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Nicaraguan Biographies/Cadre

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Cadre[edit]

AGUIRRE Solis, Danilo. FSLN militant who, as Deputy Director, enforces the Sandinista party line at the ostensibly independent newspaper El Nuevo Diario. FSLN Representative in the National Assembly; member of the Commission for Legal Parliamentary Affairs and Human Rights. Educated as a lawyer. Reporter for La Prensa during the revolution against Somoza.

ASTORGA Gadea, Nora Josefina. Ambassador to the United Nations since March 1986. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born in Managua in 1949. Daughter of a landowner. Went to Catholic schools and became involved in church-sponsored social work. Attended private schools in Washington, DC, and Rome, then returned to Managua in 1969 to enter the UCA law school and become an FSLN collaborator. Visited Cuba in the early 1970s. Employed as a lawyer and head of personnel for the Somoza-controlled SOVIPE construction company. In March 1978, lured National Guard Deputy Commander, Gen. Reynaldo "Perro" Perez Vega to her apartment, where three FSLN militants assassinated him. Fled to Costa Rica where she announced her FSLN membership and was assigned to the Southern Front as a political officer. From October 1979 until February 1981, she was chief prosecutor in the special political tribunals which tried (often summarily) National Guardsmen and other political opponents. Subsequently became one of three Vice Ministers of Foreign Affairs. Died of cancer in February 1988.

ATHA Rodriguez, Paul Stanley. MINT Captain. Assistant for "Special Projects" to Minister of Interior Tomas Borge. Son of a Nicaraguan mother and a US Marine who remained when the marines withdrew in 1932. Minister of Domestic Commerce from December 1979 until April 1980. Serving since 1980 as Borge's black-market business agent and confidant, Atha has set up a number of holding companies and front companies in Panama and elsewhere in the region. The largest of these is the "Holding Management and Investment Corporation" (or "H&M"), sometimes referred to as "Heroes and Martyrs of the Revolution, SA" (or HYMSA). H&M was created as a Ministry of the Interior department in 1984, replacing the Department of Business. Under Atha it has turned the management of confiscated properties into a series of trading companies and domestic businesses — including factories, restaurants, bakeries, laundries, motels, and hotels — providing money for the FSLN party leadership. H&M operating capital comes from outside the official budget; profits are not reported to tax authorities. Subsidiaries are provided hard currency at favorable exchange rates and can obtain scarce commodities abroad for use by high-ranking Sandinista officials.

AVILES Lopez, Olga. Ambassador to Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born November 1, 1941, in Managua. Joined the FSLN in the 1960s. Underwent guerrilla warfare and special explosives training in Cuba. Participated in a number of FSLN armed actions. After the Sandinista rise to power, worked briefly in the International Relations Directorate of the FSLN before moving to the international relations division of the FSLN's trade union federation. In March of 1980, named "Guerrilla Commander" in Tomas Borge's Interior Ministry for her role as a member of the FSLN squad which conducted the December 1974 Christmas party hostage-taking. Traveled to Bulgaria in October 1980 as the head of an FSLN trade union delegation which met with the official communist-controlled unions. Traveled to Hungary in April 1981 as the head of a similar delegation. In February 1983 she replaced Doris Tijerino (now head

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of the Sandinista Police) as president of the FSLN's Nicaraguan Peace Commission (CONIPAZ). (CONIPAZ, a member organization of the Eastern bloc's World Peace Council, is the Sandinista counterpart to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Society of Friendship With the Peoples). In October 1985, she attended the Fifth Congress of the Kampuchean [Cambodian] Peoples' Revolutionary Party (KPRP) in Phnom Penh at the invitation of Premier Heng Samrin. With FSLN Directorate member Luis Carrion, she attended the Sixth Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam in Hanoi in December 1986. Has traveled numerous times to the Soviet Union, Cuba, and North Korea.

BAEZ, Gladys. Member, FSLN Assembly. Directorate Member, FSLN Region II. Born in 1941 in Juigalpa, Chontales. Left school after the third grade. Became a Moscow-line communist PSN militant in 1956. Represented the party at the 1960 Moscow Women's Congress and helped organize its women's organization. Left the PSN in the mid-1960s. Joined the FSLN. One of the few survivors of Silvio Mayorga's column at Pancasan in 1967. Said to be the first woman fighter to join the FSLN combatants in the mountains. Arrested in November 1967. After years of inactivity and illness, she joined the FSLN's Western Front in Leon and Chinandega. Later became manager of an agricultural cooperative in Leon.

BALDIZON Aviles, Alvaro. Former FSLN militant and sublieutenant in the Interior Ministry who defected in June 1985. Born about 1959. Served as clandestine courier for the FSLN while working as a truck driver during the war against Somoza. Joined Sandinista police in April 1980. Became Chief of Police at Station 15 in the Managua suburb of Ciudad Sandino. In September 1980, Baldizon was sent to the Soviet Union, where he attended a 10- month course in criminology in Volgograd. Upon his return to Nicaragua in July 1981, he joined the Ministry of Interior. In December 1982, Tomas Borge appointed him to the ministry's new Special Investigations Commission. His job was to investigate reports of Sandinista human rights abuses and develop plausible cover stories for international propaganda purposes. During his investigations, Baldizon learned

"I believe in the doctrines and struggles of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Che [Guevara], the great teachers and guides of the working class, which is the productive force and true driving force of the class struggle.... I believe in the building of the Marxist-Leninist socialist society."
"The Sandinista Creed" El Nuevo Diario, January 7, 1984

about abuses and coverups involving such high-ranking government figures as Interior Minister Tomas Borge and Vice Minister Luis Carrion Cruz. He also discovered that murder and torture were regularly employed and approved methods to control the internal opposition. After 5 years as an official of the internal security apparatus, he fled to Honduras. His account of what the Sandinistas called "the standardization of the application of special measures against elements of the enemy potential and criminal potential throughout the national territory" was published in "Inside the Sandinista Regime: A Special Investigator's Perspective," Department of State, February 1986.

BALTODANO Cantarero, Alvaro. Army Lieutenant Colonel. Combat Readiness Chief, Army General Staff. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Joined the FSLN in 1973 with Luis Carrion, Oswaldo Lacayo, and Joaquin Cuadra through the influence of Father Uriel Molina and the MCR. Military training under Oscar Turcios. Took part in the unsuccessful October 1977 FSLN Ter- cerista attack on Masaya. Fled to Mexico, but returned to fight in the final stages of the war. Since 1979, Baltodano has served as regional commander for several military regions and as chief of EPS Irregular Warfare and Training. Key figure (with EPS Captain Alejandro Guevara) in the entrapment and murder of charismatic COSEP leader Jorge Salazar in November 1980. In the court trial against eight Salazar associates who survived, Baltodano testified to being a DGSE plant who used past friendship to lure Salazar into the fatal plot. Baltodano was the one military officer to travel with Humberto Ortega to Cambodia in March 1981, where he praised "the heroic Kampuchean [Cambodian] Army." Traveled to East Germany in 1986 in pursuit of increased military scholarships and assistance. Brother of Emilio Baltodano Cantarero.

