Nicaraguan Biographies/Fighters

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Nicaraguan Biographies
United States Department of State • Office of Public Affairs
The Nicaraguan Resistance: Fighters
Formatting (such as the chart on page 45, and italics and paragraph breaks) may not be perfectly reproduced from the original.

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Fighters[edit]

ACUNA Matey, Pedro. Resistance Commander, former Sandinista. Known as "Marcio." Commands the Filemon Membreno Task Force of Jorge Salazar Regional Command IV.

AGUILAR C., Santos Ricardo. Resistance Commander, farm worker, former Sandinista militiaman. Known as "Leoncillo." Born on February 11, 1966, in El Zacaton, Esteli. No formal schooling. Entered the Resistance in October 1981. Commands the Leonardo Palma Task Force of the Tactical Operations Command.

AGUILAR Ruiz, Luis Enrique. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Campisto." Born on July 15, 1963, in Rio San Juan, Rio Coco, Zelaya. Third grade education. Commands the Independencia Task Force of the Tactical Operations Command.

AGUILERA Sanchez, Jose Santos. Resistance Commander, farmer, former Sandinista combatant who also served in the Sandinista Army. Known as "Gavilan" (also the nom de guerre of a Southern Front commander). Born in 1959 in San Francisco del Norte, Chi- nandega. Was Commander of the Francisco Rodriguez Task Force of the Juan Castro Castro Regional Command, now a unit commander in the Larry McDonald Regional Command.

AGUIRREZ Samora, Jose. Resistance Commander, plumber, former National Guard corporal. Born in Matagalpa on December 14, 1958. Joined the Resistance in December 1981. Known as "Chino-4." Became Executive Officer of Task Force Rigoberto Cabezas of the San Jacinto Regional Command. In early 1986, became Commander of the Task Force and Executive Officer for the Regional Command. Today holds only the latter position, as former Sandinista "Concho" (Orlando Ortez Ortez) is the Task Force Commander, exemplifying the ability of former Guardsmen and former Sandinistas to work together in the Resistance.

AGUIRREZ Torrez, Simeon. Resistance Commander, peasant farmer, former Sandinista security officer. Known as "Kaliman." Born in Jin- otega on March 24, 1952. Left elementary school after second grade. After the Sandinista rise to power, he became a DGSE official. Joined the Resistance in December 1982. Served as Commander of Task Force Armando Blancher and Executive Officer of Regional Command 15th of September before coming to his present position, Commander of Task Force Raul Ar- roliga of the Rafaela Herrera Regional Command.

ALCANTARA Soza, Alejandro. Resistance Commander, farm laborer. Known as "Musun." Born on April 12, 1958, in Esquipulas, Matagalpa. Executive Officer of Jorge Salazar Regional Command III.

ALTAMIRANO Montenegro, Fremio. Resistance Commander, small coffee farmer, former Sandinista combatant. Known as "Jimmy Leo." Born on August 21, 1960, in Jinotega, then moved to Esteli. Fought in the mountains against Somoza from 1977 to 1979. Ninth grade education. Took up arms again in May 1980 after the Sandinistas packed the Council of State and Violeta Chamorro and Alfonso Robelo resigned from the junta. Currently Regional Commander of the Larry McDonald Regional Command, with more than 600 men under his command. Areas of operation: Jinotega, San Rafael, Esteli, Sebaco/La Concordia. His brother Alfredo was Commander of the Regional Command's Ricardo Lanza Task Force until he was killed in combat on May 12, 1987, at Las Torrez, Jinotega.

AMADOR Altamirano, Rafael Angel. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Canario." Born on October 24, 1958, in Jinotega. Joined the Resistance October 21, 1982. Commander of the Alcides Morales Task Force of the 15th of September Regional Command, he was previously Executive Officer and Commander of the Raul Arroliga Task Force of the Regional Command before the Regional Command was reorganized in 1986.

AMPIE Quiroz, Rodolfo Ernesto. Resistance Commander, former National Guard First Lieutenant, escaped Sandinista political prisoner. Known as "Invisible." Born in Managua on September 16, 1951. Graduated from the military academy in 1973. While an instructor at the EEBI, he fought against Pastora's Southern Front forces in 1979. When Somoza fled, he and his men went to the Red Cross to surrender weapons in exchange for safe- conduct passes as arranged, but instead they were turned over to the Sandinistas. In a trial before a Popular Tribunal that lasted a few minutes, he was convicted and sentenced of "delinquent associations" (4 years), "assassination" (30 years), and "crimes against international order" (20 years) — a total of 54 years in prison although the law only permitted 30 years. In late 1983 — after more than 4 years in prison — he escaped from the Carcel Modelo in Tip- itapa. Took the name "Invisible" after his frequent prayers to become invisible so as to break out of jail. Joined the FDN on January 2, 1984, the same day he arrived in Honduras after his escape from prison. Became the first commander of the Independencia Task Force, which later became part of the Tactical Operations Command. Now Assistant for Intelligence for the Strategic Command of the Northern Front of the Resistance. He says he joined not for vengeance, but "as a Nicaraguan duty. I fight as a democrat, for my people and my country." When asked what right a former National Guardsman has to fight in the name of democracy, he says: "You must not judge me simply for having been a military man. I never committed any type of abuse. I was a military professional. I have always held my head high. I fight so the people can decide who will be their governors and under what system they will live — like the one in Costa Rica. I also struggle to reconstruct the country. And I want, even if I die, that my children live and believe in a country where they can choose their own education, where they can choose their own work."

ARAGON Sequeira, Agustin. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Conejo" (Rabbit). Born on February 1, 1965, in Comoapa, Chontales. Joined the Resistance in 1983. Commands an ERN/South Task Force.

BALDIVIA Chavarria, Encarna- cion. Resistance Commander, peasant farmer, former Sandinista combatant. Known as "Tigrillo." Born in La Concordia, Jinotega, on July 10, 1956. Fought against Somoza and became a sublieutenant in the Sandinista Army.

45[edit]

Resistance Military Organization
[CHART]
Nicaraguan Resistance Directorate
ERN/North Strategic Command
ERN/South General Staff
YATAMA Directorate
YATAMA General Staff
Zonal Commands
Units

With a following of a few men, turned his arms against the Sandinistas in May 1980. As commander of the Rafaela Herrera Regional Command, Tigrillo commands four Task Forces consisting of more than 1,000 combatants. Briefly suspended from command after a 1986 incident in which another Resistance fighter died.

BALDIVIA Chavarria, Francisco. Resistance Commander, peasant farmer. "Dimas de Tigrillo" was born in La Concordia, Jinotega, on July 17, 1954. Former Sandinista Army officer and military instructor who defected to the Resistance in July 1980 in the midst of the Sandinista offensive against the MILPAS. Brother of "Tigrillo." Now heads the Andres Castro Regional Command.

BALLECILLO Gonzalez, Guadalupe. Resistance Commander, farmer, former Sandinista. "Capulina" was born on February 26, 1959, in Jinotega. Completed fourth grade. Executive Officer of Jorge Salazar Regional Command II.

BARBERENA Morales, Ervin. Resistance Commander, Soviet-trained former Sandinista military and security operative. "Oscar" was born in Managua on December 25, 1957. His presidency of the FER led him to Moscow's Patrice Lumumba University. After 3 years at Lumumba, he went to Cuba for military and guerrilla training. Fought against the National Guard in 1977-79 as a commander of the Southern Front's "Benjamin Zeledon" Command. After Somoza fled, became a senior DGSE official. Named Managua Chief of Police in 1980 but defected that August. Joined "El Negro" Chamorro's UDN-FARN in 1981. Joined Eden Pas- tora's wing of ARDE in September 1982, becoming an ARDE Regional Commander in 1984. Signed the May 1986 UNO unity accord. UNO/South Regional Commander. After being wounded in combat in 1987, named Chief Coordinator of the UNO/South Support Staff.

