Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697/Book XXVII

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Pub. for the Society by K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, pages 274–300

BOOK XXVII.

THE EMPREROR AME MIKOTO HIRAKASU WAKE.[1]

(TENCHI[2] TENNŌ.)

The Emperor Ame mikoto hirakasu wake was the eldest son of the Emperor Okinaga tarashi-hi hiro-nuka.[3] His mother was called the Empress Ame toyo-takara ikashi-hi tarashi-hime.[4] In the fourth year of her reign, the Empress Ame toyo-takara ikashi-hi tarashi-hime resigned the Dignity to the Emperor Ame-yorodzu toyo-hi,[5] and established the Emperor[6] as Prince Imperial. The Emperor Ame-yorodzu toyo-hi died in the tenth month of his later fifth year.[7] In the following year the Empress Dowager assumed the Imperial Dignity. She died in the seventh year of her reign, on the 24th day of the 7th month. The Prince Imperial, clad in white garments,[8] discharged the functions of government.[9]

In this month General Su, the Turkic Prince Ch'ipichiali[10] and others proceeded by two routes—land and sea—as far as (XXVII. 2.) the Koryö walled city.[11]

The Prince Imperial removed his residence to the Palace of Nagatsu, where by degrees he attended to the organization of the foreign war.

In the 8th month he sent the generals of the Front Division, Adzumi no Hirafu no Muraji, of Lower Daikwa rank, and Kahabe no Momoye no Omi, of Lower Shōkwa rank, and the generals of the Rear Division, Abe no Hikeda no Hirafu no Omi, of Lower Daikwa rank, Kuma, Mononobe no Muraji, of Upper Daisen rank, and Oho-ishi, Mori no Kimi, of Upper Daisen rank, to the assistance of Pèkché. He also sent arms and grain.

Another book adds here:—"He sent separately Ajimasa, Sawi no Muraji, of Lower Daisen rank, and Takutsu, Hada no Miyakko, of Lower Shōsen rank, for the protection of Pèkché."

9th month. The Prince Imperial, while having his Court at the Palace of Nagatsu, conferred a cap of woven stuff[12] on Phung-chhyang, the Pèkché Prince. Moreover he gave him to wife the younger sister of Komoshiki, Oho no Omi. He accordingly sent Ajimasa, Sawi no Muraji, of Lower Daisen rank, and Takutsu, Hada no Miyakko, in command of a force of more than five thousand men to escort him to his own country. Now when Phung-chhyang arrived in his country, Pok-sin came to meet him, and bowing his head to the ground, delivered to him the government of the land, entrusting to him everything without exception.

Cloud-chariot.

Cloud-chariot.

12th month. Information (XXVII. 3.) was received from Koryö that in this 12th month the cold in that country was so intense that the River Phè-kang[13] was frozen. Therefore the Thang army made an uproar with drums and gongs, cloud-chariots[14] and battering-engines. The Koryö troops were brave and stalwart, and therefore re-took two of the Thang forts. There were only two left, which they prepared to take by a night attack. The Thang soldiers, nursing their knees, wept aloud. But their (the Koryö men's?) arms were blunted and their strength exhausted, so that they were unable to take them.[15] If this is not a case of navel-biting[16] disgrace, what is?

The priest To-hyön says:—"To describe the intentions of Chhyun-chhyu[17]—He was really about to begin with Koryö, and he first made it known to Pèkché. The close attack of Pèkché was exceedingly urgent and distressing, therefore it is so stated."[18]

Battering-engine.

Battering-engine.

In this year Maro, Kishida no Omi, Governor of the province of Harima, and others, presented a precious sword, saying:—"It was found in a hole in the millet-field of a man of the district of Saya."

Moreover, when the generals for assisting Koryö cast anchor at the beach of Kaphari in Pèkché, they lit a fire. The ashes became changed and formed a hole, from which there issued a thin noise like that of a sounding arrow.[19] Some said that this was an omen of the ultimate downfall of Koryö and Pèkché.

(A.D. 662.) 1st year, Spring, 1st month, 27th day. A grant was made to the Kwisil Pok-sin, Minister of Pèkché, of 100,000 arrows, 500 kin of raw silk, 1000 kin of floss silk, 1000 tan of cloth, 1000 hides of leather, and 3000 koku[20] of seed-rice.

(XXVII. 4.) 3rd month, 4th day. The Emperor presented to the King of Pèkché 300 tan of cloth.

In this month the men of Thang and the men of Silla invaded Koryö. Koryö asked aid from our Government, and generals were sent, who occupied the walled city of Sonyu. Owing to this, the men of Thang were unable to conquer the southern territory, while Silla was prevented from overthrowing the fortresses to the west.

Summer, 4th month. A rat brought forth young in a horse's tail. The Buddhist priest Tohyön divined, saying:—"The men of the North are about to attach themselves to the Southern Country." Perhaps (he meant) that Koryö, being beaten, would become a vassal of Japan.

5th month. The General-in-Chief, Adzumi no Hirafu no Muraji, of Lower Daikin rank, and others, in command of a fleet of 170 ships, escorted Phung-chhyang and his people to the Land of Pèkché, where, by an Imperial edict, he was made to take up the succession to the (royal) Dignity. Moreover a golden tablet was conferred on Pok-sin, his back was stroked, and he was praised and an honorary grant made to him. At this time Phung-chhyang and his people, and also Pok-sin, received the Imperial decree with their heads bowed to the ground, so that everybody shed tears.

6th month, 28th day. Pèkché sent the Talsol, Manchi, and others to offer tribute and bring presents.

Winter, 12th month, 1st day. Phung-chhyang of Pèkché, his Minister Pok-sin, and others held counsel with Sawi no Muraji and Yechi no Takutsu, saying:—"This Chyu-yu[21] is (XXVII. 5.) far away from cultivated lands. The soil is unfertile, and there is no land suitable for agriculture or for the mulberry tree. It is simply a stronghold for defensive warfare. If we were to remain here long, the people would starve. We should remove to Phi-syöng. Phi-syöng is girt on the north and west by the Rivers Ko-nyön and Tan-kyöng, while on the south and east it is protected by deep mud and high earthworks. It is encompassed on all sides by rice-fields, to which the rain-water is drawn down by cutting canals. Its produce of flowers and fruit is the fairest of all the three Kingdoms of Corea. A source of food and clothing, it is a choice situation favoured by the two first principles.[22] It may be said that it lies low, but why should this prevent us from removing thither?" Upon this Yechi no Takutsu alone stood forward and objected, saying:—"The distance between Phi-syöng and the position occupied by the enemy can be covered in one night's march. This is extremely near. Should a surprise take place, regrets would be useless. Now starvation is a secondary matter; destruction demands our first attention. The reason why the enemy do not now rashly approach is that Chyu-yu has taken advantage of a scarped hill by which it is thoroughly well fortified. The cliffs are high and the ravines narrow. This makes it easy to defend and difficult to attack. But if we occupied the low ground, how should the country have remained undisturbed up to this day?" In the end, they refused to listen to his remonstrances and made Phi-syöng the capital.

