § 534.)

Emphasize the point that the subjunctive of result is translated like an indicative (see § 384.c).

§ 388.I.5. Note the object clause of result. There is another in the eighth sentence. 12. Note the negative purpose. Ask how the sentence would be translated if were ut nōn.

§ 388.II. Observe that sentences 4 and 6 contain result clauses, and 5 and 7 purpose clauses.


§ 389. Have these model sentences memorized.

§ 391. This construction may be profitably compared with that of the double object in English.

§ 394.I.1. Quae . . . nōn vīsa sint, such as have not been seen, a relative clause of characteristic. 4. Quō mortem prohibēre possent, by which they could ward off death. 7. Translate, The Germans are not the men to, etc.

§ 394.II.4. Not the man to, cf. I.7.


§ 527. We here begin the second review of the vocabularies, without counting the work done on each special vocabulary in the recitations on the Lessons. After all that preceding study this final review should not be difficult, but should serve to fix the words in the pupils' minds beyond fear of losing them.

§ 528. If you have not already done so, add the subjunctive mood and the participles to your blank scheme of the verb (see p. 27]]) and drill on all moods and tenses as a daily exercise. To the question '* Why is the ablative absolute of such frequent occurrence in Latin .? " it may be answered that the absence of a perfect active participle is an important reason leading to the use of this construction (cf . §381, note 3).


§ 395. Dwell on the point that the reason for the use of the subjunctive in a cum clause and in a relative clause of description is the same (§ 389.a).

It will help the student to tell him that an indicative clause with cum fixing the time of the main action is very often preceded by tum or some other expression of time. See the first example under § 395, and § 400.I.10; II.1. Further, cum concessive is often followed by tamen, nevertheless.

§ 397.a. The ablative of specification is closely akin to the ablative of manner and shows some resemblance to that of means and of cause. It, therefore, comes under the with or by ablative relation.

§ 399. The idioms included in this and the following lessons are very common in Cæsar. Require the class to memorize them. The labor spent will be well rewarded later.

Explain that certior in certior fierī is a predicate adjective and must agree with the subject, just as certiōrem in certiōrem facere is a predicate adjective agreeing with the object.


§ 404. Remind the class that the gerundive, ending as it does in -us, is declined like bonus, -a, -um, and agrees with its noun like any adjective.

§ 405. This article merits very careful study. Have the class memorize the examples and especially the observations under a. If these are well understood the pupils will have no trouble with the gerund and gerundive.

Point out to the class that a gerund must end in -ī, -ō, or -um, and that any other ending will mark the form in question as gerundive.

§ 406.2. Observe that the presence of a preposition forbids the use of a gerund + object

§ 411.I. In teaching this exercise require the pupil in every case to distinguish between the gerund and the gerundive. If the gerund has an object, ask him to give the corresponding gerundive construction. In the case of a gerundive, ask for the corresponding gerund construction and whether it would be good Latin.


§ 412. In connection with the study of , have the class learn the declension of iēns, the present participle (see § 472).

§ 413. Point out the force of the prepositional prefix in each of these compound verbs.

§ 414. Be sure that the class understands indirect statements in English before taking them up in Latin.

§ 415. To make the comparison more easily, write the English and Latin direct and indirect statements upon the board side by side. Dwell especially upon a, b, and c in this and the preceding article. Point out that we have here a use of the infinitive quite foreign to the English uses discussed in Lesson XXXVII.

§ 420. Write a number of simple English sentences containing indirect statements introduced by verbs of saying, telling, knowing, thinking, and perceiving, and discuss with the class their Latin translation. If you make the sentences easy enough, the class, with your aid, will be able to render them into Latin.

§ 422.I.2. Remember that in a form like iisse the two i's are usually contracted into long i. 5. In this sentence and in those that follow require the class to give the Latin for the direct form of the indirect statements. In this case, for example, the direct form would be Gallī flūmen trānsiērunt.


§ 424. Remind the class of the rule for the formation of the imperfect subjunctive, § 354.

§ 424.I. Caution on the accent of these compounds. Call attention to the force of the prefix in each verb.

§ 425. Emphasize the point that it is the meaning of the compound verb that calls for the dative, and not the preposition with which the verb is compounded.

§ 426, note 1. Caution on the accent of these verbs.

§428.II.4. We have been informed, in Latin, We have been made more certain.


§ 430. Students usually have trouble in distinguishing between direct and indirect questions. Give a number of English examples of each.

§ 431. These examples should be memorized. Lay great stress on a, b, and c.

§ 434.I. Write the direct form of the indirect questions on the board and have the pupils compare it with the indirect form.


§ 439.I.2. Ask whether ad locum dēligendum is a gerund or a gerundive construction. The form would be the same for either, but the presence of the preposition shows that it must be a gerundive (cf. § 406). 3. Translate ipsum, very (cf § 285).


§ 442. Have these examples memorized. Give other examples in English calling for the same construction if rendered into Latin.

§ 447.I.3. Ask why quō is preferred here to ut Cf. § 350.I.10. Footnote 2 is very important. Illustrate the point by frequent examples if necessary.

§ 447.II. Have sentences admitting either the genitive or the ablative written in both ways.


These Lessons, embracing as they do a review of all the constructions used in the book, assume an unusual importance. Make the review as searching and rigid as possible. (See M. 13.)



  1. 1.0 1.1 Do not sound the h at all. It always has a feeble sound and is not counted as a consonant.
  2. The supine is not discussed in this book and hence is not included.