BENAVIDEZ Lopez, Dionisio. Resistance Commander, truck driver, former Sandinista. Known as "Solin." Born on August 9, 1959, in Esteli. First grade education. Joined the Resistance in February 1981. Served as Commander of the Task Force Albino Molina of the Alonso Irias Regional Command,

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then became the Regional Command's Executive Officer. Now Commander of the Jose Alejandro Montenegro Task Force of the Rafaela Her- rera Operational Command, operating in Jinotega and Matagalpa.

BENAVIDEZ Moncada, Francisco Vidal. Resistance Commander, small cattle farmer, former Sandinista. Known as "Ricardo." Born on April 21, 1963, in Los Platanares Limay, Esteli. Sixth grade education. Commands the Oscar Montenegro Task Force of the Jose Dolores Estrada Regional Command.

BLANDON Blandon Montenegro, Isidro. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "7 Mares." Born on April 4, 1957, in La Concordia, Jinotega. Third grade education. Heads the Douglas Hernandez Task Force of the Tactical Operations Command.

BLANDON Carbajal, Juan Agustin. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Bladimir." Born on May 6, 1962, in Comarca Los Planes de Vilan, Jinotega. Second grade education. Joined the Resistance in July 1981. Now commander of the Managua Task Force of the Pedro Joaquin Gonzalez Regional Command.

BRATH-WAITE Nury, Jose Antonio. Resistance Commander, Panamanian internationalist against Somoza. Born in Bocas del Toro, Panama, on September 23, 1959. "Jhonny" was a student who first came to Nicaragua as a member of the 330-man internationalist "Victoriano Lorenzo" Brigade Panama which fought alongside Pas- tora's troops against Somoza under the command of the Panamanian revolutionary social democrat and former Vice Minister of Public Health Hugo Spadafora. After the revolution, served as an instructor at the Ajax Delgado Police Training school in Nicaragua. Spadafora was with Pastora in April 1982 when Pastora announced his taking up of arms against the Sandinista comandantes, and Jhonny soon returned to the battle. Now commands an ERN/South Regional Command.

BRAVO Centeno, Jose Benito. Resistance Commander, former National Guard Sergeant. Known as "Mack." Born in Chontales on March 1, 1944. High school education. One of the founders of 15th of September Legion which was later incorporated into the FDN. Commander of Regional Command Nicarao; also Director of the ERN's Center for Military Instruction. In his early 40s, he is one of the oldest of the Resistance commanders or fighters.

BRIONES Calderon, Alberto. Resistance Commander, farmer. "Apache" heads the Jeane Kirkpatrick Task Force of Jorge Salazar Regional Command II.

CALDERON Lopez, Walter. Resistance Commander, former National Guard Lieutenant. One of the combatants on the RN Cease-Fire Commission. Known as "Tono." Born on July 18, 1955, in Managua. Primero de Febrero high school. A 1975 graduate of the Nicaraguan Military Academy. Joined the Resistance in July 1982 as an instructor at the School for Commandos. One of the founders in late 1982 of the Jorge Salazar Task Force. In December 1984, formed the Tactical Operations Command (COT), which he now commands, with 60 men. By mid-1987 this command had some 1,800 fighters organized into six Task Forces.

CANO Zelaya, Cristobal. Resistance Commander, former Sandinista guerrilla, and farmer. Known as "Roger." Born in Matagalpa on March 26, 1962. Attended school through the third grade. Heads the Julio Meza Task Force of the Santiago Meza Regional Command.

CASTILLO Bucardo, Ramiro de Jesus. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "R-15." Heads the Ismael Castillo Urbina Task Force of Jorge Salazar Regional Command III.

CASTILLO Mejia, Wilmer Antonio. Resistance Commander, former Sandinista. Known as "Nelson." Heads the Miguel Pineda Task Force of the Salvador Perez Regional Command.

CASTRO Altamirano, Guillermo. Resistance Commander, farmer, former Sandinista. Known as "Yorvi." Born on January 15, 1962, at Planes de Vilan, Jinotega. Third grade education. Commands the San Miguel Task Force of the Rafaela Herrera Regional Command, operating in Jinotega and Matagalpa.

CHAVARRIA Rodriguez, Antonio. Resistance Commander, preacher, farmer. Known as "Dumas." Currently commander of Regional Command Jorge Salazar V. A small landowner, cattle, and coffee farmer, Dumas was born in Cano Negro, Matagalpa, on November 17, 1952. He had been an assistant Evangelical pastor in Matagalpa for 4 years before joining MILPAS in June 1981. One of the reasons he joined was Sandinista harassment of his church, including the removal of church property. Began MILPAS activities with less than 10 associates. In 1982, became a detachment commander in what was then the Jorge Salazar Task Force, with 25, then 80 fighters. In 1983, the Jorge Salazar became a Regional Command, and Dumas was responsible for a 200-man unit, the Pancasan. By 1985, became the Executive Officer of Jorge Salazar Regional Command I that included 7 task forces with 2,000 combatants. In 1986, when the Jorge Salazar continued to grow and divided into 5 regional commands, Dumas was named Commander of the newly established Jorge Salazar Regional Command V.

CONTRERAS Bravo, Jose Antonio. Resistance combatant, former Sandinista soldier. Known as "Nagarote." Born on March 30, 1961, in Nagarote, Leon. An artillery specialist in the Sandinista Army, Nagarote graduated from the Camilo Cienfuegos Military School in Cuba. Since 1984, a combatant with the Jose Dolores Estrada Regional Command. Joined the Resistance because the Sandinistas "constantly violated the civilian population's human rights." Nagarote claimed that most of the victims were campesinos that DGSE suspected of aiding the Resistance. He said, "When I was serving [in the Sandinista Army] in Leon Department, Captain Najar, who is presently the State Security representative in Jinotega Department . . . planned the disappearance of some campesinos because they refused to participate in or give information to the Sandinista regime." Nagarote said that they would be taken to prison, released, and then ambushed as they tried to return home so that the Resistance could be accused of murdering them.

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CORDOBA, Mario. Miskito leader known as "Pajaro." YATAMA Military General Staff S-2, Assistant for Intelligence.

CUNNINGHAM, Manuel. Miskito leader known as "Tigre 17." Commander, YATAMA Military Region 2 (Bonanza, Siuna, and La Rosita, northern Zelaya).

DAVIS Cayasso, Norman. Resistance Commander. Known as "Comandante Bryan." Born on January 1, 1965. Joined the Creole Resistance's Floyd Wilson Task Force in 1982 to escape the Sandinista draft. Bryan leads a force of 25-30 men.

DIAZ Alfaro, Denis. Resistance Commander, civilian marketing specialist. Known as "Isaac." Bom on April 3, 1955, in Managua. A high school graduate who went into advertising, Isaac was Executive Officer of the ERN Special Operations Command, which he now commands.

DIAZ Ramos, Pedro. Resistance Commander, former Sandinista, and farmer. Known as "Rafaga." Born on October 24, 1969, in Santa Rita, Nueva Segovia. No formal education. Now heads the Francisco Rodriguez Task Force of the Juan Castro Castro Regional Command.

DUARTE Pichardo, Harlie. Resistance Commander, former National Guard Second Lieutenant. Known as "Venado." Commander of RN Special Operations forces in the northern Pacific region. Wounded in Operation Marathon in the fall of 1983; wounded again during his evacuation. Named Assistant for Personnel in January 1984. Replaced by "Fernando" in mid-1987 due to complications from his wounds.