This year, in order to assist Pèkché, arms were put in order, (XXVII. 6.) ships fitted out, and stores of army provisions prepared.

This year was the year Midzunoye Inu (59th) of the Cycle.

(A.D. 663.) 2nd year, Spring, 2nd month, 2nd day. Pèkché sent the Talsol, Kim-syu, and others to offer tribute. Silla men wasted by fire four districts of the southern border of Pèkché. They also captured Antök and other strong positions. This being so, the enemy were not far from Phi-syöng,[23] and this position became therefore untenable, so they came back again and occupied Chyu-yu, in accordance with Takutsu's policy.

In this month, the Minister Pok-sin sent up (to the Emperor) Hsŭ Shou-yen and other Thang prisoners.

3rd month. Wakugo, Kamitsukenu no Kimi, and Ohobuta, Hashibito no Muraji, Generals of the Front Division, Wosa, Kose no Kamusaki no Omi, and Nemaro, Miwa no Kimi, generals of the Middle Division, and Hirafu, Abe no Hikeda no Omi, and Kamatsuka,[24] Ohoyake no Omi, Generals of the Rear Division, were sent in command of 27,000 men to invade Silla.

Summer, 5th month, 1st day. Inugami no Kimi, who had hurried to Koryö to give information of warlike matters, on his way back saw Kyu-hè[25] at the walled city of Syök-syöng. Kyu-hè accordingly told him of Pok-sin's guilt.

6th month. Wakugo, Kamitsukenu no Kimi, General of the Front Division, and the others, took two cities of Silla named Sapi and Kinokang. Phung-chhyang, King of Pèkché, suspecting Pok-sin of harbouring treasonous intentions, bound him with a leathern strap passed through his palms. But he was unable to come to a decision of himself, and did not know what to do. So he inquired of his Ministers, saying:—"Pok-sin's guilt has been so and so. Shall he be beheaded, or not?" (XXVII. 7.) Upon this, the Talsol, Tök Chip-tök, said:—"This traitor ought not to be let off." Pok-sin forthwith spat upon Chip-tök and said:—"Thou worthless dog! Thou idiotic slave!" The King compelled his stout fellows to execute him and to put his head in pickle.

Autumn, 8th month, 13th day. Silla, taking advantage of the King of Pèkché having put to death his own good general, laid plans to enter that country direct, and first of all to capture Chyu-yu. Now Pèkché learnt the enemy's plan, and addressed his generals, saying:—"I now hear that Omi, Ihohara no Kimi, the auxiliary general of the Land of Great[26] Japan, in command of more than 10,000 stout fellows, is on the point of arriving hither by sea. I hope that you, my generals, will take such measures as are suitable in advance. I intend myself to proceed to Pèkchon and give him seasonable entertainment."

17th day. The hostile generals arrived before Chyu-yu and encompassed the Royal city. The Thang generals, in command of 170 fighting ships, drew up in line of battle in the Pèkchon river.[27] The Japanese warships which first arrived engaged the Thang fleet, but had not the advantage, and therefore retired. Great Thang stood on its guard in strict order of battle.

7th day. The Japanese generals and the Pèkché King, regardless of the aspect of affairs, said to one another:—"If we struggle which shall get first, they will naturally retire of themselves." So they again led forward the routed Japanese ranks, and the troops of the Middle Division of their force, to attack the Great Thang fleet. But Thang closed upon their vessels from right and left, and engaged them from all sides. In a short space of time the Imperial force was defeated, and many fell into the water and were drowned. The ships were (XXVII. 8.) unable to manœuvre either astern or ahead. Yechi no Takutsu looked up to heaven and made oaths; he gnashed his teeth, and in his rage slew several tens of men. He then fell fighting. At this time King Phung-chhyang of Pèkché with a number of others, embarked in a ship and fled to Koryö.

9th month, 7th day. Not until now did the Pèkché city of Chyu-yu surrender to Thang. Then the people of that country said to one another:—"Chyu-yu has fallen; there is nothing more to be done; this day the name of Pèkché has become extinct. Shall we ever visit again the place where the tombs (of our ancestors) are? Let us, however, repair to the city of Ho-nyé and meet there with the Japanese generals, so as to concert with them the measures required by the circumstances." In the end the wives and children, who had from the first remained in the walled town of Chhim-pok-ki, were informed of their intention to quit the country.

11th day. They set out for Muho.

13th day. They arrived at Ho-nyé.[28]

24th day. The Japanese fleet, with the (Pèkché) Minister Yö Chă-sin, and the Talsol, Mok-so Kwi-chă, Kong-na Chin-syu, and Öng-nyé Pong-nyu, along with the people of the country, arrived at the city of Ho-nyé. The next day they (XXVII. 9.) set sail, and at length bent their course towards Japan.

(A.D. 664.) 3rd year, Spring, 2nd month, 9th day. The Emperor,[29] by orders to the Prince Imperial, his younger brother, announced an augmentation and revision of the caps denoting official rank, and also an increase in the designations of the grades, as well as matters relating to the senior members of families, their vassals and domestic retainers.

There were twenty-six grades of caps, viz. :—

Dai-shiki (greater woven stuff)
Shō-shiki (lesser do.)
Dai-shu (greater embroidery)
Shō-shu (lesser do.)
Dai-shi (greater purple)
Shō-shi (lesser do.)
Upper Dai-kin (greater brocade)
Middle Dai-kin (do.)
Lower Dai-kin (do.)
Upper Shō-kin (lesser brocade)
Middle Shō-kin (do.)
Lower Shō-kin (do.)
Upper Dai-sen (greater mountain)
Middle Dai-sen (do.)
Lower Dai-sen (do.)
Upper Dai-otsu (greater kingfisher[30])
Middle Dai-otsu (do.)
Lower Dai-otsu (do.)
Upper Shō-otsu (lesser kingfisher)
Middle Shō-otsu (do.)
Lower Shō-otsu (do.)
Dai-ken (greater ken)
Lower Shō-ken (lesser ken)[31]

These made in all twenty-six grades. The former kwa (flower) was changed to kin (brocade), and six grades were added, beginning with Kin and ending with Otsu. There was also an augmentation and alteration by which the single grade of initial rank was changed to the two grades of Daiken and Shōken. These were made different, but in all other respects the former rule was followed.

