Notes on the churches in the counties of Kent, Sussex, and Surrey/Sussex/Notes on the Churches C-H
53. Chailey.—Is "Chaggeleigh" in the (Nonæ Roll). A church of chancel, nave with north and south aisles, south porch, and western tower with shingled spire. The north aisle is a recent addition. The chancel is E.E.; the whole building having been beautifully repaired, restored, and enlarged in that style. The old part, that is, the south aisle, is too much mutilated for any observations. Till the alteration the piscina was used as a cupboard, and the capitals of the side shafts of the windows were loaded with whitewash. The church preserves its old arrangement, except that the south door has been closed, and a string-course added in the interior. The "Free Chapel" of Waningore is mentioned in a document of 31 of K. Edward I (about A.D. 1303). (Horsfield's Suss. I, 225.) The manor of Waningore includes an outlying portion of Chailey parish, to the south, and the site of the chapel is identified by the still existing name of "Chapel Field." See also the account of Allington in the parish of St. John sub castro, Lewes.
54. Chichester.—It is stated, that "in King Edward's time there were in Chichester an hundred houses less by two and a half, and three crofts; of which the revenue was forty-eight shillings and eleven pence. At the period of the Survey the city was in the possession of Earl Roger, and the dwellings contained sixty habitations more than formerly.—In Cicestre civitate T.R.E. erant c pagæ, ii et dimidium minus, et iii croftæ, et reddebant xlix solidos unum denarium minus. Modo est ipsa civitas in mann comitis Rogerii, et sunt in eisdem mansuris lx domus plusquam antea fuerunt, &c." (D.B.) The æcclesia de Cicestre is named casually under Treyford; and another church in Chichester in the same manner in the account of Pagham.—The see was removed from Selsey A.D. 1075 by Stigand, the first Norman bishop, who was appointed in 1070, and "Le Neve supposes he continued the title of Bishop of Selsey till 1082, when, the removal being completed, he assumed the designation of Bishop of Chichester:" (which is given to him in D. B.) This Stigand must not be confounded with another, who was promoted from the bishopric of Winchester to Canterbury by K. William I. The cathedral was commenced by Ranulph or Ralph, the first bishop of that name from 1091 to 1099; was partially burned A.D. 1114, and entirely so A.D. 1186. The rebuilding was begun by Bishop Seffrid the second A.D. 1199, and nearly completed at his death in 1204. In the twelfth century there were eight parishes within the walls, and two without; of which four have been consolidated with two others. Of one union of three parishes the church is the north transept of the cathedral. "The original church, dedicated to St. Peter, and called sub castro, was taken down soon after 1229; and as it was then stated that it had two parishioners only, they were transferred to the newly-founded hospital of St. Mary; soon after which time the church, now called St. Peter the Less, was established." St. Bartholomew or St. Sepulchre was destroyed during the siege of Chichester by Sir W. Waller in 1642, but the cemetery is still used. St. Peter juxta Golden Hall and St. Mary in Foro have been desecrated; but subsequent to the compilation of (Val. Eccl.).—Hospitals: St. Mary, dating from 1229, 13th of Henry III; reformed A.D. 1528; refounded by Queen Elizabeth A.D. 1562: St. James and St. Mary Magdalen for lepers. From deeds still extant it appears, that the cross was finished about A.D. 1500, (Dallaway.) The hospital of St. James and St. Mary Magdalen for lepers, without the eastern gate of the city, is as old as the time of K. Richard I or K. John. That of St. Mary was founded temp. K. Henry II by Dean William. (Monast. VI, 776.) The monastery of St. Peter existed here before the Conquest. (Ib. VI, 1624.)
Among the chapter-houses on the southern side of the cathedral are piers and arches, the remains of a large Norman church, and supposed to be those of the church attached to the ancient monastery of St. Peter. In a window belonging to one of the adjoining houses are the arms of Weston, which were borne by William Weston, Prior of St. John of Jerusalem in England A.D. 1541. The (Nonæ Roll) notices only the church of St. Pancras in the suburbs.—The Guildhall was the chapel of the Grey Friars monastery. In another part of the city Dominican or Black Friars were established in 1228. At the general cemetery in St. Pancras parish Bishop Ralph Nevill erected the chapel of St. Michael in 1240, but the building is totally removed. (Cartwright's MSS. by Horsfield, Suss. II.) Part of the episcopal palace is of considerable antiquity.—In the (Saxon Chronicle) Chichester is styled "Cisseceastre;" which appears to corroborate the opinion, that the city owes its present name to Cissa, son and successor of Ælle, the founder of the kingdom of the South Saxons. That the spot was previously occupied by the Romans is proved, as well by the termination of the name cester, as by the inscriptions and other remains, which have been exhumed in different parts of the modern city; and it is now deemed to have been the Roman Regnum. (Comp. Horsfield 's Suss. II, 41-44.)
55. Chidham.—The (Nonæ Roll) names "Westham" together with Chidham, but in the title only, not in the body, of the description. What place is intended I cannot conjecture; it can scarcely mean Westham near Pevensey. The church of Chidham is not specially noticed, but is implied under the mention of a "perpetual vicar."
55. Chidingly.—The church consists of chancel, nave with north and south aisles and north porch, and western tower with a stone spire and pinnacles at the angles. The chancel is E.E. The east window was large, of five lights, but the upper portion having been destroyed in modern repairs, the style of it is uncertain. Part of the south aisle is E.E., it having a lancet window at the west end, which the north aisle likewise has. At the east end of the south aisle is a late Perp. chapel, having square-headed windows with heavy mullions. The nave and tower seem to be Dec. with Perp. insertions. In the west, wall of the tower is a Perp. window below the dripstone of a larger. The hood moulding of the west door, in the tower, terminates in buckles, armorial bearings of the Pelham family.
Chidingly Place is situated about a quarter of a mile westward from the church. There are considerable remains of the ancient mansion; but not such as explain the plan of it, or require much remark. The establishment was extensive, the buildings of brick with stone dressings. The earlier portion may date from temp. K. Henry VII; but some certainly belongs to the reign of Q. Elizabeth. The dividing mullions of the windows are very massive. In the spandrils of the entrance to the hall (which last is destroyed) among other ornaments, are carved male figures in the dress of temp. Q. Elizabeth. The walls were in some parts three feet thick. There were vaults beneath the hall. On the left hand in approaching the house from the road stands a large fragment of the original buildings, now used as a barn, and called "Chapel Barn," from an idea that it contained the chapel of the mansion. The partition-walls of the interior have been completely removed, that they might not interfere with the present use of the erection, but that it was once spanned by flooring is evident, beside that a stone fireplace belonging to the large upper room remains perfect. At the southern end, near the entrance from the hall, there seems to have been a small oblong apartment, its length being generally in the direction of east and west, which may possibly have been the chapel; but nothing could be perceived, whereby even a probable conjecture could be formed upon the subject.—"There is also an ancient farm-house at Hall Green, in which are some curiously-pointed windows, and armorial bearings on the ceiling, but, from their decayed condition, nothing certain can be ascertained of its history." (Horsfield's Lewes, II, 67.)
57. Chiltington, East—Is annexed to Westmeston both in (A.D. 1291) and in (Val. Eccl.), and is now accounted but a hamlet to that parish, although other parishes intervene between the two. It now stands in the (Clergy List) as a curacy belonging to Westmeston. The chapel consists of western tower with a tiled cap, nave, and chancel. It is said to have been erected in the sixteenth century by a Chaloner, a neighbouring landowner, but the tower and the west end of the nave are Tr. Norm., if not Norm., and the lower portion of other walls seems older than the superstructure. Moreover the Taxation of Pope Nicholas is evidence both of the existence of a chapel here toward the conclusion of the thirteenth century, and also that it was connected with Westmeston at that early period, as it still remains.—Close to the chapel is a farm-house, having some remains of ancient brick walls, beside other vestiges.
58. Chiltington, West.—The church is an ancient structure, having a Norm, doorcase and arcade. The chancel and south aisle are far more ancient than the west end of the building." (Horsfield's Suss. II, 162.)