BALTODANO Cantarero, Emilio. Member of the National Planning Council. Minister of Industry. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born September 7, 1950, in Managua. Served as secretary to the Junta before assuming his present position. Son of wealthy businessman Emilio Baltodano Pallais, who serves as Comptroller General of the Republic. Brother of Alvaro Baltodano Cantarero.

Monument, "The Combatant," in Managua. The inscription reads: "Only the workers and peasants will go on until the end."

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BALTODANO Marcenaro, Monica Salvadora. Vice Minister in the Ministry of the Presidency. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Holds the rank of Guerrilla Commander. Born August 14, 1954, in Leon. Went to Catholic schools where she became active in the campaign to free FSLN prisoners in 1970. Adopted Marxism at the University of Managua and joined the FSLN in 1973 via the MCR and FER. Captured and imprisoned from July 1977 to April 1978. One of the field commanders for the Managua Internal Front during the final offensive, she later served as a coordinator in the FSLN Secretariat of Mass Organizations. Former companion of Bayardo Arce. Married to Julio Lopez Campos, Director of the FSLN's International Relations Department. Her mother Zulema was appointed head of the Sandinista mass organization "Mothers of the Heroes and Martyrs" and to the Sandinista Human Rights Commission.

BENDANA Rodriguez, Alejandro. Secretary General of Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Born August 22, 1950, in Managua. BA and MA in history from Louisiana State University. PhD in history from Harvard University. Deputy Chief of Nicaragua's UN Mission, 1979-82. Returned to Nicaragua in 1982. Controls the CNPPDH, ensuring that its reports on human rights follow the FSLN line. Often serves as the translator for Daniel Ortega or as a spokesman for the Sandinistas on American television.

BLANDON, Nelba Cecilia. MINT Captain. Chief of the Public and International Department of the Ministry of the Interior and former Chief of its Censorship Department. The principal implementor of censorship of media, political parties, religious organizations, and other civic groups. In 1984, Blandon attempted to justify censorship of the independent newspaper La Prensa, arguing that "They accused us of suppressing freedom of expression. This was a lie and we could not let them publish it."

BLANDON Ubeda, Jesus Miguel. Former Director of Radio Sandino, the official radio station of the FSLN. Former Director of Segovia, the official political-military magazine of the FSLN, published by the Sandinista Army's Political Directorate. Born December 13, 1940, in Matagalpa. Radio Sandino is one of the main news outlets in a society that relies heavily on radio for its news and information. "Chuno" Blandon is also a comedian and author of several books, including Entre Sandino y Fonseca Amador. Has traveled extensively to Cuba, Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union.

BOLANOS Hunter, Miguel. Former FSLN militant and urban guerrilla commander. Member of the DGSE General Directorate who defected in May 1983. A Sandinista since 1978, Bolanos worked for 4 years in the F-7 (Mass Organizations) and F-2 (Foreign Diplomats) sections of the DGSE. Bolanos described Sandinista logistics support for the Salvadoran FMLN guerrillas, who maintain their primary command and control headquarters in the Managua suburbs. According to Bolanos, members of the FSLN Directorate, the Directorate's Department of International Relations, the Fifth Directorate, the Ministry of the Interior, and the Sandinista armed forces all participate in channeling weapons and other Cuban and Soviet support to the Salvadoran guerrillas. Later convicted and jailed in the United States on drug- related charges.

BRENES Sanchez, Carlos. Army Lieutenant Colonel. Commander, EPS Military Region II. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born in the Indian barrio of Monimbo, Masaya, in 1956. An FSLN supporter in Masaya from 1973, he received extensive military training in Cuba. Worked in the Southern Front smuggling arms and men from 1976-78. Participated in the September 13, 1978, Sandinista attack on Sapoa. In an attempt to exploit his Indian heritage, the Sandinistas assigned him as Military Chief of Military Region V (Northern Zelaya) after the fall of Somoza. However, in an early turning point that cemented Atlantic Coast communities' opposition to Sandinista policies, Brenes led the violent suppression of the February 1980 Puerto Cabezas protests and riots. Replaced in June 1980 by Manuel Calderon, he traveled abroad again for additional training. Traveled to North Korea in April 1984. Has also served as Chief of the Armored Tank Brigade, and as second in command in Military Region III (Managua).

CALDERON, Manuel. Guerrilla Commander. Chief of the Political Directorate of the Ministry of the Interior. Member of the FSLN Assembly. FLSN Commander in Puerto Cabezas immediately after the fall of Somoza. After 6 months of training in Cuba, Calderon replaced Carlos Brenes as EPS and Interior Ministry Security Chief of northern Zelaya in June 1980. In February 1981 Calderon was responsible for the arrest of Marcos Bello, MISURASATA labor leader at the La Rosita mines, on charges of "agitation." Responsible for directing many Sandinista military actions against the Indian populations in 1981 and 1982, Calderon was later replaced by William Ramirez and sent abroad for additional military training. He later returned to take over again from Ramirez, controlling the Indian populations with less brute force and more subtle means. A former Deputy Chief on the Political Directorate of the Interior Ministry, he replaced Omar Cabezas as Chief in October 1985.

CALDERON Meza, Roberto. Army Lieutenant Colonel. Commander of EPS Military Region V (Chontales, Rio San Juan). Member of the FSLN Assembly and of the FSLN Regional Directorate for Region V. Born September 14, 1950, in Managua. Was imprisoned for his participation in FSLN actions under Somoza.

CAMPBELL Hooker, Lumberto. Army Captain. Minister of the Atlantic Coast Institute. Minister-Delegate of the president and member of the FSLN Regional Directorate for Special Zone II (Bluefields and the Southern Atlantic Coast). Born February 3, 1949, in Bluefields. Known as "El Negro," he is the only Creole to hold the FSLN honorary title of "Guerrilla Commander. " He was a military commander on the Atlantic Coast after the fall of Somoza, then Vice Minister of the Atlantic Coast Institute before becoming Minister.

CARDENAL Martinez, Ernesto. Minister of Culture. Catholic priest barred from performing sacraments for refusing to obey Roman Catholic canon law and leave his government post. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born January 20, 1925, in Granada. Son of a wealthy Conservative family from Granada. Studied literature at Columbia University from 1947 to 1949. Participated in the abortive 1954 Conservative coup. Established his reputation as a poet with "Hora Cero" [Zero Hour], an epic poem about Sandino. Underwent a religious conversion in 1956. Entered Thomas Merton's Trappist monastery at

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Gethsemane, Kentucky, in 1957, but soon left for health reasons. Studied for the priesthood in Cuernavaca, Mexico, under the liberation theologian Archbishop Sergio Mendez Arceo, and in Colombia. Ordained in Managua in 1965, and established a lay contemplative community on the Solen- tiname islands in Lake Nicaragua. Returned from a visit to Cuba in 1970 committed to revolutionary activism as a means of fulfilling the Gospel. Joined the FSLN in 1973, working first with Eduardo Contreras and later with Tomas Borge, Daniel Ortega, and Bay- ardo Arce. Solentiname became a clandestine training site for FSLN guerrillas, especially those of the Benjamin Zeledon Southern Front. After the October 1977 FSLN attack on San Carlos by combatants trained at Solentiname, Cardenal traveled to San Jose, Costa Rica, and proclaimed himself an FSLN militant. The National Guard destroyed Solentiname in retaliation, stripping its armaments supplies. Then served as a foreign representative for the FSLN until Somoza's fall. Cardenal is a key figure in the ideological convergence of Sandinismo and revolutionary Christianity. Cardenal has said that "in order to be authentically Christian, one must become a Marxist." Has gained an international reputation for his efforts to use liberation theology to unify mystic Christianity and revolutionary Marxism. Brother of Fernando (next entry) and Rodrigo Cardenal, FSLN Ambassador to East Germany.