To the senior members of the great families long swords were granted, and to the senior members of lesser families short swords were granted, while to the senior members of the Tomo no Miyakko, etc., shields and bows and arrows were given. Moreover, their vassals and domestic retainers were settled.

(XXVII. 10.) 3rd month. Prince Syön-kwang[32] of Pèkché and his people were given a residence at Naniha.

There was a star which fell north of the capital.

This spring there was an earthquake.

Summer, 5th month, 17th day. Liu Jên-yüan, the (Chinese) general for Pèkché, sent the Chao-san-ta-fu[33] Kuo Wu-ts'ung to present a letter-box[34] and gifts.

In this month the Oho-omi, Soga no Muraji, of Tai-shi rank, died.

One book says:—"The Oho-omi died in the intercalary fifth month."

6th month. The Empress Dowager[35] Shima died.

Winter, 10th month, 4th day. Kuo Wu-ts'ung and his companions were dismissed home. On this day the Emperor ordered Nakatomi no Naijin[36] to send the Buddhist priest Chi-sho with presents for Kuo Wu-ts'ung.

4th day.[37] An entertainment was given to Kuo Wu-ts'ung and his suite.

In this month Kè-kim, Prime Minister of Koryö, died in that country. He left dying injunctions to his children, saying:—"Ye brethren, live together in harmony, as a fish and water, and do not compete with one another for rank. If you do not so, you will surely become a laughing-stock to your neighbours."

12th month, 12th day. Kuo Wu-ts'ung and his suite took their departure.

In this month it was reported from the province of Ahaji, saying:—"In the water of a pig-trough belonging to Mu, Shinuta no Fumibito, a man of the district of Sakata, rice grew all of a sudden. Mu gathered it and put it by. Every day his wealth increased. There is a man called Oho, Ihaki no (XXVII. 11.) Sukuri, of the district of Kurimoto, at the head of whose bride's mattress rice grew up during her first night's stay with him and formed an ear. In the morning it bent down and ripened. The following night another ear was formed. She went out into the courtyard, when two keys fell down from heaven before her. She took them up and gave them to Oho, who from this time began to be a wealthy man."

In this year guards and beacon-fires were placed in the islands of Tsushima and Iki and in the Land of Tsukushi. Moreover in Tsukushi a great embankment was constructed, and water collected. This was called a minoki or water-castle.[38]

(A.D. 665.) 4th year, Spring, 2nd month, 25th day. The Empress Dowager Hashibito[39] died.

In this month, after a comparison of the Pèkché degrees of official rank, there was granted to the Kwi-sil, Chipsă, in consideration of the eminent services of the Minister Pok-sin, the rank of Lower Shōkin. [His original rank was that of Talsol.[40]] Moreover Pèkché common people, men and women to the number of more than 400, were given residences in the district of Kanzaki, in the province of Afumi.

3rd month, 1st day. For the sake of the Empress Dowager Hashibito, 330 persons entered religion.

In this month rice-lands were granted to the Pèkché people of Kanzaki.

(XXVII. 12.) Autumn, 8th month. The Talsol, Tap Pon-chhyun, was sent to build a castle in the province of Nagato.

The Talsol, Öng-nyö Pong-nyu, and the Talsol, Să-pi Pok-pu, were sent to the Land of Tsukushi, where they built the two castles of Ohono and Woyogi.

Tamna sent ambassadors to the Court.

9th month, 23rd day. The Land of Thang sent Liu Tè-kao Chao-san-ta-fu,[41] Sub-prefect[42] of Ichou, and Shang-chu-kuo[43] and others.

By others is meant a General of the Right Division of the Guards, of the rank of Shang-chǘ-kuo, a General for Pèkché, who was a Chao-ta-fu of Chu-kuo rank, by name Kuo Vu-Ts'ung, and others, 254 persons in all. 7th month, 28th day. They arrived at Tsushima. 9th month, 20th day. They arrived at Tsukushi. 22nd day. They forwarded a letter-case.

Winter, 10th month, 11th day. A great review was held at Uji.

11th month, 13th day. A banquet was given to Liu Tè-kao and the others.

12th month, 14th day. Presents were made to Liu Tè-kao and the rest.

In this month Liu Tè-kao and his people took their departure.

In this year Oho-ishi, Mori no Kimi, of Shōkin rank, and others were sent to Great Thang. etc., etc.

By others is meant Ihashiki, Sakahibe no Muraji, of Shōsen rank, and Harima, Kimi no Kishi, of Daiotsu rank. They no doubt went to escort the Thang Envoys.

(A.D. 666.) 5th year, Spring, 1st month, 11th day. Koryö sent Neung-nu, of the Former Division,[44] and others to offer tribute.

On this day Tamna sent Prince Si-yö and others to offer presents.

3rd month. The Prince Imperial went in person to the house of Saheki no Komaro no Muraji to inquire of his illness. (XXVII. 13.) He lamented him on account of his loyal service from the beginning.

Summer, 6th month, 4th day. Neung-nu of Koryö, of the Former Division, and his people took their departure.

Autumn, 7th month. There were great floods.

This autumn the land-tax and commuted taxes were remitted.

Winter, 10th month, 26th day. Koryö sent the Minister Eul-syang[45] Öm-chhu and others to offer tribute.

The Chief Envoy, the Minister Eulsyang Öm-chhu, the Associate Envoy Tun, of the rank of Talsyang, Ya-kwang, Hyön-mu, of the Second Rank, and others.

This winter the rats of the capital migrated towards Afumi.

Over 2000 Pèkché people, men and women, were settled in the East country. Without distinction of black and white,[46] they were all maintained at Government expense for three years beginning with the year Midzunoto I.[47]

Chiyu, a Buddhist priest of the Yamato no Aya, presented to the Emperor a south-pointing chariot.[48]

(A.D. 667.) 6th Year, Spring, 2nd month, 27th day. The Empress Ame toyo-takara ikashi-hi tarashi-hime[49] and the Imperial Princess Hashibito[50] were buried together in the misasagi on the Hill of Wochi. On this day the Imperial granddaughter the Imperial Princess Ohota was buried in a tomb[51] in front of the misasagi.

Koryö, Pèkché and Silla all made mourning along the Imperial highway.[52]

The Prince Imperial addressed the Ministers, saying:—"In obedience to the commands of the Empress Dowager and the Empress, I have compassion on the myriad people, and therefore have not undertaken the work of constructing a stone sarcophagus.[53] I trust that this may be taken as a mirror and a lesson for all time."

