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Makers of British botany/Index

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INDEX


Absorption, Aristotelian views on, 68
━━ Grew and, 58
━━ Hales and, 7376
━━ Mariotte and, 68
Adanson, Plant families and, 41
Agassiz, appreciation of, 215, 319
Agriculture, investigations in, 234, 236237
━━ physiology and, 7
━━ Theophrastus and, 9
Algae, Berkeley on British, 226
━━ collection of, 214, 216
━━ Harvey on, 208, 210-212, 216
━━ systematic work on, 202
━━ Williamson and, 252
Algal floras, 219
Alston, Charles, King's Botanist, 283284
━━ Hales and, 285-286
━━ investigations of, 285
━━ publications of, 286
Alternation of generations, 188189, 198
Amman, Morison's method and, 26
Anabaena filaments, Griffith on, 190, 196
Anatomical method, W. Hooker and, 147148
Anatomy, Balfour and comparative, 262
━━ Founders of, 2, 6, 44, 63, 67
━━ Grew and plant, 4757
━━ Henfrey and Monocotyledon, 199
━━ Hill and plant, 93, 94, 95
Annals of Botany, Ward and, 266
Annual rings, J. Hill and, 94
Antarctic flora, J. D. Hooker and, 305, 311312
Anthrax, Ward on, 272
Apical growth, Nägeli and Leitgeb on, 135
Apogamy, Alston and, 286
Aquatic fungi, Ward on, 265
Aquatic Myxomycete, Ward and, 265
Arber, Agnes, on Grew, 44-64
━━ Newell, on Primofilices, 257
Arboretum, founding of Edinburgh, 300
Archaeology, Williamson and, 249
Archegonia, discovery in Ferns of, 196-198
Aristotle, botanical writings of, 8
Aristotle, value of work of, 15
━━ physiology and, 68
Ascent of sap, Grew's explanation of, 58
Asclepiadaceae, R. Brown on the, 114-116
Assimilation, Hales on, 80


Bacteria, action of light on, 273
Bacteriology, Ward on, 265, 271273
Baker, J. Hill's quarrels with, 89-91
━━ Synopsis Filicum and, 146
Balanophoraceae, Griffith on the, 186
━━ J. D. Hooker and the, 308
Balfour, Andrew, pioneer work of, 281
━━ J. Bayley, on the Edinburgh Professors, 280301
━━ ━━ on the Ginger-beer plant, 269
━━ John Hutton, life of, 293-300
━━ ━━ Edinburgh Professorship and, 293295
━━ ━━ at Glasgow, 295
━━ ━━ administrative work of, 295
━━ ━━ teaching methods of, 299
Banks, Sir Joseph, W. Hooker and, 129
━━ ━━ R. Brown and, 110111
━━ ━━ on "rust" disease, 275
Banksian collections, R. Brown and, 112123, 134
de Bary, on potato disease, 266
━━ on "rust" disease, 27
━━ Ward's visit to, 264
Basidia, Berkeley's researches on, 230
Bauer, W. Hooker and, 144145
Bauhin, Caspar, Pinax of, 1415
━━ ━━ and John, Morison on, 20
Bean, collections of, 248
━━ on Yorkshire Fossil Flora, 247
Bentham, collaboration with Hooker, 313
━━ bequest of, 144
━━ collections of, 140
━━ Herbarium of, 310
Berkeley, Miles Joseph, life of, 225232
━━ ━━ fungal morphology and, 230231
━━ W. Hooker on, 227
━━ as naturalist, 225226
Berkeley, as plant pathologist, 231232
━━ as systematic mycologist, 227230
━━ as zoologist, 226
Binney, on Carboniferous plants, 253
━━ on coal balls, 245
━━ fossil plant tissues and, 307
━━ Geological Survey and, 245246
━━ publications of, 246
Blair, on Morison and Ray, 31
Bobart, Jacob, Keeper of Oxford Physic Garden, 17
━━ ━━ the younger, 18
━━ ━━ ━━ and Morison's work, 18, 23
━━ ━━ ━━ influence on Ray, 43
Botanic gardens, of British colonies, 136
━━ ━━ of Calcutta, 181182, 305
━━ ━━ of Cambridge, 153
━━ ━━ Chelsea Physic, 84, 92, 179
━━ ━━ of Glasgow, 129, 130, 292
━━ ━━ Glasnevin, 213
━━ ━━ Government subsidy of, 288
━━ ━━ Kew, 136137
━━ ━━ Oxford, 17, 18
━━ ━━ purpose of, 281
━━ ━━ rivalry between Edinburgh, 282, 283
Botanical Gazette, Henfrey and, 201, 202
━━ Magazine, editorship of W. Hooker, 142
━━ Society of Edinburgh, founding of, 294
Botanical illustration, Bauer and, 179
━━ ━━ Berkeley and, 226
━━ ━━ Dickson and, 301
━━ ━━ W. Fitch and, 141142, 246
━━ ━━ Grew and, 52
━━ ━━ Harvey and, 202, 206, 212
━━ ━━ Hill and, 100, 102, 103
━━ ━━ W. Hooker and, 141
━━ ━━ Lindley and, 170, 174
━━ ━━ McGillivray, 244
━━ ━━ Tuffen West and, 200
━━ ━━ Williamson and, 257
Botany, local study of, 249
Botany teaching, Henslow's methods, 158, 159
━━ ━━ pioneers of, 281, 296
Bottomiey, on Gilbert, 233242
Bower, F. O., 258
━━ on W. Hooker, 126150
━━ on J. D. Hooker, 302323
Boyle, influence on Hales, 66
Bridging species, Ward on, 277
British Algae, Berkeley on, 226
━━ Flora, Bentham and Hooker on, 315
━━ ━━ Berkeley on, 227228
━━ ━━ W. Hooker on, 143
━━ ━━ J. D. Hooker on, 315
Brome grass, Ward on, 276277
Brongniart, Williamson and, 254256
━━ antiquity of Dicotyledons and, 244
━━ on fossil seeds, 257
━━ influence of, 246
Broome, collaboration with Berkeley, 229
Brown, Robert, life of, 108125
━━ ━━ J. Banks and, 110, 111
━━ ━━ collections of, 112
━━ ━━ Cycad ovule and, 187
━━ ━━ diary of, 111
━━ ━━ Griffith and, 186
━━ ━━ Linnean Society and, 112, 123124
━━ ━━ on the ovule, 184185
━━ ━━ period of, 134
━━ ━━ on vegetation of New Holland, 113
Brownian movement, 120
Bryophyta, Griffith and, 188189, 190
Bud protection, Grew on, 50