CARDENAL Martinez, Fernando. Minister of Education. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born January 26, 1934, in Granada. Ordained as a priest in the Jesuit order. Taught at the Col- egio Centroamerica and the University of Central America in Managua. Took his first pastoral assignment in 1967 as spiritual director of church youth movements in Managua — Jornadas de Vida Cristiana and the cursillos movement. Participated in the student occupation of the National Cathedral on December 22, 1972, and other protests against the holding of political prisoners. Involved in the international publicity campaign against the Somoza regime in the mid-1970s. Member of the Group of 12. Vice Minister of Education and National Coordinator of the 1980 Literacy Crusade before becoming a leader of the Sandinista Youth (JS-19J). Sanctioned by the Vatican and removed from Jesuit order in 1985 for refusing to remove himself from political office. Brother of Ernesto and Rodrigo Cardenal.

CARRION McDonough, Javier Alfonso. Army Lieutenant Colonel. Army Deputy Chief of Staff since August 1985. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Guerrilla Commander. Born November 21, 1954, in Managua. Completed secondary school in 1972. Joined the FSLN through the Christian left in 1973 while a medical student at UNAN in Leon. He was a driver for Pedro Arauz Pal- acios and a member of an FSLN clandestine intelligence group in Leon. Went completely underground in September 1974, collecting weapons in Managua and Granada. Became a member of the "Juan Jose Quezada" Command which undertook the 1974 Christmas party hostage-taking. In 1975, received military and ideological training in Cuba. From there, Carrion went to Europe, Mexico, and Honduras, assisting in the establishment of solidarity committees and arms pipelines. Returned secretly to Leon where he recruited students through the FER and prepared combatants for the Pablo Ubeda Column. Captured by the National Guard on March 8, 1976. He spent 2 ½ years in prison, until freed by the August 1978 National Palace takeover operation led by Eden Pastora. In the final stages of the revolution, he served as second in command to German Pomares in the Oscar Tur- cios Column of the Northern Front, assuming command after Pomares died in May 1979. Led the column during the battles for Jinotega, Boaco, and Matagalpa, before leading the troops into Managua, June-July 1979. After the fall of Somoza, served the newly constituted EPS as a member of the General Staff and then as Commander of Military Region VI. He has also served as Chief of Military Region III and Chief of the Artillery. Was Commander of the Operations Group of the EPS General Staff (since dismantled as a failure) in charge of conducting all EPS operations against the Resistance. One of his trips to the Soviet Union was to the 27th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1986. He also has traveled to Eastern Europe and North Korea. A member of the Sandinista military elite, he attended a special command and staff course taught by the Cubans in Managua. Awarded the Carlos Fonseca Order on November 11, 1986, for "distinguished militancy." Son of a US citizen mother and a successful Nic- araguan lawyer, he is a cousin of the Carrion Cruz family.

CASTILLO, Maritza. Sandinista State Security (DGSE) agent. Instrumental in the August 1982 attempt to smear Father Bismarck Carballo, Director of Radio Catolica. Portraying herself as a parishioner in need of counseling, Castillo invited Carballo to her house, where he was met by MINT agents who forced him to strip, then paraded him before Sandinista Television cameras while she acted the role of having been discovered in a love tryst with him. In a separate incident, Castillo attempted to discredit the Venezuelan Ambassador to Nicaragua, Guillermo Yepes Boscan, pretending to be the distraught mother of his children.

CASTILLO Bellido, Marisol. Army Major. Chief of Personnel for the EPS. Joined the FSLN after it killed her father, Jose Maria "Chema" Castillo Quant, the host of the December 1974 Christmas party raided by the FSLN. Married FSLN militant, Edgard Lang, brother of Emmett Lang. After 2 years as a GPP guerrilla, Edgard was arrested in November 1977, freed by the National Palace attack of August 1978, then killed in a National Guard attack on his Leon safehouse in April 1979. The rest of her family has fled into exile.

CASTILLO Martinez, Ernesto. Ambassador of Nicaragua to the Soviet Union and the Republic of Mongolia; former Minister of Justice. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born June 12, 1939, in Granada. Former law professor at UNAN. Secret FSLN member while a member of the Group of 12. Intellectual leader of the radicalization of the Christian youth movement since 1967. Friend and protege of Felipe Mantica Abaunza, the wealthy businessman active in church and charitable causes who joined the Group of 12 but broke with the FSLN before the July 1979 victory over Somoza.

CASTRO Cardenal, Vanessa. Chief of the FSLN's Political Education Department. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Wife of FSLN National Directorate member (and Minister of Agrarian Reform and Agricultural and Cattle Development) Jaime Wheelock. Also related to Minister of Culture Ernesto Cardenal.

CHAMORRO Barrios, Carlos Fernando. Director of Barricada, the FSLN party newspaper which took over the physical plant of Somoza's propaganda organ, Novedades. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Chief of the FSLN's Agitation and Propaganda Department, in charge of publicity and information for the FSLN. Handled publicity for Daniel Ortega's presiden-

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tial campaign in 1984. Son of Violeta and Pedro Joaquin Chamorro, his sister Claudia is Nicaraguan Ambassador to Costa Rica, while his brother Pedro Joaquin is a director of the Resistance, and his sister Cristiana is Deputy Editor of La Prensa.

CHAMORRO Teffel, Adolfo. Army Major. Deputy Chief of the Political Directorate of the Ministry of Defense. An ex-National Guard captain, he attended Mexican military medical school on a National Guard scholarship. The many positions he has held since 1979 include Army Chief of Staff for Military Region III and Chief of Communications. Also served as Chief of Staff of the EPS Operations Group in Matagalpa (since disbanded), an EPS effort to deal more effectively with the growing insurgency.

CRANSHAW Guerra, Marta Isabel. Minister-Delegate of the president and member of FSLN Regional Directorate for Region II (Leon/Chi- nandega). Member of the FSLN Assembly. Came to the FSLN through Father Uriel Molina's Christian base community in Barrio Riguero. Traveled to Cambodia with Humberto Ortega in March 1981, where they were welcomed by Premier Heng Samrin.

D'ESCOTO Brockman, Miguel Jeronimo. Minister of Foreign Affairs. Catholic priest. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born February 5, 1933, in Hollywood, California. A godson of Somoza Garcia, who helped pay for his early education (his father was a Somoza diplomat and his mother a US citizen). Joined the Maryknoll Order in 1956, and was ordained in 1961. Earned a BA and an MA under the auspices of the Maryknoll Seminary. He also received an MA in journalism from Columbia University. Missionary in Chile during part of the 1960s. Social communications director for the Maryknoll Order in the 1970s. Became an FSLN activist in 1975. Joined the Group of 12 in October 1977 and was a principal foreign representative for the FSLN during the war. Spoke at the Organization of American States (OAS) in June 1979 as a member of the Panamanian delegation. Forbidden by Vatican to exercise priestly duties because he refuses to obey canon law and rejects a papal directive for priests to leave political office. Upon receiving the Lenin Peace Prize in June 1987, he noted: "I believe that the Soviet Union is a great torch which emits hope for the preservation of peace on our planet. I admire the revolutionary principles and consistency of the fraternal Soviet Union."