59. Chithurst.—A curacy attached to the rectory of Iping. (Clergy List.)
60. Clapham.—This very short church consists of chancel, nave, north and south aisles, and tower with a shingled cap at the west end of the north aisle. It has been largely patched, but from the buttresses the wall of the chancel would appear to be Norm., or at least Tr. Norm., for the windows, of which some frames remain, were pointed, but rebated for glass on the outside. The interior is Tr. Norm., verging into E.E. Four Perp. windows have been inserted. In the exterior angle between the tower and the north wall of the north aisle has been a low pointed opening, possibly a door, and apparently there was access thence to the tower, in the wall of which are projecting stones, as if to protect a roof. In the north wall of the chancel is a recessed tomb with figures, but no name. Brasses: John and Eliz. Shelley, 1526. (Monum. Brasses, 72, 130.) In the south wall John and Mary Shelley, 1550, figures of both with children, boys behind the father, girls behind the mother, John and Elinor Shelley. South of the churchyard stands a large farm-house, exhibiting evidence of some antiquity.
61. Clayton—Is joined with Keymer, "Cleyton et Kynore," in (A.D. 1291); also in (Val. Eccl.), where Keymer is styled a chapel. They are still thus connected, though the population of Keymer very greatly exceeds that of Clayton. The exterior of this very small church is so unpromising, that I was quite unprepared for finding in the interior anything of so much interest as it contains. It comprises only chancel and nave, with a north porch, and a large shingle-covered bell-turret in the west end. The chancel is E.E.; all the window-frames have recently been renewed, but their splays appear to be untouched. The east window is an insertion within the original E.E. arch. Those on the northern side have shafts with foliated capitals at the angles of the splays, rich, but sadly disfigured by lime wash. Those on the southern side are plain. The chancel arch is round, very massive, and in general features precisely of similar character to, though in detail somewhat differing from, those, which are considered Anglo-Saxon examples. (Comp. chancel-arch, Wittering, Northants, Gloss, of Archit. pi. IV, 3d ed., and Bloxam's Goth. Archit. 62, 66.) At the west end is a two-light Perp. window. Others have wooden frames. The porch contains ancient woodwork, of which some has been cut away, because lower than the top of the churchdoor. At the east end of the north wall of the nave appears an arch, now filled up, with marks of a roof over it. Though the remarkable character of a portion of this church had been already noticed, as I have learned since my visit, no intimation of the circumstance had reached me, and the peculiarity of the building appears certainly not to be generally known. The fact of this having been overlooked in an edifice standing in such a situation, close to one of the turnpike-roads from London to Brighton, from which latter place it is distant only seven miles: this fact may perhaps be accounted for by the extremely unattractive condition of the outside, and the small size of the whole: so that many might pass without pausing to examine it, as I should have done but for an accidental circumstance.—Hammond's Place, of which only a portion remains, was formerly a mansion of some importance. On the front, engraved in stone, is a shield with the arms of Michelbourne, the letters E M, and the date 1566. It is said, that Roman remains, such as a tessellated pavement, have been discovered in the vicarage grounds, but were immediately concealed again from observation. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 239, 240.)
62. Cliffe, St. Thomas at.—This church consists of chancel, nave, north and south aisles, west tower, and a strange little addition on the outside of the north aisle. The entire building is short, in style late Perp., the north wall being the only ancient portion, and that has been very much patched. The tower is square and massive, with a stair turret.
63. Climping.—Here stands a rather large cross church, having a south aisle, south porch, and square tower at the extremity of the south transept. The tower is Norm., apparently the remains of a former church in that style. It has three very narrow windows opened in buttresses, one on each side, ornamented externally with a zigzag border. These windows have been copied in the restoration of Old Shoreham church. In the western wall of the tower is a round-headed door with a double row of tooth mouldings, the inner being unusually large. On each side of the door, near the ground, is a perfectly plain niche, or sunken panel, and above, on the northern side a sunken circle having a tooth moulding within, on the other a diamond with a quatrefoil in the centre, the latter resembling four little balls joined together. The remainder of the church is very good E.E. with lancet windows, two in the west end, three in the north wall of the nave, and two in each side of the north transept. In the western gable is a circular window with eight foliations, with an oblong frame above it not in the centre, both now filled up; in the gable of the north transept is a circular window still glazed ; and in the chancel gable is a quatrefoil with a quadrangular frame above, as in the west front, both closed. The chancel arch is lofty, springing from corbels, with good bold mouldings: on each side of the chancel are three windows, and in the east end also three under separate arches with intervening light shafts having capitals of foliage; above, between the canopies, quatrefoils are sunk in the wall. Beneath these windows are two niches, or ambries; there is a piscina, rather mutilated, and an ambry in the north wall, The string-course round the chancel is entire. The piers between the nave and aisle stand on high square bases, all apparently in excellent condition. The pulpit is of stone, that and the font being of the same period, late Dec, or early Perp.? There is some damaged Perp. screen-work, and also many oak benches. In the northern side of the west end a door has been closed. The south door has been too much altered for any explanation, and the porch has been partially rebuilt. This is an extremely interesting church, the Norm, portion being curious, and the E.E., which appears all of the same date, would be very beautiful if cleaned from whitewash. The upper part of the tower is much dilapidated, but the body of the building seems perfectly sound. In the chancel are two oak chests, one of them remarkable for its antiquity. Cartwright (Rape of Arundel, 15) calls it "coeval with the building," and it may be with the E.E. erection, but his representation is inaccurate, the carving showing as if in high relief, whereas it is little deeper than mere lines.—At Atherington was a religious house, said to have been a cell to the abbey of Seez in Normandy: it was suppressed by K. Henry V. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 112.) The most probable conjecture is, that the second Domesday church here was that of Cudlaw; which see.
64. Coates.—The rectory of Burton with the curacy of Coates form one cure, the former containing seven, the latter sixty-seven, inhabitants, the aggregate income being 113. (Clergy List.)
65. Cocking.—There is stated to have been "a cell here, belonging to the abbey of Seez until the suppression of alien priories, and then transferred to the college of Arundel." K. Edward I seems probably to have remained here two days, A.D. 1305. (Suss. Arch. Coll. II, 155, 156.)
66. Compton.—Joined with Up Harden in (Val. Eccl.) and (Clergy List). " Cumptime" occurs in King Alfred's will along with many other estates in Sussex. (Asser's Alfred, by Wise, 77.)
67. Cowfold.—In the printed copy of (A.D. 1291) occurs "Ecclia de Confande," which I conceive to signify Cowfold, conjecturing the word to have been originally written Coufande, or more probably Coufaude. In deciphering an old MS. it is no difficult matter to mistake u for n especially to a person totally unacquainted with the place intended, and therefore little likely to understand what the name should be. In Cowfold church is a magnificent Brass of Tho. Nelond, prior of Lewes, who died A.D. 1433. Cartwright's work contains a plate. This memorial is highly commended in (Monum. Brasses, 104, 128, 138.)
68. Crawley.—In (Mag. Brit.) it is asserted, that Crawley is in old records called Crowell; and accordingly in (A.D. 1291) we find Crowell annexed to Slaugham, which is explained by an entry in (Val. Eccl.), "Slaugham cum capella de Crawley." It however appears rather singular, that, so late as the sixteenth century, the church of Crawley should be deemed only a chapel. In Ecton's Liber Valorum, which is a modernized reprint of Val. Eccl. (2d ed. 1723), Slaugham and Crawley stand separate, and both as rectories. They are so represented likewise in the (Clergy List), and under different patrons.
69. Crowhurst.—The nave of this church was rebuilt in 1794. In a large three-light window in the tower are considerable remains of coloured glass. South of the church, behind the house of Court Lodge farm, are vestiges of very substantial buildings. There is a large window with a cinque-foiled head ; below the room, to which that belongs, is another apartment with a groined roof; and there are remains of another "handsome groined roof." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 434.) The mouldings of the window above noticed are particularly good.
70. Cuckfield.—A church of chancel, nave with north and south aisles ranging eastward with the chancel, north and south porches, a small additional chapel north of the northern chancel, and square western tower with a high shingled spire. The tower is embattled, with a plain corbel table, the intervals trefoiled: this part is E.E., the diagonal buttresses being additions. Whatever may be the date of the outer walls of the church, they have Perp. windows inserted. The small north chapel is Perp. The clerestory windows are quatrefoils, all closed except one. Of the roof the tie-beams are moulded, with carving in the spandrils between them and the wall-plates. The piers on the south side of the nave have E.E. mouldings, those opposite and the chancel arch are Perp., as also the southern piers of the chancel. There is an E.E. trefoil-headed piscina with a shelf.—A.D. 1279 Will, de Warren, Earl of Surrey, possessed parks in the three parishes of Cuckfield, Ditchling, and Worth. (Stapleton's Liber de Antiquis Legibus, xlviii.)
