Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697/Book X
THE EMPEROR HOMUDA.
The Emperor Homuda was the 4th child of the Emperor Tarashi Nakatsu-hiko. His mother's name was Okinaga Tarashi-hime no Mikoto. The Emperor was born at Kata in Tsukushi in the 12th month, Winter, of the year Kanoye Tatsu, being the year in which the Empress smote Silla. From a child he was intelligent, penetrating, and far-sighted. In his bearing and conduct there were amazing indications of sageness. In the third year of the Grand Empress's administration of the Government, he was raised to the rank of Prince Imperial. Before this time, when the Emperor was in the womb, the Gods of Heaven and Earth granted to him the three Han. When he was born there was flesh growing on his arm in shape like an elbow-pad. As to this resemblance, the Empress judged that it was the elbow-pad worn as a manly accoutrement. Therefore he was styled by this name, and called the Emperor Homuda.
In the earliest antiquity, the tomo was commonly called Homuda.
One account says:—"In the beginning, when the Emperor was made Heir to the Throne, he went to the Land of Koshi, and did worship to the Great God of Tsutsuhi in Tsunoga. At this time the Great God and the Heir to the Throne exchanged names. Accordingly the Great God was called the God Isasa-wake and the Heir to the Throne Homuda wake no Mikoto.
In the 69th year of her administration of the Government, Summer, the 4th month, the Grand Empress died.
(X. 2.) (A.D. 270.) 1st year, Spring, 1st month, 1st day. The Prince Imperial assumed the Dignity. This year was the year Kanoye Tora (27th) of the Cycle.
(A.D. 271.) 2nd year, Spring, 3rd month, 3rd day. Nakatsuhime was appointed Empress. She gave birth to the Imperial Princess Arata, to the Emperor Oho-sazaki, and to the Imperial Prince Netori. Before this the Emperor had taken to him as concubine the Empress's younger sister, Takaki Iribime, who bore to him the Imperial Prince Nukada no Oho-naka-hiko, the Imperial Prince Oho-yama-mori, the Imperial Prince Iza no mawaka, the Imperial Princess Oho-hara, and the Imperial Princess Komida. Another concubine, a younger sister of the Empress, named Otohime, bore to him the Imperial Princess Abe, the Imperial Princess Ahaji no Mihara, and the Imperial Princess Ki no Uno. The next concubine, daughter of Hifure no Omi, the ancestor of the Wani no Omi, by name Miya-nushi-yaka-hime, bore the Imperial Prince Uji no Waka-iratsuko, the Imperial Princess Yata, and the Imperial Princess Medori. The next concubine, named Oname-hime, the younger sister of Yaka-bime, bore the Imperial Prince Uji no waka-iratsu-me. The next concubine, named Oto-hime, daughter of Kaha-mata Nakatsu hiko, bore the Imperial Prince Wakanoke Futa-mata. The next concubine, named Mago-hime, younger sister of Osabi, Muraji of the Sakurawi-da Be, bore the Imperial (X. 3.) Prince Hayabusa wake. The next concubine, named Naga-hime, of Idzumi in Hiuga, bore the Imperial Princes Oho-haye and Wo-haye.
In all the sons and daughters of this Emperor were together twenty Princes and Princesses. The Imperial Prince Netori was the first ancestor of the Kimi of Ohota. The Imperial Prince Oho-yama-mori was the first ancestor of the two families of the Kimi of Hiji-kata and the Kimi of Haibara. The Imperial Prince Iza no mawaka was the first ancestor of the Wake of Fukagaha.
(A.D. 272.) 3rd year, 10th month, 3rd day. The Eastern Yemishi all attended the Court with tribute. They were employed to make the Mŭma-zaka road.
11th month. The fishermen of several places clamoured noisily, and would not obey the Imperial command. So Oho-hama no Sukune, ancestor of the Muraji of Adzumi, was sent to subdue this clamour. He was accordingly made controller of the fishermen. This was the origin of the proverbial saying of the people of that time, viz. Sawa-ama or "clamorous fishermen."
This year King Sinsǎ of Pèkché was disrespectful to the Celestial Court. Therefore Ki no Tsuno no Sukune, Hata no (X. 4.) Yashiro no Sukune, Ishikaha no Sukune and Tsuku no Sukune were sent to call him to an account for his rudeness. Hereupon the people of Pèkché slew Sinsǎ by way of apology. Ki no Tsuno no Sukune and the others accordingly established Ahwa as king, and returned (to Japan).