FARACH, Antonio. Former FSLN militant who defected in 1984 after more than 10 years with the FSLN. After the revolution, worked for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as a diplomat in both Honduras and Venezuela. Became totally disenchanted with Cuban domination of the Nicaraguan Government. Explained his decision to go into exile by saying: "I felt that we had sold our sovereignty to a foreign nation."

FERRETI Fonseca, Walter. Chief, Special Operations Directorate of the Ministry of Interior. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Guerrilla Commander. Born September 8, 1950, in Managua. A military leader of the FSLN's Managua Internal Front under Joaquin Caudra Lacayo in 1978-79. Now commands the 2,000-strong battalion of elite Tropas Pablo Ubeda, the Ministry of Interior's Special Forces Troops and the only military troops not under the direct control of Minister of Defense Humberto Ortega. Minister of Interior Tomas Borge has used these troops against his enemies in both cities and rural areas. Until April 1985, Ferreti was Chief of the Sandinista Police.

GARCIA Cortes, Ivan. FSLN militant and Director of Sandinista Television System (SSTV). SSTV, the only domestic television network (with two channels), is technically attached to the FSLN party, not to the Government of Nicaragua. Applications for independent TV channels have been regularly denied.

GUADAMUZ Portillo, Carlos Jose. Director of Voice of Nicaragua Radio since the Sandinistas' rise to power. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Joined the FSLN in the mid-1960s. Jailed in the late 1960s for hijacking a LANICA (national airlines) passenger plane to Cuba. Captured when the plane landed in the Cayman Islands, where a large sign announcing (in Spanish) "Welcome to Cuba" had been hastily erected. Spent several years in prison, where he developed close ties to Daniel Ortega. Freed from jail by the 1974 Christmas party hostage-taking. His Cuban wife headed the Press Relations Department in the Nicaraguan Ministry of Foreign Affairs until she was killed in a traffic accident. Become a dissident from the Sandinistas and the Daniel Ortega dictatorship and was assassinated and the assassin was liberated by Daniel Ortega.

GUIDO Lopez, Lea. Founder in 1977 of AMPRONAC, the women's and human rights organization which survives today as AMNLAE (the Luisa Amanda Espinoza Association of Nicaraguan Women), the FSLN's women's mass organization. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Former Sandinista Minister of Health. Daughter of Armando Guido, Somocista party (PLN) deputy in the National Congress. As godfather at her lavish 1972 wedding to Julio Lopez Campos, Somoza gave the newlyweds a brand new four-door Daihatsu Ranchero automobile as a wedding present.

GUZMAN Cuadra, Alvaro. Senior MINT officer. Chief of the Penitentiary System in the Ministry of Interior; in charge of the public prison system only, not the detention centers and prisons of the DGSE, such as Managua's El Chipote, that usually are closed to international human rights observers. Appointed Vice Minister of Foreign Commerce in 1979, then Vice Minister of the Institute of Mines and Hydro- Carbons in August 1981, then Chief of the Interior Ministry's General Staff. Has traveled extensively in the Soviet bloc: East Germany, North Korea, Bulgaria, Cuba, Hungary, Soviet Union, and Poland. The Guzman Cuadra family is from Granada's famous Atravezada Street, home to many of the nation's wealthiest members of the aristocracy. Nephew of Central Bank president Joaquin Cuadra Chamorro. Brother Fernando is Ambassador to Argentina.

HASSAN Morales, Moises. Mayor of Managua. Member of the FSLN Regional Directorate for Region III (Managua). Born on May 4, 1942, in Managua. Son of a Palestinian immigrant from the Gaza Strip. Graduated in chemical engineering from UNAN and in nuclear physics from North Carolina State University. As a physics professor at UNAN he became associated with the GPP-aligned FER. Served as director of the United Peoples' Movement (composed of 20 pro- FSLN organizations plus the 2 other Moscow-line political parties, the PSN and the PCdeN) after July 1978. Headed the leftwing National Patriotic Front formed in January 1979 to support the FSLN against the FAO. As president of the Association of Professors at UNAN in 1979, he headed the political commission of the Internal Front during the June 1979 battle of Managua. Member of the first five-person post-Somoza junta from June 1979 until March 1981. With FSLN coman- dantes Tomas Borge, Henry Ruiz, and Humberto Ortega, Hassan attended the March 1980 signing of the party-to-

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Sandinista Military Regions and Facilities

[MAP]

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party agreement between the FSLN and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in Moscow. Signed less than 3 months after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the joint public statement read in part: "The Soviet Union and Nicaragua resolutely condemn the campaign that the imperialist and reactionary forces have launched of building up international tension in connection with the events of Afghanistan, a campaign aimed at subverting the inalienable right of the people of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and other peoples of the world to follow the path of progressive transformation." Minister of Construction until becoming a Vice Minister of Interior in May 1983. Brother of Rosario Murillo's first husband. Quit the FSLN in April 1988.

HERNANDEZ Sancho, Plutarco Elias. Former FSLN Directorate member, purged in 1978 by the Ortega brothers. Born in 1948. A Costa Rican citizen; son of a Costa Rican congressman. Studied at Patrice Lumumba University in Moscow. Joined the FSLN in 1969. Trained in Amman, Jordan, and in Libya with the PFLP. Lived in Cuba after he was freed from a Costa Rican jail in October 1970 as a result of Carlos Aguero's airline hijacking. A member of the urban underground in Nicaragua and of the FSLN's Tercerista leadership. A leader with Jose Valdivia of the October 1977 FSLN attack on San Carlos. Purged from the FSLN by the Ortegas in 1978 and replaced by the Mexican communist Victor Tirado. Author of El FSLN por dentro: Relatos de un combatiente (San Jose, Costa Rica: Trejos Hermanos, 1982). He now lives in Costa Rica.

HERRERA Sanchez, Leticia. Army Lieutenant Colonel. Guerrilla Commander. First Vice President of the National Assembly. National Director of the Sandinista Defense Committees since late 1980. Member of the FSLN Assembly. One of the leaders of the turbas divinas [divine mobs]. Born in 1950. Daughter of an exiled anti-Somoza activist with ties to the FSLN and a Costa Rican mother. Joined the FER through the student protest movement in high school. Bore a child by Daniel Ortega. Went to Moscow on a scholarship in 1968 where she met members of the FSLN and received training. Returned to Nicaragua in 1970 to join the FSLN military underground. Participated in the 1974 Christmas party hostage-taking. A field commander for the Rigoberto Lopez Perez Western Front in Leon during the 1979 final offensive. Replaced Dora Maria Tellez as Council of State First Vice President in May 1983.