71. Cudlaw.—Great part of this parish has been washed away, and the church totally destroyed, the remainder being now included in Climping. Cudlaw appears in (Val. Eccl.), but in (Ecton's Lib. Val.) is marked as "absorbed," and is omitted from the (Clergy List.)
72. Dallington.—The east window of this church contains some coloured glass. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 569.) There was anciently a recognised forest in the neighbourhood of Dallington, the Domesday description having this addition, "Of this hide the earl holds half in forest. De ista hida habet comes medietatem in foresta." (D.B.)
73. Dean, East, East Sussex.—The vicar, but not the church, of "Eseden" is named in (A.D. 1291).—"The upper part of the ancient font is used as a cistern in a farmyard, while the pedestal stands in front of a little inn, yclept the 'Tiger,'serving the mean occupation of a joss-block." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 284, note 1.)
74. Dean, West, East Sussex.—This small church includes nave and chancel, with a south porch, and a small square western tower. The east window is Dec.; the piscina is large, but imperfect, being intersected by a window. In the north wall of the chancel are two monumental arches with canopies, of different dates. From the frame of a very small Norm, window visible in the north wall of the nave, and from the lower part of the tower arch, the church seems to be Norm, with E.E. and later portions.—Adjoining the churchyard to the west stands the old parsonage-house, still belonging to the incumbent, but converted into two cottages. The original entrance was on the northern side, through a porch, now a wash-house; the porch-door is obliterated, and the ground on the outside has been much raised. The present entrance is where was formerly a window. From the lower room a short newel stone staircase leads into what must have been the principal apartment. The stone fireplace here, with its hood, is nearly perfect; the foot of each jamb only being lost. The windows have, some two lights, others but one; of the former the dividing mullions have been removed. In the upper part of the eastern wall of the house are some stones, which had been used previously. This is a very curious example, being, I conceive, of Dec. date at least, of more humble pretensions, but not much later, than Sore Place in Kent, described under Plaxtole, and might easily be restored, the only injuries, beside those above mentioned, being the loss of the chimney-shaft, and the walls being occasionally broken through to form doors and windows. In the interior some ancient doors, with their iron-work, still remain ; and also some of the old window-shutters.—Immediately south of the churchyard are some ruins of the ancient manor-house.
Charleston, in the parish of West Dean, lying near the mouth of the next valley north of the church, now a farm, must have been of importance in former times. It is asserted, "The chapel still exists, and is used as a granary; at one end is a semicircular arch, of considerable antiquity." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 282.) This statement is incorrect. A small portion of the ancient mansion still forms part of the present residence, with offices beneath it, and contains a two-light Tr. Norm, or early E.E. window, with another very small one at the farther end of the same part of the building; but what was the nature of the apartment, to which they belonged, does not appear, most probably not to the chapel.
75. Dean, West, West Sussex.—Dallaway affirms this parish to have been united with Binderton, which however does not appear from (Val. Eccl.), and that "West Dean anciently contained the chapelries of Binderton and Chilgrove, in neither of which divine service is now performed:" but no authority is produced. See Binderton. Chilgrove lies north-westward from West Dean, about midway between that village and East Marden. I have no other notice, beside the above by Dallaway, of the chapel at Chilgrove.—King Alfred possessed a residence at Dean in Sussex, memorable as the spot where his future servant and historian, Bp. Asser, had the first interview with him. "Usque ad regionem dexteralium Saxonum, quæ Saxonice Suthscaxum appellatur—perveni; ibique ilium in villa regia, quæ dicitur Dene, primitus vidi. I reached the region of the right-hand Saxons, which in their language is called Southsax; and there saw him for the first time at a royal seat, which is called Dene." (Asser's Alfred, by Wise, 47.) There is no clue to ascertain the situation of this Dean, whether in East or in West Sussex, but the latter may be in some respects the more probable locality. The district of the South Saxons did indeed at some period include the western part of Hampshire, but I conceive that, in Alfred's time, the boundaries between the two existing counties were settled nearly, or quite, as at present, Hampshire being mentioned distinctly in the above work, and being a more important division of the island in that age, than Sussex. I find that Mr. Dallaway inclined to the same opinion as myself, that the Dean, alluded to above, was in West Sussex. (See Horsfield's Suss. II, 80.) Several Roman urns were discovered in this parish A.D. 1812. (Dallaway's West. Suss. 1, 168, quoted in Horsfield, ut sup. 83.)
76. Denton.—This small church consists only of chancel, and nave, with a south porch to, and a small wooden and tiled bell-turret over the west end of, the latter. A door in the north side of the church has been walled up. Internally there is no mark of separation between nave and chancel. From two E.E. windows in the north and south walls near the west end of the nave, it appears probable that the entire building might originally be of that date at least, but that the eastern portion was reconstructed in the Dec. period. There is a piscina under a canopy, and a wide sedile under an ogée arch and a canopy, both in fine condition, and good. The pavement includes several grave-slabs, one having vestiges of a Lombard inscription. The east window was a large, elaborate Dec.; that in the west end of similar date; both now closed. The font, as to shape and decoration, precisely resembles that of St. Anne's, Lewes, but is smaller. A flat ceiling now conceals the roof, of which however a portion may be seen under the bell-turret; whence we learn it to be similar to that of Godshill, Isle of Wight. (Gloss, of Archit. pl. 78, 3d ed.) It might be rendered extremely ornamental to the church, if the ceiling were removed, and the timbers properly exhibited.—On all sides of the churchyard are small portions of ancient domestic buildings, some adjoining the present parsonage; but none are sufficiently considerable to be interesting, or to explain their character.
77. Didling—Is a vicarage annexed to the rectory of Elsted; where see the Note.
78. Ditchling.—In (A.D. 1291) this church and that of Wivelsfield are coupled together. "Ecclia de Dickeningh—note, Digmerg et Wivelesfeld."—Ditchling has a cross church, consisting of nave with south aisle and south porch, north and south transepts, central tower with low shingled spire, chancel, and another on the south side. The nave and aisle, under the same roof, are Norm., or rather Tr. Norm., the arches between them being pointed. One small Norm, window remains at the west end of the aisle. The tower, transepts, and chancels exhibit rich E.E. work, but the beauty of it is now buried under a deep coating of whitewash. The piers of the eastern tower arch seem to have been altered, apparently by paring down the original stones, the mouldings being varied about five feet from the ground. Possibly all the piers have been so treated, but these alone left somewhat unfinished. The great east window is new, but copied from the old, of three lights, with foliated circles above. On each side of this window is a niche, nearly or quite the height of the window, the northern trefoil-headed, E.E., the other cinquefoil-headed, Perp., but most probably an alteration coeval with other work in that style. The chancel windows have shafts at the angles of the jambs. The north wall contains a trefoil-headed ambry ; and in the south wall is a double piscina, the upper portion, now Perp., seeming to have been rebuilt over the E.E. basins, of which one is filled with plaster. A plain sedile adjoins. In the south chancel the east and the two south windows are Dec. under E.E. arches. The piscina here is trefoil-headed under an ogée arch. A door in each chancel, and another in the north wall of the nave have been closed. In the chancel was a tie-beam with the tooth moulding carved upon it, but it was recently removed by the lay-rector. The north wall of the chancel, or at least the outside facing, has been partially rebuilt. The exterior of the church proves, that it has been much repaired at various periods.—South of the church, on the opposite side of the street, is a picturesque old house, formerly a mansion, now converted into a shop and cottages.
Beside the parish church there was a chapel somewhere in Ditchling about A.D. 1200. See the latter part of the account of St. John sub castro in the Note on Lewes. Possibly however by the chapel "of Dicheninge" may have been intended the church of Street, a contiguous parish, of which the name does not appear in Bp. Seffrid's charter.—This place, " Diccalingum," is bequeathed by King Alfred's will. (Asser's Alfred, by Wise, 77.)
79. Duncton.—Was a chapel of ease to Petworth till A.D. 1692, when it was made parochial by Act of Parliament. In 1805 the remains of a hypocaust were uncovered in a part of this parish. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 170.)