"ELISABETH" is the pseudonym of a 19-year-old Resistance combatant from Jinotega. A high school student in 1984, when Sandinista soldiers came to the the Jinotega Institute to forcibly recruit Nicaraguan youths. Elisabeth and her classmates were taken to Pantasma for military training. Soon deserted and went to Managua, where she tried to work and study clandestinely. When that proved impossible, she joined the FDN. As she stated: "I joined . . . because of the way [the Sandinistas] were mistreating the people. ... I didn't like it, because [the Sandinistas] didn't teach things the way they really were. Only things about Sandino, the death of soldiers and Sandino, and Cuban things — these were the things they taught us ... that nobody had a right to sell things by themselves or say what you wanted, that everything was organized."

ESCOTO Rocha, Vicente. Resistance Commander, farmer, and salesman. "Jaky" was born on July 19, 1958, in Santo Domingo, Chontales. Attended school through the fourth grade. Commands the Jose Santos Benavidez Task Force of Jorge Salazar Regional Command III.

ESPINALES Aguilera, Filemon. Resistance Commander, former National Guard Sergeant, farmer. Known as "4-2." Joined the Resistance on May 5, 1981, eventually becoming Executive Commander of the Nicarao Regional Command as well as Commander of the Regional Command's Task Force Pedro Joaquin Chamorro. Now a staff member of one of the Jorge Salazar Regional Commands.

FAJARDO Chavez, Hector. Resistance Commander, small cattle farmer, former National Guard soldier. Known as "Ramiro." Born on October 1, 1963, in Jicaro, Nueva Segovia. Third grade education. Joined the National Guard in early 1978. Arrested at Jalapa after the Guard disintegrated. Freed after 6 weeks when his family intervened and he was cleared of any crimes during the revolution. Now Commander of Task Force Rio Blanco of Jorge Salazar I. Wounded once in the leg. He said: "What I want most of all is to win the war, and I want to serve in the army, to help organize it and to work toward establishing democracy in the country."

FLEY Gonzales, Luis Adan. Resistance Commander, agricultural technician, former Sandinista guerrilla and army officer. Member of the RN Cease-Fire Commission. Known as "Jhonson." Born in Matagalpa in March 1951. Completed the third year of the agricultural high school in Matagalpa. After commanding the FSLN's Bernardino-Diaz Ochoa Column in 1978-79 against Somoza, he entered the EPS. "Jhonson" joined the Resistance on June 13, 1981. Commanded the Raul Ar- rioliga and Armando Blancher Task Forces. Now commands the 15th of September Regional Command.

FLORES Gutierrez, Sebastian. Resistance radio technician. Formerly performed similar functions in the National Guard, achieving rank of sublieutenant. Known as "Q-25." Born on November 17, 1943, in Chontales. Completed the ninth grade. Communications specialist for RN Northern forces.

FUENTES Oviedo, Francisco. Resistance Commander, Southern Front, former Sandinista combatant and company commander. Known as "Franklyn." Born at El Viejo, Chinan- dega, on June 4, 1964. Recruited by the FSLN in 1977 for Internal Front work, he was transferred in 1978 to undergo clandestine military training for armed urban commando actions. Participated in the attack on the National Guard at Chinandega and underwent Marxist political training at Sandinista safehavens in Honduras. In 1979, participated in the final uprising in Chinandega. Integrated into the EPS after the collapse of Somoza's forces, Franklyn received additional military training and was appointed chief of an EPS company. Deserted from the EPS in September 1980 and traveled to Honduras where he joined the 15th of September Legion. In February 1981, returned to Nicaragua to organize clandestine anti- Sandinista cells with other former EPS colleagues in Chinandega and Leon. In 1982, sought asylum at the Peruvian Embassy in Managua, then joined ARDE in Costa Rica. Assigned to the personal security of Pastora before being named an ARDE Regional Commander. Became ARDE Chief of Operations in February 1986. Broke with ARDE in May 1986, refusing to join UNO. Instead he became the sole military commander of BOS. Joined the unified Resistance Army in 1987 as ERN/South Regional Commander.

GADEA Zeledon, Freddy. Resistance Commander, small coffee grower and salesman, former FSLN militant. Known as "Coral." Born on November 16, 1955, in Quilali, Nueva Segovia. Primary education. Fought with the Sandinistas against Somoza from 1977-79 in the Nueva Segovia mountains. In late 1979, joined MILPAS. Named his command, the independent Task Force (now Regional Command) Quilali, after his hometown, which is also that of many members of his command. Lost a leg in a shooting incident at Strategic Command Headquarters in early 1987.

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GALEANO Cornejo, Denis. Resistance Commander, peasant. Known as "Jhonny." Commander of the Masaya Task Force of Jorge Salazar Regional Command I. Member of the Ga- leano family of Jinotega. Some 30 members of the Galeano family, including 7 brothers and sisters (one has been killed), are combatants with the Resistance. Brother of Israel Galeano.

GALEANO Cornejo, Israel. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Franklyn" or "Franklyn-16." Born in Nueva Segovia in 1960. Attended elementary school through the third grade. Was a farmer and coffee grower before entering the Resistance on May 1, 1982. Now leads the Jorge Salazar II Regional Command. One of the most effective Resistance political-military leaders, Franklyn has been successfully engaging the Sandinista Army in Zelaya and along the strategic Rama Road for years. His capture has been announced several times by the FSLN, only to be retracted or denied later.

GALEANO Rodas, Jose Danilo. Resistance Commander, farmer, former Sandinista army soldier. Known as "Tiro al Blanco." Born on July 17, 1958. Joined the Resistance on April 24, 1981. Third grade education. Now Commander of the Juan Castro Castro Regional Command.

GALEANO Romero, Ramiro. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Adolfo." Commands the Prudencio Gonzalez Task Force of the Rafaela Herrera Operational Command, operating in Jinotega and Matagalpa.

GALEANO Zeledon, Lucila. Resistance paramedic. Known as "Irma." Born on October 30, 1966, in Quilali, Nueva Segovia. She completed third grade in Quilali. Comandantes "Franklin" of Jorge Salazar II and "Johnny" of Task Force Masaya of Jorge Salazar I are Galeano family members. "Irma" joined the Resistance in 1982 when she was 15 years old. A member of the Jorge Salazar Regional Command, she is currently a paramedic at a Resistance hospital. After receiving paramedic training, "Irma" served 6 months in combat with the Jorge Salazar in the Chontales area.

GALINDO Urbina, Ricardo Antonio. Resistance Commander, baker. Known as "Rufo." Born on November 13, 1965, in Cifuentes, Honduras, of Nicaraguan parents. Second grade education. Commander of Jicaro Task Force in the Segovia Regional Command.

GARCIA Castro, Rodolfo. Resistance Commander, previously a Sandinista Second Lieutenant. Known as "Nortiel." Born on April 17, 1948, in Matagalpa. Completed fourth grade, then became an automobile mechanic. Entered the Resistance on May 22, 1982. Commander of Subtiava Task Force of the Segovia Regional Command.

GARCIA Peralta, Enrique. Resistance Commander, farmer. "Rasputin" was born on March 25, 1957, in Condega, Esteli. First grade education. Commands the Reynaldo Sanchez Task Force of the Santiago Meza Regional Command.

GARCIA Romero, Jose Antonio. Resistance Commander, farmer, and former Sandinista. "Bayardo" was born on March 19, 1965, in Quilali, Nueva Segovia. Fifth grade education. Commander of the Miguel Moncada Task Force of the Quilali Regional Command.

GARMENDIA Gutierrez, Gabriel. Resistance Commander, farmer. "Jajok" was born on May 4, 1961, at El Naranjo, Limay, Esteli. Second grade education. Leads the Comandante Rudy Task Force of the Jose Dolores Estrada Regional Command.