3rd month, 19th day. The capital was removed to Afumi. (XXVII. 14.) At this time the common people of the Empire did not desire the removal of the capital. Many made satirical remonstrance, and there were also many popular songs. Every day and every night there were numerous conflagrations.

6th month. The district of Kadono[54] presented to the Emperor a white swallow.[55]

Autumn, 7th month, 22th day. Tamna sent the Minister Chön-ma and others to offer presents.

8th month. The Prince Imperial proceeded to the Yamato capital.

Winter, 10th month. Namsèng,[56] of Koryö, the elder brother, left the city[57] for a tour in the provinces. Upon this, his two younger brothers, who remained in the city, listening to the evil speeches of the gentry and nobles associated with them, opposed him and would not allow him to enter. Hereupon Namsèng ran away to Great Thang and laid plans for the destruction of his country.

11th month, 9th day. Liu Jèn-yüan, the (Chinese) General for Pèkché, sent the Prefect of Ungsan,[58] in the Governorship of Ungchin,[59] Szema Fats'ung, of Shang-chu-kuo rank, and others to escort Ihashiki, Sakahibe no Muraji, of Lower Daisen rank, and his companions to the Governor-General's residence in Tsukushi.[60]

13th day. Szema Fats'ung and his companions took their departure homewards. Hakatoko, Yuki no Muraji, of Lower Shōsen rank, and Moroshi, Kasa no Omi, of Lower Daiotsu rank, were made Escort Envoys.

In this month there were built the castle of Takayasu in the province of Yamato, the castle of Yashima in the district of (XXVII. 15.) Yamada in the province of Sanuki, and the castle[61] of Kanada in the province of Tsushima.

Intercalary 11th month, 11th day.

Chönma and his companions received presents of 14 hiki of brocade, 19 hiki of yuhada,[62] 24 hiki of dark red stuff, 24 tan of violet cloth, 58 tan of peach-dyed stuff, 26 axes, 64 sickles, and 61 swords.

(A.D. 668.) 7th year, Spring, 1st month, 3rd day. The Prince Imperial assumed the Imperial Dignity.

One book says that he assumed the Dignity in the 3rd month of the 6th year—the year Hinoto U of the Cycle.[63]

7th day. A banquet was given to the Ministers within the Palace.

23rd day. The Escort Envoys Hakatoko and his colleagues reported their mission.

2nd month, 23rd day. Princess Yamato bime, daughter of the Imperial Prince Furubito no Ohoye, was appointed Empress-consort. In the end four concubines were provided. One was the daughter of the Oho-omi, Soga no Yamada no Ishikaha Maro, by name Wochi no Iratsume. [Some books call her Minodzuko hime.] She bore one son and two (XXVII. 16.) daughters. The first was called the Imperial Princess Ohota; the second was called the Imperial Princess Uno.[64] When she possessed the Empire she dwelt in the Palace of Kiyomibara in Asuka. She afterwards removed the Palace to Fujihara. The third was called the Imperial Prince Takeru. He was dumb and could not speak.

One book says:—"Wochi no Iratsume had one son and two daughters. The first was called the Imperial Prince Takeru; the second was called the Imperial Princess Ohota; the third was called the Imperial Princess Uno." One book says:—"The daughter of the Oho-omi, Soga no Yamada no Maro, was named Chinu no Iratsume. She bore the Imperial Princess Ohota and the Imperial Princess Sarara."

Next there was the younger sister of Wochi no Iratsume, named Mehi no Iratsume. She gave birth to the Imperial Princess Minabe and the Imperial Princess Abe.[65] When the Imperial Princess Abe possessed the Empire, she dwelt in the Palace of Fujihara. She afterwards removed the capital to Nara.

One book says:—"The name Sakurawi no Iratsume was given to Mehi no Iratsume."

Next there was the daughter of the Oho-omi, Abe no Kurahashi Maro, named Tachibana no Iratsume. She gave birth to the Imperial Princess Asuka, and the Imperial Princess Nittabe.

Next there was the daughter of the Oho-omi, Soga no Akaye, named Hitachi no Iratsume. She gave birth to the Imperial Princess Yamabe.

There were also four Palace women who bore (to the Emperor) sons and daughters. One was the daughter of Wotatsu, Woshiumi no Miyakko, named Shikobuko no Iratsume. (XXVII. 17.) She had one son and two daughters. The first was called the Imperial Princess Ohoye; the second was called the Imperial Prince Kahajima; the third was called the Imperial Princess Idzumi.

Further there was the daughter of Tokoma, Kurikuma no Obito, named Kurohime no Iratsume. She gave birth to the Imperial Princess Momutori.

Further there was Michi no Kimi Iratsume, who was the mother of the Imperial Prince Shiki.

Further there was Yakako, Iga no Uneme, who was the mother of the Imperial Prince Iga. He subsequently received the cognomen of the Imperial Prince Ohotomo.

Summer, 4th month, 6th day. Pèkché[66] sent Mi-to-să-pu and others to offer tribute.

16th day. Mi-to-să-pu and his companions took their departure.

5th month, 5th day. The Emperor hunted[67] on the Moor of Kamafu. At this time the Prince Imperial, being the Emperor's younger brother, all the Princes, the Inner Minister[68] and the other Ministers were all without exception in his train.

6th month. The Prince of Ise and the Prince his younger (XXVII. 18.) brother died on consecutive days. Their official rank is not clear.[69]

Autumn, 7th month. Koryö sent Envoys by way of Koshi to offer tribute. The winds and waves were high, and they were therefore unable to return.

Prince Kurikuma was appointed Governor of Tsukushi.

At this time the province of Afumi practised military exercises.

Again, pasture farms were largely provided, and horses were let loose there.

Again, the province of Koshi presented to the Emperor burning earth and burning water.[70]

Again, by the shore-pavilion,[71] fish of various kinds came, covering the water.

Again, the Yemishi were entertained.

Again, the Toneri, by Imperial command, held banquets in various places.

The people of that time said:—"Is the Emperor's life drawing to a close?"

9th month, 12th day. Silla sent Kim Tong-wön, of the rank of Sason, and others to offer tribute.

26th day. Nakatomi no Naijin sent the Buddhist priests Hōben and Shimpitsu to present a ship to the Tè-kak-u[72] Yu-sin, Prime Minister of Silla. It was delivered to Tong-wön and his companions.

29th day. Mimimaro, Fuse no Omi, was sent with a present for the King of Silla of a ship for the conveyance of tribute. It was delivered to Tong-wön and his companions.