80. Durrington.—Portions of the exterior walls of this church yet stand in a small grass field near the hamlet of the name, and the ground-plan of the building may be clearly traced, proving it to have comprised only chancel, and nave, with a south porch. In the fragment of the south wall of the chancel a very small round-headed window appears, but filled up; and the mortar in this fragment is extremely hard. Sufficient of the north wall of the nave exists to show, that the windows were long and pointed, and a little of the inner hood moulding is still visible. Also the mortar of this portion is different from and inferior to that of the chancel; whence it may be inferred, that the latter was Norm., probably early, while the former was rebuilt in the E.E. period. The walls were of flint with stone dressings, chalk having been much used in the interior. Not only is the church desecrated and in ruins, but the name no longer appears in official documents, Durrington being now comprehended in the parish of West Tarring. Cartwright adduces evidence to the effect, that Durrington was never regarded as more than a chapelry. He states the dimensions of the old building to be seventy-five feet by twenty-one.
81. Eartham.—It appears not quite certain, whether the Ertham of the (Nonæ Roll) signifies this place or Hardham. It is there styled "prebenda parochialis," and the Chancellor of Chichester received thence an annual portion of tithes of some kind. Dallaway is probably right in deeming Eartham to be intended.
82. Easebourne.—(A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Eseborne cum capella:" which latter is likely to have been Midhurst, that place being omitted otherwise. In (Val. Eccl.) Easebourne is named together with the chapels of Midhurst, Earnhurst, Lodsworth, and Tadham. See the Note on Midhurst. The church contains the effigy of a knight carved in oak. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 99.) A Benedictine nunnery or priory was founded here by Sir John Bohun 3 temp. K. Henry III, for five or six nuns. (Monast. IV, 423.) Part of the priory of Easebourne remains, the refectory being now a barn. (Dallaway.) "Priorissa de Esburne, que est rector ibidem. The Prioress of Easebourne, who is the rector there." (N. R.) The cure is now only a perpetual curacy, which we may conclude to have arisen from its appropriation to the priory. Cowdray—House contained a chapel. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 99.)
83. Edburton.—The font is circular, and of lead. (Cartwright, who gives a plate.) "Capella de Percinges" is named in a roll of the Curia Regis, 8 July, 1199 (1 of K. John). Percinges (now Perching, an estate in this parish) was the mansion of Peter, son of Henry Fitz Aylwin, the first Lord Mayor of London, which dignity he held, from A.D. 1187, for nearly twenty-five years, namely, till his death in 1212. Peter Eitz Aylwin had married the daughter and heiress of Bartholemew de Cheney, who held the manor under de Warren, Earl of Surrey. (Stapleton's Liber de Antiquis Legibus, iv, 1.) Percinges is described in (D. B.) as held of de Warren by Will, de Watevile.—Roman urns have been found in the southern part of this parish. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 224.)
84. Egdean.—" In the bishop's registers this place is called Bleatham." (Horsfield's Suss. II, 174.) Egdean therefore is intended by the "Ecclia de Bletteham—note, Bletlesham" of (A.D. 1291).
85. Elsted.—I am satisfied, that this place must be the "Halestede" of (D.B), not simply from the similarity of the names, but because Halestede is described as in the same hundred, "Hamford," wherein Harting, Treyford, Trotton, and other neighbouring places are mentioned; though they are portions of a different property. In (A.D. 1291) the name is spelled Ellestede. It is a rectory, with Treyford and Didling annexed to it.86. Etchingham.—This is an interesting church, in consequence of its unaltered condition, far more so than any others in the neighbourhood, though not of very early character, having been erected by William de Etchyngham, who died A.D. 1488, and of whom a brass memorial still remains within the church. All the windows retain their tracery. The nave, over the east end of which stands the tower, is lofty, with good clerestory windows; the chancel also is lofty, with good windows, and, with the exception of the western face of the roodscreen, and the top of the doorway, possesses all its old fittings in a perfect state, though the paving tiles have been sadly disarranged. The brass of William de Etchyngham and another are in the middle of the
ETCHINGHAM CHURCH, SUSSEX
87. Ewhurst.— A church of chancel, nave, north and south aisles, square west tower with stair turret and shingled spire, and west porch. There are Norm., E.E., Dec., and Perp. portions. Some coloured glass remains in the three-light Dec. east window. The font is square, shallow, on a stem and foot, all of Weald marble. The timber sides of the porch have been replaced by brick. The north wall appears the oldest part of the body of the building. Part of the tower wall is of rubble masonry. It seems as if aisles had extended, or were contemplated, on each side of the tower (compare the Note on Sandhurst, Kent). Brass, small: Will. Crysford, 15 . . (Horsfield, Suss. I, 520, gives 1520.) Compare also the Note on Bodiam.
88. Excett.—The locality, to which this name is appropriated, is now only a portion of West Dean, though formerly not merely possessing its own church, but even being regarded as a parish. It will be perceived, that the place is noticed in (D. B.), whereby its early importance is ascertained; and (A.D. 1291) mentions the "Ecclia de Exete," as well as the "Ecclia de Westden;" while (N. R.) distinctly describes Exete church as parochial, " parochialis ecclesia." The ancient church has entirely disappeared, and I could not learn, in the neighbourhood, not upon the spot, any remaining tradition of its existence, though Horsfield states, that " the site is still shown." (Suss. I, 282.)
89. Fairlight.—This church has been rebuilt very recently.
90. Falmer.—For spiritual purposes this parish is united with that of Stanmer. See the Note on Burgemere.
91. Farnhurst.— This was originally a chapelry to Easebourne, see the Note there. In a large wood in this parish are the ruins of a quadrangular castellated building, measuring 68 feet by 33; of which the remaining walls were some time ago pulled down for the sake of using the stone in repairing the roads. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 104.)
92. Felpham.—It seems that this must be, as it is considered, the " Falcheham " of (D.B.), which is placed in the hundred of Benestede, thereby agreeing with the position of Felpham. In the (Nonæ Roll) the name is "Felegham." The church has chancel, nave with narrow north and south aisles, south porch (which has been rebuilt) and square western tower. It is constructed of such bad stone, and has suffered so much injury from weather, that the exterior is difficult to explain. The chancel seems to be Dec. The piscina and the south door are under ogees. The chancel arch is Perp. The north wall, having a round-headed door now built up, is perhaps Norm., or Tr. Norm., as are the northern piers and arches; those on the south side are E.E. The font is of Weald marble, large, square, with arches panelled in the sides, and a stem, but no shafts. Several oak benches remain. The tower is Perp.—At Flan- Men- or Flam-sham in the northern part of this parish (about a mile and a half from the church) a chapel is affirmed to have existed; but only "the ground plan of" it "may still be traced." (Cartwright's Dallaway's Rape of Arundel, 7.)—"Feltham," that is Felpham, we need not doubt, is one of the places bequeathed in King Alfred's will. (Asser's Alfred, by Wise, 77.)
93. Ferring.—This is deemed the mother church to both East Preston and Kingston. The existing building notwithstanding is small, having chancel, nave with north aisle and porch, and a wooden bell-turret over the west end. Of the chancel arch, which is very wide, the piers have Norm, abaci just appearing, but the arch is E.E. The general character of the edifice may be described as E.E., with some Tr. Norm. At the east end were originally windows under arches, possibly three, as at East Preston; and, as in the latter, the remaining shafts are of Weald marble, but the capitals are of earlier date. These windows are replaced by a large Perp. one, and the west window is in the same style. In the south wall of the chancel is the frame of, apparently, a door, low, and extremely narrow, now closed. The nave roof is continued over the aisle. A curious feature of this church is, that a narrow arch and wall with a stoup or a piscina in the latter intersect the aisle immediately eastward of the entrance ; and in the east wall of the porch is an arch, which may have been connected with this arrangement. The font is a heavy circular basin resting on four shafts, in addition to the main stem, coeval with the building.—Formerly the bishops of Chichester possessed a residence here, of which vestiges seem to exist in the south wall of the church-yard, some portion of which is ancient, and which immediately adjoins the courthouse of the manor and estate belonging to the bishop. The present occupant, for the sake of the materials and of the space they covered, pulled down other more considerable remains of the old episcopal mansion, which included walls of unusual thickness.