(A.D. 274.) 5th year, Autumn, 8th month, 13th day. The various provinces were directed to establish Be of fishermen and Be of mountain wardens.
Winter, 10th month. The province of Idzu was charged with the duty of constructing a ship 10 rods in length. As soon as it was completed, it was launched on the sea for a trial. It floated lightly, and was as swift as a racer. Therefore that ship was called Karano.
[It is a mistake to make the ship called Karano because it was light and swift. Perhaps this is a corruption by men of later times of Karuno.]
(A.D. 275.) 6th year, Spring, 2nd month. The Emperor made a progress (X. 5.) to the province of Afumi. When he arrived near the Moor of Uji, he made a song, saying:—
When I look upon the moor of Kadzu
Both the hundred thousand fold abundant
House-places are visible,
And the land's acme is visible.
(A.D. 276.) 7th year, Autumn, 9th month. Men of Koryö, men of Pèkché, men of Imna, and men of Silla all together attended the Court. Orders were then given to Takechi no Sukune to take these various men of Han and make them dig a pond. Therefore the pond was given a name, and was called the pond of the men of Han.
(A.D. 278.) 8th year, Spring, 3rd month. Men of Pèkché attended Court.
The Pèkché record says:—"King Ahwa came to the throne and was disrespectful to the honourable country. Therefore we were despoiled of Chhim-mi-ta-ryö, Hyön-nam, Chi-chhim, Kong-na, and Eastern Han. Herewith Prince Chik-chi was sent to the Celestial Court in order to restore the friendship of former kings.
9th year, Summer, 4th month. Takechi no Sukune was sent to Tsukushi to inspect the people. Now Umashi no Sukune, Takechi no Sukune's younger brother, setting aside his elder brother, slandered him to the Emperor, (saying that) Takechi no Sukune had always designs upon the Empire. "I now hear," said he, "that while he is in Tsukushi, he is secretly plotting to that end, saying (to himself), 'Alone I will cut off Tsukushi, and will invite the three Han to come and do homage to me, so that finally I may possess the Empire.'"
Hereupon the Emperor straightway sent messengers to slay Takechi no Sukune. Now Takechi no Sukune cried out, (X. 6.) saying:—"I have not two hearts, but serve my prince with loyalty. What a calamity is this that I should die without a crime!"
Now there was a man named Maneko, ancestor of the Atahe of Iki, who in appearance strongly resembled Takechi no Sukune.' All by himself he grudged that Takechi no Sukune's innocent life should be vainly thrown away. So he spoke to Takechi no Sukune and said:—"Now the Great Minister serves his Prince with loyalty, and has not had a black heart. All the Empire knows this. I pray thee leave this place secretly, and, proceeding to the Court, personally unfold thine innocence. After this it will not be too late to die. Moreover the people of this time are always saying that thy slave resembles the Great Minister in appearance. Therefore I will now die in the place of the Great Minister, and so make clear the Great Minister's redness of heart." So he threw himself on his sword, and slew himself. Then Takechi no Sukune, alone, grieving greatly for him, secretly left Tsukushi, and embarking on the sea, went round by way of the Southern Ocean. Anchoring in the harbour of Ki, he hardly succeeded in making his way to the Court, where he explained his innocence. The Emperor forthwith questioned Takechi no Sukune along with Umashi no Sukune, upon which these two men were each obstinate, and wrangled with one another, so that it was impossible to ascertain the right and the wrong. The Emperor then gave orders to ask of the Gods of Heaven and Earth the ordeal by boiling water. Hereupon Takechi no Sukune and Umashi no Sukune went out together to the bank of the Shiki river, and underwent the ordeal of boiling water. Takechi no Sukune was victorious. Taking his cross-sword, he threw down Umashi no Sukune, and was at length about to slay him, when the Emperor ordered him to let him go. So he gave him to the ancestor of the Atahe of Kiï.
(A.D. 280.) (X. 7.) 11th year, Winter, 10th month. The Tsurugi, Kakaki, and Mumaya-zaka ponds were made.
This year there was a man who made representation to the Emperor, saying:—"There is in the land of Hiuga a maiden whose name is Kami-naga-hime. She is the daughter of Ushi-morowi, the Kimi of Muragata. She is distinguished for beauty over all the Land." The Emperor was pleased, and wished in his heart to obtain her.
(A.D. 282.) 13th year, Spring, 3rd month. The Emperor sent a special messenger to summon Kami-naga-hime.