Calamites, Williamson on, 253, 254, 256
━━ secondary growth in, 254
Calcutta Gardens, Falconer and, 305
━━ ━━ Griffith and, 181182
Cambridge, Ward at, 262
━━ Botanic Gardens, 153
━━ Herbarium, Lindley's presentation to, 170
━━ Philosophical Society, founding of, 151
━━ ━━ ━━ presentations to, 152153
━━ ━━ ━━ Ward and, 276
━━ Professorship, 152, 274
Carboniferous period, Binney on, 246, 253, 307
━━ ━━ J. D. Hooker on, 307
━━ ━━ Williamson on, 4, 253, 256
Cell structure, discovery of, 53
━━ ━━ Grew on, 5354
━━ theory, Williamson and 251
Cesalpino, Andrea, abstract of results of, 12, 13
━━ ━━ classification and, 11
━━ ━━ on Cryptogams, 21
━━ ━━ Morison and, 26
━━ ━━ Theophrastus and, 11
Ceylon Flora, Hooker and, 312, 313
Chelsea Physic Garden, Botany lectures at, 84
━━ ━━ ━━ Griffith and, 179
━━ ━━ ━━ Hill's use of, 92
Chemiotaxis, R. Brown on, 115
━━ Myoshi on, 275
━━ Pfeffer and, 275
Chlorophyll, Grew's observations on, 59
Circumpolar uniformity, Hooker and, 321
Classification, Adanson on, 41
━━ Bauhin and, 14
Classification, Cesalpino and, 11
━━ De Candolle and, 41
━━ first attempt at, 9
━━ flower and fruit in, 11
━━ Gesner on, 10
━━ Hill on, 100
━━ historical review of, 173
━━ Jung and, 15
━━ de Jussieu on, 41
━━ leaf in, 21
━━ Lindley and, 172, 173
━━ Malpighi on, 35
━━ Morison and, 18, 22
━━ natural system of, 13, 41, 172, 173
━━ progress in, 9
━━ Ray on, 29
Climbing plants, anatomy of, 55
Coal-balls, first investigation of, 245
━━ Williamson and, 251
Coffee disease, investigations of, 263
Coleridge, on Grew, 46, 47
Constancy of species, W. Hooker on, 148
Contact stimulus, Hill on, 98, 99
Controversies, Gilbert and Liebig, 238
━━ Hill's, 8991
━━ Morison and Ray, 21, 31
━━ Rothamsted and German physiologists, 242
━━ Williamson and Brongniart, 254
Copley medal, Hales and, 70
Coprolite, discovery of, 155156
Corn laws, Lindley and repeal of, 169
Cotyledons, Malpighi on, 35, 36
━━ systematic value of, 36
Croonian lecture, Timiriazeff's, 80
Cryptogamic botany, Berkeley and, 4, 226
━━ ━━ W. Hooker and, 128
Cryptogamist, Ward as Government, 262
Cryptogams, R. Brown on, 121, 122
━━ Cesalpino and, 21
━━ Griffith and, 188191
━━ Harvey and, 4, 205
━━ Williamson and fossil, 254, 255
Cycads, R. Brown on, 114, 117, 187
━━ relationships of, 254
━━ Zamia and, 253
Cycas, R. Brown on, 118, 119
━━ Griffith on ovule of, 187, 188
Cytase, importance of, 267


