Mongolia, the Tangut country, and the solitudes of northern Tibet. Volume 1/On the terms Pehling and Fanqui
PEHLING AND FANQUI.
The footnote here, which says ' Pehling is the Chinese for Englishmen, Fan-qui for Frenchmen,' needs correction. Fan-Kwei is simply the term usually rendered 'foreign devils,' and is applied to Europeans generally. Pe-ling appears to be a corruption of the Western Asiatic Firingi, i.e. ' a Frank,' a term which in some older Chinese notices appears in the form Fu-lang. Pe-ling, or philing, we know from Huc, Hodgson, and Edgar is the name which the Chinese at Lhassa give to the English in India, and it perhaps came to them through the Kashmiris and other Mahommedan traders to Lhassa.
'Peh-ling Fan-qui' in the comprador's utterance quoted, means, I imagine, 'the Frank foreigners' who come by sea, in contradistinction to the Russ foreigners who come by land, and with whom the Chinese perhaps recognise something more of affinity.—[Y.]
- 'Pélins de Calcutta' (ii. 265).
- Hodgson's Essays, p. 68; Rep. on Sikhim and Thibetan Frontier, Calcutta, 1874, p. 17.