"GAVILAN" is the pseudonym of a former Sandinista, now an ERN/South Task Force Commander, operating in Zone II of the Southern Front (Boaco, Chontales, and Zelaya provinces) and along the strategic Rama Road. (Not to be confused with Jose Santos Aguilera Sanchez, the Northern Front Resistance Commander who also uses the nom de guerre "Gavilan.")

GOMEZ Jimenez, Noel. Resistance Commander, carpenter, former Sandinista army officer. Known as "Jaguar." Born on August 2, 1956, in Somoto, Madriz. Fourth grade education. Became a Sandinista army sublieutenant. Joined the Resistance on February 9, 1982. Became Commander of the Oscar Montenegro Task Force of the Jose Dolores Estrada Regional Command before assuming his present post as Commander of the Boaco Task Force, Jorge Salazar V Regional Command.

GONZALEZ Montenegro, Francisco Jose. Resistance Commander, farmer. Third grade education. Known as "Ronald." Born on October 4, 1954, in Pantasma, Jinotega. He commands the Armando Blancher Task Force of the 15th of September Regional Command.

GONZALEZ Rodriguez, Adan Ernesto. Resistance Commander, farmer, former Sandinista. Known as "Dimas." Born on January 1, 1953, in Jinotega. Peasant farmer. First grade education, Former Sandinista fighter. Commands the Enrique Zeledon Task Force of the 15th of September Regional Command.

GONZALEZ Serapio, Evaristo. Resistance Commander, Southern Front. Previously a student. Known as "Ariari." Born on January 28, 1962, in Santa Isabel, Rio Coco, in northern Zelaya. A Miskito Indian, Ariari joined the Resistance on July 27, 1983, in opposition to Sandinista mistreatment of indigenous populations.

GONZALEZ Vasquez, Jose Luis. Resistance Commander, Southern Front. Previously a student. Known as "Ali." Born in Villa Sandino, Chontales, on March 2, 1952. First joined ARDE's forces August 8, 1983.

GUERRERO Rostran, Jose. Resistance Commander, Southern Front. Former National Guard enlisted man. "Navegante" was born on March 19, 1950, in Teustepe, Boaco. Joined the National Guard in 1978. As an infantry private, he fought in 1979 against the Sandinistas in the Southern Front and in Chinandega, Esteli, and Diriamba (Carazo). Escaped to El Salvador, where he fought against the FMLN guerrillas in 1979-80. Returned to Nicaragua at the end of 1980, but in early 1981 took up arms against the Sandinistas. "Navegante" operated semi- independently within the FDN until March 1983, when he joined ARDE with 40 of his men. Named an ARDE Regional Commander in 1984. Signed the UNO unity agreement of 1986 and appointed to the UNO/South General Staff. Regional Commander in the ERN/South.

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Resistance Activities and Forced Removal of Population by Regime

[MAP]

50[edit]

GUEVARA Espinoza, Jose Quin- tin. Resistance Commander. Former National Guard enlisted man. Known as "0-3." Born on October 31, 1949, in Chi- nandega. Joined the National Guard in 1965, reaching the rank of Second Sergeant with a position as a communications supervisor. Joined the 15th of September Legion in 1981 and the FDN in 1982. Later spent 13 months as a military instructor with Miskito fighters on the Atlantic Coast. Now Commander of the Task Force Comandante Griego of Jorge Salazar Regional Command III. As stated by Guevara, "What I want to do is own a farm, and devote myself to farming and raising cattle. And to do nothing more with weapons. Ever."

GUIDO Sanchez, Daniel. Regional Commander in the ERN/South. Heavy equipment operator. Born on September 3, 1963, in Managua. "Pajarillo" joined the Resistance forces in October 1983 after being accused of antigovern- ment activities.

GUILLEN Salinas, Carlos Jose. Resistance Commander, previously a medical student. Known as "Gustavo." Born on August 14, 1956, in Nueva Segovia. Attended high school in Ocotal, Nueva Segovia. Attended medical school at the University of San Carlos in Guatemala, 1976-80. Joined the Resistance in 1980. First assigned as a medic to the Special Operations Command, he gradually rose to command the unit from 1983 until 1985. Assistant for logistics on the Strategic Command of the Northern Front since November 1985.

GUTIERREZ Corea, Jose Maria. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Danilo." Born on March 17, 1963, in Somoto, Madriz. Third grade education. Commander of the Salvador Mendieta Task Force of Jorge Salazar Regional Command II.

GUTIERREZ Tinoco, Fausto Antonio. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Roque." Born on May 26, 1955, at El Golfo, Jinotega. A farmer with a second grade education. Commander of the Miguel Larreynaga Task Force of the Tactical Operations Command.

HERNANDEZ Calderon, Miguel Angel. Resistance Commander. Formerly a private in the National Guard. Born on September 29, 1959, in San Juan de Limay, Esteli. Completed the 6th grade. Worked as a farmer after the revolution. Known as "Ocran." Entered the Resistance in March 1982 and now heads the Monimbo Task Force in the Nicarao Regional Command.

HERNANDEZ Garcia, Felix. Resistance Commander, farmer, Evangelical pastor. Known as "Aliz." Born on January 12, 1961, in Jinotega. Completed second year of high school. Commands the Chontales Task Force of the Jorge Salazar I Regional Command.

HERNANDEZ Gutierrez, Jose Abel. Resistance Commander, former National Guard private. Known as "Orion." Born on December 31, 1956. Completed elementary school. Typist in the National Guard at the time of Somoza's fall from power. Joined the Resistance in November 1981. Executive Officer of the Jose Dolores Estrada Regional Command.

HERNANDEZ Membreno, Diogenes. Resistance Commander. Known as "Fernando. Born on March 11, 1959, on a farm in Matiguas, Matagalpa. Upon completion of high school, he attended the Nicaraguan Evangelical Institute, a Pentecostal seminary, from 1976 until 1980, where he was the top student. During his fourth year, he was named an instructor. Left the institute with 2 years remaining in the program to join his brothers in one of the first episodes of armed resistance by MILPAS. Fernando states: "I never thought I would be a guerrilla, but we had no choice. We were betrayed." Joined the FDN's Jorge Salazar Task Force when it was founded in November 1982. Entered combat in January 1983. Wounded in February 1983 in his home province of Matagalpa. Commander of the Jorge Salazar III Regional Command since 1985. "We fight with a rifle in one hand and the Bible in the other." Due to illness in 1987, he has been serving on the Strategic Command as the assistant for psychological operations and most recently as assistant for personnel. His brother, Heremines ("L-20"), has been imprisoned by the Sandinistas since 1984. Another brother, Daniel ("El Viejo"), was with the Jorge Salazar Task Force in 1982-83, fought on the Southern Front from 1984-86, and then rejoined the Northern Front forces in mid-1987.

HERNANDEZ Rugama, Rom- berto. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Jhovanny." Born on February 5, 1955, in El Jiquelito, Jinotega. Attended first grade. Commander of the Ricardo Lanza Task Force of the Larry McDonald Regional Command since mid-1987.

HERRERA Gomez, Jose. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Jaime." Executive Officer of Jorge Salazar V Regional Command and Commander of the Regional Command's Boaco Task Force.

HERRERA Palacios, Jose Angel. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Hugo Chele." Commander of the Julio Lagos Task Force of the Santiago Meza Regional Command.

HODGSON Moody, Carlos Ken- nards. A Creole leader of the Task Force Floyd Wilson, who fights under the name "Samba." Born on November 27, 1959, in Pearl Lagoon, Zelaya. After finishing Moravian high school, worked as a truck driver. Minister in a Pentecostal church. Participated in the first popular anti-Sandinista uprising in Bluefields in September 1980. Joined the Resistance in 1982 when the San- dinista block committees began operating in his neighborhood. Worked for Radio 15 de Septiembre and then joined the FDN. Joined MISURASATA in 1983 and served as combatant and as a military trainer. Commanded the Task Force Floyd Wilson until late 1986, when he left Nicaragua for treatment of his numerous combat wounds, including a seriously injured arm. Replaced by "Che" (Peter Wilson) as commander of the Floyd Wilson Task Force. "Samba" is also known as Kinnard Moody Blanford.