Autumn, 9th month. Kami-naga-hime arrived from Hiuga, and was straightway settled at the village of Kuhadzu. Now the Imperial Prince, Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, when he saw Kami-naga-hime, was struck with the beauty of her form, and had a constant love for her. Hereupon the Emperor became aware of Oho-sazaki no Mikoto's passion for Kami-naga-hime, and wished to unite her to him. Therewith the Emperor, on the day that he gave a banquet in the hinder palace, sent for Kami-naga-hime for the first time, and so gave her the upper seat in the banqueting-room. Then he brought in Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, and pointing to Kami-naga-hime, made a song, saying:—
Come! my son!
On the moor, garlic to gather,
Garlic to gather
On the way as I went,
Pleasing of perfume
Was the orange in flower.
Its branches beneath
Men had all plundered,
Its branches above
(X. 8.) Birds perching had withered.
[Of three chestnuts]
Midmost, its branches
Held in their hiding
A blushing maiden.
Come! and for thee, my son,
Let her burst into blossom.
Hereupon Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, being favoured with this poetry, forthwith understood that he was receiving Kami-naga-hime as a gift; and, greatly delighted, made a song in reply, saying:—
In the pond of Yosami
Where the water collects,
The marsh-rope coils
Were growing, but I knew not of them:
In the river-fork stream,
The water-caltrops shells
Were pricking me, but I knew not of them.
Oh, my heart!
How very ridiculous thou wert!
Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, after the consummation of his union with Kami-naga-hime, was very attentive to her, and when he was alone with her, made a song, saying:—
The maid of Kohada
Of the further province!
As of a God
Though I had heard of her,
We are folded in each other's arms.
Again he made a song, saying:—
The maid of Kohada
Of the further province—
Oh! how I love her
(X. 9.) As she lies
One account says:—"Ushi, the Kimi of Morogata in Hiuga, was in the service of the Court. But having become old in years, he was unable to serve, and so, having ceased his service, he retired to his own land. Thereupon he offered the Emperor his own daughter, Kami-naga-hime. When she first arrived at Harima, the Emperor had made a progress to the island of Ahaji, and was hunting there. Hereupon the Emperor, looking towards the west, saw several tens of stags swimming towards him over the sea. Presently they entered the harbour of Kako in Harima. The Emperor addressed his courtiers, saying:—'What stags are these which come in numbers swimming over the great sea?' Then the courtiers all looked at them and wondered. So a messenger was sent to make examination. The messenger, when he came there, saw that they were all men, only they had for clothing deer-skins with the horns attached. He inquired of them, saying:—'What men are ye?' They replied, saying:—'Ushi, the Kimi of Morogata, being old in years, has ceased his service, but he cannot forget the Court. Therefore he offers his own daughter, Kami-naga-hime.' The Emperor was delighted, and sending for her, made her follow the Imperial ship. For this reason, the men of that time called the place where they reached the shore the harbour of Kako It was perhaps at this time that the practice began of using the word kako as a general name for sailors."
(A.D. 283.) 14th year, Spring, 2nd month. The King of Pèkché sent as tribute a seamstress named Maketsu. She was the first ancestress of the present seamstresses of Kume. This year the (X. 10.) Lord of Yutsuki came from Pèkché and offered his allegiance. Accordingly he addressed the Emperor, saying:—"Thy servant was coming to offer allegiance with one hundred and twenty districts of the people of his own land, when the men of Silla prevented them, and they were all forced to remain in the land of Kara." Hereupon Katsuraki no Sotsuhiko was sent to bring the men of Yutsuki from Kara. Now three years passed, and Sotsuhiko did not come.
(A.D. 284.) 15th year, Autumn, 8th month, 6th day. The King of Pèkché sent A-chik-ki with two quiet horses as tribute. So they were fed in stables on the acclivity of Karu. Accordingly A-chik-ki was appointed to have charge of their foddering. Therefore the place where the horses were kept was named Mumaya-saka. Moreover, A-chik-ki was able to read the classics, and so the Heir Apparent, Uji no Waka-iratsuko, made him his teacher. Hereupon the Emperor inquired of A-chik-ki, saying:—"Are there other learned men superior to thee?" He answered and said:—"There is Wang-in, who is superior." Then Areda wake, ancestor of the Kimi of Kōdzuke, and Kamu nagi wake were sent to Pèkché to summon Wang-in.
(X. 11.) This A-chik-ki was the first ancestor of the A-chik-ki (or Atogi) no Fumi-bito.