(XXVII. 19.) Winter, 10th month. The Duke[73]of Ying, the Thang Commander-in-Chief, destroyed Koryö. When King Chyung-mu of Koryö first established that kingdom, he wished his government to last for a thousand years. His mother said:—"If thou governest the country well, thou mayst accomplish this. However, it will last for just 700 years."[74] The downfall of this kingdom at this time took place just at the end of its existence for 700 years.

11th month, 1st day. There were presented to the King of Silla 50 pieces of fine silk, 500 kin of floss silk, and 100 hides of leather. These were delivered to Tong-wön and his companions.

Presents were given to Tong-wön and his companions, the value of which varied in each case.

5th day. Maro, Chimori no Omi, of Lower Shōsen rank, (XXVII. 20.) and Kishi no Woshibi were sent to Silla. On this day, Kim Tong-wön and his people took their departure.

In this year the Buddhist priest Dōgiō stole the Kusanagi[75] sword and escaped with it, making for Silla. But wind and rain so perplexed him on his way, that he came back again.[76]

(A.D. 669.) 8th year, Spring, 1st month, 9th day. Soga no Akaye no Omi was appointed Governor of Tsukushi.

3rd month, 11th day. Tamna sent Prince Kumaki and others with tribute.[77]

18th day. A present of seed-grain was made to the King of Tamna. On this day Prince Kumaki and his people took their departure.

Summer, 5th month, 5th day. The Emperor went hunting on the plain of Yamashina.[78] The Prince Imperial, who was the Emperor's younger brother, Fujihara no Naidaijin, and all the Ministers without exception followed in his train.

Autumn, 8th month, 3rd day. The Emperor ascended the peak of Takayasu. He took counsel as to a project of repairing[79] the castle there, but in pity for the labour which it would entail on the people, he abandoned this idea, and did not go on with the work. The people of that time appreciated this, and exclaimed, saying:—"This is the virtue of loving-kindness. Is it not generous?" etc., etc.

This autumn it thundered[80] in the house of Fujihara no Naidaijin.

9th month, 11th day. Silla sent the Sason, Tok-yu, and others with tribute.

Winter, 10th month, 10th day. The Emperor paid a visit to the house of the Naidaijin Fujihara, and made personal inquiry after his illness. His grief was exceedingly great. (XXVII. 21.) Accordingly he said:—"It is surely no vain saying that the way of Heaven helps goodness: nor is the principle that the accumulation of good actions redounds to happiness of no effect. If there is anything which can be done, you will inform me of it." He answered and said:—"Thy servant has been wanting in cleverness: what more is to be said? Only I trust that for my burial simple arrangements may be made. While alive I did no service for my country at war; why, then, should I impose a heavy burden on it when I am dead?" etc., etc. The wise men of that day, hearing of this, were filled with admiration, and said:—"We would humbly compare this one saying with the wise maxims of ancient sages: shall the General of the Great Tree's[81] refusal of rewards be related in the same year with it?"

15th day. The Emperor sent his younger brother, the Prince Imperial, of the Eastern Palace,[82] to the house of the Naidaijin Fujihara, to confer on him the cap of "Great Woven Stuff" and the rank of Oho-omi.[83] He also granted him a surname, and made him the House of Fujihara.[84] From this time forward he was generally known as Fujihara no Daijin.

16th day. Fujihara no Naidaijin died.

The "Nihon Seiki" says:—"The Naidaijin died at the age of fifty in his private residence. He was removed for temporary burial to the south of the mountain. Oh! cruel (XXVII. 22.) Heaven! that could not bring itself to leave this aged man! Alas! what sorrow!" The inscription on his tomb says that he died at the age of fifty-six.[85]

19th day. The Emperor went to the house of Fujihara no Naidaijin, where he gave orders to Soga no Akaye no Omi, of Upper Daikin rank, and declared to him his gracious will. He accordingly bestowed on him a golden incense-burner.

12th month. There was a fire in the Treasury. This winter the Castle of Takayasu was repaired. The Land-tax of the home provinces was collected. At this time the Temple of Ikaruga was burnt.

This year Kujira,[86] Kahachi no Atahe, of Middle Shōkin rank, and others were sent on a mission to the Land of Great Thang.

Moreover, the Minister Yö Chă-sin, the Minister Kwisil Chip-să, and others, men and women, to the number of over 700 persons, were removed and settled in the district of Kamafu in the province of Afumi.

Moreover, Great Thang sent Kuo Ya-ts'ung and others, more than 2000 men.

(A.D. 670.) (XXVII. 23.) 9th year, Spring, 1st month, 7th day. The Emperor, by command to the gentry and Daibu, held a great archery meeting within the Palace Gate.

14th day. The Emperor promulgated Court ceremonial regulations, and rules for people to give way to each other when passing along the roads.[87] He also prohibited heedless slanders and foul falsehoods.

2nd month. Registers of population were prepared. Robbers and vagabonds were suppressed.

At this time the Emperor visited the plain of Himo in the district of Kamafu, and inspected a site for a Palace.

Moreover, the Castle of Takayasu was repaired, and stores of grain and salt collected.

Moreover, one castle was built in Nagato, and two in Tsukushi.

3rd month, 9th day. Close to Miwi,[88] on the mountain, Shintō places of worship were laid out, and offerings of cloth distributed to them. The litany was pronounced by Nakatomi no Kane no Muraii.[89]

Summer, 4th month, 30th day. After midnight a fire broke out in Hōriuji.[90] Not a single building was left.

There was great rain, with thunder.

5th month. There was a popular ditty, as follows:—

To sport by the end
(XXVII. 24.) Of the bridge thrown across[91]
Come forth, my boy!
To the eight-fold wooden doors
Of the house of Tamate
If thou comest forth
Thou shalt not repent it.
Come forth, my boy!
To the eight-fold wooden doors
Of the house of Tamate.[92]

6th month. Within the capital a tortoise was caught. On its back was written the character for Saru.[93] It was yellow above and black beneath,[94] and was about six inches in length.

Autumn, 9th month, 1st day. Tsuratari, Adzumi no Muraji, was sent to Silla.

In this year water-mills were made; and therewith iron smelted.[95]

(A.D. 671.) 10th year, Spring, 1st month, 2nd day. Soga no Akaye no Omi, of Upper Daikin rank, and Kose no Hito no Omi, of Lower Daikin rank, advanced in front of the Palace and offered the{r congratulations on the New Year.

5th day. Nakatomi no Kane no Muraji, of Upper Daikin rank, made an announdement of Kami matters.[96]

On this day the Imperial Prince Ohotomo was appointed Dajōdaijin,[97] Soga no Akaye no Omi was made Prime Minister of the Left:[98] Nakatomi no Kane no Muraji was made Prime Minister of the Right.[99] Soga no Hatayasu no Omi, Kose no (XXVII. 25.) Hito no Omi, and Ki no Ushi no Omi were made Daibu of the Censorate.[100]

The Giōshi were perhaps what are now called Dainagon.