HUETE Espinales, Roberto. Resistance Commander, farmer, former Sandinista. "Alacran" was born on April 17, 1964, in San Francisco del Norte, Chinandega. Now Commander of the Musun Task Force of Jorge Salazar Regional Command IV.

KNIGHT, Centuriano. Miskito leader known as "Cusuwa." YATAMA Military Staff S-4, Assistant for Logistics. Previously served as a member of the MISURASATA General Staff.

LAGUNA Rayo, Tomas. Resistance Commander, former Sandinista. Known as "Dimas." Born in 1962 in El Sauce, Leon. Second grade education. Commander of the Hermes Gadea Task Force of the Quilali Regional Command.

LAU Castillo, Ricardo. National Guard officer and a founder of the 15th of September Legion. Known as "Chino." Born in Esteli on July 5, 1937. Served in Somoza's Office of National Security in the late 1960s. During 1978-79 he served as second-in-command of the National Guard in Jino- tepe, then as Deputy Commander of Carcel Modelo prison in Managua. Head of Intelligence for the FDN in the early 1980s. Left the FDN in 1983.

51[edit]

LOPEZ Granados, Luis Angel. ERN/South Regional Commander. "Leonel" was born on June 21, 1953, in Leon. Made political contact with the FSLN in 1976 in San Carlos. Became an FSLN collaborator in 1977 and an FSLN militant in 1978. Leader of the FSLN's takeover of San Carlos, an important early victory. After the July 1979 victory over Somoza, "Leonel" was assigned as Chief of Sandinista Militia at San Carlos, joining the Sandinista police in San Carlos the following year. Appointed to a position with DGSE at San Carlos in 1981. Arrested by the Sandinistas later that year for "political differences" relating to his opposition to the Sandinista harassment of opposition and treatment of prisoners. In December 1982, exiled in Costa Rica. Joined the armed struggle in 1983, and by the end of the year commanded an 800-man ARDE force. Wounded in a 1985 aircraft accident while attempting to evacuate a wounded combatant. Started coordinating actions with FDN Regional Commanders in 1985.

LOPEZ Lopez, Jhonn Santiago. Resistance Commander. Former National Guard enlisted man. Known as "Honda Lopez." Born in Madriz on July 25, 1953. One of 18 siblings. Sixth grade education. Reached rank of corporal in the Guard. Joined the Resistance in May 1982. Now Commander of Task Force Tipitapa of Regional Command Jorge Salazar I.

LOPEZ Merlos, Santos. Resistance Commander, former corporal in the National Guard. "Victor" was born on October 5, 1958, in Somoto, Madriz. Second grade education. Second grade education. Trained as a bricklayer/mason. Commands the Xolotlan Task Force of the San Jacinto Regional Command.

LOPEZ Pineda, Jose Ernesto. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Rafael." Born on April 3, 1959, in Pantasma, Jinotega. Fourth grade education. Commander of the Narcisco Pineda Task Force of the Santiago Meza Regional Command.

LOPEZ Rojas, Gumercindo. Resistance combatant. Former manual laborer in the National Guard. Known as "Principe." Born on January 13, 1956, in Zelaya. Completed elementary

Diogenes HERNANDEZ Membreno.

Creole fighters.

Lucila GALEANO Zeledon.

Julio Cesar SANCHEZ Blandon.

Francisco BALDIVIA Chavarria.

52[edit]

school. Former Commander of the Co- mandante Rudy Task Force of the Jose Dolores Estrada Regional Command; now attached to the San Jacinto Regional Command.

LUMBI Hernandez, Juan Ernesto. Resistance Commander, farmer. "Pirulo" was born on June 26, 1963, at San Pedro, Muy Muy, Matagalpa. Fourth grade education. Commander of the Ramon Valdes Rodriguez Task Force of Jorge Salazar Regional Command III.

"Mama Moncha." Pseudonym of the only former National Guardsman among the 11 Southern Front Regional Commanders (he was a GN private). His command consists primarily of former Sandinistas and locals from its area of operation and operates in Boaco, Chontales, and Zelaya provinces.

MANZANARES Torrez, Tomas Luis. Resistance Commander, farmer, former Sandinista. Known as "Leoncil- lo." Born in Santa Teresa, Jinotega, on December 21, 1964. No formal schooling. Entered the Resistance in June 1980. Commander of the Felipe Cornejo Task Force of the Juan Castro Castro Regional Command.

MARTINEZ, Beningno. Miskito leader known as "Cancer." YATAMA Military Staff S-5, Assistant for Psychological Operations. Previously served as a member of the KISAN General Staff.

MARTINEZ, Wilfredo. Miskito leader known as "Siskar." Commander, YATAMA Military Region 1 (Puerto Cabezas, northern Zelaya).

MARTINEZ Noboa, Roberto Al- onso. Resistance Commander, student. Known as "Nolan." Born on February 16, 1966, in Managua. Fought with Sandinistas against Somoza while a student. Returned to his studies, but took up arms again, this time against the Sandinistas, in November 1983. Now Executive Officer of the Quilali Regional Command.

MATAMOROS Tejada, Ernesto J. Chief of Resistance medical service. Former National Guard medical corps colonel. Known as "Doctor Tomas." Born on September 13, 1937, in Puerto Cabezas, Zelaya. Attended Nicaraguan military academy. Pediatrician, educated at the Universities of Madrid and Salamanca. Brother of Bosco Matamoros.

MATEY Olivas, Cruz. Resistance Commander, formerly a farm worker. Uses pseudonym "Augusto." Born in San Juan de Telpaneca, Madriz, on October 30, 1955. No schooling. Entered the Resistance on July 17, 1981. Commander of the Alonso Ramos Castro Task Force of the Andres Castro Regional Command.

MEDINA Ramos, Juan Ramon. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Medina." Born in Esteli in 1945. Fifth grade education. Joined the Resistance in October 1980. Executive Officer of the Pedro Joaquin Gonzales Regional Command.

MEZA Peralta, Cristobal. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Omaro." Born on July 1, 1944, at La Rica, Yali, Jinotega. First grade education. Farmer and cattleman. Former Commander of the Task Force Julio Meza of the Santiago Meza Regional Command. Executive Officer of the Santiago Meza Regional Command. (See Santiago Meza entry.)

MEZA Peralta, Justo Pastor. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Denis." Born at Yali, Jinotega, on August 9, 1953. Completed elementary school. Commander of the Santiago Meza Regional Command. (See Santiago Meza entry.)

"Minita." Pseudonym for a civilian who now commands a Regional Command in the Southern Front's Zone II (Boaco, Chontales, and Zelaya provinces).

MIRANDA, Aquiles. ERN/South Regional Commander. A nephew of the Sandinista hero Gen. Heriberto Reyes (member of Sandino's General Staff in the 1930s who died in battle against the National Guard in 1958), "Pedro Rafa" began his own struggle against Somoza in 1959, participating in Pedro Joaquin Chamorro's May-June 1959 Olama y Mollejones invasion from Costa Rica. Participated in the January 1967 UNO riots and demonstrations in Managua in which 200 were killed. In 1975, joined the FSLN as a guerrilla fighting in the northern mountains. Transfered in 1977 to fight on the Southern Front's Benjamin Zeledon Command. Began urban clandestine Internal Front activities in 1978. After the fall of Somoza, assigned as a Political Commissar to an EPS armored unit. In 1980, attended a 6- month political and military training course in Cuba but defected upon his return to Nicaragua. By 1981, he was leading military operations against the Sandinistas in southern Atlantic Coast areas. Joined ARDE's forces in 1982 and fought with Pastora in 1983. First named an ARDE Regional Commander in 1984. Helped establish UNO/South in May 1986.