"Here, says Tanner, seems to have been a church, or monastery, built to the honour of St. Andrew in the time of Offa, king of the Mercians. The allusion is to Vol. VI of the present edition, p. 1163, num. vii, where Ferring is incidentally mentioned. There appears to have been some remains of this house in a free chapel or peculiar jurisdiction, which continued here all the time of K. Edward III. See Pat. 10 Edw. III, p. 1, m. 40 vel 41." (Monast. VI, 1624.) The other notice above referred to is in a charter of "Aldwlfus, dux Suthsaxonum," dated "anno incarnationis Domini nostri Jesu Christi DCCXI," naming "ecclesiam Sancti Andreæ, quæ sita est in terra quæ vocatur Ferring." (Ut sup. VI, 1163.) To me however it seems a matter deserving of consideration, whether the place intended may not have been Frant, which, as the Note below will prove, was sometimes called Ferring; and Rotherfield, to which Frant belonged till a comparatively recent date, being now only partially severed, is connected with the period of K. Offa by Berhtwald's donation of the manor to the abbey of St. Denis; refer to the Note on Rotherfield. In fact I conceive it most probable, that the convent erected at Rotherfield is identical with the "church or monastery of St. Andrew," mentioned above as existing at Ferring, and that the latter name really signifies Frant. Possibly on a critical examination of the original documents with this doubt in recollection the appearance of other names in the context might nearly or quite settle the question which place is meant. To the above allusions should be added, that a charter of Osmund of Sussex recites his having been requested by his count Walhere to grant him a small portion of land for the purpose of erecting a monastery, in accordance whereto he bestowed a spot called Ferring. "Ego Osmundus, rogatus a comite meo Walhere, ut sibi aliquantulam terram ad construendum in ea monasterium largiri dignarer; cuius precibus accommodans eandem terram, de qua suggerere uidebatur, pro remedio animae meae imperpetuum libenter impendo, id est xii tributarios terrae quae appellatur Ferring, cum totis ad eam pertinentibus rebus, campis, siluis, pratis, fluminibus, fontanis, et siluatica Coponoraet Titlesham." (Cod. Dipl. V, 49.) Whether the name, Ferring, belongs to the existing parish so called, or to Frant, might probably be ascertained by identifying the appellations "Coponora et Titlesham." If the term " silvatica" signifies woods, or wild, park-like spots, Frant is much more likely to be intended than Ferring. A.D. 791 Aldwlf, duke of the South Saxons, gave a small piece of wood, "aliquantulam siluae partem," to the church of St. Andrew at Ferring. (Cod. Dipl. V, 53.) The mention of wood decidedly agrees with the situation of Frant, better than with that of Ferring; as any one must acknowledge, who is well acquainted with the nature of the country at and around those two places.
94. Findon.—This church contains two stone seats with a door between them. (Cartwright.)
95. Firle.—Under the designation of West Firle this vicarage is annexed to that of Beddingham. (Clergy List.)—Adjoining the chancel of the church on the northern side is a large and lofty chapel, now used as the burying-place of Vise. Gage's family. (Horsfield's Lewes, II, 97.) Of Lord Gage's mansion in this parish it is stated, that the walls of the back part "are of vast thickness, and the ceilings low;" as if they may be the remains of a much earlier building. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 337.)
96. Fishbourne—Is styled " New" in distinction from "Old Fishbourne," which belongs to the adjoining parish of Bosham. This small church has very recently been rebuilt, except the chancel, which appears to contain one original window. N.B. The building was not entered.—A.D. 1812 Roman remains were found near the road passing through this parish from Chichester (Regnum) to Portchester (Portus Magnus). (Horsfield's Suss. II, 52.)
97. Fletching.—This is the most considerable church in the district, and one of much interest. It consists of chancel, north and south transepts, nave with north and south aisles, south porch, and western tower with a shingled spire. The tower is Norm., in construction and want of a staircase resembling that of Bosham, though the walls of the latter are perhaps rather the thickest. High in the sides are double windows divided by balusters having Norm, capitals, and the door opening into the church has a semicircular arch with a zigzag moulding. At some later period the tower has been supported by diagonal buttresses. The entire body of the church seems to be E.E., though a recently discovered portion of a round-headed window, which is intersected by the western arch on the south side of the nave, raises a suspicion that, there at least, some of the wall of the original Norm, building may remain. It is also stated, that foundations still exist on both sides between the present piers a very little below the pavement. The capitals in the transepts differ from those in the nave, although throughout are similar lancet windows. The east window is very large, of an unusual pattern, with perfectly plain mullions. The clerestory windows have been filled up. There is a piscina in the north transept, and a good Perp. screen at the entrance to the chancel. The porch is Perp., and contains a stoup. In the south transept are brasses of a knight and a lady, by tradition Dalyngriggs. (For these, from Boutell, see Suss. Arch. Coll. II, 309.) It will be observed, that no earlier date than Norm, has been assigned to this church; but certainly the tower is well deserving of notice, and may be regarded as of the same character with that of Bosham; which, in my opinion, it even exceeds in attractions to the antiquary.
98. Folkington.—(Val. Eccl.) notices the chapel of Wotton in the deanery of Pevensey, thereby indicating the place of that name in the parish of Folkington, which belongs to the aforesaid deanery; not Wotton in East Chiltington, that being within the deanery of Lewes.
99. Ford.—A small church of flint with stone dressings, consisting of nave, chancel, south porch (partly of modern brick) and wooden bell-turret over the west end. The south wall has been rebuilt, containing many old stones, and a small Dec. window. The chancel is Norm., much patched, with north and south original windows, but the eastern is Dec. The north wall of the nave is Norm., with two narrow round-headed windows, and another smaller and earlier, closed. There is also a door, disused, of later insertion. The west window is Perp., part of the hood moulding being of brick, though the bricks were formed in a mould, not cut, for the purpose. The arch of the south door is pointed, close to which a Norm, capital projects from the interior wall. The chancel arch is semicircular, Norm.; there has been in the chancel a low side window, now closed. The font is square, and rude. Several oak benches remain in a mutilated condition.
100. Framfield.—This church is built in the form of a cross, consisting of chancel, nave, and two side aisles, the transepts being two private chapels, those of Hempsted and Bentley. In the western pier of the north transept is a staircase, now concealed. "The belfry tower, which was of stone, and stood at the west end of the church, fell down, together with the western wall, soon after the evening service, one Sunday in 1667. In 1668 the west wall was rebuilt, and the foundation of a new belfry begun. Afterwards the work was stopped, under pretence that the inhabitants were unable to bear the expense. The truth was, that the Durrants, Stones, and Peckhams, who were the principal inhabitants, and possessed of good estates, were Dissenters, and therefore not very anxious to expend their money in beautifying the church." (Horsfield's Lewes, II, 111.)
101. Frant.—The mention, recorded in Thorpe (Registrum Roffense), of Rotherfield, "cum capella de Fernet" proves that a church existed at Frant temp. Anselm, Archbp. of Canterbury under William Rufus. (A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Retherfeud cum Ferring" and in (N.R.) "Rotherfeld cum Feruthe" A very small portion of this parish lies in Kent. (Kilburne, who spells the name "Fant.")—The church was rebuilt A.D. 1822. Bayham is partly in Frant. (Horsfield’s Suss. I, 407.) There appears some reason to imagine, that a religious house of Saxon foundation existed here. Compare the Notes on Ferring and Rotherfield.
102. Friston.—This vicarage is united with that of East Dean. Brasses, small; Tho. Selwyn and wife, 1542. (Horsfield’s Suss. 1. 284.) Friston Place is an old manor house, meriting examination.
103. Glynde.—This church was erected A.D. 1765 at the expense of the Rev. Rich. Trevor, Bp. of Durham, owner of and residing at Glynde Place, (Horsfield's Lewes, II, 125,) It is in very bad taste, the style called Grecian. In this parish, westward from the church, stands Mount Caburn, an ancient intrenched camp or fort, circular in shape. Within are marks of British hahitations.