Darwin, Charles, omission of, 5
━━ ━━ Harvey and, 221
━━ ━━ J. D. Hooker and, 303, 307, 308, 315, 316, 320, 322, 323
━━ ━━ Index Kewensis and, 314
Darwin, Francis, on Hales, 6583
Darwinism, Balfour and, 298
De Candolle, A. P., Prodomus of, 134
━━ ━━ classification of, 41, 42
De Candolle, A. P., work of, 109
Deep sea deposits, Hooker and, 307
━━ ━━ ━━ Williamson and, 251
Development, on study of, 118
Dewar, on Gilbert, 234, 235
Dickson, Alexander, Edinburgh Professorship of, 300301
Dublin Herbarium, Harvey and, 211, 222
━━ Professorships at, 210-211, 218


East India Company, Griffith and, 3, 180, 184
Ecology, J. H. Balfour and, 297, 298
━━ Grew on, 61
━━ Griffith and, 182
━━ J. S. Henslow and, 152, 154
━━ J. D. Hooker and, 321
━━ scope of, 7
Economic botany, Berkeley and, 231
━━ ━━ Griffith and, 180
━━ ━━ W. Hooker and, 139
━━ ━━ Museum of, 137-138
Edinburgh Botanical Gardens, Mackay and Don and, 291
━━ ━━ ━━ the McNabs and, 299
━━ ━━ ━━ Rutherford and, 291
━━ ━━ Schools, rivalry of, 282
━━ Medical School, 290, 295
Edinburgh Professors, J. B. Balfour on, 280301
━━ ━━ Charles Alston, 283-286
━━ ━━ William Arthur, 284
━━ ━━ J. H. Balfour, 293300
━━ ━━ Dickson, 300301
━━ ━━ Graham, 291293
━━ ━━ John Hope, 286290
━━ ━━ Charles Preston, 282283
━━ ━━ Rutherford, 290291
━━ ━━ Sutherland, 281283
Elfing, Ward and, 264
━━ on bacteria, 273
Embryogeny, Dickson on plant, 300
Embryo-sac, Ward on the, 262
Encyclopaedia Britannica, on Hales, 68
━━ ━━ Ward and the, 265
Endosperm, Grew on, 63
Eriksson, on "rust" disease, 276
Evolution, Harvey and, 221
━━ J. D. Hooker and, 316


Falconer, Herbarium of, 312
Farmer, J. B., on R. Brown, 108125
Farming, J. S. Henslow and, 155
Ferments, Ward on, 270, 271
Ferns, Grew on spores of, 63
━━ W. Hooker and, 144148
━━ Morison on, 21
━━ sexuality in, 135
━━ Williamson on, 254, 257
Field botany, Balfour and, 297
Field botany, Edinburgh School and, 296
━━ ━━ Graham and, 292
━━ ━━ W. Hooker and, 132
━━ ━━ Hope and, 289
Fitch, W., as illustrator, 131, 141, 145, 146
Flora of British India, 312
━━ of Britain, 43
━━ of South Africa, 219
━━ of Antarctic, 305, 311, 312
━━ of Ceylon, 312, 313
━━ of Scotland, 132
━━ Fossil, 245, 252
━━ ━━ of Williamson, 248
━━ ━━ of Yorkshire, 247
Floras, migration of, 322
Flowers, Ray on morphology of, 35
━━ Grew on anatomy of, 52, 62
Food solutions, Grew on, 60
Foraminifera, Williamson on, 250, 251
Fossil botany, Binney and, 243, 307
━━ ━━ Brongniart and, 244
━━ ━━ R. Brown and, 122
━━ ━━ in England, 243
━━ ━━ in France, 254, 255
━━ ━━ J. D. Hooker on, 243, 307
━━ ━━ Lindley on, 176
━━ ━━ Williamson and, 7, 256, 259
━━ ━━ Witham and, 243
━━ plants, development in, 258
Fossils, Williamson's collections of, 258
Frankland, Percy, Ward and, 271
Fungi, J. Banks on, 275
━━ basidia in, 230
━━ Berkeley on, 229
━━ ━━ and Broome on, 229230
━━ classification of, 227230
━━ on epiphyllous, 263-264
━━ Eriksson on, 276
━━ on exotic, 228
━━ J. S. Henslow on, 156, 157
━━ Kew collections of, 228
━━ life-history of, 271
━━ morphology of, 230-231
━━ nutrition of, 265