MONCADA Blandon, Antonio. Resistance Commander. Formerly a truck driver in the National Guard. Known as "Gato Negro." Born in San Marcos de Colon, Honduras, of Nicaraguan parents on July 15, 1961. Third grade education. After joining the Resistance he became the Executive Officer of the Matilde Cruz Task Force of the Alonso Irias Regional Command. Became the Task Force's Commander, then the Executive Officer for the Regional Command.

MONTENEGRO Cruz, Francisco. Resistance Commander. Formerly a farmer. Known as "Nelson." Born in El Regadillo, Esteli, on October 10, 1949. Completed second grade. Entered the Resistance in November 1982. Commander of the Yali Task Force in the Segovia Regional Command.

MORENO Aguilar, Tirzo Ramon. Resistance Commander, businessman, and farmer. Known as "Rigoberto." Born in Yali, Jinotega, on August 31, 1954. Educated in La Trinidad and Esteli. Left after second year of high school to help support his family. Farming in Wiwili, he began to provide food, medicine, and shelter to the Sandinista troops of German Pomares operating in Jinotega. In September 1980, joined long-time Sandinista commander Pedro Joaquin Gonzalez and other MILPAS "precursors" of the Resistance, including "Douglas," "Coral," "Denis," and "Cinco Pinos." (See Santiago Meza entry.) MILPAS unit leader of some 60 combatants. In November 1984, became Executive Officer of the Jorge Salazar Operational Command and Commander of Regional Command Jorge Salazar I, responsible for more than 1,000 combatants operating in Matagalpa, Boaco, and Chontales. Of about 10 relatives also in the Resistance, at least half have been killed in combat. As stated by Rigoberto, "My greatest ambition is

53[edit]

1 Luis Adan FLEY Gonzalez.

2 Oscar Manuel SOBALVARRO Garcia.

3 From left to right: Aristides SANCHEZ Herdocia. Carlos Jose GUILLEN Salinas, and Jose Benito BRAVO Centeno.

4 Juan Ramon RIVAS Romero.

5 Members of the YATAMA General Staff. From left to right: Mario CORDOBA. Osorno COLEMAN (holding "Miskut"). Beningno MARTINEZ, and Centuriano KNIGHT.

6 YATAMA fighter.

7 "Tolentino" GALEANO, father of seven Resistance fighters.

8 Walter CALDERON Lopez.

9 Victor SANCHEZ Herdocia (left) and Jose Maria RODRIGUEZ Espinoza (right).

54[edit]

to free Nicaragua and reincorporate myself into civilian life to devote myself to farming, which was my job before. [Also,] I want to study again." Widely respected for his humanity and leadership.

MORENO Gonzalez, Jose Edi- berto. Resistance Commander. "Nelson" was born on February 10, 1964, in Quilali, Nueva Segovia. Fourth grade education. Trained as a carpenter. Commander of the Matagalpa Task Force of the Quilali Regional Command.

MORENO Payan, Luis Alfonso. Resistance Commander. Former National Guard Second Lieutenant. Known as "Mike Lima." Born in Managua on March 21, 1959. Cadet at Nic- araguan Military Academy 1976-79. Entered active duty in National Guard infantry 1 month before Somoza's fall and was wounded in an ambush the day before the Sandinistas took power. With the Sandinista triumph, he stated, "I knew they were going to throw me in prison and kill me." Captured by Sandinistas July 20-21, 1979. Escaped, returned to Managua, and granted asylum in the Embassy of Spain; then spent 2 years in Costa Rica, Panama, and Guatemala. Moreno maintains, "I didn't and don't believe in a military solution. I believe in a victory by the Nicaraguan people. But I asked myself, if young men, soldiers, or ... former fighters or persons with some military training didn't resist, who would?" Entered FDN on March 3, 1982, as military instructor in the Nicarao base. Entered Nicaragua with Tigrillo in first FDN infiltration. Commanded the Di- riangen Operational (now Regional) Command. Lost an arm in a mortar explosion. Returned to combat and was wounded again. Became Strategic Command Assistant for Operations but left that post due to complications from his wounds. Still takes on special assignments. Highly regarded by his peers.

MURILLO Guevara, Gabino. Resistance Southern Front Regional Commander. Born on June 4, 1958, in Garrobo Grande, Chontales. "Rene" was a farmer before joining the Resistance forces in 1983.

NAVARRO Carrasco, Marcos Orlando. Resistance Commander. Former National Guard enlisted man. Known as "Dimas Negro" or "Dimas Sagitario." Born in Chinandega in August 1958. Completed elementary school. Worked as a driver. Became a Private in the EEBI. Joined the Resistance on March 14, 1982. Perhaps the sole surviving member of the small and much-publicized band led by "Suicida." "Dimas Negro" now commands the Jose Dolores Estrada Regional Command.

OBANDO Guido, Luis Felipe. Resistance Commander. Farmer, former National Guard private. Known as "Miguel." Born on July 22, 1955, in San Marcos, Rivas. Joined the National Guard in 1976 and completed the basic infantry course. Joined FDN in August 1982 after 1½ years in a refugee camp in Choluteca, Honduras. As he states: "What I want most of all is to free Nicaragua and rejoin civilian life. I do not intend to continue a military life; on the contrary — distance myself from weapons, marry, and devote myself to my home and farming .... We have the will of the people and the strength of the peasants." He commanded Task Force Pancasan (then of Jorge Salazar Regional Command I) from January 1986 until the mid-late 1986 expansion and reorganization of the Jorge Salazar Commands.

ORTEZ Ortez, Orlando. Resistance Commander, former Sandinista. Known as "Concho." Commands the Rigoberto Cabeza Task Force of the San Jacinto Regional Command.

PEREZ Arauz, Agustin. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Boanerges." Commands the Constantino Picado Task Force of the Santiago Meza Regional Command.

PEREZ Mejia, Rito. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Fanor." Born on May 22, 1969, in El Jicaro, Nueva Segovia. Third grade education. Executive Officer of the Santiago Meza Regional Command.

PICADO Castillo, Antonio. Resistance Commander. Farmer, former Sandinista. Known as "Saul." Commands the Mercedes Benavides Task Force of the Andres Castro Regional Command. Brother of Jose Fausto Pic- ado Castillo.

PICADO Castillo, Jose Fausto. Resistance Commander. Farmer. Former Sandinista Popular Army Officer and Instructor. Known as "Richard." Born on November 19, 1962, in La Pavona, Jinotega. Completed fourth grade of elementary school. Entered the armed Resistance in March 1982, when the Sandinista government first instituted the state of emergency decree. Served as commander of the Mercedes Benavides Task Force of the Andres Castro Regional Command. Became the Regional Command's Executive Officer in 1986 after the combat death of the Regional Command's Executive Officer "Pata de Fierro" (Isidro Hermes Garcia Gonzalez, also a former Sandinista).

PINEDA Carcamo, Denis. Resistance Commander. Helicopter pilot. Former second lieutenant in the National Guard. Known as "Benny." Born on March 5, 1956, in Leon. Entered the military academy in 1973 and graduated in 1977. Jailed in 1979, he escaped in 1980. His first military action against the Sandinista army took place when he and a handful of others attacked the Penas Blancas garrison on the Costa Rican border. Joined the FDN in 1983 as a member of the Di- riangen Task Force, ultimately serving as Executive Officer of the Regional Command by the same name until serious injuries forced him out of combat. Served briefly in counterintelligence, then became the assistant for operations of the Strategic Command in 1986. Learned to fly helicopters by watching pilots, and now frequently flies medical evacuations for seriously wounded combatants.