6th day. The Emperor's younger brother, the Prince Imperial, promulgated on his behalf the regulations for giving effect to the institution of cap-rank. [One book says:—"The Imperial Prince Ohotomo announced."] There was a general amnesty to the Empire.

The ceremonial and the names of the cap-ranks are fully described in the Shin-ritsu-ryō.[101]

9th day. Koryö sent Ka-ru, Tè-syang of the Upper Division, and others with tribute.

I3th day. Liu Jèn-yüan, the (Chinese) general for Pèkché, sent Li Shou-chên and others to present a memorial.

In this month the rank of Upper Daikin was conferred on the (Pèkché) Minister Yö Chö-sin and on Sathèk Syo-myöng [second official of the Department of Ceremonies], the rank of Lower Shōkin on Kwisil Chip-să [Chief of the Department of Education], the rank of Lower Daisen on the Talsol Kong-na Chin-syu [he had a military training], Mok-so Kwi-chă [he had a military training], Öng-nyé Pong-nyu[102] [had a military training], Tap-pon Chhyun-chho[103] [had a military training], Pon-il Pi-chă, Chhan Pha-ra, Kim-na, Kim-syu, [acquainted with medicine] and Kwisil Chipsin [acquainted with medicine]. The rank of Upper Shōsen was conferred on the Talsol, Tök Chyöng-syang, Kil Tè-syang [acquainted (XXVII. 26.) with medicine], Hö Chol-mo [thoroughly understood the five classics] and Tak Pong-mu [skilled in the Yin and Yang].[104] The rank of Lower Shōsen was conferred on the other Talsol, more than fifty persons in all.

There was a popular ditty, as follows:—

The oranges—
Each on their own branches,
Though they grow—

When strung as pearls,
Are strung on the same string.[105]

2nd month, 22nd day. Pèkché sent Tè-ku Yong-syön and others with tribute.[106]

3rd month, 3rd day. Honjitsu, Kibumi no Miyakko,[107] presented to the Emperor a water-level.

17th day. The province of Hitachi presented as tribute Nakatomibe no Wakako. He was one foot six inches in height, and was born in the year FIinoye Tatsu (656), so that he was in this year sixteen[108] years of age.

Summer, 4th month, 25th day. A clepsydra was placed in the new pavilion, and for the first time the hours were struck, and bells and drums sounded. For the first time the clepsydra (XXVII. 27.) was used. This clepsydra was the one first constructed by the Emperor himself when he was Prince Imperial, etc., etc.[109]

In this month Tsukushi reported that a deer had been born with eight legs, but that it had died immediately.

5th month, 5th day. The Emperor occupied the Little Western Palace. The Prince Imperial and all the Ministers attended on him at a banquet. On this occasion, rustic dances were twice performed before him.

6th month, 4th day. An announcement was made in regard to the military measures requested by the messengers from the three departments of Pèkché.[110]

15th day. Pèkché sent Yé Chin-chă and others to bring tribute.

In this month Prince Kurikuma was made Governor of Tsukushi.

Silla sent Envoys bearing tribute.

In addition they presented to the Emperor a water buffalo and a copper pheasant.

Autumn, 7th month, 11th day. Li Shou-chên of Thang and his companions and the Pèkché Envoys took their departure together.

8th month, 3rd day. Karu, Tê-syan of the Upper Division of Koryö, and his people took their departure.

18th day. An entertainment was given to the Yemishi. The Emperor took to his bed and was ill. [One book says:—"In the 8th month the Emperor took ill."]

Winter, 10th month, 7th day. Silla sent the Sason, Kim Manmol and others to bring tribute.

8th day. The ceremony of opening the eyes[111] of 100 Buddhas took place in the interior of the Palace.

In this month, the Emperor sent messengers to offer to the (XXVII. 28.) Buddha of Hōkōji a kesa, a golden begging-bowl, a tusk of ivory, aloes wood, sandal wood and various objects of value.

17th day. The Emperor's disease became more grave. He sent for the Prince Imperial to come into the chamber where he was lying and addressed him, saying:—"Our condition is desperate: what remains after belongs to thee," etc., etc. Hereupon the Prince Imperial with repeated obeisances declined firmly to receive (the succession), giving ill-health as his reason. He said:—"I pray thee let the mighty task be entrusted to the Empress, and let Prince Ohotomo undertake the promulgation of measures of Government. It is thy servant's request, for the Emperor's sake, to renounce the world and practise religdon." The Emperor gave his consent, and the Heir to the Throne got up and bowed repeatedly. He straightway proceeded to the south of the Buddhist Hall in the interior of the Palace, and sitting upon a chair, shaved off his hair and became a priest. Upon this the Emperor sent him a present of a kesa by Sugita no Ikuiha.

19th day. The Prince Imperial visited the Emperor and asked leave to go to Yoshino and practise the religion of Buddha. The Emperor granted him permission to do so. The Prince Imperial accordingly went to Yoshino. The Oho-omi and others escorted him as far as Uji, and then returned.

1th month, 10th day. The Governor[112] of the province of Tsushima sent a messenger to the Viceroy[113] of Tsukushi, saying:—"On the day after the moon's birth these four persons, viz., the Buddhist priest Dūku,[114] Satsuyama, Tsukushi no Kimi, Sasa, Karashima no Suguri, and Iha, Nunoshi no Obito, arrived from Thang and reported that the Thang Envoys, Kuo Ya-ts'ung and his suite, numbering 600 persons, escorting (XXVII. 29.) Sa-thèk Son-teung and his companions, who numbered 1400 persons, the total number being 2000, had embarked in forty-seven ships which came to an anchor together at the island of Hijishima,[115] where they said to one another:—'The ships of our people are numerous, and if they suddenly arrived thither,[116] it is to be feared that their guards would be alarmed, and engage us in a battle of archery.' So they have sent on Dōbun and others to give some notice in advance of their intention of proceeding to the court."