(A.D. 285.) 16th year, Spring, 2nd month. Wang-in arrived, and straightway the Heir Apparent, Uji no Waka-iratsuko, took him as teacher, and learnt various books from him. There was none which he did not thoroughly understand. Therefore the man called Wang-in was the first ancestor of the Fumi no Obito.
In this year King Ahwa of Pèkché died. The Emperor then sent for Prince Työn-chi, and addressed him, saying:—"Do thou return to thy country and succeed to the (royal) Dignity."
Accordingly he further granted to him the territory of Eastern Han, and so dismissed him.
Eastern Han comprises Kam-na-syöng, Ko-nan-syöng, and I-rim-syöng.
8th month. Kidzu no Sukune of Heguri and Tada no Sukune of Ikuba were sent to Kara. Choice troops were granted them, and the Emperor commanded them, saying:—(X. 12.) "The long delay in Sotsuhiko's return must be owing to his being detained by the opposition of the men of Silla. Do you go speedily, assail Silla, and open a way for him." Hereupon Kidzu no Sukune and his colleague moved forward their choice troops and arrived at the Silla frontier. The King of Silla was afraid, and confessed his guilt, so they brought away with them the people of Kungwöl and Sotsuhiko.
(A.D. 288.) 19th year, Winter, 10th month, 1st day. The Emperor made a progress to the Palace of Yoshino. At this time the Kuzu came to his Court, and presenting to the Emperor newly-brewed sake, made a song, saying:—
When the song was finished, they drummed on their mouths and looked up laughing. At the present time, on the day that the Kuzu present their country's produce to the Emperor, when their song is finished they drum on their mouths and look up laughing. This custom is probably a relic of antiquity. Now the Kuzu are very plain and honest in character. They commonly gather wild berries for food, and they also boil frogs, (X. 13.) which they reckon a great dainty, calling them kebi. Their country lies to the south-east of the capital, on the other side of a mountain. There they dwell by the River Yoshino (amid) steep cliffs and deep ravines. The roads are narrow, with deep hollows. Therefore, although the distance from the capital is not great, their visits to Court had been rare. However, from this time forward they came frequently, bringing the produce of their country to present to the Emperor. This produce consists of such things as chestnuts, mushrooms, and trout.
(A.D. 289.) 20th year, Autumn, 9th month. Achi no Omi, ancestor of (X. 14.) the Atahe of the Aya of Yamato, and his son Tsuga no Omi immigrated to Japan, bringing with them a company of their people of seventeen districts.
(A.D. 291.) 22nd year, Spring, 3rd month, 5th day. The Emperor made a progress to Naniha, where he dwelt in the Palace of Oho-sumi.
10th day. He ascended a lofty tower and had a distant prospect. Now he was attended by his concubine Yehime, who, looking towards the west, lamented loudly. Hereupon the Emperor inquired of Yehime, saying:—"Why dost thou lament so bitterly?" She answered and said:—"Of late thy handmaiden has been thinking fondly of her father and mother, and so, looking towards the west, unawares she made lament. I pray thee let me return for a while that I may see my parents." Hereupon the Emperor loved Yehime's tender thought for the warmth and coolness of her parents, and addressing her, said:—"Many years have passed since thou hast seen thy parents. It is clearly right that thou shouldst wish to return and visit them." So he granted her permission, and summoning eighty fishermen of Mihara in Ahaji and making sailors of them, sent her to Kibi.
Summer, 4th month. Yehime set sail from Ohotsu and departed.
(X. 15.) The Emperor, standing on the high tower, looked towards Yehime's ship and made a song, saying:—
Autumn, 9th month, 6th day. The Emperor hunted in the Island of Ahaji. This island lies beyond the sea to the west of Naniha. There is a confusion of peaks and cliffs; hills and valleys succeed to one another. Fragrant herbs grow luxuriantly; it is washed by the long billows. Moreover, great deer, wild ducks, and wild geese are abundant in that island. Therefore the Emperor made frequent excursions thither. Now the Emperor, going round by way of Ahaji, made a progress to Kibi and went on an excursion to the Island of Adzuki.