RAMOS Herrera, Luis Manuel. Resistance Commander. Farmer. Known as "Yasser." Executive Officer of Jorge Salazar Regional Command IV.

RIVAS Alfaro, Candelario. Resistance Commander, farmer, former Sandinista. Known as "Marlon." Born on February 2, 1958, in San Juan de Telpaneca, Madriz. Completed fifth grade. Heads the Jacinto Reyes Task Force of the Tactical Operations Command. Brother of Monico Mercedes Rivas.

RIVAS Alfaro, Monico Mercedes. Resistance Commander. Farmer. Known as "Ivan." Born in San Juan de Telpaneca, Nueva Segovia, on May 13, 1965. Third grade education. Joined the Resistance in August 1982. Executive

55[edit]

Officer of the Jacinto Reyes Task Force of the ERN's Tactical Operations Command. Brother of Candelario Rivas Al- faro.

RIVAS Romero, Juan Ramon. Resistance Commander. Former National Guard sergeant. Known as "Quiche." Completed fifth grade. Highly successful leader of the guerrilla war against the FSLN in the central provinces. Under his leadership the successful Jorge Salazar unit has grown from a single Regional Command to an Operational Command with five Regional Commands and some 4,000-5,000 troops. One sign of the increasing effectiveness of the Jorge Salazar troops (now often working in coordination with the ERN/South's troops) is the 1987 Sandinista effort to "drain the sea" of peasant supporters by rounding up some 7,000 persons from the Nueva Segovia area in one operation alone, relocating them in three camps and creating "free-fire zones" throughout the lands where the families had once farmed. Quiche's father, Cecelio Rivas, was arrested in Boaco Province and held without charges since December 19, 1985. Case number 9701 has been filed on his behalf before the OAS Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.

RIVERA Herrera, Francisco. Resistance Commander. Farmer. Known as "Cadejo." Born on December 17, 1960, in El Bramadero, Jinotega. First grade education. Commander of the Matilde Cruz Task Force of the Al- onso Irias Regional Command.

RIVERA Marin, Amadeo. Resistance Commander, former Sandinista soldier. Uses pseudonym "Ismael." Born on March 31, 1964, in Santa Teresa Kilambe, Jinotega. Attended third grade. Entered the Resistance in June 1980. Executive Officer of the Juan Castro Castro Regional Command.

RIZO Moran, Esteban de Jesus. Resistance Commander. Farmer, former Sandinista guerrilla fighter, and army officer. Known as "Diablo." Born on August 3, 1955, in Jinotega. Completed sixth grade. Worked on family farm in Pantasma, Jinotega, and sold livestock. Served as an FSLN guerrilla commander with 40 men under his command from June 1977 until July 1979. Suffering from malaria and exhaustion, returned to the family farm. After about a year, reacting to arbitrary land confiscations and other Sandinista actions, he joined the local Resistance unit in Pantasma (the Irene Calderone Group), then fled to Honduras. After 7 months as a refugee, he joined the 15th of September Legion. When the FDN was organized and the Jorge Salazar Task Force was created, he became the leader of a squad of 12. Now commands Task Force Matagalpa, Regional Command Jorge Salazar I. As he states: "My main ambition is to win the war and to devote myself to cattle-raising and forget about fighting, as well as to recover my family's property which was seized by the Sandinista government. My Task Force now consists of 100 peasants and 100 Sandinista deserters who have joined our struggle, all with the same attitude." Reported killed in combat in southeastern Chontales Province in February 1988.

RODRIGUEZ Altamirano, Daniel. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Tigrillo." Has commanded the Pancasan Task Force of Jorge Salazar Regional Command V since 1986.

RODRIGUEZ Espinoza, Jose Maria. Resistance Commander. Driver, formerly a sublieutenant in the Sandinista army. Uses the pseudonym "Segovia." Born in Esteli on April 9, 1952. Completed first grade. Worked as a driver and mechanic before serving in the Sandinista army. Entered the Resistance in April 1981. Executive Officer of the Segovia Regional Command.

RODRIGUEZ Martinez, Max- iminos. Resistance Commander. Former National Guard enlisted man. Known as "Wilmer." Born on January 7, 1962, in Malpaisillo, Leon. Fourth grade education. A corporal in the Guard's elite EEBI troops at the time of the fall of Somoza, he is now Executive Officer of the Larry McDonald Regional Command, where he fights under the command of former Sandinista "Jimmy Leo" (Fremio Altamirano).

ROJAS Torres, Santos. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Catali- ta." Born in Leon on October 31, 1960. First grade education. Joined the Resistance in December 1980. Served as the task force's Executive Officer before his promotion to Commander of the Albino Molina Task Force of the Alonso Irias Regional Command.

ROSTRAN Martinez, Isaul. ERN/ South Regional Commander. Born in Bluefields in 1961. "Chocoyo" was a farmer before he joined the Resistance on February 21, 1982.

RUGAMA Acevedo, Manuel Adan. Resistance Commander. Civilian surgeon. Known as "Aureliano." Born on May 29, 1950. Left medical school in Managua on January 1, 1981, to join the Resistance against the Sandinistas. Now Commander of Segovia Regional Command. His brother, Manuel Ivan Rugama Suazo, also a physician, was arrested on June 3, 1984, by the Sandinista government; despite cardiac problems, he was kept in isolation cells without medicine. Case number 9365 was filed with the OAS Inter- American Commission on Human Rights. Rugama Suazo was one of 100 political prisoners freed on March 27, 1988, by the Sandinistas as a first step in compliance with the cease-fire accords signed at Sapoa, Nicaragua, on March 24, 1988.

RUIZ Castellon, Jose Francisco. Resistance Commander, formerly a junior officer in the National Guard. "Renato" was born on October 8, 1951. He was a lieutenant in the National Guard. Studied agronomy at UNAN for 1 year. Joined the Resistance on September 13, 1981. Commander of San Jacinto Regional Command.

RUIZ Garcia, Francisco. Resistance Commander. Previously a Sandinista and farm worker. Known as "Camaron." Born in Yali, Jinotega, on September 6, 1959. No schooling. Entered the Resistance on September 12, 1980. Commander of the Pablo Ruiz Task Force of the Juan Castro Castro Regional Command.

SALAZAR Barberena, Arturo. ERN/South Regional Commander and member of the General Staff. "Omar" was born September 23, 1955, in Managua. Tenth grade education. Joined the FSLN as a combatant in 1977. During the June 1979 "Battle for Managua," he participated in the taking of the cities

56[edit]

of Jinotepe and Masaya, the insurrection of the Eastern barrios of Managua and in the so-called strategic retreat of those barrios to Masaya. After the fall of Somoza, assigned to the personal security of Interior Minister Tomas Borge and then of Eden Pastora, Interior Vice Minister. Traveled to East Germany, Bulgaria, Cuba, and the Soviet Union in 1980. Left Nicaragua for Cuba with Pastora on June 4, 1981. In April 1982, joined ARDE. Became a Regional Commander in 1984. Wounded in the May 1984 taking of San Juan del Norte. Integrated his forces into the United Nic- araguan Opposition in 1986. Appointed to the UNO/South General Staff in 1986.

SALGADO Salgado, Felix Antonio. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Climaco." Born on July 14, 1966, in El Porvenir, Nueva Segovia. First grade education. Commander of the Victor Altamirano Task Force of the Larry McDonald Regional Command.