Gardeners' Chronicle, editorship of Lindley, 166, 169
Gardening, Williamson and, 252
Gatty, Mrs, on seaweeds, 216, 221
Genera Filicum, 144, 145, 147
━━ Plantarum, of Bentham and Hooker, 313
━━ ━━ of Endlicher, 314
━━ ━━ of de Jussieu, 314
━━ ━━ of Linnaeus, 314
Genera, Tournefort and, 40
Geographical distribution, of Fungi, 228, 229
━━ ━━ J. D. Hooker on, 319-322
Geological zones, Williamson and, 248
Geology, Binney and, 245, 246
━━ Father of English, 247
━━ of Yorkshire, 247
━━ Williamson and, 251
Geotropism, Grew on, 59
Gesner, classification and, 10, 11
Gilbert, Sir Joseph Henry, life of, 233-242
━━ ━━ career of, 234
━━ ━━ chemical training of, 233-234
━━ ━━ Hellriegel and, 240
━━ ━━ Lawes and, 233
━━ ━━ Rothamsted and, 234
Ginger-beer plant, Ward on, 269, 270
Glasgow, Botanic Gardens at, 129, 130, 292
━━ W. Hooker and Professorship of, 130133
Glasnevin, Harvey and Botanic Gardens of, 213
Goebel, on W. Hooker, 148, 149
━━ on Bryophyta, 189
Golden age, of Botany, 193-194
Graham, Edinburgh Professorship and, 291293
━━ Glasgow Gardens and, 292
━━ teaching and, 292, 293, 299
Grand'Eury, Williamson and, 253
Graphical method, Ward and, 276
Gray, Asa, 224, 321
Greeks, Botany of, 9
Greenhouses, ventilation of, 81
Greville, W. Hooker and, 144, 147
Grew, Nehemiah, life of, 44-64
━━ ━━ anatomy and, 47-57, 135
━━ ━━ Hales and, 81
━━ ━━ Malpighi and, 48
━━ ━━ Schleiden and, 48
━━ ━━ versatility of, 45
Griffith, William, life of, 178-191
━━ ━━ botanical work of, 180
━━ ━━ collections of, 182
━━ ━━ contemporaries of, 183
━━ ━━ Herbarium of, 312
━━ ━━ methods of, 183
━━ ━━ morphology and, 182-183
━━ ━━ travels of, 180-182
━━ ━━ University College and, 179
Griffiths, Mrs, on algae, 211, 223
Growth, Hales on, 82
━━ logarithmic curve of, 273
Gwynne-Vaughan, on Nymphaeaceae, 199
Gymnosperms, R. Brown on, 117, 118
━━ seeds of, 257


Hales, Stephen, life of, 65-83
━━ ━━ Alston and, 285-286
━━ ━━ Chemistry and, 67, 78-80
━━ ━━ Physics and, 67
━━ ━━ Physiology and, 67, 71-78, 80-83
Hartog, Marcus, Williamson and, 255
Harvey, William Henry, life of, 202224
━━ ━━ collections of, 208210, 216218
━━ ━━ Darwin and, 221
━━ ━━ W. Hooker and, 207208, 211, 219
━━ ━━ influence of, 221
━━ ━━ lectures of, 213215
━━ ━━ publications of, 219
Hellriegel, on Leguminosae, 240241, 267
Henfrey, Arthur, life of, 192203
━━ ━━ on critical species, 201
━━ ━━ on fertilisation, 195
━━ ━━ on sex in plants, 193198
━━ ━━ Suminski and, 197198
━━ ━━ text-books of, 200
━━ ━━ as translator and editor, 200
━━ ━━ work of, 192
Henslow, George, on Henslow, 151163
Henslow, John Stevens, life of, 151163
━━ ━━ Berkeley and, 226
━━ ━━ botanical work of, 154
━━ ━━ collections of, 152153
━━ ━━ Ecology and, 152153
━━ ━━ Education and, 153154, 158159
━━ ━━ lectures of, 157
━━ ━━ on "rust" disease, 275
━━ ━━ scientific studies of, 151152
━━ ━━ views of, 156
Herbalist, Hill as, 92, 100
Herbalists, work of, 47
Herbals, of Culpeper, 47
━━ of Dodonaeus, 10
━━ of Fuchs, 9
━━ of Lobelius, 10
━━ of Parkinson, 47
━━ of Pierre Pena, 10
━━ of Tragus (Bock), 9
Herbarium, of Falconer and Griffith, 312
━━ Kew, 140
Herbs, classification and, 29, 30, 34
Hermann, work of, 26, 39
Hill, John, life of, 84107
━━ ━━ as actor, 85
━━ ━━ on anatomy, 9396
━━ ━━ character of, 104107
━━ ━━ as gardener, 93
━━ ━━ as herbalist, 92
━━ ━━ on Linnean method, 39
━━ ━━ on literature, 8687, 9293
━━ ━━ medical career of, 85
━━ ━━ methods of, 88
━━ ━━ on Natural History, 87
━━ ━━ on physiology, 96-100
━━ ━━ as systematist, 103
━━ ━━ on taxonomy, 100103
Hill, T. G., on J. Hill, 84
Himalayan Journals, Hooker's, 305
Hofmeister, influence of, 6
━━ morphology and, 4
━━ predecessors of, 135
━━ work of, 186, 191, 194, 195
Hofmeisterian epoch, papers of, 198
Hooke, on anatomy, 135
━━ on cellular structure, 53
━━ microscope and, 53
Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton, life of, 302323
━━ ━━ as Administrator, 308-311
━━ ━━ Bentham and, 313
━━ ━━ Darwin and, 303, 316-319
━━ ━━ early life of, 302-303
━━ ━━ Edinburgh and, 293
━━ ━━ Essays of, 319-322
━━ ━━ as Geologist, 307-308
━━ ━━ as Systematist, 311-315
━━ ━━ as Traveller, 304-307
Hooker, Sir William, life of, 126-150
━━ ━━ Berkeley and, 227
━━ ━━ collections of, 139, 140
━━ ━━ on cryptogams, 227
━━ ━━ diagnosis and, 147-148
━━ ━━ Floristic works of, 143-145
━━ ━━ Glasgow and, 127, 129
━━ ━━ Icones Plantarum, 143
━━ ━━ Journals and, 142143
━━ ━━ Kew and, 127, 130, 133134, 136, 140, 149
━━ ━━ Linnean Society and, 127
━━ ━━ as Naturalist, 126127
━━ ━━ as Pteridologist, 144148
━━ ━━ as Systematist, 148149
━━ ━━ teaching and, 130132
Hookerian collections, Kew and, 310
Hope, life of, 286-290
━━ Alston and, 287
━━ Botanic Gardens and, 288
━━ de Jussieu and, 287
━━ physiology and, 286289
Horticulture, Lindley and, 3, 171, 172
How, British Flora and, 43
Hutton, Fossil botany and, 176177
Huxley, lectures of, 261
━━ on mutability of species, 317