23rd day. The Imperial Prince Ohotomo took his place in front of the embroidery figure of Buddha in the Western Hall of the inner precinct, with Soga no Akaye no Omi, the Prime Minister of the Left, Nakatomi no Kane no Muraji, the Prime Minister of the Right, Soga no Hatayasu no Omi, Kose no Hito no Omi and Ki no Ushi no Omi in attendance on him. He then took in his hands an incense-burner, and standing up first, made a vow, saying:—"We six men, with like minds, will obey the Emperor's commands. If any of us disregard them, surely he will incur punishment from Heaven," etc., etc. Upon this, Soga no Akaye no Omi, the Prime Minister of the Left, and the others took the incense-burner in their hands, and standing up in order, one after another, made a vow with tears of blood, saying:—"We, your five servants, will follow Your Highness's example and obey the Emperor's commands. If any of us should disregard them, let the Four Heavenly Kings smite him, and let the Gods of Heaven and Earth moreover (XXVII. 30.) punish his offence. Let the thirty-three Devas[117] bear witness to this. May his line become extinct and his house come to certain ruin," etc., etc.[118]

24th day. Fire broke out in the Palace of Afumi. It began from the third storehouse of the Treasury.

29th day. The five Ministers, in respecttul attendance on the Imperial Prince Ohotomo, made oath in presence of the Emperor.

On this day, a present was made to the King of Silla of 50 hiki of fine silk, 50 hiki o coarse silk, 1000 kin[119] of floss silk, and 100 hides of leather.

12th month, 3rd day. The Emperor died in the Palace of Afumi.

11th day. He was temporarily interred at the New Palace.[120]

At this time there was a popular song, as follows:—

I.
For the trouts of Yoshino
In Miyoshino—
For the trouts indeed
It is well by the side of the island:
Alas! woe's me!
Here beneath the nagi plants,
Here beneath the water-parsley.
Alas! woe's me!

II.
(XXVII. 31.) As not even one
Has yet been loosed
Of the eight-fold cords to be loosed
By the Omi children,
The Prince's cord is loosed.

III.
As the red horse
Plods on reluctantly
Over the plain of Makudzu,
Why any message?
Better simply to act.[121]

7th day. The Sason, Kim Manmol, and his companions, the tribute-envoys sent by Silla, took their departure.

This year, in the house of a man of the district of Yamada, in the province of Sanuki, there was a chicken with four legs.

Moreover, in the Imperial kitchen, there were eight pots which gave out a sound. Sometimes one pot sounded, sometimes two, and sometimes three together. Sometimes all eight sounded together.