11th day. He again removed his dwelling to the Palace of (X. 16.) Ashimori in Hata. Then Mitomo wake presented himself and entertained the Emperor, employing his brother, children and grandchildren as stewards. Hereupon the Emperor, observing the reverential fear with which Mitomo wake waited on him, was pleased, and accordingly, having divided the province of Kibi, granted it in fee to his children; that is to say, dividing off the district of Kahashima, he granted it to the eldest son, Inehaya wake. He was the first ancestor of the Omi of Shimo-tsu-michi. Next he took the district of Kamu-tsu-michi and granted it to the middle son, Nakatsuhiko. He was the first ancestor of the Omi of Kamu-tsu-michi and of the Omi of Kaya. Next he took the district of Mino and granted it to Otohiko. He was the first ancestor of the Omi of Mino. Afterwards he took the district of Hakuke and granted it to Ahiru wake, the younger brother of Mitomo wake. He was the first ancestor of (X. 17.) the Omi of Kasa. Accordingly he took the district of Sono and granted it to his elder brother, Urakori wake. He was the first ancestor of the Atahe of Sono. And taking the district of Hatori-be, he granted it to Yehime. Wherefore his descendants dwell to this day in the Land of Kibi. This is the reason of it.
(A.D. 294.) 25th year. King Työn-chi of Pèkché died. Accordingly his son Ku-ni-sin became King. The King was a child. Therefore Mong-man-chi of Yamato took the administration of the State. He had an intrigue with the King's mother, and his conduct was in many ways improper. The Emperor hearing this, sent for him.
The Pèkché record says:—"Mong-man-chi was the son of Mong-na Keunchă, born to him of a Silla woman when he invaded that country. The great services of his father gave him absolute authority in Imna. He came into our country and went back and forward to the honourable country, accepting the control of the Celestial Court. He seized the administration of our country, and his power was supreme in that day. The Emperor, hearing of his violence, recalled him."
(A.D. 297.) 28th year, Autumn, 9th month. The King of Koryö sent an envoy to the Court with tribute. He presented an address, in which it was said:—"The King of Koryö instructs the Land of (X. 18.) Nippon." Now the Heir Apparent, Uji no Waka-iratsuko, read this address and was enraged. He reproached the Koryö envoy with the rudeness of the address and tore it up."
(A.D. 300.) 31st year, Autumn, 8th month. The Emperor commanded his ministers, saying:—"The Government ship named Karano was sent as tribute by the Land of Idzu. It is rotten, and unfit for use. It has, however, been in Government use for a long time, and its services should not be forgotten. Shall we not keep the name of that ship from being lost, and hand it down to after ages?" The ministers, on receiving this command, made the functionaries take the timber of that ship and use it as firewood for roasting salt. Herewith they got five hundred baskets of salt, which were freely given away to the various provinces, and the latter were accordingly caused to build ships. Upon this, all the provinces at the same time sent up ships as tribute, to the number of five hundred, which all assembled in the harbour of Muko. At this time the Silla tribute-envoys were stopping along with them at Muko. Hereupon, of a sudden, fire broke out in the Silla lodgings. It presently spread to the fleet of ships, so that many of them were burnt. In consequence of this, the Silla men were called to an account. The King of Silla, when he heard of it, was afraid, and, greatly alarmed, sent tribute of skilful workmen. They were the first ancestors of the Wina Be. In the beginning, when the ship Karano was burnt as firewood for making salt, some was left over from the burning. It was thought strange that it did not burn, and it was accordingly presented to the Emperor. The Emperor wondered at it, and had it made into a koto, which had a ringing note, and could be heard afar off. Then the Emperor made a song, saying:—
(X. 19.) (The ship) Karano
Was burnt for salt:
Of the remainder
A koto was made.
When it is played on,
(One hears) the saya-saya
Of the summer trees
Brushing against, as they stand,
The rocks of the mid-harbour—
The harbour of Yura.
Now Achi no Omi and his companions crossed over to the Land of Koryö, and endeavoured to reach Wu. But on arriving at Koryö they knew not the road at all, and begged Koryö to give them persons who knew the road. The King of Koryö sent with them as guides two men called Kureha and Kureshi. In this way they were enabled to reach Wu. The King of Wu thereupon gave them four women as workwomen, namely Ye-hime, Oto-hime, Kure-hatori and Ana-hatori.
(A.D. 308.) 39th year, Spring, 2nd month. The King of Pèkché sent his younger sister, the Lady Sin-chă-to, to wait upon (the Emperor as his concubine). Now the Lady Sin-chă-to came over, bringing in her train seven women.