Icones Plantarum, W. Hooker and, 143
Imbibition of water, Hales on, 7576
━━ ━━ Sachs on, 76
Immunity, Grass and, 276
━━ Ward on, 266
Index Kewensis, origin of, 314
India, J. D. Hooker's flora of, 312
━━ J. D. Hooker's travels in, 306
Ingenhousz, on plant nutrition, 69
Insectivorous plants, J. D. Hooker on, 308
Ipswich Museum, J. S, Henslow and, 156, 159, 160

Jackson, Daydon, Index Kewensis and, 314
Jodrell Laboratory, Ward at, 262
━━ ━━ Williamson and, 259
Judd, on Williamson, 251
Jung, Linnaeus and, 15
━━ Ray and, 35
━━ Systematic botany and, 15
de Jussieu, de Candolle and, 41, 42
━━ classification and, 109, 134, 287
━━ Tournefort and Ray and, 42


Keeble, F., on Lindley, 164-177
Kew Gardens, Administration of, 309-310
━━ ━━ Bentham's gifts to, 140
━━ ━━ Hales and, 81
━━ ━━ Herbarium at, 305
━━ ━━ Herbarium and Library at, 141, 310
━━ ━━ Hill and, 93
━━ ━━ W. Hooker Director of, 127, 130, 1334, 1367, 140, 149
━━ ━━ the two Hookers at, 308-309
━━ ━━ Lindley and, 136-138, 169-170
━━ ━━ Mycological Herbarium at, 231
━━ ━━ Orchid Herbarium at, 170
━━ ━━ Thiselton-Dyer and, 81, 150, 203, 259
Kidston, Witham's collection and, 245
Kingia, R. Brown on, 117
King's Botanist, Alston as, 283
━━ ━━ Arthur as, 284
Knaut, work of, 26, 39