HURTADO Vega, Pedro. General Coordinator, Sandinista Youth-July 19 Movement (JS-19J), the teenage-youth recruiting arm of the FSLN. Born December 26, 1957, in Granada. Among his trips to the Eastern bloc, he headed the FSLN youth delegation to Czechoslovakia in July 1986. (JS-19J is not to be confused with the Sandinista Children's Association, which is responsible for political education and indoctrination beginning at the age of 6.)

JIMENEZ Guzman, Lucio. Secretary General of the Sandinista Worker's Union, Jose Benito Escobar since 1981. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Addressed the 18th Congress of Soviet Trade Unions in February 1987.

LACAYO Gabuardi, Oswaldo. Army Lieutenant Colonel. Army Deputy Chief of Staff since May 1980. Member of the FSLN Assembly. A leading architect of the government's counterin- surgency policy. Educated as a civil engineer, he joined Father Molina's Christian Revolutionary Movement in 1971-72 along with several other current leaders of the EPS (such as Joa- quin Cuadra Lacayo, Javier Carrion McDonough, and Alvaro Baltodano). Joined the FSLN in 1973. Married the sister of his boss, Army Chief of Staff Joaquin Cuadra Lacayo, after she divorced long-time FSLN leader Hugo Torres. His sister is married to FLSN National Directorate member Luis Carrion. His brother Roberto is Vice Minister of Housing and Human Services.

LANG Salmeron, Emmett. FSLN militant. Army Lieutenant Colonel. Minister of the Nicaraguan Sport Institute since 1987. Former Chief of EPS High Command Reserve Units. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born about 1948. Nephew of Federico Lang Hasbum, owner of the largest hardware store chain in Nicaragua. Joined the FSLN in 1969. Jailed for his role as a member of Leonel Rugama's urban commando and bank robbery squad (his brother-in-law, EPS Col. Leopoldo Rivas Alfaro, was also a member of Rugama's bank robbery team). A leader in May 1979 of the failed "Jacinto Hernandez Column" in Nueva Segovia, Zelaya. Became an EPS subcommander and militia organizer after Somoza's ouster. Served from 1985 until February 1987 as Chief of the Sandinista Air Force and Air Defense. His cousin, Edgard Lang Sacasa, also an FSLN militant, was killed in a National Guard attack on a Leon safehouse in April 1979.

LOPEZ Arguello, Federico. Minister-Delegate of the president and member of the FSLN Regional Directorate for Region IV. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Former head of FSLN Agitation and Propaganda Department and Chief of Prisons.

LOPEZ Campos, Julio. Chief of the FSLN's Department of International Relations since September 1980. As such, he is responsible for FSLN external relations and propaganda, affiliations with foreign solidarity groups and Communist parties. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born about 1946. Joined the FSLN in 1967, when he was known as a bit of a hoodlum, along with Lenin Cerna. Studied political science in Lausanne, Switzerland, where he became the head of the Latin American Division of the (Trotskyite) Fourth International, a position he held from 1968-73. Former chief of FSLN propaganda and political education and UNAN professor. Member of Borge and Arce's hardline GPP faction. His family (evangelical Christians) has fled Nicaragua since the revolution. He is divorced from Lea Guido, former Minister of Health.

LOZA, Oscar. MINT Captain. DGSE Chief of Operations since August 1983. Trained as a lawyer. Directed the October 15, 1985, raid closing the Office of Pastoral Social Services of the Archdiocese of Managua. Said to have personally murdered regime opponents and to have participated in the 1980 plot against Jorge Salazar.

MARENCO Gutierrez, Dionisio. Minister Secretary of Planning and Budget (within the Ministry of the Presidency) and member of the National Planning Council. Member of the FSLN Assembly. One of the few senior Sandinista leaders with any technical training or background. President of the UCA student body, 1966-67, he was also an FER supporter and active in a number of student strikes and protests. Received MBA from Harvard-affiliated INCAE. Contacted Tomas Borge in 1974 and started an FSLN cell among business professionals at the Chinandega sugar mill Ingenio San Antonio, where he worked as an engineer. Moved to just outside Managua during 1975. Became a member of Leonel Poveda's military cell of professionals. Pastora used his isolated home as the launching point for the August 1978 takeover of the National Palace. Marenco and his wife Daisy Zamora (who later became a Vice Minister of Culture) fought with a Tercerista Front

29[edit]

FSLN faction squadron during the Sep- tember 1978 insurrection in Managua. Then worked with the Southern Front out of Costa Rica. After the San- dinistas came to power, he headed the Ministries of Domestic Commerce and Transportation. Has visited Cuba and the People's Republic of China.

MIRANDA Bengoechea, Roger. Former FSLN militant. Chief of the Ministry of Defense Secretariat, 982-87. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born on October 2, 1953, in Gra- nada. Studied at University of Chile in Santiago and University of Puebla, Mexico, where he received a degree in economics. Active in Chilean Movement of the Revolutionary Left; wounded while resisting coup against Allende in 1973. Second in command of the San- dinista forces against Somoza in Masaya, 1978-79. EPS Deputy Chief in Masaya, then Personal Administrative Assistant to Minister of Defense Humberto Ortega, then Aide to EPS Chief of General Staff Joaquin Cuadra Lacayo. As Chief of the Defense Secretariat, Miranda headed the only entity that reported directly to Humberto Ortega. Traveled to the Soviet Union, Cuba, East Germany, and North Korea. Began to fear that the convictions which had led him to join the anti- Somoza struggle were being betrayed by the corruption and abuses of power taking place under Sandinista rule. Realized during visits to rural conflict zones that Resistance forces were local

Roger MIRANDA.

"What we really have been fighting all these years is a peasant insurrection. Whole families have taken up arms against the Sandinistas."
Maj. Roger Miranda Bengoechea (New York Times, December 14, 1987)

peasants acting as "legitimate representatives of the interests and hopes of the Nicaraguan people." Concluded that the FSLN nomenclatura had become a new privileged class while the rest of society suffered. On October 25, 1987, took advantage of a trip to Mexico to request asylum in the United States. His announcement that the EPS plans to expand to a force of 600,000 men with modern weapons even if the Resistance is defeated was confirmed in a speech by Humberto Ortega.

MIRANDA Castillo, Norman Jose. Deputy Chief of the Nicaraguan delegation to the UN Commission on Human Rights, Geneva. 1985-87. Broke with the Sandinista government on March 2, 1988, while in Geneva. Born in 1953 in Granada. Doctorate in law. Professor of international law and Vice Dean of the law faculty at UCA, Managua, 1978-81. Joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as Deputy Director for Legal Affairs in March 1980, then held a series of ministerial appointments in Washington, Brussels, The Hague, and Geneva, 1981-87. Director of International Organizations in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1987. On March 2, 1988, speaking at the UN Commission on Human Rights in Geneva, with Justice Ministry official Ivan Villavicencio, he renounced his position. Stating that the FSLN is only "simulating" a democratic opening after signing the Central American peace accords, he noted that "lamentably violations of human rights in Nicaragua are increasing, as collectivist totalitarianism is subjugating the Nicaraguan people, without respect to the right to life, the right to civil rights, and the enjoyment of one's socio- economic rights."