(X. 20.) (A.D. 309.) 40th year, Spring, 1st month, 8th day. The Emperor summoned to him Oho-yama-mori no Mikoto and Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, and inquired of them, saying:—"Do ye love your children?" They answered and said:—"We love them exceedingly." Again he inquired:—"Which are most dear—the elder ones or the younger?" Oho-yama-mori no Mikoto answered and said:—"There is none like the elder." On this the Emperor showed displeasure. Then Oho-sazaki no Mikoto, who had previously observed the Emperor's expression of face, answered and said:—"The older has experienceel many colds and heats, and has already become a man, so that there is no reason for anxiety about him. But in the case of a young child one knows not whether he will reach manhood or not, and for that reason he is very pitiable." The Emperor was greatly pleased and said:—"Thy words are truly in accordance with my feelings." At this time it was the Emperor's constant desire to establish Uji no Vaka-iratsuko as Prince Imperial, and so he wished to conciliate the minds of the two Imperial Princes. Therefore he started this inquiry. On this account he was displeased with Oho-yama-mori no Mikoto's answer.
24th day. Uji no Waka-iratsuko was established as successor (to the throne). On the same day Oho-yama-mori no Mikoto was appointed to the charge of the mountains, rivers, woods, and moors, while Oho-sazaki no Mikoto was made Assistant to the Prince Imperial, and caused to administer affairs of State.
(A.D. 297.) 41st year, Spring, 2nd month, 15th day. The Emperor died in the Palace of Toyo-Akira at the age of 110.
One account says:—"He died in the Palace of Oho-kuma."
In this month Achi no Omi and his companions arrived in Tsukushi from Wu. Now the Great God of Muna-gata asked for workwomen. Therefore Ane-hime was offered to the Great God of Muna-gata. She was the ancestor of the Mitsukahi no Kimi, who now dwell in the Land of Tsukushi. He then took with him the three women, and proceeded to the Land of Tsu. But when he reached Muko the Emperor was dead and he was too late. Accordingly he offered them to Oho-sazaki no Mikoto. The descendants of these women are the present seamstresses of Kure and the seamstresses of Kaya.
- Responding to the Gods.
- The "Kojiki" calls him Homuda wake. Homuda or Honda is the name of a place.
- 17th of the Cycle.
- The tomo or leather shield worn on the fore-arm by archers as a protection against the recoil of the bow-string.
- There is a Semitic practice of men adopting Gods' names.
- Cf. Ch. K., p. 243, which makes 26 children, and differs in some details.
- The "Tongkam," under date A.D. 392, has the following:—"10th month. The king of Pèkché went to hunt on Ku-wön (dog-moor). Ten days elapsed without his returning. 11th month. King Sinsǎ of Pèkché died in his travelling palace on Dog-moor. Ahwa, son of King Chhim-nyu, came to the throne." Note that the Corean and Japanese chronologies differ by exactly 20 years, or two cycles. But the two stories are apparently irreconcilable. See below, XI. 26.
- Gamekeepers or huntsmen, whose business it was to supply the Imperial table.
- Of ten feet.
- Kara means withered, and no, moor, or the latter may be put phonetically for no the genitive particle. Karu means light. The "Shukai" editor rejects this note.
- From Ch. K., p. 245, q.v.
- The traditional kana rendering has Koma, Kudara, Mimana and Shiraki.
- Or "men of Kara." Compare Ch. K., p. 252.
- See above, p. 256, where it is said that it was King Sinsǎ who was disrespectful.
- The "Tongkam" calls him Työnchi, and places this event in 397.
- i.e. you.
- The long-haired lady.
- i.e. the women's apartments.
- This is a mere makura-kotoba of little or no meaning.
- In the "Kojiki" this poem is attributed to the Emperor. See Ch. K., p. 249. The marsh-rope is the Brasenia peltata, according to Chamberlain. The general meaning of the poem seems to be: "What a fool I was to be in such despair as to be unconscious of bodily suffering, while happiness was all the while near me!"
- Kako is written with characters which mean deer-little-one.
- I have here followed the traditional kana pronunciation. The Corean pronunciation of the Chinese characters would be Chin-mo-chin. Another reading makes two women.
- In Yamato.
- Yutsuki is the traditional rendering of the characters 弓月. This in Corean would be Kung-wöl.
- But he was not the heir. Oho-sazaki was heir. See Ch. K., pp. 254 and 257.
- The traditional reading is Wani, which is also found in the "Kojiki."
- There are clear indications that the Chinese language and character were not wholly unknown in Japan from a time which may be roughly put as coinciding with the Christian epoch. But this knowledge was probably confined to a few interpreters. There were no schools, and no official records. The arrival of Wangin was therefore a most important event in Japanese history. It was the beginning of a training in Chinese ideas which has exercised a profound influence on the whole current of Japanese thought and civilization up to our own day.