Lang, on Griffith, 178-191
Lankester, E., 193
Lankester, Ray, on Schizomycetes, 265
Lawes, agriculture and, 235
━━ Gilbert and, 235-236
━━ on nitrogen assimilation, 267
Leaves, classification on form of, 21
━━ movements of, 96-99
━━ structure and functions of, 96-97
━━ vernation of, 50
Leguminous nodules, Gilbert on, 239
━━ ━━ Hellriegel and, 240
━━ ━━ Ward on, 267
Lepidodendron, Williamson and, 258
Lichens, Ward on, 264, 270
Liebig, mineral theory of, 237-240
━━ controversy with Gilbert, 238
Light on plants, Hales and, 80, 81
━━ ━━ Hill on, 97
Lily disease, Ward on, 266, 267
Lindley, John, life of, 164-177
━━ ━━ activities of, 166
━━ ━━ J. Banks and, 168
━━ ━━ Botanical Register and, 174
Lindley, John, characteristics of, 177
━━ ━━ on cryptogams, 195
━━ ━━ on Darwin, 174
━━ ━━ Horticulture and, 171
━━ ━━ Hutton and, 245, 248
━━ ━━ Library and, 174, 177
━━ ━━ literary work of, 169-174
━━ ━━ Professorship of, 168, 169
━━ ━━ Williamson and, 250
Linnaeus, British botany and, 6
━━ Hope and, 286
━━ Jung and, 15
━━ on Morison and Cesalpino, 27-28, 42, 43
━━ on Ray, 38, 42, 43
━━ Taxonomy and, 6
━━ method, 2, 3, 39
━━ ━━ Adanson and, 41
━━ ━━ Hill and, 101-103
━━ ━━ England and, 39, 40
━━ period, 109, 134
━━ system, Alston on, 285
━━ ━━ Hope on, 289
━━ ━━ influence of, 193
Linnean school, influence of, 195
━━ Society, R. Brown and, 111, 112, 114, 121-124
━━ ━━ Berkeley and, 232
━━ ━━ Darwin-Wallace Celebration, 317, 318
━━ ━━ Griffith and, 183-185
━━ ━━ Harvey and, 207
━━ ━━ Ward and, 263, 264
━━ ━━ publications of, 184-186, 253
London University, Botany teaching at, 179
━━ ━━ Henslow and, 154
Loranthaceae, Griffith on, 185-186
Lotsy, morphology and, 186
Lycopods, Williamson and, 256
Lyell, Calamites and, 253
━━ J. H. Hooker and, 308, 320
━━ mutability of species and, 317
Lyginodendron, Williamson and, 256, 257


Malpighi, anatomy and, 44, 135, 286
━━ Grew and, 6, 48, 63
━━ Hales and, 67, 68, 81
━━ on seeds and seedlings, 35, 36
Manchester, Geological Society of, 245
━━ Natural History Society of, 249
━━ Professorship at, 250
━━ Ward and, 264
Mangroves, Griffith and, 186-187
Manures, experiments with, 234, 236, 237
━━ effect of, 237
━━ nitrogenous, 238
Marchantia, Henfrey on, 199
Massee, George, on Berkeley, 225-232
Materia Medica, Alston and, 285
Materia Medica, Hope and, 287289
━━ ━━ the Prestons and, 283
━━ ━━ Sutherland and, 282
Mayow, Hales and, 66, 79
McNab, Edinburgh Botanic Gardens and, 291, 292, 299
Medullary rays, Grew on, 56
Metabiosis, Ward on, 270
Microscope, R. Brown and, 119, 120
━━ Hill and, 94
Microtechnique, Henfrey and, 199
Microtome, Hill's use of, 94
von Mohl, protoplasmic continuity and, 199, 200
Morison, Robert, life of, 1643
━━ ━━ the Bauhins and, 20
━━ ━━ Cesalpino and, 26
━━ ━━ classification of, 19, 21
━━ ━━ method of, 2225
━━ ━━ Ray and, 34, 35, 39
━━ ━━ on Umbelliferae, 22
━━ ━━ works of, 1920
Morphology, Berkeley on Fungal, 230231
━━ Floral, 35
━━ Foundation of Plant, 15
━━ Griffith on, 179
━━ Hofmeisterian epoch, 198
━━ modern, 135
━━ Ray's essays on, 35
━━ of reproductive organs, 187
Museums, J. S. Henslow and, 160
━━ Hill and, 87
━━ W. Hooker and, 137140
Mutability of species, 317, 320
Mycology, Systematic, 227
Mycoplasm theory, 274, 275
Myoshi, chemiotaxis and, 275


Nägeli, fertilisation in Ferns, 196
Nathorst, on Bennettiteae, 253
Natural History, Henslow and, 3
━━ ━━ Hill on, 87
━━ ━━ Ray on, 43
Nature Study, J. S. Henslow and, 161, 162
Newton, Hales and, 66, 72, 78, 80
Nitrogen assimilation, Gilbert and Lawes and, 238241
━━ ━━ Hellriegel and, 240241
━━ ━━ leguminous plants and, 240
━━ ━━ Ward and, 267, 268
━━ theory, 237241
Nucleus, R. Brown and, 119, 135
Nutation, Grew on, 60
━━ Hales on, 74
Nutrition, Hales on, 72, 80, 83
━━ Ingenhousz on, 69
━━ transference of, 278
Nymphaeaceae, Henfrey on, 199


Oceanic islands, J. D. Hooker on, 321
Oliver, F. W., on Henfrey, 192203
Oolitic plants of Yorkshire, 253
Orchidaceae, R. Brown and, 115, 116
━━ Lindley and, 165, 174176
Organography, Dickson and, 301
Origin of Species, J. D. Hooker's essay, 320
Ovule, R. Brown on, 117119, 184185
━━ Griffith on, 185188
━━ Schleiden and, 185
Oxford, Professorship at, 16, 17
━━ Gardens of, 16, 17, 27


