Mongolia, the Tangut country, and the solitudes of northern Tibet. Volume 1/On the terms Pehling and Fanqui

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P. 41.

The footnote here, which says ' Pehling is the Chinese for Englishmen, Fan-qui for Frenchmen,' needs correction. Fan-Kwei is simply the term usually rendered 'foreign devils,' and is applied to Europeans generally. Pe-ling appears to be a corruption of the Western Asiatic Firingi, i.e. ' a Frank,' a term which in some older Chinese notices appears in the form Fu-lang. Pe-ling, or philing, we know from Huc,[1] Hodgson, and Edgar[2] is the name which the Chinese at Lhassa give to the English in India, and it perhaps came to them through the Kashmiris and other Mahommedan traders to Lhassa.

'Peh-ling Fan-qui' in the comprador's utterance quoted, means, I imagine, 'the Frank foreigners' who come by sea, in contradistinction to the Russ foreigners who come by land, and with whom the Chinese perhaps recognise something more of affinity.—[Y.]

  1. 'Pélins de Calcutta' (ii. 265).
  2. Hodgson's Essays, p. 68; Rep. on Sikhim and Thibetan Frontier, Calcutta, 1874, p. 17.