SANCHEZ Blandon, Julio Cesar. Resistance Commander. Former San- dinista combatant and commander. Known as "Kaliman." Born on January 28, 1960, in the Department of Rivas. Received a secondary education at the National Institute Rosendo Lopez in Rivas. Fought with Eden Pastora on the Southern Front against Somoza in 1978-79, ultimately becoming commander of a 100-man force. In early 1980, became a lieutenant in the EPS after a 6-month course in military engineering in Managua. Left the EPS for Costa Rica in September 1980. Became a member of the FARN forces of "Popo" and Fernando "El Negro" Chamorro and then joined Eden Pas- tora's ARDE. In mid-1983, took a 1-month walk through Nicaragua to join FDN forces operating in the north. Rose through the ranks of the Segovia Regional Command from detachment to group to commander of the regional command's Task Force Serreno (now called Yali). Currently a Segovia Regional Command staff officer. At 28, Kaliman has been fighting for 10 years.

SANCHEZ Herdocia, Victor. Executive officer of the RN Tactical Operations Command. Business administrator. Known as "Licenciado." Co- founder of the Jorge Salazar Task Force in 1982, which then consisted of 200 men operating in Matagalpa province. The force has since evolved into an Operational Command, consisting of 5 Regional Commands and a total of 17 Task Forces operating in Jinotega, Matagalpa, Boaco, Chontales, and Zelaya. "Licenciado" also has served as the Acting Assistant for Operations of the ERN/North General Staff in 1987.

SOBALVARRO, Manuel de Jesus. Resistance Commander. Previously a civilian. Known as "Jaime." Commands the Fermin Espinoza Task Force of the Salvador Perez Regional Command.

SOBALVARRO Garcia, Julio Cesar. Resistance Commander. Merchant, former Sandinista militant. Known as "Danilo." Born on May 22, 1959, in El Venado, Jinotega. Fourth grade education. FSLN political cadre in Jinotega. Joined the Resistance in October 1980. Commander of the Maritza Zeledon Task Force of the Salvador Perez Regional Command.

SOBALVARRO Garcia, Luis Armando. Resistance Commander. Farmer/coffee grower and former member of the Sandinista army. Known as "Jhonny." Born on June 22, 1956, in Jinotega. Now Executive Officer of the Salvador Perez Regional Command after serving as Commander of its Fermin Espinoza Task Force.

SOBALVARRO Garcia, Oscar Manuel. Resistance Commander. Farmer, salesman, and former Sandinista army soldier. Known as "Ruben." Born in El Venado, Jinotega, on December 23, 1960. Attended fourth grade. Entered the Resistance on March 20, 1980. Commander of the Salvador Perez Regional Command. His brother, Luis Armando, is the Regional Command's Executive Officer; another brother, Julio Cesar, is Commanding Officer of Task Force Martiza Zeledon. All three brothers are former Sandinista fighters.

SOLORZANO, Juan. Miskito leader. YATAMA Military Staff S-3, Assistant for Operations. Known as "Layan Pihni." Previously served as a member of the MISURA General Staff.

SOZA, Angel. Resistance Commander. Farmer and former EPS soldier. Known as "Emiliano." Born in Matagalpa. In 1986, was Executive Officer of Regional Command Jorge Salazar II. Now Regional Commander, Jorge Salazar IV. Has fought continuously since 1983, beginning as a combatant, then a detachment commander. Now has some 600 combatants under his command. Bermudez has commented that "if I were to meet 'Emiliano' I might not recognize him!" Operates in Chontales and Central Zelaya.

STEVEN, Rudwel. Assistant Commander of the YATAMA Military Staff. Former member of MISURASATA. Known as "Tapu."

TERCERO Castro, Amado. Resistance Commander. Formerly a farm worker. Born on March 29, 1952, in Chinandega. No formal education. Entered the Resistance on October 13, 1980. Uses pseudonym "Rojito." Commander of the Ruben Dario Task Force in the Segovia Regional Command.

TERREZO Lopez, Jacinto. Resistance Commander. Former Lieutenant in the Sandinista army. Known as "Campeon." Born on August 16, 1960, in Quilali, Nueva Segovia. First grade education. Joined the Resistance in March 1980. Commander of the Resistance's Concepcion Rivera Task Force, Pedro Joaquin Gonzales Regional Command. Previously commanded the Miguel Pineda Rizo Task Force of the Salvador Perez Regional Command. Sometimes identified as Jacinto Ter- cero.

TORREZ Orozco, Fermin. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Puyon." Born on July 28, 1958, in Sebaco, Matagalpa. Sixth grade education. Commander of the Camoapa Task Force of Jorge Salazar Regional Command III.

UBEDA Pineda, Diomedes Tito. Resistance Commander. Farmer, former Sandinista. Known as "Pablo." Born on August 8, 1959, at Rancho Grande, Matagalpa. First grade education. Commander of the Jose Luis Gutierrez Task Force of Jorge Salazar Regional Command III. Also identified as PINEDA Ubeda, Diomedes Tito.

57[edit]

VALLADARES, Jose. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Chepito." Born in Somoto, Madriz, on April 22, 1940. No formal schooling. Joined the Resistance in 1980. Commands the Yorlan Ubeda Task Force of the Pedro Joaquin Gonzales Regional Command.

VANEGAS, Uriel. Commander, YATAMA Military Region 3 until he signed a "separate peace" with the Sandinistas in September 1987. Born in 1960. Known as "Rubio."

VAZQUEZ Tercero, Jose Camilo. Resistance Commander, farm worker. Born on March 19, 1962, in Pueblo Nuevo, Esteli. Completed elementary school. Entered the Resistance on February 7, 1982. Known as "Samuel." Commands the Comandante Omar Task Force of the Nicarao Regional Command.

WIGGINS, Celso. Miskito leader, YATAMA Military Staff S-1, Assistant for Personnel. Known as "Miskut." Previously served on the MISURASATA General Staff.

WILSON, Peter. Creole leader of the Floyd Wilson Task Force. Known as "Che." Joined the Resistance in 1981 after Sandinista army attacks against Atlantic Coast populations. Lost the use of one hand due to injuries sustained in combat. Grandson of Albert Bent.

ZELAYA Chavarria, Abelardo. Resistance Commander. Farmer, former Sandinista. Known as "Ivan." Born in San Rafael del Norte, Jinotega, in 1962. A peasant farmer with no formal education, he is also a former Sandinista army soldier. Commander of the Alonso Irias Regional Command.

ZELAYA Zeledon, Anroyce. Resistance commander. Former Sandinista guerrilla and MILPAS organizer. Known as "Douglas." Farmer. Born on July 14, 1961, in Quilali, Nueva Segovia. Attended first year of secondary school. Fought under the command of Pedro Joaquin Gonzalez and German Pomares as a member of the Sandinista's "Fatima Pagon" unit on the Northern Front against Somoza. Joined Pedro Joaquin Gonzalez in reorganizing the local MILPAS against the Sandinistas in late 1979 and early 1980. A Resistance detachment commander by 1982, "Douglas" became Task Force Commander in early 1983, naming his 200- person force after his friend, Pedro Joaquin Gonzalez. In 1985, Douglas' forces had grown to more than 800 combatants and become the Pedro Joaquin Gonzalez Regional Command. Today its task forces operate in Esteli, Nueva Segovia, Jinotega, and Madriz Provinces.

ZELEDON Castil-Blanco, Rufo Cesar. Resistance Commander. Formerly a first sergeant in the Sandinista army. Uses pseudonym "Rolando." Born on February 14, 1965, in Jinotega. Attended third grade. Worked as a driver. Entered the Resistance in October 1980. Executive Officer of the Rafaela Herrera Regional Command. Previously served as Commander of the San Miguel Task Force and as Executive Officer of the Rafaela Herrera Operational Command.

ZELEDON Rivera, Santos Ramos. Resistance Commander, farmer. Known as "Wilfredo." Born on July 18, 1963, in Jinotega. Completed second grade. Became Executive Officer of the 15th of September Regional Command. Rose steadily, having previously been Executive Officer and then commander of the Regional Command's Armando Blancher Task Force.