Parasites, education of, 277
━━ host of, 268
Parasitic habit, adoption of, 269
Parasitism, adaptive, 277
Permanence of species, Lindley and, 173
Philosophical Biology, J. D. Hooker and, 315323
━━ Transactions, Ward and, 264, 266267, 269, 270, 275
Phlogiston theory, 66, 79
Photosynthesis, 80
Plant diseases, Ward on, 268
━━ histology, early work in, 199
━━ nutrition, 69, 72
━━ pathology, 4, 231232
━━ physiology, Agriculture and, 7
━━ ━━ Chemistry and, 7
━━ ━━ experimental, 68, 83
━━ ━━ founders of, 2, 6, 68
━━ ━━ Gilbert and, 234235
━━ ━━ Grew on, 58, 60, 61
━━ ━━ Hales and, 7178, 8083
━━ ━━ Hope and, 287, 289
━━ tissues, Grew on, 54
Plants, medicinal properties of, 47
Pleomorphism, Bacteria and, 265
━━ Uredineae and, 266
Pollen, Amici's discovery, 194, 195
━━ R. Brown and, 115116
━━ chamber, in Cycas, 187188
Polyembryony, 117
Popularisation of Science, 250
Potato disease, 231, 266
Praeger, R. L., on Harvey, 202224
Presl, on Ferns, 145147
Preston, C. and G., Materia Medica and, 283
Primofilices of Arber, 257
Proteaceae, R. Brown on, 114
Protective mimicry in Orchidaceae, 116
Protoplasm, von Mohl and, 135
Pteridophyta, Griffith on, 188
━━ alternation of generations, 188189
Pteridosperms, secondary growth in, 256
━━ seeds of, 257


Q. J. M. S., Ward and, 263266
Quaker Schools, Science in Irish, 205


Ray, John, life of, 2843
━━ ━━ on Classification, 2829, 34, 3638
━━ ━━ on floral morphology, 35
━━ ━━ influence of, 23, 109
━━ ━━ Jung and, 15
━━ ━━ Methodus Plantarum, 3234
━━ ━━ on seeds and seedlings, 35
━━ ━━ on transmission of water, 68
━━ Society, Harvey on, 210
Renaissance of Botany, 5, 193, 194, 203
Renault, Williamson and, 255
Reproduction, Hill's views on, 99100
Rhamnus infectorius, Ward on, 267
Ringing experiments, Hales and, 7677
Root pressure, Hales on, 77, 78
Roots, Grew on, 51, 53, 55, 56
Ross, J. D. Hooker's travels with, 303305, 312
Rothamsted, experiments on plants, 234241
━━ experiments on animals, 241
━━ publications, 235236, 241
Royal Horticultural Society, Lindley and, 166, 168
Royal Society, Gilbert and, 234
━━ ━━ Grew and, 63
━━ ━━ Hales and, 70
━━ ━━ Henfrey and, 193
━━ ━━ Hill and, 8891
━━ ━━ Hooker, J. D., and, 310311
━━ ━━ Ward and, 279
━━ ━━ Williamson and, 251, 253, 257, 259
━━ ━━ medal, 172, 234, 279
Rust fungus, physiological species of, 276
Rutherford, Edinburgh Medical School and, 290
━━ Chemical work of, 290


Sachs, on growth, 82
━━ on Hales, 65, 67, 68
━━ History of Botany, 65, 191, 193
━━ on Hofmeister, 198
━━ on physiology, 72, 74, 75
━━ on Ray, 68
━━ Textbook, 194
━━ on transpiration, 7274
━━ on water transport, 76
━━ on Ward, 262
Schizomycetes, Ward on, 265
Schleiden, fertilisation, 194196
━━ Grew and, 48
━━ morphology and, 134, 185, 186, 197
Schwendener's Theory, Bornet and, 278
━━ ━━ Ward and, 264, 278
Science and Art Department, Ward and, 261
Scientific exploration, Golden age of, 304
Scott, D. H., on Williamson, 243260
Scottish Flora, Hope and, 289
Seaweeds, Flora of, 219
━━ Harvey and, 208, 210212, 214, 216
━━ systematic study of, 202
Secondary growth, in Cryptogams, 254256
━━ ━━ systematic importance of, 256
Seeds and seedlings, Grew on, 49, 62
━━ ━━ ━━ Malpighi on, 35
━━ ━━ ━━ Ray on, 35
Sex in plants, Alston on, 286
━━ ━━ ━━ in Cryptogams, 195, 196
━━ ━━ ━━ denial of, 285
━━ ━━ ━━ in Ferns, 135, 196197
━━ ━━ ━━ in flowering plants, 194
━━ ━━ ━━ Grew on, 61, 62
Shrubs, Ray's classification of, 30, 34
Sibbald, 281
Solms–Laubach, on Williamson, 256, 257
━━ ━━ on Scott, 258
Sorby, Williamson and, 251
South Kensington, Science Schools at, 261, 262
Species, critical, 201
━━ "lumping" of, 201
Species Filicum, 145, 146
Spencer, Herbert, 80
Sphenophyllum, Williamson and, 255256
Starch, extraction of, 160, 161
Stems, annual rings in, 57
━━ comparative anatomy of, 51, 56
━━ modified, 57, 58
━━ secondary thickening in, 56
Sternbergiae, Williamson on, 252
Stigmaria, Williamson on, 257
Suminski, sex in Ferns, 196197
━━ and Schleiden's theory, 197
Susceptibility, Ward on, 268
Sutherland, Edinburgh Professor, 281282
Symbiosis, physiological aspect of, 269
━━ fermentation and, 270
Synopsis Filicum, publication of, 146, 147
Systematic botany, Balfour and, 299
━━ ━━ Bauhin and, 14
━━ ━━ Berkeley on, 227230, 231
━━ ━━ British School of, 6
━━ ━━ R. Brown and, 121
━━ ━━ Cesalpino and, 11
━━ ━━ Ferns and, 144148
━━ ━━ first publication on, 32
━━ ━━ Founders of, 2
━━ ━━ Griffith and, 184
━━ ━━ Harvey and, 220
━━ ━━ W. Hooker and, 3, 127, 132
━━ ━━ J. D. Hooker, 311315
Systematic Botany, Lindley and, 3
━━ ━━ Materia Medica and, 282
━━ ━━ Morison and Ray and, 6, 47
━━ ━━ Seventeenth Century and, 14