The date given for it in the "Nihongi," however, cannot be correct. As I have endeavoured to show in a paper on "Early Japanese History," contributed to the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Wangin's arrival must be placed 120 years later, i.e. in 405 instead of in 285. Whether the whole chronology of this period requires to be altered accordingly, as I am disposed to believe, or only the dates of those events which relate to Corea, is a question which has not yet received an adequate answer. It is curious that the "Kiujiki" omits all mention of them.
Corea preceded Japan by only a very short time in the establishment of schools of Chinese learning and in the institution of official records. Kokuryö established a High School in 372, and Pèkché appointed a Professor of Chinese two years later. Before this time, says the "Tongkam," Pèkché had no written records. See "Writing, Printing, and Alphabet in Corea," "J.R.A.S.," 1895.
A-chik-ki is the Corean pronunciation of the characters 阿直岐. The traditional rendering in kana is Achiki or Atogi. The "Kojiki" calls him Achi-Kishi, where Kishi is written 吉師, the name of a Corean rank of no great eminence.
- Fumi no obito, chiefs of writing.
- Prince Työn-chi. The "Nihongi" has 直支 here and below (25th year), which would be in Corean Chik-chi. But 直 is a mistake for 腆, the former character having slipped in from the name of the horse-keeper mentioned above.
- The following are the notices in the "Tongkam" relating to Prince Työnchi's being sent to Japan:—
(A.D. 397.) "Reign of Ahwa, 6th year, Summer, 5th month. Pèkché made friends with Wa. Työnchi, the Heir Apparent, was sent as a hostage."
(A.D. 405.) "Reign of Ahwa, 14th year, Autumn, 9th month. King Ahwa of Pèkché died. The Heir Apparent Työnchi had not returned from Wa, whither he had gone as a hostage. Työnchi's next younger brother, Hunhè, administered the Government in expectation of the Heir Apparent's return. The youngest brother, Syöl-lyé, slew Hunhè, and set himself up as King. When Työnchi heard of the King's death, he wept bitterly, and asked permission to return. The Lord of Wa gave Työnchi one hundred soldiers as an escort. When he arrived at the frontier, a man of Hansyöng (The present capital of Söul.) named Hè-chhung came to meet him, and said:—'The Great King (Ahwa) having left this world, Syöl-lyé slew his elder brother and set up himself as King, I pray that the Heir Apparent will promptly take measures for this.' Työnchi guarded by the Wa soldiers, repaired to an island in the sea and made provision there while the people of the land killed Syöl-lyé, and going to meet (Työnchi), established him as King." "Tongkam," III. 14.
- Syöng means a walled city
- Or Yutsuki.
- In the south of Yamato.
- Local chieftains.
- It is not clear what a cross-mortar was. Vide Ch. K., p. 251.
- The word translated father is chi, which is also used more generally as a term of respect. Perhaps "Lord" might be better here.
- Seventeen was their number in later times, according to the Yengi Shiki.
- Aya is the traditional Japanese rendering of 漢, i.e. Han, the name of a Chinese dynasty. No satisfactory explanation of the reason why this character should be read aya has been given. As a mere guess, I would suggest that Hada or hata for 秦 (Ts'in), Kure for Wu 呉 and Aya for Han may have been names given from the textile products with which these three Chinese dynasties, or the emigrants, may have been associated; Hada or Hata meaning loom or cloth generally, Kure, dyed stuffs (for Kurenawi, pink or scarlet), and Aya, figured stuffs. There were numerous weavers among the Corean (or Chinese) emigrants to Japan. See below, A.D. 306. For Kure, another derivation is that which makes it mean "distant," a sense in which it occurs more than once in the "Manyōshiu," and in a poem in the "Nihongi," Reign of Saimei, year 4.
This family was called the Aya of Yamato to distinguish it from another family of the same name in Kahachi. These two families were also known respectively as the Higashi no Aya, or Eastern Aya, and the Nishi no Aya, or Western Aya.
Motoöri ("Kojikiden," XXXIII. 39) shows that, like other events relating to Corea in this part of the "Nihongi," this immigration must be dated years later.
The Yamato Aya claimed descent from the Emperor Ling-ti of the Later Han dynasty, who reigned A.D. 168 to 190. We are told that on the fall of that dynasty in 221, Prince Achi fled to Corea whence he subsequently emigrated to Japan; but how much of this is true it is impossible to say. Cf. Ch. K., p. 253.