  1. Ame, heaven; mikoto, behest; hirakasu, throw open. Wake is connected with wakaki, young. It is nearly equal to our word prince.
  2. Heavenly intelligence.
  3. Jomei Tennō.
  4. Kōgioku Tennō.
  5. Kōtoku Tennō.
  6. i.e. the present Emperor Tenchi.
  7. i.e. of the period Hakuchi, the second of the two year-periods into which his reign was divided.
  8. Mourning. Giles says "half-mourning;" but the phrase has here a more general application. Unbleached hempen cloth was probably the material.
  9. The phrase 稱制 is rendered in the interlinear gloss by matsurigoto kikoshimesu, i.e. "attended to the Government." Giles and Williams give another explanation, which does not suit the present passage. But are not the here the mourning regulations? and does not the phrase mean "announced the mourning for the Empress"?
  10. Chinese pronunciation.
  11. Now Phyöng-syang.
  12. See above, XXV. 41.
  13. Probably the river now known as the Thé-tong-kang.
  14. Vide illustration. The cloud-chariots were movable erections for overlooking the enemy's defensive works. They correspond to the turris of Roman warfare.
  15. The two forts above mentioned.
  16. i.e. helpless disgrace. To bite one's navel is impossible.
  17. King of Silla.
  18. All this is most unclear.
  19. Nari-kabura. See above, Vol I. p. 87.
  20. A measure now equal to 5.13 bushels.
  21. No doubt the same place as the Sonyu above mentioned.
  22. The Yin and Yang.
  23. I cannot identify Phi-syöng or Antök, but they must have been in the southern part of the present province of Kyöngsyangdo. The Coreans were fond of changing the names of their cities.
  24. Sickle-handle.
  25. A Pèkché Prince. See above, XXVI. 24.
  26. Dai Nippon. The first instance of the use of dai, great, in this connection.
  27. I take this to be the river now called Naktong, in the south of Corea.
  28. The Interlinear Kana has Tere.
  29. He is called Prince Imperial both above and below.
  30. See above, XXV.
  31. Ken means to set up, to establish. These two grades correspond to the Risshin or Kembu named above, XXV. 41.
  32. The history of Pèkché in the "Tongkam" ends with the previous King Wichă. Syön-kwang was his son.
  33. Lower fifth rank under the Thang dynasty.
  34. Of course, a box containing a letter is meant.
  35. The original might be more literally translated Empress grandmother, and this Empress was really Tenchi's grandmother, but as this term is used elsewhere simply as an honorary appellation, I prefer to render it by Empress Dowager.
  36. Viz. Kamatari Kō.
  37. This is the same date as the last. There is something wrong here.
  38. A native authority quoted in the "Shūkai" edition says:—"The embankment of the water-castle in the district of Mikasa is four ken (twenty-four feet) in height, fifteen ken in width of base, and 400 ken from east to west. The space within the embankment has been made into rice-fields."
  39. Kōtoku Tennō's wife. Empress Dowager is literally Great Consort.
  40. The Chinese characters used for this in the "Nihongi" are 達率. But, as Dr. Florenz points out, the proper characters are 大率, which in Corean are read Tèsol.
  41. See above, XXVlI. 10.
  42. Sze-ma.
  43. Upper-pillar Country. A title.
  44. There were in Koryö five Divisions. The first was the Inner or Yellow Division; the second was the Northern or After Division; the third was the Eastern or Left Division; the Fourth was the Southern or Former Division; the fifth was the Western or Right Division.
  45. An official rank.
  46. i.e. of priests and laymen.
  47. A.D. 663.
  48. A compass. See above, XXVI. 10.
  49. Saimei Tennō.
  50. Kōtoku Tennō's Consort.
  51. Several of the misasagi have just outside the moat circular mounds of much smaller size. These have a small moat and one or two rows of clay cylinders round them. The tomb in questio. n is still pointed out and known as the Ishidzuka or stone mound.
  52. By which the Imperial funeral procession passed.
  53. This is the literal translation, and it is true that stone sarcophagi were used in burial. But I am disposed to think that the vault is intended. Not to make a sarcophagus would afford a very trifling relief to the people. The vault on the other hand was a very considerable work, owing to the enormous stones of which it was built.
  54. In Yamashiro.
  55. A good omen.
  56. a He was Chief Minister.
  57. Phyöngyang, the capital, is meant.
  58. Bear-hill. Bear-port.
  59. The "Tongkam" says:—"In the year 660, Thang divided the former territory of Pèkché into five provinces, viz., Ungchin, Mahan, Tongmyöng, Keumnyön and Tökan.
  60. The Dazaifu or Viceroyalty.
  61. We hear in this reign for the first time of the building of castles (). This character, which in China and Corea means a walled city, is in Japan used in a sense nearly the same as our word "castle."
  62. Silk stuff tied and then dyed, so that a pattern is produced.
  63. A.D. 667.
  64. Jitō Tennō.
  65. Gemmei Tennō.
  66. There was no Kingdom of Pèkché at this time.
  67. Any excursion of the Emperor's was called hunting. The hunt on this occasion was no doubt for medicinal herbs (kusurigari), for which this was the appointed day.
  68. Naijin.
  69. This sentence is no doubt an interpolation, as the "Shūkai" points out.
  70. No doubt coal (or peat) and crude petroleum are meant. The latter is worked at the present day in Echigo, which forms part of the ancient province of Koshi.
  71. The shore of Lake Biwa.
  72. An official rank.
  73. His name was Li Tsi. See Mayers, p. 124.
  74. The "Tongkam" gives Ko Chyung-mu as the name of the founder of the Kingdom of Kokuryö. The prediction is not given in this work.
  75. See above, Vol. I. p. 205.
  76. This story has been considerably developed by later writers.
  77. Tamna, known to us as Quelpaert, and to modern Coreans as Chè-ju, was for a long time more or less independent of the rest of Corea. In the 13th century the inhabitants were in continual rebellion.
  78. Now a station on the railway between Kiōto and Ōtsu. See above XXVII. 17.
  79. See above, XXVII. 14, and below, XXVII, 22.
  80. No doubt the meaning is that it was struck by lightning.
  81. Feng I. Died A.D. 34. A famous commander under Han Kwang Wu, and renowned for modesty and dislike of ostentation. From his habit of retiring to sit beneath a tree for the purpose of solitary self-communing, he was called by his soldiers the General of the Great Tree. Mayers, p. 41.
  82. The Heir to the Throne occupied the Eastern Palace, and is often spoken of by this term.
  83. Or Daijin.
  84. Fujihara is a town in Yamato, in the district of Takechi. The name is a very famous one in subsequent Japanese History. This statesman is better known as Karoatari Kō. See above.
  85. This is the first mention of such inscriptions. They were engraved on erect slabs of stone, or on wooden posts set up on the mound. None belonging to this early period have remained to our day.
  86. This personal name means "whale."
  87. In the Giseirei it is said:—"In passing along the highways, the mean should get out of the way of the noble, the young of the old, and the light of the heavy."
  88. Where the well-known Temple of Miwidera now stands—not far from Ōtsu. Miwi means august well. It was with water from this well that the Emperors Tenchi and Temmu and the Empress Jitō were washed at birth. Hence the name.
  89. It was the province of the Nakatomi to read the norito, or Shintō prayers, while the Imbe laid out the offerings.
  90. The same as the Ikaruga Temple mentioned above, XXVII. 22. Vide "Murray's Handbook," 2nd ed. p. 394.
  91. i.e. a slight, temporary bridge.
  92. By the house of Tamate one commentator understands the Temple of Hōriuji. Another thinks the poem may, perhaps, be an advice to the Emperor Temmu to enter religion, and avoid the Imperial Dignity. To me its application is wholly obscure. The metre is irregular naga-uta.
  93. The monkey, one of the years of the Duodenary Cycle. It recurred two years later, and was marked by civil disturbances, of which this was supposed to be an omen.
  94. The colours of Heaven and Earth, according to the Chinese. In this tortoise they were inverted, the yellow (Earth) being above, and the black (Heaven) beneath. This was regarded as a sign of a change of reign.
  95. The briefness of this notice is very tantalizing to any one interested in the history of Japanese metallurgy. The word for mill does not mean merely a water wheel, but something for pounding or grinding. Perhaps the trituration of the ore is intended. The character for smelt is , which might also be rendered fuse. Florenz has "gesmiedet," i.e. "forged," and one Japanese dictionary has kitafu, which has the same meaning. But no such meaning is given in Giles, and as the Interlinear Kana has wakasu, "to melt," I have little doubt that smelting is intended. Evidently the writer was familiar with the process of smelting. It is the use of a mill in connection with it that is deemed worthy of record.
  96. It is not quite clear what this means—probably some kind of Shintō religious celebration.
  97. i.e. Prime Minister. The Wamiōshō gives for this the Japanese phrase, Oho-matsuri-goto no Oho-matsu-kimi, the great lord who attends to matters of the great government, but it is difficult to believe that so clumsy an expression was ever in general use. Dajōdaijin is sufficiently cumbersome.
  98. Sadaijin.
  99. Udaijin. It will be observed that the Left takes precedence of the Right.
  100. Censors, whose duty it is to keep the Emperor informed on all matters of public importance. Giles.
  101. New laws.
  102. These three are mentioned above, XXVll. 8, as Pèkché refugees to Japan.
  103. Apparently the same person who is called Tap Pon-chhyun above, XXVII. 12.
  104. i.e. in philosophy, divination, etc.
  105. The allusion is to the Coreans, who, although foreigners, received the same honours as Japanese. The Tachibana, or orange, was a foreign fruit.
  106. The "Shūkai" editor says that this was a remnant of the Pèkché Ministers.
  107. Of Corean extraction.
  108. According to the Japanese reckoning, which includes both the year of birth and the year to which the reckoning is made. We should say fifteen.
  109. See above, XXVI. 17.
  110. It appears from a passage in the "Tongkam" that in the year 673 some of the Pèkché cities still held out against the Chinese.
  111. Corresponding to consecration.
  112. Kokushi.
  113. Dazaifu.
  114. Called Dŏbun below. One of these readings is an error.
  115. Not to be identified.
  116. i.e. in Japan.
  117. Traiyastrims'as. Vide Eitel, p. 178.
  118. There is here a curious mixture of Brahmanism, Buddhism, and Chinese religion. Curiously no reference is made to the Shintō Gods, although there is a notice of their official worship not many years before.
  119. Or catties. About 1 1/3 lb. avoirdupois at the present day.
  120. The subsequent and formal burial is not mentioned. It was in a misasagi at Yamashina, a village in the district of Uji, in Yamashiro.
  121. These stanzas, or rather separate poems, are all supposed to refer to Prince Ohotomo, who, as we shall find in the next book, was obliged to fly from the capital, and ultimately strangled himself in despair. Makudzu in the last is, perhaps, not the name of a place, but simply "true dolichos"—the plain where the true dolichos plant grows. The nagi in No. I. is a kind of edible water-plant. The application of these poems to the political events of the day is obscure, and I see no advantage in discussing the interpretations offered by the Japanese commentators.