MONTERREY Eden, Reynaldo. Chairman of the Anti-Somocista People's Tribunal (TPA). From Bluefields. Attended UNAN Law School. The TPA is a political court system accountable to the FSLN, not the Nicaraguan Supreme Court. Those most often brought before the TPA system are local organizers for opposition parties, rural farmers accused of supporting the Resistance and others whose cases are not likely to attract international attention.

NUNEZ de Escorcia, Vilma. Vice President of the Supreme Court. Also serves as Director of the government- sponsored National Commission for the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights that reports to Alejandro Ben- dana, Secretary-General of the Foreign Ministry. Sometimes accused of having been a Somoza collaborator, she was one of three magistrates appointed to the Leon (Eastern Region) criminal appeals courts after Somoza's 1970 power- sharing arrangement with the Aguero faction of the Conservative Party.

NUNEZ Tellez, Rene. Secretary to the FSLN National Directorate since May 1982. Secretary-Minister of the Presidency since January 1985. Member of the National Planning Council and the FSLN Assembly. Born on November 1, 1946, in Leon. Brother of FSLN National Directorate member Carlos Nunez. The Nunez brothers studied revolutionary Christianity together under Father Uriel Molina. Joined the FSLN in 1969 through the FER. A member of the GPP faction of the FSLN. Jailed in 1974 for bank robbery. Freed from prison by the August 1978 National Palace operation, he went to Cuba where he served as the FSLN's chief representative until the fall of Somoza. A government representative of the Church-State Dialogue Commission, he also has worked for the FSLN's Department of International Relations and as director for the FSLN's Department of Mass Organizations. Recipient of the Carlos Fonseca Award.

PARRALES Castillo, Edgard. FSLN militant and Catholic priest. Director of National and International Relations Staff for the National Assembly. Director of the Social Security Institute before becoming Minister of Social Welfare in late 1980. Former Sandinista Ambassador to the OAS. With the Car- denal brothers and Miguel D'Escoto, Parrales is one of four priests to remain in formal government positions after the May 1980 papal call for all priests to leave political office.

PICHARDO Ramirez, Javier. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel. Chief, Command Group, Sandinista Air Force and Air Defense since March 1987. Member of FSLN Assembly. Born on August 16, 1951, in Leon. Son of an official in the Nicaraguan internal revenue service. Received his PhD in mathematics on a grant from Somoza.

RAMIREZ Gonzalez, Alvaro. Military Judge Advocate in the Political Directorate of the Ministry of Defense. Member of the FSLN Assembly. In the mid-1960s, was head of the communist- front organization, Republican Mobilization, which was a PSN-FSLN effort at civic and union organizing. As head of this organization, and with Cuban

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Route 5 from Matagalpa to Siuna:
Military Installations and Agricultural Centers

[MAP] Cooperatives, collectives, or resettlement camps

Route 5, Matagalpa— Siuna

Brigade Headquarters

Battalion Headquarters

1 Raso Grande

2 El Ocote

3 Labu

4 Kipo

5 El Guayabo

6 Aguas Calientes

7 El Naranjo

8 Puerto Viejo

9 Zinica

10 San Pablo

11 Kusuli

12 El Guabo

13 El Jicaral

14 El Popayo

15 Los Laureles

16 La Posolera

17 Yaosca

18 Paso Real

19 Las Boisas

20 El Comelen

21 Las Carpas

22 El Carmen

23 San Francisco

24 Los 3 Laureles

25 La Mora

26 Santo Maria de Waslala

27 La Dalia

28 San Martin

Source: Analysis Section. Assistant for Intelligence. ERN/North Strategic Command. 1987

Names and boundary representation are not necessarily authoritative

Agricultural cooperatives, collectives, and resettlement camps play a key role in the Sandinista army's counterinsurgency strategy. This map depicts how agricultural centers are used as a cordon to inhibit the movement of Resistance forces. The centers link military installations, serve as headquarters for Militia units, or house EPS and MINT logistics or communications facilities.

A majority of Nicaragua's 2,500-3,000 cooperatives, collectives, and resettlement camps are located in Military Regions I, II, and VI — areas where heavy fighting has taken place. They play an important part in the Sandinista strategy to blur the line between combatants and noncombatants for propaganda objectives, to use civilians as a shield against the Resistance, and to extend the FSLN's rural control network.


assistance, Ramirez ran an underground network for FSLN members to travel to Mexico or Costa Rica en route to Cuba or the Soviet Bloc. Helped Daniel Ortega travel to Costa Rica and then to Cuba.

RAMIREZ Morales, Gonzalo. Army Lieutenant. President of the Nic- araguan Red Cross. FSLN militant. A radiologist, Ramirez served as Ambassador to Venezuela after the Sandinistas came to power. Later was appointed to bring the Red Cross into close alignment with the FSLN. (The previous Red Cross president, Ismael Reyes, played an instrumental role in attempting to humanize the 1978-79 war but went into exile in 1983 after the Sandinista takeover of the Red Cross.) Ramirez directs the Red Cross from his office at the Alejandro Davila Bolanos Sandinista Army Hospital in Managua. Under Ramirez, the DGSE infiltrates Red Cross teams, collecting counterinsurgency information in the countryside under the pretext of distributing medicine. Appointed as a member of the Sandinista human rights commission, which was established to rebut criticisms of human rights abuses committed by the Sandinistas. Appointed as alternate member of the government's National Commission on Reconciliation in August 1987.

RAMIREZ Solorzano, William. Minister of Transportation. Member, FSLN Assembly. Guerrilla Commander. Born on August 17, 1948, in Masaya. A leader of the repliegue (strategic retreat) from Managua to Masaya in June 1979, in which the Internal Front evacuated the eastern barrios of Managua. Before 1979, was one of the senior GPP officials (after Borge, Arce, and Ruiz). Appointed in mid-1980 to head the new Ministry of the Atlantic Coast that seeks to move proregime, Spanish-speaking Nic- araguans into Atlantic Coast areas dominated by anti-Sandinista Indian cultures.

RAUDALES, Jose Ramon. Former FSLN militant and fighter. Son of Gen. Ramon Raudales, member of Sandino's General Staff in the 1930s. After his father died fighting the National Guard in September 1958, Jose Ramon Raudales, then 17, escaped capture and joined the anti-Somoza guerrillas in Honduras. He traveled to Cuba (via

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Mexico) in 1961 for political and military training at the Pinar del Rio military school. One of the first members of the FSLN, he returned to Honduras, where he participated in the Rio Patuca and Rio Coco campaigns of 1962-64, when the Sandinistas numbered only in the dozens. When the attacks failed with heavy losses, the survivors retreated to Honduras in disarray. Raudales established himself as a political exile in Honduras, got a job in the lumber business, and assisted FSLN organization efforts. He returned to Managua in July 1979 and became Chief of DGSE Operations in Ocotal for 8 months. According to Raudales: "It was my job to capture those who were not in accord with the revolutionary process and, more importantly, all those members of the National Guard or those who had been useful to Somo- za.... I had a Cuban adviser who was in charge of telling me how to treat prisoners. Right there was the source of a big problem, because he never was in agreement with the way I treated the prisoners. He thought I should treat the prisoners in a drastic way, a dishonest way, turning myself into an executioner.... And, when I turned out to be a sane man... they tried to accuse me of being a counterrevolutionary." Quit his job and was reassigned as head of customs at Las Manos, one of the two border crossing points to Honduras. In 1985, thoroughly disgusted, he left Nicaragua and now lives in exile in Honduras. As he stated: "I am sorry for myself. I am sorry for the people of Nicaragua, and I am sorry for all the world which gave assistance to the revolution. All the world was wrong. All the world was betrayed, definitely."