104. Goring.—This church was rebuilt A.D. 1838, but the stones and capitals of the piers having been preserved and reerected, they prove (that part of) the old building to have been Tr. Norm.—A tradition prevails, that this parish formerly contained a religious house; and indeed at the south-east corner of the churchyard are some vestiges of wall of considerable antiqmty, while in the adjoining field and part of the churchyard numerous foundations may be traced by digging. However a portion of a small, very narrow window, little larger than an oylet, may indicate a mansion, rather than a religious edifice, which is rendered the more probable by the fact, that the farmhouse on the spot is the courthouse of the manor.
105. Gretham.—A rectory, but annexed to that of Wigginholt.
106. Grinsted, East.—The existing church is the third in a century and a half, the first having been destroyed by lightning about A.D. 1684, shortly after which time the tower was reerected. In 1785 it fell, so injuring the body of the church, that it was necessary partially to rebuild it. Sackville College was founded under the will of Robert, second Earl of Dorset, dated 1608, for certain poor men and women. Near the ruins of Brambletye House in this parish are vestiges of another edifice, which was moated, and the original mansion of the estate, till it was deserted after the completion of the new one, which likewise is now a ruin. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 390, 386.)—This church possesses a lofty square west tower battlemented with pinnacles at the angles, much resembling from a little distance the fine Perp. towers of the West of England, and well suiting its situation, on the summit of a high ridge of hills. The town contains many old houses, principally of timber and plaster. In a remote part of this extensive parish, about three miles from the church, and near Forest Row, stand the ruins of Brambletye House, but they are of little interest. Among the remaining portions is the entrance tower, upon a stone in the front of which are the letters , and below them the date 1631. "The moated vestiges of the original mansion," spoken of by Horsfield above, could not be perceived. The estate of Brambletye is noticed in (D.B.) under the name of "Branbertei" in the hundred of "Grenestede."
107. Grinsted, West.—The church contains a Norm, doorway. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 252.) Here are two Brasses; one of a lady, whom the inscription "sixty years ago" stated to have been Philippa, wife of John Halsham, one of the daughters and heirs of David de Strabolge, Earl of Atholl; died A.D. 1395. The other Brass is of a man and woman under canopies, by a note taken at the above date Sir Hugh Halsham (died 1441) and wife Jocosa (died 1421). (Cartwright.) The inscriptions were supplied from the Burrell MSS. (Horsfield, ut sup.) For remarks on these memorials consult (Monum. Brasses, 86, 92, 131, 154.)
108. Guestling.—The church, which at first may be supposed to be attributed to Luet, really stood at Guestling; for the entry in (D.B.) runs thus:—"In eodem hundredo tenet Robertus de comite unam Eerlangam, &c. Ibi æcclesia.—In the same hundred Robert holds of the earl one Ferlanga, &c. There is a church." The hundred previously named is "Gestelinges," the manor so called being the first which is described, although the churh is not mentioned till afterwards, as above.—The church contains two sedilia under pointed arches. (Horsfield’s Suss. I, 468,)
109. Guildford, East.—In (Val. Eccl.) this parish is said to be in Kent, though certainly in Sussex. It is styled "East" Guildford in reference to Guildford in Surrey; as South Malling in this county is so distinguished from the Mallings in Kent.
110. Hailsham.—A church of chancel, nave, north and south aisles with chancels not even with the central, south porch (of which the entrance arch has been rendered "classical") and square west tower. In the high chancel is a mutilated trcfoil—headed piscina, and adjoining is an arch sufficiently wide for a double sedile, but at present there is no gradation of seats, the arch more resembling one for a tomb. In the northern chancel, which is now separated from the church, and with a late addition eastward forms a spacious vestry, is another trefoil-headed piscina. There seems to be a third piscina in the south chancel, but concealed by the pew lining. A small fragment of coloured glass remains in the east window. The building is generally Dec. and Perp., but has been much patched, some modern repairs having been executed in brick. Some rubble masonry is visible.—A farm in this parish called Otham disputes with the parish of Otham in Kent the credit of having been the site of a monastery, which was afterwards removed to Bayham in Lamberhurst. One statement is, that a monastery was founded at Otham in Sussex by Ralph de Dene; it was removed from thence into the parish of Lamberhurst, Brackley in Deptford being the site first selected; but it was eventually settled at Beaulieu in Bayham. (Monast. VI, 910.) The charters printed in the Monasticon do not distinctly state that the Otham in question was in Sussex, but the fact may be inferred from their contents. At Otham farm are the remains of at chapel, now used as a stable.—This chapel was probably the church of St. Lawrence of Otham, mentioned in a deed of Ranuph of Iclesham, the founder, "qui fundavit." (Weever’s Fun. Monum. 318, quoted in Horsfield’s Suss. l, 317.) The date of the deed is not given.—Formerly a cross, resembling that at Alfriston, stood at the junction of the three streets of this town, (Horsfield, ut sup.) Although, in concurrence with others, I have assigned the Domesday name Hamelesham to Hailsham, I greatly doubt the correctness of so doing. Judging from the hundreds, in which they are respectively placed, I should rather imagine Westham to be meant by Hamelesham, and that Hailsham is intended by the Haslesse of (D.B.) See the Note below on Haslesse.
111. Hampnett.—The Domesday names Hentone and Antone are supposed to signify this place, as they bear some similarity to another ancient appellation, Hamptonette, which it bore (as in A.D. 1291). In (N. R.) it is called West Hampnet. East Hampnett is in Boxgrove parish.
112. Hampton, Little.—The present church was built in 1826. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 133.) The east window is Dec., and the font is old. (Parry's Coast of Suss. 371.)
113. Hangleton.The church is small, and in melancholy condition. From portions of two very small round-headed window-frames, still remaining in the walls, the latter may originally have been Norm., but they have been much disguised by the patching they have undergone. Some herring-bone work is very conspicuous on the south side; where is the only door now used, which has a semicircular head, and another of the same shape in the north wall is now closed. There are traces of Norm, windows, but the others may be E.E., except that at the east end, which is much later. The tower seems to have been entirely or partially rebuilt, perhaps during the E.E. period.—The manor-house, an extensive Elizabethan edifice, contains a large room, which is said to have been a chapel, but the stable has a lancet window. On a chimney-piece are the letters R B. Richard Bellingham was the owner A.D. 1594. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 162.) There is a ceiling, much ornamented in the Elizabethan style, which is perfect, though now intersected by the partition between two rooms ; but I could hear of no "R B on a chimney-piece," nor did I discover any lancet window in the stable. Very near to the manor-house is another, called Benfold, of about the same date apparently, now occupied by cottagers. On a cornice over the entrance-porch are carved several shields of arms, which are still in remarkably good preservation; and among them are mutilated parts of some letters, either B, P, or R, and C, and perhaps there may have been another.
114. Haningedune.—This name clearly means Annington, a principal estate in Botolph's parish, which indeed is even now sometimes recognised, me teste, not by the latter, but by the former, title.—"In 1075 Will, de Braiose" (to whom Haningedune, Bramber, and many adjoining manors belonged, according to D.B.) "granted the church of St. Peter's Vipont, or de Veteri Ponte, in St. Botolph's, Annington being the ancient Vipont. A tradition exists among the old inhabitants, that a church formerly stood at Annington, near the ponds" (the manor-house is distant only about two fields from the present church: A. H.) "where foundations yet remain: but the Bishop's Registers contain no notice of Vipont Church." (Cartwright.) For a corroboration of this tradition from authentic documents see above in the Note upon Beeding. Mr. Bloxam (Goth. Archit. 66, 67, 77, 8th ed.) considers the church of St. Botolph's to exhibit marks of Anglo-Saxon construction. See the Note on Botolph's.
115. Hardham.—(A.D. 1291) names "Ecclia de Erytheham." The deanery being Midhurst, and the "Prior de Herietham," and the "Prioratus de Ericheham" also occurring, there can be no difficulty in understanding, that Hardham is intended. But see also the Note on Eartham. The priory, which is called "Heringham" occasionally, was founded temp. K. Henry II by Sir Will. Dawtrey. Some ruins were standing not long ago containing Norm, mouldings over pointed arches; (of which a woodcut is given. Cartwright's Dallaway).
