Letters concerning the English Nation/Letter XX
On such of the
As cultivate the
THERE once was a Time in France when the polite Arts were cultivated by Persons of the highest Rank in the State. The Courtiers particularly, were conversant in them, altho' Indolence, a Taste for Trifles, and a Passion for Intrigue, were the Divinities of the Country. The Court methinks at this Time seems to have given into a Taste quite opposite to that of polite Literature, but perhaps the Mode of Thinking may be reviv'd in a little Time. The French are of so flexible a Disposition, may be moulded into such a Variety of Shapes, that the Monarch needs but command and he is immediately obey'd. The English generally think, and Learning is had in greater Honour among them than in our Country; an Advantage that results naturally from the Form of their Government. There are about eight hundred Persons in England who have a Right to speak in publick, and to support the Interest of the Kingdom; and near five or six Thousand may in their Turns, aspire to the same Honour. The whole Nation set themselves up as Judges over these, and every Man has the Liberty of publishing his Thoughts with regard to publick Affairs; which shews, that all the People in general are indispensably oblig'd to cultivate their Understandings. In England the Governments of Greece and Rome are the Subject of every Conversation, so that every Man is under a Necessity of perusing such Authors as treat of them, how disagreeable soever it may be to him; and this Study leads naturally to that of polite Literature. Mankind in general speak well in their respective Professions. What is the Reason why our Magistrates, our Lawyers, our Physicians, and a great Number of the Clergy are abler Scholars, have a finer Taste and more Wit than Persons of all other Professions? The Reason is, because their Condition of Life requires a cultivated and enlightned Mind, in the same Manner as a Merchant is oblig'd to be acquainted with his Traffick. Not long since an English Nobleman, who was very young, came to see me at Paris in his Return from Italy. He had writ a poetical Description of that Country, which, for Delicacy and Politeness may vie with any Thing we meet with in the Earl of Rochester, or in our Chaulieu, our Sarrasin, or Chapelle. The Translation I have given of it is so inexpressive of the Strength and delicate Humour of the Original, that I am oblig'd seriously to ask Pardon of the Author, and of all who understand English. However, as this is the only Method I have to make his Lordship's Verses known, I shall here present you with them in our Tongue.
Qu'ay je donc vu dans l'Italie?
Orgueil, Astuce, & Pauvreté,
Grands Complimens, peu de Bonté
Et beaucoup de Ceremonie.
Que souvent l'Inquisition
Veut qu'on nomme Religion;
Mais qu'ici nous nommons Folie.
La Nature en vain bien faisante
Veut enricher ses Lieux charmans,
Des Prêtres la main desolante
Etouffe ses plus beaux présens.
Les Monsignors, soy disant Grands,
Seuls dans leurs Palais magnifiques
Y sont d'illustres faineants,
Sans argent, & sans domestiques.
Pour les Petits, sans liberté,
Martyrs du joug qui les domine,
Ils ont fait vœu de pauvreté,
Priant Dieu par oisiveté
Et toûjours jeunant par famine.
Ces beaux lieux du Pape benis
Semblent habitez par les Diables;
Et les Habitans miserables
Sont damnez dans le Paradis.
- His Lordship undoubtedly hints at the Farces which certain Preachers act in the open Squares.