RIVAS Alfaro, Leopoldo Antonio. Army Colonel. Chief of the Telecommunications and Postal Services (TELCOR) since June 1986. Member of the FSLN Assembly. A Vice Minister of Defense from December 1981 until his present appointment, Rivas has overseen the militarization of the national communications system. Born on September 6, 1945, in Managua, he joined the FSLN through the FER in the late 1960s. Thought to have trained in Cuba during the late 1960s. A member of Leonel Rugama's FSLN urban bank robbery commando team, he also was involved in FSLN gun-running operations. Arrested in December 1970. Reported to have cooperated with the National Guard while in prison, he was condemned to death by a Sandinista "peoples' tribunal." The FSLN did not seek his release from prison with other FSLN fighters at the time of the 1974 Christmas party hostage-taking; instead, he had to wait until Pastora's August 1978 National Palace takeover. As part of his "rehabilitation" in the FSLN, fought as a field commander during the final offensive under the eye of Humberto Ortega. Since the fall of Somoza, he has held a number of EPS positions, including Chief of Logistics and as commander of different military regional commands. His brother-in-law is Emmett Lang, former commander of the Sandinista Air Force.

ROJAS Berrios, Modesto Enrique. Air Force Major. Deputy Chief of the Sandinista Air Force (FAS) and Air Defense. A graduate of UCA, Managua, Rojas joined Somoza's National Guard Air Force in 1972 and is said to be one of the country's best pilots. Apparently associated with the FSLN since late 1960s. Since 1979, he has been a member of the FAS and also served as General Manager of Aero- nica, the post-1979 national airline. Has traveled numerous times to Cuba.

Reyes Juan Jose. Army Lieutenant Colonel. Commander of EPS Military Region I (Esteli, Madriz and Nueva Segovia) since October 1985. Member of the FSLN Assembly and of the FSLN Regional Directorate for Region I. Born in Esteli in 1960. Served as EPS Chief of Operations (G-3) from 1981-84. He then served as Commander of EPS Military Region VII (the Atlantic Coast) where he also served as a member of the FSLN Regional Directorate and a member of Luis Carrion's Autonomy Commission before coming to his present position. Has traveled to Cuba and received intensive Cuban military instruction. Fought on the northern front during 1978-79.

SALVATIERRA Rivera, Manuel. Army Lieutenant Colonel. Commander of the EPS Military Region VI. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born in 1956. Joined the FSLN in Managua in 1974. Worked in Carazo Department (1975-78) before helping build the military underground in Masaya. After 1979, he was Commander of Military Region II (Leon and Chinandega), before being assigned to Chief of Staff for Military Zone I, where he also served as a member of the FSLN's Regional Directorate for Region I. Later was reassigned to Military Zone II.

SANTOS Lopez, Samuel. Chief of the FSLN Finance Department. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born on December 13, 1938. After the Sandinistas' rise to power, he was appointed Mayor of Managua and Minister of Managua Reconstruction. Reportedly close to Borge. His grandfather, Col. Samuel Santos, was Somoza's National Guard Chief of Operations and Intelligence and a member of the 1934 conspiracy against Sandino.

SERRANO Caldera, Alejandro. President of the Nicaraguan Supreme Court since March 1985. FSLN militant. Born in Masaya on November 5, 1938. Graduated from UNAN in 1962 and obtained a doctorate in labor law from the University of Rome in 1964. Returned to Nicaragua and became a professor of law at UNAN. A Marxist legal philosopher, Serrano became UNAN Secretary General under Somoza. With then UNAN rector Carlos Tunnerman, he supported the development of Sandinista student front groups in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the period the FSLN refers to as the "accumulation of forces in silence." Named as Nicaragua's Ambassador to France in August 1979. Served in that position, also representing Nicaragua at the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and at the Food and Agriculture Organization until 1985.

SOLIS Cerda, Rafael. Army Major. First Secretary of the National Assembly. Born on July 25, 1953, in Managua. Law degree from UCA, Managua. Graduate studies in economics at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Member of the FSLN since 1975. Served as First Secretary in the Council of State and as the Sandinista Army's representative in the Council of State. Was the FSLN's first Ambassador to the United States. His wife is the daughter of Ernesto Castillo, the Nicaraguan Ambassador to the Soviet Union.

SOLIS Piura, Joaquin. Director of the National Council for Higher Education. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Educator, formerly at UNAN.

SUAREZ Espinoza, Jacinto. MINT Captain. DGSE Deputy Chief. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Joined the FSLN in 1963 with the Ortega brothers. Arrested for his role in the La Perfecta robbery of August 1967. Freed from prison by the Christmas party hostage-taking of December 1974. Traveled to Cuba for refuge and training. Worked as a foreign representative of the FSLN. With Daniel Ortega and Carlos Guadamuz, is one of the Sandinistas who spent the most time in prison. Has the confidence of the Cubans. A former Vice Minister of Foreign Relations, he was Ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1981 until 1985.

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TAPIA Molina, Rodolfo. FSLN militant. Director of Radio Sandino.

TELLEZ Arguello, Dora Maria. Minister of Health. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Guerrilla Commander. Born on November 21, 1955, in Matagalpa. Daughter of a Somoza official in the Social Security Institute and the manager of a dress-making shop. Went to Catholic schools. Became a student activist around 1969. Recruited into the FSLN via the FER in 1973 while studying medicine at UNAN-Leon. Worked in the urban support network before going underground in 1975 to organize in the Nueva Segovia mountains. Participated in the Ter- cerista Northern Front Column's October 1977 offensive. Called "Coman- dante Dos" and was third in command to Eden Pastora and Hugo Torres in the August 1978 assault on the National Palace. Chief of the General Staff of the Rigoberto Lopez Perez Western Front during the battle for Leon in June 1979. After the war she served as a coordinator for the Sandinista Defense Committees, the neighborhood block committees which serve as "the eyes and ears of the revolution," and First Vice President of the Council of State in the 1980, 1981, and 1982 sessions.