116. Hartfield.—This is a church of chancel, nave, south aisle of which the chancel reaches about halfway up the other, south porch, and west tower with shingled spire. The north wall of the nave, retaining the frame of a lancet window, would seem to be of E.E. date at least; but the building must have received extensive repairs, and probably some additions, in the Dec. period, to which style the aisle belongs. Also the windows of both the body and the tower, although the mullions and tracery may be Perp., even debased, as are the east windows, are beneath Dec. arches. The entire tower, unless any older wall should exist under the facing of the lower part, seems to be Dec. In the chancel are, on the north side two, on the south one, two-light Perp. windows under square exterior hoods, like those described below at Laughton, and of the southern window the hood has no return, the terminal ornament being precisely the same as at Laughton. The interior arches of the northern windows, though pointed, are four-centred. The south chancel had a door, now closed. The south and west doors are Dec. In the high chancel is a perfectly plain piscina, mutilated; and in the southern a trefoiled ogée-headed one. A tiebeam supplies the place of a chancel arch, as in the neighbouring church of Ashurst, Kent. The tiebeams &c. of both nave and aisle have ornamental mouldings, but are loaded with whitewash. Near the south door is a mutilated stoup, headed like the piscina. The font is Dec., octagon with carved sides, of sandstone. The entrance to the churchyard is by a lychgate, under an old cottage, but the corresponding house, forming half the gate, has been pulled down. The original arrangement must have resembled that at Penshurst, Kent.—Bolebroke, a brick mansion in this parish, erected about the middle of the fifteenth century, was a residence belonging to the Sackville family. Sufficient remains to trace the place of the house. A park was attached to it. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 392.) In (N. R.) under the parishes of Hartfield, Maresfield, and Withyham, Ashdown Forest is spoken of as "chacea de Ashesdoune."
117. Harting.—A small hospital for lepers was founded here by Henry de Husee, temp. K. Henry II, which was afterwards made subject to Dureford Abbey. (Dug. Mon. III, Part I, p. 79, from West. Suss, in Horsfield's Suss. II, 87.) Note, The name of the abbey is spelled Durfold in the account of its origin under Rogate; to which refer.
118. Haslesse. This place is named among the possessions of the Earl of Eu, in the hundred of Essewelle, or Essewelde; but neither the manor nor the hundred can be identified under any modern appellation. The description mentions, among other particulars, that it comprised a wood of ten hogs, had been held of King Edward by Bp. Alric, and was then devastated. "Ibi aecclesia est, et silva x porcorum—Alricus episcopus tenuit de rege Edwardo—vastatum fuit." (D.B.) After Haslesse, which. place is first described in the paragraph, occur Calvintone (Chalvington) Esserintone (probably Jevington) Alsitone (Alciston) Radetone (Ratton in Willingdon) Wigentone (Wilmington?) Willedone and Wilendone (Willingdon) Ripe, Farle (Eirle) Lovingetone (Lullington?) Eschintone (Eckington, ch=k, a name in Ripe, which see) Lestone (Laughton) Dene (West Dean) and two others, which I cannot recognise. These parishes are now distributed among several hundreds, of which not a single name resembles that of Essewelle; but the above places being, for the most part certainly, clearly to be ascertained, there can be no doubt as to, at least, the district, wherein Haslesse was situated; and we might conjecture Hailsham to be signified, but that, beside the great difference between the names a small one would be unimportant, Hamelesham is mentioned, as belonging to Earl Morton, in the hundred of Pevensey. If the latter name should imply Westham; as not improbably it may; which is now in the liberty of, and immediately adjoins, Pevensey, whereas Hailsham is distant about five miles, the difficulty will be obviated; but more evidence is required, before we can venture decidedly to assign these Domesday appellations. In the abridged manuscript copy of (D.B.) elsewhere alluded to (see Chaldon in Surrey) the entire paragraph descriptive of the hundred of Essewelle is omitted: which is easily accounted for, because, in the original MS., the entry is headed and concluded by precisely the same words, declaring the hundred never to have paid land-tax, "Dane-gelt;" the transcriber therefore took up his catchwords at the wrong place, namely, at the conclusion of the paragraph, and proceeded accordingly without noticing the intervening matter. This circumstance debarred me from ascertaining, by a comparison of the two MSS., whether the name Haslesse was identical in both.
119. Hastings. (A.D. 1291) names the churches of St. Margaret, St. Michael, St. Peter, St. Andrew under the castle, St. Clement, and All Saints : of which the last two only remain, and they alone are mentioned in (Val. Eccl.) Of All Saints' church the belfry is vaulted with stone; in the chancel are a piscina and three cinquefoil-headed sedilia. A priory was founded beneath the hill, westward of the castle, by Sir Walter Bricet, temp. K. Richard I; the sea encroaching upon it, the establishment was removed to Warbleton, 14 of K. Henry IV. In the town of Hastings was the hospital, i.e., almshouses, of St. Mary Magdalen. (Horsfield's Suss.) With respect to the intention of rebuilding Hastings priory at Warbleton "Tanner says, that it does not appear that this design ever fully took effect." (Monast. VI, 168.) Within the castle of Hastings was a royal free chapel, whereto belonged a dean and several canons or residentiaries; to which foundation Henry de Augo or Ewe, temp. K. Henry I, was a benefactor, and of which perhaps his father and himself had been the founders. (Ib. VI, 1470.) There was "a chapel opposite Bohemia" (which lies beyond the site of the priory to the west. A. H.). "The road near what is called 'The White Rock' having been washed away early in this year, 1834, in cutting down the adjacent cliffs for materials of repair the workmen came upon the remains of a church, probably St. Michael, upon what is now known as Cuckoo Hill. This hill is traditionally a parish in itself." (Rev. G. G. Stonestreet in Horsfield's Suss. I, 441, 457.)—Of the castle some portions of the rough walls yet stand, within which, in 1824, the ground was excavated to the depth of seven feet, whereby one side of what was considered to have been the chapel and the lower part of a gateway were uncovered, and several interments were disturbed.—Horsfield asserts, (Suss.I,442,) that Hastings is styled "Ceaster" in the Saxon Chronicle, which certainly is not the fact. The name occurs in that compilation only three times, twice as Hæstinga, once as Hestinga; and the earliest mention is A.D. 1011.—For some remarks upon the Sussex Cinque Ports, and a description of their seals consult (Suss. Arch. Coll. I, 14 et seq.)
120. Heathfield.—(A.D.1291)"Vicarius de Hethfeud—note, Estfel et Hetfeld." "Some remains of stained glass are to be seen in the chancel windows" of the church. About a mile below the church is the site of an iron furnace. "The cannon cast here were asserted to be of better metal, and would bear higher charges, than those of any other foundry in the kingdom." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 576, 573.)
121. Heene.—Heene is now comprised in the parish of West Tarring, though supporting its own poor; as Durrington does; like which place Heene was merely a chapelry, it being admitted, in the reign of K. Henry II, that it had never been customary to bury, though it was asserted that baptisms had always been celebrated there up to a previous specified period. "As divine service had not been performed in the chapel for many years, a faculty was granted in August 1766 for taking it down." (Cartwright.)—From the above statement the chapel at Heene existed at a very early date, and we are justified in the supposition, that it might be one of the Domesday churches of West Tarring. The name of Heene appears neither in (A.D. 1291) nor in subsequent records; which is accounted for by it ranking only as a chapelry.—A small portion of the east end of the church yet remains, exhibiting a fragment of the piscina. There is not sufficient to judge satisfactorily of the style of the building, except that it was not very early. If this church, which appears not to have been remarkably small, was now complete, it would be a great convenience to the inhabitants of the western end of Worthing, which extends close up to the spot. South-west of the church, on the same premises, are some pieces of ancient wall, apparently belonging to some domestic structure.
122. Heighton.—The "Hoghton note, Eggeton," in the deanery of Pevensey, (of A.D. 1291) is presumed to signify Heighten.—"The church, dedicated to St. Martin, was damaged by lightning in 1769; and though 150 was estimated to be a sufficient sum to put it again into a condition for use, the parishioners preferred it in a state of ruin. It is now nearly gone," &c. (Quite so in 1845.) "The inside of the church and the cemetery are now used as a garden" (by the parish-clerk) "while the font is appropriated to the use of a water-trough in a neighbouring farm-yard." South Heighten was united with Tarring Nevill about 1640 under Tarring it is said, in 1660. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 274.) When visited in June, 1849, the site of the church was indeed known, and some portions of the walls were visible, but the spot was no longer a garden, being totally unprotected by any fence, and overgrown with grass. It should be observed, that the church was very small, and another within a very short distance.