- thoughtfulness for her parents' comfort.
- Ohotsu is literally "great port." Perhaps Ohosaka is meant.
- Showing a double row of mountain peaks.
- The sixth line of the original is unintelligible.
- Riding in his carriage, says the original, a Chinese expression which is not meant to be taken literally.
- Shimo-tsu-michi means the lower road, i.e. the part of the province furthest from the capital. Kamu-tsu-michi, on the other hand, is the higher road—the part nearest the capital.
- Middle prince.
- Younger prince.
- If we take a broad view of Japanese History we shall recognize in it a constant oscillation between two forms of government. At one time there
is a strong central authority with local governors removable at pleasure or at short intervals. By degrees the latter offices become hereditary and more
independent of the throne, so that eventually a sort of feudal system is the
result. Then the pendulum swings back again, and under a strong ruler the old centralized government is restored, while the local nobles, deprived of effective authority, retain their titles only.
Notwithstanding the numerous imperfections of the record, it is clear that in Ôjin's reign the feudal system prevailed. Towards the end of the seventh century, again, we find a much more centralized form of government. The Revolution of 1868 is a remarkable example of a rapid change from a feudal system to a strong central government. The converse process is always far more gradual.
- The "Tongkam" gives A.D. 420 as the year of Työn-chi's death. The usual difference of 120 years is therefore not exactly realized in this case.
- Or Great Wa. 大倭.
- See above, p. 249. This does not look like a Japanese name.
- If this story were true, it would have to be dated 120 years later. But
even then Koryö was still Kokuryö. The name Koryö did not come into official use till A.D. 918, though as a literary designation examples of it may be found as early as A.D. 500. Koryö, however, is out of place in an ostensible quotation from a formal official document of this period, and shows that this story is untrue or much garbled.
The term Nippon for Japan is also an anachronism. It was not officially notified to Corea until A.D. 670, though there are examples of its use earlier in the same century.
Waka-iratsuko did not become Heir Apparent until A.D. 309 (of the "Nihongi" chronology), and as he is there alluded to as being of tender years, he must have been at this time a somewhat precocious prince.
- See above, p. 257.
- Hiōgo, or some place in the vicinity, is meant.
- A place in Settsu.
- Saya-saya is an onomatopoetic word for rustling, equivalent to the French frou-frou.
Yura is in Ahaji. Cf. Ch. K., 285.
- They were Coreans. See above, p. 264.
- Wu 呉, called by the Japanese Go or Kure, was a Chinese dynasty, the last sovereign of which was deposed A.D. 280, long before the despatch of these envoys. We learn, however from a note to the "Shukai" edition that this appellation was applied (perhaps popularly) to all the six dynasties established at Nanking or the neighbourhood from Wu to Chên inclusive, i.e. from A.D. 229 to 589. To this day a draper's shop is called in Japan a Go-fuku-ya, or "house for Go-clothing."
- The Chinese characters given in the text seem to be only Japanese phonetic renderings of the names, and I have therefore not given them their Corean sounds, which would be Ku-nyé-pha and Ku-nyé-chi. But they do not look like real names. They appear to be made up of Kure, the name of the dynasty, or rather of the country ruled by it, and a termination.
- Some local authority must be intended.
- These names mean respectively "elder lady," "younger lady," "Kure weaver," and "hole weaver." But Ana, hole, is probably a mistake for Aya, the Japanese name of the Chinese Han dynasty. Wu (or Kure) and Han (or Aya) weavers are mentioned together below, year 14 of Yuriaku's reign. See also above, p. 265.
- The Japanese traditional reading is Shi-se-tsu. The "Shukai" edition rejects the name Chikchi, which in the older editions follows Pèkché. It is not in the old books, and besides his death has been already recorded above.
- He was the son of an inferior consort.
- His name, Great-mountain-warden, already indicates this office. There is a distinction between the characters for Mikoto applied to the elder and younger brothers, the latter having the more honorific character no doubt because he afterwards became Emperor. See above, p. 2.
- The "Kojiki" says 130. He was deified at a later period under the name of Yahata or Hachiman as the God of War, and there are many shrines in his honour standing at this day.
- In Chikuzen.
- Mitsukahi means "august messenger."
- Kaya is written with the characters for "Musquito-net." There is a place in Bittchiu of this name, but written with different characters.