TIJERINO Haslam, Doris Maria. Guerrilla Commander. Chief of the Sandinista Police, Ministry of the Interior, where she is in charge of law enforcement and police activities nationwide. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born in Matagalpa about 1943. Father was from a dissident Liberal family in Leon. Her mother, from a Conservative coffee growing family of English ancestry, smuggled supplies to former Sandino General Ramon Raudales in support of his 1958 armed rebellion. A devout Catholic until she joined the Moscow-line communist PSN Socialist Youth in 1960. Studied Marxism at Patrice Lumumba University in Moscow from 1963 to 1965. Returning to Nicaragua, she joined the FSLN through Oscar Turcios in 1965 and worked for the Directorate in 1966 using the pseudomym "Conchita Al- day." Enrolled in UNAN in order to work for the FER. Twice arrested in 1967, she went underground in 1968. Captured and imprisoned from July 1969 until May 1971. Reentered UNAN and worked in FSLN urban agitation. Elected president of the UNAN Students Association of Arts and Sciences in 1971. Her companion, FSLN intellectual and Directorate member Ricardo Morales, was killed with Turcios in Nandaime in September 1973. Joined the armed ranks of the GPP guerrilla faction. Traveled to Cuba for training. Captured in battle at Los Encinos in April 1978. Freed by the August 1978 National Palace takeover. When the Sandinistas came to power, she was named Secretary of Foreign Relations for the FSLN and was linked to arms traffic to the FMLN. Also headed the Nicaraguan Peace Commission and was the FSLN representative to the Eastern Bloc's World Peace Council, before being replaced in February 1983 by Guerrilla Commander Olga Aviles. In April 1985, replaced Walter Ferretti as Chief of the Sandinista Police. Led the Sandinista's official delegation to the June 1985 UN Conference on the Decade of Women in Nairobi, Kenya.

TINOCO, Victor Hugo. Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs since 1981. Member of FSLN Assembly. Born on June 10, 1952, in Leon. Representative to UN Security Council, 1983-84. UN Permanent Representative, 1979-81. Headed Nicaraguan delegation at Man- zanillo talks with the United States in 1984. Chief Sandinista representative in the Contadora negotiations.

TORRES Aguilar, Johnny. Air Force Captain. Chief of the Political Directorate of the Sandinista Air Force and Air Defense. Born on March 8, 1956, in Leon. Acts as liaison between the FSLN party leadership and the Air Force. Lived in Bulgaria, 1982-85.

TUNNERMAN Bernheim, Carlos. Nicaraguan Ambassador to the United States and to the OAS. Son of a former president of the Nicaraguan Central Bank. Lawyer. Defended Tomas Borge after the 1956 assassination of President Somoza Garcia. Served as rector of UNAN from 1964 to 1974 where he was tolerant of student revolutionary activism and defended university autonomy. Active member of the Group of 12. Appointed Minister of Education in July 1979. Appointed Nicaraguan Ambassador to Washington (and later the OAS) in November 1984, after the two previous ambassadors (Francisco Fial- los and Arturo Cruz) had defected and joined the opposition to Sandinista rule.

VALDIVIA Hidalgo, Jose Dolores. Army Lieutenant Colonel. Brigade Commander. Commander of EPS Military Region IV. Born in 1947. He joined the FSLN in 1970, when it had fewer than 85 legal or clandestine members. Studied at Patrice Lumumba University in Moscow. Trained in PLO camps in Jordan before returning in 1971 to become a GPP guerrilla organizer in the mountains. Wounded in the FSLN's December 1974 Christmas party hostage-taking and again in the opening minutes of the October 1977 FSLN attack on the National Guard post at San Carlos near the Costa Rican border. Became Eden Pastora's Chief of Staff during the final offensive on the southern front. After the Sandinista rise to power Valdivia was appointed chief of telecommunications and Vice Minister of Defense. He resigned with Pastora in July 1981, traveled to Cuba with Pastora, and returned to Managua to denounce Pastora as a traitor in November 1981. Was later assigned EPS Commander for Region VI, where he also served as a member of the FSLN's Regional Directorate for Region VI.

VENERIO Granera, Raul Ernesto. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Chief of the Sandinista Air Force and Air Defense from 1979 until 1984. Born on May 24, 1945, in Chinandega. Served in the FSLN Internal Front under Joa- quin Cuadra Lacayo. With Leonel Pov- eda in an escort vehicle masquerading as a National Guardsman during Pastora's August 1978 raid on the National Palace. In 1980-81, under the direction of Venerio and Cuban adviser Col. Carlos Rodriguez, the Sandinista Air Force coordinated numerous airdrops to the FMLN guerrillas in El Salvador in support of their ill-fated January 1981 "Final Offensive." Venerio's support network — using joint Nicaraguan and Cuban crews — operated from Managua's Sandino International Airport and airstrips near Papalonal, 23 nautical miles northeast of Managua. (One of the planes crashed at Santa Teresa, El Salvador, on November 25, 1980. Another crashed in El Salvador on January 24, 1981; those who came to rescue also were captured on the ground by the Salvadoran Air Force). Assigned as Air Attache in Washington, 1985.

VILLAVICENCIO Tapia, Roger Ivan. Prosecuting attorney in the Eugene Hasenfus case and Senior Deputy Prosecutor in the Ministry of Justice until he publicly repudiated the Sandinistas in March 1988. Born in 1935 in San Marcos, Carazo. Doctorate in law from UNAN, Leon. Named magistrate of Bluefields after the 1979 triumph over Somoza. Served as the Matagalpa Appeals Court judge, 1982-83. Appointed Senior Deputy Prosecutor in the Ministry of Justice in 1983. After the October 1986 shootdown of American Eugene Hasenfus, Villavi- cencio was appointed chief prosecutor in the case, even though the trial was before the Managua TPA and thus outside his formal jurisdiction.

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On March 2, 1988, Villavicencio and Ministry of Foreign Affairs official Norman Jose Miranda jointly presented their resignations and denunciations of the Sandinistas before the UN Commission on Human Rights. Villavicencio detailed the corruption of the judicial system, its reorganization under the direction of Cuban advisers, the fabrication of evidence against those accused of counterrevolutionary activities, and the use of physical and psychological torture against prisoners. He also stated that Nicaraguan jails hold some 8,600 political prisoners, not the 3,100 admitted to by the Sandinista regime.

WHEELOCK Roman, Ricardo. Army Major. Chief of the Army's Military Intelligence Directorate, which attempts to track the activities of the Nicaraguan Resistance. (The Directorate is also a major point of contact for training foreign revolutionaries.) Born circa 1950. He has studied and taught in Guatemala, Mexico, and Honduras. He received his MA in history and philosophy from the University of Chile. Was the Sandinistas' first Ambassador to Honduras but served only a short while before Honduran authorities insisted on his recall (Lenin Cerna was operating from his embassy). In 1980, Wheelock became Nicaragua's first Ambassador to the USSR, with simultaneous accreditation to Poland and Hungary. During 1981-83, he served as Ambassador to Bulgaria and Romania, returning to Nicaragua in 1984. Brother of FSLN National Directorate member Jaime Wheelock. His Chilean-born wife, Monica, is a journalist.

ZARRUCK Perez, Carlos Jose. Army Captain. Chief of the EPS Central Rearguard responsible for military logistics since early 1985. Born on July 5, 1949, in Managua. Studied at the University of Pittsburgh. Fired as President of the Nicaraguan Central Bank in the so-called Thursday Night Massacre of December 1976. Zarruck and three bank employees including Humberto Belli were fired after Zarruck publicly (and a bit drunkenly) challenged President Somoza at a bank reception to institute real agrarian reform and to stop siphoning off international aid for himself and his cronies. In the brawl that ensued, Somoza punched him in the face. Zarruck served as Vice Minister of Industry and Minister of Mines and Hydrocarbons from 1979 until 1981. He was then appointed Minister of Transportation from 1981 until his present posting. Has traveled to Eastern Europe but is considered more an apparatchik than a zealot.