123. Hellingly.—Near the church stands "an old timber-built and moated mansion, the manor-house of Horselunges. The kitchen and three of the up-stair apartments have their windows ornamented with coats of arms, in stained glass." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 318, 319.)
124. Henfield.—A charter of Osmund of Sussex, dated A.D. 770, mentions the church of St. Peter at Hanefeld. "Aliquantulam terram ad aecclesiam beati Petri apostoli, quae ibi sita est, in loco qui dicitur Hanefeld." (Cod. Dipl. V, 50.) Although other proof as to the locality is wanting, the connection of the grantor with the county, and the similarity of the names intimate, that Henfield must be the place intended; in which case we have evidence, that a church existed here within the third quarter of the eighth century. One of the signatures to the charter is that of "Berhtwald dux," the same individual, we may justly imagine, who, A.D. 792, conferred his manor of Rotherfield upon the abbey of St. Denis, near Paris. Compare the Note on Rotherfield.
125. Heyshott.—In (A.D. 1291) spelled "Hethsshytt," and annexed to Stedham, (as it is in the Nonæ Roll as well as in Val. Eccl.) being still in the same position. In the (Nonæ Roll) the singular noun Ecclesia is not conclusive against the existence of two churches.
126. Hoathly, East.—(A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Hegleghe—note, Odkelegh" is marked as designating this place. "Ecclesia de Hodlega" occurs in the Chartulary of Lewes Priory, temp. William, third Earl Warenne; but it may mean either East or West Hoathly.—This church comprises chancel, nave, south porch, and massive square west tower with battlements and stair-turret. There is also a late Perp. chapel on the northern side, with square-headed windows, the whole precisely resembling that on the south side of Chidingly church. In the east end are three lancet windows, the central the highest, the upper termination being trefoiled: the side windows of the chancel have similar tops; but these are evidently insertions. The wall is of rubble masonry. In the north wall of the nave a round-headed door has been bricked up, and the frame chiselled even with the wall. The tower is Perp. The porch is modern, of brick. The south wall of the nave has recently been repaired. The hood of the west door, as at Chidingly, contains the Pelham buckle. Horsfield (Lewes, II, 89) gives a woodcut of an ancient bowl, then, apparently, belonging to Mr. Wisdom, a resident of the parish. Of what material the bowl was formed is not stated, but the stem was decorated with a pair of large ram's horns.
127. Hoathly, West.—(A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Hogligh" is considered to mean West Hoathly; the ecclesiastical divisions named distinguishing between the two places, East Hoathly being in the deanery of Pevensey, the other in that of Lewes.—The church comprises chancel, nave with south aisle and porch, and west tower with a good shingled spire, which, from its elevated position, is a conspicuous object. The chancel is E.E., but the east window is a very debased square insertion within the original arch, which still retains its side shafts. There are, an unusually wide piscina, and three sedilia, all trefoil-headed. The west end of the nave is earlier than the remainder, probably Tr. Norm. The aisle is E.E., having its own chancel. The font is mutilated, of Weald marble, probably E.E. Some windows are Dec., some Perp. In the interior near the south door are remains of a stoup. The walls, where original portions are visible, are of rubble masonry, like those of Ardingly. Two iron grave-slabs to Infields, dates 1619 and 1624, are used as stepping-stones at the entrance of the tower.—In this parish is a curiosity of a kind, whereof few examples exist in this part of the kingdom. It is a large rock, estimated to weigh from 487 to 500 tons, poised upon the edge, almost the point, of another, upon the summit of a sandstone cliff. The country people call it "Great upon Little." It is about half a mile westward from West Hoathly church. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 263.)
128. Hollington.—In (Val. Eccl.) we find mention of the "free chapel" of Hollington, the vicarage being estimated separately, and the vicar and the chaplain being manifestly different persons. It may be conjectured perhaps, that this notice refers to the church of St. Leonard, the continued existence of which, in that case,, we learn during the first quarter of the sixteenth century.
129. Hooe.—There is a very small piscina in this church, and some coloured glass, supposed to represent K. Edward III and Q. Philippa. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 545.) An alien priory, belonging to that of Bec in Normandy, is stated to have been erected here soon after A.D. 1139. (Monast. VI, 1053.)
130. Horsham.—This church contains a stone effigy of Tho. Lord Braiose, temp. K. Richard II. (Cartwright.) Also a Brass of a nameless priest, about A.D. 1430, described and represented (Monum. Brasses, 98).
131. Horsted Keynes.—In the church is a curious small cross-legged effigy, only twenty-seven inches in length (which is fully described in Archæol. Journal, III, 234-239, and in Suss. Arch. Coll. I, 128, et seq.) (Val. Eccl.) mentions a chantry of "Brodehurst" in this parish, Broadhurst, now a farm-house only, was the residence, to which Archbp. Leighton retired for the remainder of his life, after resigning the archbishopric of Glasgow, temp. K. Charles II.
132. Horsted, Little.—This church consists of only chancel, nave, and large western tower. The first is Norm., exhibiting on the exterior north wall a rude round-headed arcade, in the alternate panels of which were very small windows, now bricked up. The east window is Perp. The chancel and nave are not in the same straight line. In the nave are one Dec. and two Perp. windows. The font is dated 1666. The tower is Perp.
133. Houghton.—This place (spelled "Horghtone" in A.D. 1291) is merely a chapelry, and was united to Amberley in A.D. 1700. (Cartwright's Dallaway.) There was an ancient forest in this parish, belonging to the Bishop of Chichester. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 148.)
134. Hove.—(A.D. 1291) "Vicarius de Huna," in the deanery of Lewes, is considered to signify Hove. Very possibly the name ought to be read with letter u repeated, synonymous with v, for "Huva." Hove church was rebuilt about A.D. 1835-6.
135. Hurst Monceux.—The "Ecclia de Esthurst" of (A.D.1291), and, the "Esthurst" of (N.R.) can only signify this place; East Hurst in distinction from the western Hurst, now Hurst Pierpoint.—The addition of Monceux is asserted to have been first adopted by the owner of the estate in the reign of Henry II (Camden, quoted in Horsfield's Suss. I, 553); where (in a note) is produced an extract from the Lansdowne MSS., throwing a doubt upon Camden's statement, and showing, that possibly the property may have passed into the possession of the Monceux family at a later period, than that assigned by Camden; namely, by gift of the Countess of Richmond to John Monceux, who was living 10 of K. Edward II. It must also be perceived, that the citations above prove the name East Hurst to have been in familiar use not only toward the close of the thirteenth, but likewise near the middle of the fourteenth century. The church of Hurst Monceux has been much altered, but the nave and tower appear to be E.E. On the northern side of the chancel, under an arch opening into a private chapel, is a richly ornamented altar tomb, with two stone effigies, namely, those of Tho. Fynes, second Lord Dacre, deceased 1533, and his son Sir Thomas, who died first.—Brass: Will. Pienes, 1402. (Monum. Brasses, 142.)
—The castle was erected temp. K. Henry VI, when the great mansions still retained a castellated character, though no longer necessary for purposes of defence. It is constructed entirely of brick, with stone dressings; formed a very extensive quadrangle, with a large garden behind it; and was moated, though the water has long been drawn off. A wide and substantial dam, upon which was the road of approach, over a small stream, must have given to the eastern side of the moat the resemblance to a lake. About seventy years ago the castle was furnished and in habitable condition; but in or about A.D. 1778 the then proprietor pulled to pieces the interior to obtain materials for building a smaller and less expensive mansion, which has ever since been the residence upon the estate; and thenceforward the castle became a ruin. The castle contained a chapel.
136. Hurst Pierpoint.—The church has very recently been entirely rebuilt.—The brick mansion of Danny was erected A.D. 1595. A park is spoken of in this parish. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 244, 245.)
- The above account of the church and parsonage of West Dean has been anticipated by a more detailed description, with illustrations, by the Rev. G. M. Cooper, in the third volume (tor 1850) of the Sussex Archaeological Collections, pp. 13-22.
- See Addenda
- For the identification of the Vetus Pons and St. Peter's church there, see the Notes above on Bramher and Beeding (also Suss. Arch. Coll. II, 69.) The name and title de Veteri Ponte or Vipont are derived, not from the Vetus Pons just alluded to, but, from Vipont, near Lisieux, in Normandy. (Ut sup. 77.)