Taxonomy, Hill and, 100
━━ Linnaeus and, 6
━━ Ray on, 6
━━ rise of, 202203
Theophrastus, Botany and, 8, 9
━━ Cesalpino and, 11
━━ Hill and, 85, 86
━━ influence of, 11
━━ Jung on, 15, 35
━━ Ray on, 35
Theory of Descent, J. D. Hooker and, 316
Thiselton-Dyer, 2, 81, 259
━━ anatomy and, 150
━━ New Botany, 203
━━ on Ward, 261279
Thomson, Gilbert under, 233234
━━ J. D. Hooker and, 306, 312
Timiriazeff, 80
Tournefort, Alston on, 285
━━ on Cesalpino, 27
━━ on Ray, 38
━━ on Morison, 27
━━ on de Jussieu, 42
━━ work of, 40
Tracheae, Grew on, 51, 57
Transmission of water, Hales on, 68
Transpiration, Hales on, 7277
━━ and Light, 81
Trees, classification of, 31, 34
Treub, 186, 187
Trimen, Ceylon Flora and, 312
Tulasne, on "rust" disease, 275
Turgescence, Hales and, 82


University College, London, Gilbert and, 232, 2334
━━ ━━ ━━ Griffith and, 179
━━ ━━ ━━ Lindley and, 166, 168, 177
━━ ━━ ━━ Williamson and, 249
Uredineae, Banks and, 275
━━ Eriksson and, 276
━━ Ward and, 263, 266, 274, 275


Vascular Cryptogams, classification of, 254255
Vascular Cryptogams, Henfrey and, 194
━━ system, of climbing plants, 55
Vegetable physiology, Weddell and, 248
Vernation of leaves, Grew on, 50
Vessels, Hill and function of, 95
━━ Grew and formation of, 52
━━ Grew and nature of, 55
━━ Grew and spiral, 57
Vienna Congress and Hill, 104
Vines on Morison and Ray, 8
━━ on Ward, 261, 262


Wallace and Darwin, 315, 317
Ward, Harry Marshall, life of, 261279
━━ at Cambridge, 274
━━ in Ceylon, 262264
━━ at Cooper's Hill, 266
━━ at Manchester, 264
━━ methods of, 278-279
━━ on coffee disease, 262264
━━ on bacteriology, 265268, 271274
━━ on symbiosis, 268271
━━ on Uredineae, 266, 275277
Warming, on Ecology, 321
Water supply, Ward on, 274
Welwitschia, J. D. Hooker on, 308
Wheat, experiments on, 236237
Wieland, on fossil plants, 253
Wilfarth, 267
Williamson, William Crawford, life of, 243260
━━ ━━ collections of, 258
━━ ━━ early life of, 247
━━ ━━ as Fossil Botanist, 7, 253
━━ ━━ as Geologist, 249
━━ ━━ as Lecturer, 250, 251
━━ ━━ at Manchester, 250
━━ ━━ mistakes of, 257, 258
━━ ━━ as Naturalist, 248
━━ ━━ results of, 256
━━ ━━ Ward and, 264
━━ ━━ as Zoologist, 4
Williamsonia, 253
Witham, 243-245, 307


Yorkshire, palaeontology of, 247


Zamia, Williamson on, 253
Zoologist, Williamson as, 4
━━ Berkeley as, 226



CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS