Notes on the churches in the counties of Kent, Sussex, and Surrey/Sussex/Notes on the Churches R-Y
Rameslie.—"In Ghestelinges hundred. There are five churches paying sixty-four shillings. There are an hundred saltpans of 8 15s. and seven acres of meadow, and a wood of two hogs. In the manor itself is a new borough, and there are sixty-four burgesses paying £8, less by two shillings. In Hastings are four burgesses and fourteen borderers, &c.—Ibi v æcclesiæ reddentes lxiiii solidos. Ibi c salinæ de viii libris et xv solidis, et vii acræ prati et silva ii porcorum de pasnagio. In ipso manerio est novum burgum, et ibi lxiiii burgenses reddentes viii libras ii solidis minus. In Hæstinges iiii burgenses et xiiii bordarii, &c." (D. B.) This description affords no clue for the identification of the spot intended, which, thus far, appears an utter impossibility, as no place, now existing in that part of Sussex, will answer to the above account. The hundred saltpans imply close vicinity to the sea; it will be observed, that there is mention of a "new borough" in the "very manor" and that Hastings is specially named as a different place. It is hardly possible, that New Winchelsea can be meant, because Rameslie is declared to have possessed five churches A.D. 1086; whereas above two hundred years afterwards, when the town of Winchelsea had been removed to its present site, it contained only three churches, beside that the precise history, supported as it is by remaining documents, of that removal militates against such a supposition. Compare the Note on Winchelsea. The position of Rameslie in the hundred of Guestling seems to restrict our researches to a confined district, or perhaps the "new borough" of Rameslie might be found in an extension into Sussex of Promehill, belonging to the county of Kent, which was overwhelmed by the sea about A.D. 1280, temp. K. Edward I, and of which (consult the Note there) little appears to be known at this day, that little comprising somewhat conflicting statements. Originally I was disposed to think, that Rye (which is otherwise unnoticed in D. B.) might be signified by Rameslie, but the Note on that town will show, that there is evidence of its importance at an earlier date than temp. K, William I, when moreover it was known under its present appellation.206.
207. Ringmer —Church consists of chancel, nave, north and south aisles, south porch, and square bell-turret (nearly new) over the west end. There is also a late Perp. chapel at the east end of each aisle, the northern having wooden mullions to the windows; each chapel contains a piscina; the southern being mutilated. All the remaining old windows are Perp. under square hoods. The piers between the nave and aisles seem to be Perp. The roof-timbers also are in that style, the tiebeams having good mouldings. The porch retains some ancient timber. In this parish stands Broyle Place. The house is styled "very ancient," originally of brick, with later additions in stone. It is said to have been surrounded, temp. Q. Elizabeth, by a park, containing at least 1600 acres. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 350.) Though now reduced to a farm-house, it is an extensive pile of building, including some old chimneys. (Val. Eccl.) mentions Ringmer, Erakham, Plashet, and More parks.
208. Ripe. "Ekyngton alias Ripe," (A.D. 1291). It is also called Eckyngton (in N. R.).—Part of the village street is still known as "Eckington Corner," (Horsfield's Suss. I, 353, note1.)
209. Rodmel. This little church consists of a western tower with a small heavy spire, nave, south aisle, and chancel, with a southern adjunct to the latter. Though not a very remarkable building, it has some peculiarities. Rickman included it in his list of "Churches, which are mostly E.E., with Perp. insertions and additions;" notwithstanding which I venture to call it rather Tr. Norm. The chancel arch is small, and pointed, with sides of unequal length, but the soffit has a Norm, moulding, the "diamond frette" of (Gloss. of Archit. pl. 54, ed. 1840). The only pier between the nave and the aisle is circular, with a square capital, of which the upper part is nearly plain, while the lower part is carved in trefoils, of similar characters to the capitals in St. Anne's church, Lewes, with corbels, all of different patterns, at the angles, in which respect likewise there is a resemblance to St. Anne's church. The font is large, square, and plain, the sides merely adorned with four round arches, perfectly simple, and very slightly sunk below the general surface. The original supports at the corners seem totally lost; the material is Weald marble. Between the end of the aisle and the chancel is a squint, having in the centre a very short shaft and capital of Norm, construction, and of Weald marble, as if to support the wall above, the opening being quadrangular.
Northease is a considerable property in this parish, of which the name occurs in (D.B.) and which lies north with reference to the contiguous parish of Southease. The charter of Bp. Seffrid II, quoted in the Note on Lewes, dating about A.D. 1200, proves the existence, at that early period, of a chapel on this estate. Within the recollection of middle-aged persons now living, A.D. 1849, considerable remains of the chapel were standing but only a small fragment is now visible, forming an angle of a large barn on the northern side of the residence, and not sufficing for any opinion as to the style of architecture of the late building. The foundations are stated to extend into the adjoining stackyard.
210. Rogate.—The church is small, and part at least seems to be Norm. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 92.)—"Tanner says, 'Henry Hoese the elder, before the year 1169" (Hosatus, Hoese, or Hussey, A.D. 1160, Old Mag. Brit. 556, quoted in Horsfield's Sussex) "built and endowed here" (at Dureford) "an abbey of Premonstratensian canons frornWelbeck, &c.'" (Monast.VI,936.) The confirmatory charters by K. Henry III and Hilary, Bp. of Chichester, are given (ut sup. 938); where also will be seen the grant to the abbey of Rogate church by Henry Hoese, apparently the son of the founder, but without date.—A portion of the abbey is now converted into a residence. There are no remains of the chapel. (Horsfield.)—"Near (Habenbridge, about half a mile south of the village) upon an eminence above the Arun, are the vestiges of a castle or tower, within a foss, and foundations of buildings within its circuit." (Horsfield's Suss. II, 92.)
211. Rotherfield.—"Parcus est ibi—There is a park" (D.B.); identical, we may reasonably presume, with the existing park of Eridge, which is now in Frant, that being a parish severed from the very extensive one of Rotherfield. (D.B.) states, that Rotherfield was held in domain by King William of the fee of the Bishop of Bayeux, who had fallen into disgrace with his brother a few years previous to the Domesday Survey, having been imprisoned in A.D. 1082. "In this year the king apprehended Bishop Odo." (Gibs. Chron. Sax. 184.)
A church was erected in this place before the end of the eighth century, when the owner of the property, " the ealdorman Berhtwald of Sussex with the confirmation of the king," Offa, gave the church of Rotherfield, together with his ports of Hastings and Pevensey, to the abbey of St. Denis near Paris, the date of his charter being A.D. 792. (Du Chesne ; and Monast. Angl. t. VI, 1077, cited by Lappenberg, Thorpe's, I, 232.) The following extracts contain the words of the charter, so far as concerns our present subject. "Ecclesiam ædificavi in sede meâ, in villâ vocabulo Ridrefelda, quæ a progenitoribus meis jure haereditario mihi relicta fuerat ... Ego ... per hanc scripturæ seriem omnem illam villam meam, quæ vocatur Ridrefelda, sit am super fluvium, qui dicitur Salforda, in pago qui dicitur Successa, et pagi civitas appellatur Chichestra ... trado. Concedo etiam ... meæ possessionis portus, qui sunt in eâdem civitate super mare, Hastingaset Pevenesel ... Actumdominicæ incarnationis an. DCCXCII ... Ego Berthoaldus dux manu meâ firmavi et subscripsi &c." (From Du Chesne, who gives also King Offa's confirmation, Monast. VI, 1077.) As a caution to all persons against attempting an infringement of his donation duke Berthoald reminds them of the account to be demanded from them at the day of universal judgment; but it is to be remarked, that the passage of his charter, wherein this is done, is a compilation from several sentences, instead of the direct quotation of any one sentence, of holy scripture. "Si quis autem aliquid be hiis detrahere, aut minuere, vel usurpare temptaverit, et ab illis sanctis et servitoribus corum monachis abstulerit, regi seculorum Deo peccabit, qui ab eo requirat in judicio futuro quod injuste abstulit, 'cum veniet in sua majestate et sanctorum angelorum reddere unicuique prout gessit, sive bonum sive malum, et ibunt impii in supplicum seternum, justi autem in vitam seternam.'—But if any one shall have attempted to seize, or to diminish, or to usurp any of these things, and shall have taken away from those holy monks and their servitors, he will sin against God the king of ages, who require from him in the future judgment what he has unjustly taken, 'when he shall come in his own majesty and (in that) of the holy angels, to render to every one according as he hath done, whether good or evil, and the impious shall go into eternal punishment, but the just unto life eternal.'" (Ut sup.)
Ritheranfeld is mentioned in King Alfred's will. (Asser's Alfred, by Wise, 7.) In consequence of the gift of Rotherfield to the abbey of St. Denis, the latter foundation established a convent of monks at Rotherfield. (Monast. VI, 1053.) This convent seems to have originated very shortly after duke Berhtwald's donation; but I am disposed to believe it was placed at Frant, rather than within the district now comprised in the parish of Rotherfield. Compare the Notes above on Ferring and Frant.—Temp. K. William II, if not K. William I, Earl Gilbert, son of Richard (de Clare) gave the church of "Rethrefeld" to the church of Rochester. (Reg. Roff. 110.)
212 Rottingdean.—In the Preface it is stated, that there is some reason to imagine this parish may have possessed a church at least as early as the period of the present church of Ovingdean, which is late Norm. Indeed we may go still further back. Though the northern wall of the nave may be late Norm., Rottingdean church generally is E.E., consisting of nave and chancel, with a central tower, but no transepts, the whole being of an extremely substantial character. In the walls, for example in the northern side a little above the foundation of the tower, and even in the nave wall, numerous stones may be observed, particularly portions of columns, beside others, which must have belonged to a former building, and intimating the (probable) previous existence of a church upon the same spot; which inference receives some confirmation from the presence at the west end of a small part of the wall, having no manifest connection with the remainder, but seeming to have been an old fragment, perhaps of a Norm, buttress, worked into the more recent wall: and an erection merely dating subsequent to the Domesday Survey would scarcely have required renovation in the "E.E." era, beside that the demolished columns imply more ornamental architecture, than the church now standing displays. The floor of the nave originally ascended gradually from the western entrance to the tower, but was levelled when the church was new paved, and the present sash-windows inserted A.D. 1818, in which alteration the ground at the western tower-arch was lowered about a foot. Porstlade church is another, still existing, example of the inclined plane. That this church was formerly larger is unquestionable. On the outside of the south wall of the nave, three arches, now closed, are uite distinct, not only the soffits, but also the piers and their capitals, the latter having trefoil carving, being perfectly visible; and the arches might be reopened with no danger and little difficulty. Beside these marks, some of the foundation wall, and even that of the porch, of the south aisle appears among the grass of the churchyard. How or when this aisle was destroyed, as remarked in the Note on East Blatchington, it is impossible now to say; though it may be a probable conjecture, that it was effected during hostilities with some neighbouring nation. For it is recorded (See Horsfield's Suss. I, 187.) that A.D. 1377 the French landed at Rottingdean, and marched from thence with the intention of plundering Lewes, in which attempt they failed; also that they again committed various ravages on the coast of Sussex in 1514 and 1545.
Balsdean, pronounced "Baa'sdean," is a hamlet of four houses, beside one on the adjoining farm of Norton, in the parish of Rottingdean, lying among the Downs about two miles northwards from the church. In a conspicuous position here stands a small ancient building, still called "The Chapel," and which was converted to the uses of the farm as a stable only about seventy years ago, that is, about A.D. 1780, within the recollection of my informant, who deceased April 1845, aged 80 years; though divine service had not been performed there, certainly for a long period, probably for centuries, previously. At the time of the alteration of the chapel some of the surrounding ground was lowered, when interments were disturbed ; which is a tolerable proof, that the building had long been used for sacred purposes, and likewise had been, as such, in considerable estimation, otherwise burials there would not have been sanctioned. Externally the chapel measures about 33 feet long by 20 wide. The walls are of flint, with stone dressings partially at the eastern angles, as well as in the window and door. The south wall offers some marks of having been rebuilt at an early date from a little above the ground. The roof is now thatched, and probably never was otherwise: it has three tie-beams, with king-post and braces, still in excellent preservation, as the rafters likewise (all the old timber is oak) generally appear to be. The slight attempt at ornament on the king-posts seems to be of Dec. character. There is no indication of the chapel having ever possessed a bell suspended on or above the roof. In the northern side was one small round-headed window; whether there ever was one in the opposite side the altered condition of the wall renders uncertain, though it is most probable there was. In the north side are also traces of the former existence of a low door, rather wide in proportion to the height, and seemingly flat-headed with a lintel; but it was closed so long ago, that a minute examination of the interior of the wall, together with an intimate acquaintance with such subjects are required to enable one to ascertain the original form. The chapel stands at right angles to the course of the valley, and its position is about E.S.E. and W.N.W. by compass. The eastern end has been so changed by repairs of the wall, that it is doubtful whether an opening there, now filled up, about the height, but barely the width, of a door, is original; the sides are faced with stone, but the top is arched with brick, and the springing of the arch does not correspond at the two sides. This place is mentioned in the charter of Bp. Seffrid II, rather earlier probably than A.D. 1200, as cited in the Note on Lewes. It is not named in the Taxation of P Nicholas IV, but it is, as "capella de Baldesdene, the chapel of Baldesdene," in a charter of Will., third Earl Warenne. (Chartulary of Lewes Priory.) The tithes and manor of "Ballysden" in the parish of Rottingdean are it described, though not the chapel, in (Val. Eccl.); where one portion of the tithes, belonging to Lewes Priory, is valued at £2 13s. 4d. ("liijs iiiid"), a large sum in those days; another portion of the estate was then the property of the college of South Malling.
213. Rudgwick.—This church comprises chancel, nave with a north aisle, western tower, south and west porches. The general character seems to be E.E. and Dec., with some Perp. insertions, particularly an ugly window in the chancel. The tower is not high, but very massive; the parapet rests upon a corbel table consisting almost entirely of plain brackets, but a small portion indicates the style to be E.E. There is some peculiarity in the feathering and mouldings of the windows of the nave, proceeding probably from the material, Sussex sandstone, not admitting of such fine work, as may be produced in a superior description of stone. Buttresses stand diagonally at the angles of the building. The repairing and restoring of the church, still in progress when visited, must have greatly improved the appearance of it, especially the substitution of low benches for high pews.
214. Rumboldswyke.—In (N.R.), as well as in (D.B.), this place is styled simply "Wyke"
215. Rusper.—Brasses: half length, John and Agnes Kyggesfelde, of the fourteenth century from documents quoted by Cartwright. (Rape of Bramber). These are noticed, (Monum. Brasses, 115,) as affording "valuable examples of costume at that period," namely, about A.D. 1375. Also Tho. and Marg. Challoner, 1532. (H0rstield’s Suss. II, 274.) A nunnery, of which there are still considerable remains, existed in Rusper, which is first mentioned by Gervase of Canterbury. "The earliest notice of this house is in the ancient List of monasteries ascribed to Gervase of Canterbury, who flourished in the time of Richard the first." Portions of the dormitory and of the refectory only remain. (Monast. IV, 586.) The above statement is transformed by Horsfield (in his Hist, of Sussex) into a foundation of the nunnery by Gervase Archbishop of Canterbury!—A family, by name Mutton, owning a small farm here called Normans, believe themselves to have possessed the property ever since K. William I; and the present representative claims to have a chest, which his ancestor brought over with him from Normandy. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 273.)
216. Rustington.—A good church, comprising chancel, nave with north and south aisles, an addition to the east end of the former making a sort of transept, a heavy western tower, north and west porches. The south aisle has been rebuilt very recently; the piers and arches north of the nave, together with the font, seem to be Perp., but the remainder of the nave, together with the tower are Tr. Norm. The chancel and arch are E. E., the east window being new. From the transept is an open squint, and another from the south aisle appears to have been filled up. On the northern side of the chancel arch, is what may have been an entrance to the roodloft. The existing piscina was brought from elsewhere, but in the transept is preserved the broken basin of one, which was richly ornamented, and in the north wall of the same place is fixed a much mutilated carving of our Saviour with two figures beneath, which was found in the chancel, the back of it forming part of the steps to the altar. The east window of the transept is a late Perp. insertion. The porches are both ancient, but the wood-work is so much decayed, that little of the mouldings can be traced. Several dilapidated oak benches are worked up among the pews.
217. Rye.—From distinct recognitions of the circumstance in later charters it appears, that privileges were granted to Rye by K. Edward the Confessor; who, it is stated, bestowed this place and Old Winchelsea on the abbey of Fecamp in Normandy; which grant, being found inconvenient, was resumed by K. Henry III, A.D. 1246, other estates in Gloucestershire and Lincolnshire being given in exchange. (Holloway's Hist, and Antiquities of Rye, Lond. 1847, 4, 5, &c.) In the official deed of K. Henry III, just alluded to, and which is dated 15 May, 1247 "the patronage of the church" is mentioned, among other things, as having been conferred by K. Edward on the foreign abbey; whence we learn the existence of a church here in Saxon times. The town, having been attacked and taken several times previously, and having suffered more particularly in 1378, 2 of K. Richard II, was sacked and burned by the French, A.D. 1448, when, according to Stow, the church was destroyed. (Ut sup. 293 to 297.) Mr. Holloway considers, that Stow's account refers to the event of A.D. 1378, more probably than to that of the later date, 1448. So far as I can comprehend his opinion, Mr. Holloway here seems to think, that the destruction of the church was, as Stow's words would imply, total, and that the present building was a subsequent erection on a different site, the original church having stood on a spot now called "The Gun Garden," near Ypres tower, but which Jeake, in 1678, described as still named "The old Churchyard." That a church might once exist here is rendered probable by the discovery, early in the present century, of several human skeletons beneath the jailor's house; but that the present church was in being in 1448, and consequently was not utterly consumed, though it might be seriously damaged, may be proved, I conceive, without much difficulty. Mr. Holloway, now appearing not to coincide with the above accounts, observes, (473,) that at this period parts of the church exhibit specimens of the styles of architecture prevalent in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, afterwards describing "lancet" windows, and portions of E.E. character; though he supposes (486) the lancets to have been introduced in the restoration after the fire of A.D. 1448. This surely is quite incredible. Now indeed we are content with imitating the productions of our ancestors in church architecture, but this, so far as can be judged, was never done formerly, but, in constructing a new, or restoring an old church, the distinctive features were those generally adopted at the period. If therefore the present edifice displays remains of Norm., of E.E., and of Dec. date, for even the latter is spoken of, it is manifest, that the injury, above alluded to, could have been only of partial extent. (Ut sup. 470 to 488.) The church is large, and well deserving attention, but part of it is (or was) applied to secular purposes.—Tanner says a house of Augustin Friars was established here temp. K. Edward III, if not earlier. (Monast. VI, 1602.) There was also a house of Carmelite Friars in Rye, which is supposed to have been situated on the south side of the churchyard. (Holloway ut sup. 539.) Horsfield, (Suss. I, 495, 496, 497,) mentions farther the chapel of St. Clare, and the chantry of St. Nicholas; but these seem to have been under the roof of the parish church. (Holloway ut sup. 479, 485. Ib. 475) "The old chapel in Conduit Street" is incidentally mentioned, but I find no other allusion to or account of it, though it might be a portion of the friary spoken of below. A hospital of St. Bartholemew existed here, but the date of its institution is unknown. Mr. Holloway conceives the site to be at the back of Mountsfield House. (Ut sup. 396, 538, 539.) This however was the hospital sometimes described as in Playden: compare the Note above in that place. About the middle of the twelfth century, temp. K. Stephen, William of Ypres, Earl of Kent, "built the tower, which is still standing, and bearing his name, on the south-east side of the town," It is now the borough jail. Afterwards A.D. 1194, K. Richard I empowered the inhabitants by charter to wall and fortify the town. (Ut sup. 274.) Of these fortifications the Land Gate alone remains, being the entrance to the town from the London road.
218. Salehurst. Some remains of coloured glass are mentioned in the east window of the church. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 585.) (A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Salhurst cum Udemere;" and the same in (N. R.), where it is called a parochial prebend, "prebenda parochialis."—The abbey here, which stood in the flat below the church, was an offset from that of Boxley in Kent, founded A.D. 1172, according to Lambarde.—A.D. 1176, one account says by Robert, another, more authentic apparently, by Alured, St. Martin. It was dedicated to St. Mary. (Monast. V, 666.) In (A.D. 1291), as well as in (N. R.), it is styled "Abbatia de Ponte Roberti,- the abbey of Robert's bridge;" which rather militates against the derivation of the name Robertsbridge, according to some persons, from the bridge here over the river Rother, as if "Robert's," corruptly for " Rother's-bridge." In Speede's Map of Sussex, engraved by Hondius A.D. 1610, both the town and abbey are called Rotherbridge. In the street of Robertsbridge was once "a chapel, dedicated to St. Catherine, beside a well yet bearing the name." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 584.)
219. Seaford. The chancel of this church was rebuilt within forty years, principally, if not entirely, with brick, and with sashed windows. The nave has north and south aisles, between which last and the former are round piers with carved capitals,
generally the trefoil leaf in different patterns, not much raised, and never undercut. On one capital is a rude carving of figures, the prominent subject being the crucifixion. The mouldings of the arches much resemble those of the chancel arch of East Blatchington, where however the trefoils are far superior. The lower part of the tower is Norm., the upper stages being of later addition. At each side of the bottom of the tower, though on the southern side now concealed, is a low, wide, segmental arch, springing from shafts with capitals, Norm., and intended for communications between the tower and the aisles, which last extend as far westward as the tower does. These arches are now closed by masonry erected within the original shell of the tower, which, as examination will prove, was of slight construction; wherefore apparently it was found necessary to strengthen that part of the building by a solid casing, of far greater thickness than the Norm, wall, throughout the entire interior. For some observations on the peculiarity of aisles to the tower see the Note on Sandhurst, Kent. An ancient stone coffin and cover, the latter adorned with a cross, having been exhumed at Seaford, they have been fixed perpendicularly the former in the north, the latter in the south, wall on the outside of the church. (A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Sutton cum Seaford;" the same in (Val. Eccl.); and it is still the official designation. See the Note on Sutton.—That a monastery existed in the neighbourhood of Seaford, dedicated to St. Andrew, about A.D. 1058, we are informed by comparing (M. Alford, Annal. Eccl. Angl. Sax. torn. II, 394,) with (Acta Sanctorum, Mens. Julius, 612). The situation however is now entirely unknown, nor was it very near Seaford, the expression used being "pene tribus leugis," almost three leagues, from "Sevordt." A conjecture has been proposed, that the site of this monastery may have been at Lewes, which town is known to have contained an ancient church dedicated to St. Andrew. (Suss. Arch. Coll. I, 49.)—Tanner on the authority of a MS. of Archbp. Sancroft, alludes to a hospital of St. James at Seaford, which was annexed to the prebend of Bargham at Chichester. (Monast. VI, 777.) This must have been identical with the hospital of St. James at East Blatchington; which see.
220. Sedlescomb.—Tanner states, that, towards the end of K. John or beginning of K. Henry III, Jeffery Lacy gave the manor of Sadlescomb to the Knights Templars in exchange for West Greenwich, and that a preceptory was then founded at Sadlescomb. (Monast. VI, 817.) If however there was any connection between Sadlescomb, as the name is spelled, and Southwick, as intimated (Monast. VI, 820, Num. xix,) it may induce a suspicion, that the preceptory was not in the parish of Sadlescomb, near Battle, but at the place still called Saddlescomb, near Poynings, though actually in the parish of Newtimber. Compare the Note there.
221. Selmeston.—One of the few places where (D.B.) mentions "a priest."
222. Selsey.—Bede states, (Hist. Eccl. 1. 4, c. 13,) that Ædilvalch, king of the South Saxons, somewhat previous to A.D. 686, gave Bp. Wilfrid an estate, called "Seal Island,—vocabulo Sel—seu, quod dicitur latine, Insula Vituli Marini." Here Wilfrid founded a monastery, where he resided till in 686 he was recalled to Northumberland. It is added, that, as the gift included all the rights and privileges attached to the property, the bishop received two hundred male and female slaves, on whom, after instruction and baptism, he bestowed liberty. Though Selsey had been so shortly before the seat of the bishoprick and its dependent monastic establishment, no church there is alluded to in ('D.B.)—The present church is supposed to have been erected by Bp. Will. Rede, who presided over the diocese from A.D. 1369 to 1385. The bishop's park extended over many acres on the south-east coast, but the whole, or nearly so, is now submerged. (Dallaway.)—A.D. 477 Ælli or Ella, with his three sons, Cymen, Wlencing, and Cissa, landed at a spot, called, afterwards, probably from that circumstance, Cymenes-ora, where they defeated and slaughtered the Britons, who opposed the invaders with signal courage indeed, but without concert or conduct. This spot is stated to be recognised in Keynor in Selsea from a charter by Ceadwalla, king of the South Saxons, of A.D. 673 (in Monast. Angl. t. VI, p. 1163; Thorpe's Lappenberg, I, 104). The following must be the words of the charter alluded to. "Ab introitu portus, qui appellatur Anglice Wyderynge" (Wittering) "post retractum mare in Cumeneshora." (Cod. Dipl. V, 33.) A document, professedly of A.D. 957, but marked by Mr. Kemble as suspicious, restores to the church, that is, to the cathedral establishment, of Selsey divers estates, of which it had been deprived by a certain Ælfsin, "when, as prelate of the Gewisi, that is, of the South Saxons, he seemed to be raised to the episcopal chair; quæ fraudulenter, per quendam Ælfsinum nomine, contra decreta sanctorum patrum Niceni consilii, ab aecclesia adempta fuerat, ubi Geuuisorum, id est Australium Saxonum praesul, episcopali cathedra sublimari uidebatur." The places mentioned are Selesey, Wystrynges, Icchenor, Bridham, Egesawyda, Brimfaston, Sidelesham, Aldyngborne, Ludesey, Geinstedesgate, Amberle, Hoghton, Waltham, Mondeham, most of which are easily identified. (Cod. Dipl. II, 341.) Ælfsin was made Bishop of Winchester A.D. 951, appointed Archbishop of Canterbury A.D. 958 on the decease of Odo, whose grave he contemptuously trampled upon, with reproaches for having so long kept himself out of that dignity, and died in crossing the Alps on his way to Rome to obtain the Pope's confirmation. (Francisci Godwini de Prsesulibus Angliae Commentarius, 51, 210.)
The Gewissi belonged to the West, not the South, Saxons, and the confusion in the above quotation will probably be deemed some evidence that the document was really compiled long after its ostensible date. It is however to be observed, that after the departure of Archbp. Wilfrid, who had converted the South Saxons, about A.D. 680, the people were, quoad sacra, for many years under the superintendence of the bishop of Winchester, which city belonged to Wessex; but the first bishop of Selsey was consecrated, it was said by Nothelm Archbp. of Canterbury, A.D. 711, though Nothelm did not become archbishop till A.D. 735 (Godwin, ut sup. 500); after which event it does not appear, that any interruption occurred in the succession of the Selsey episcopate, so that no excuse was afforded for mixing together the Gewissi and the South Saxons.
223. Shermanbury.—In this parish stood an ancient moated manor-house, called Ewhurst, of which little or nothing remains but the gateway. (Cartwright.)
224. Shipley.—Thorpe (Reg. Roff.) contains a notice of the church of Shipley, A.D. 1332.—The existing building has a central tower on Norm, arches, with a flat oak ceiling. The church chest contains a reliquary of wood, seven inches long by six inches high, enamelled and gilt on the side and ends, the subject being the crucifixion and angels, with X P Σ over the cross. "The church was formerly served by a chaplain appointed by the impropriator, remotive at pleasure; but since Queen Anne's Bounty has been extended to the benefice, it has become a perpetual curacy, &c." (Cartwright; who gives a plate of the reliquary.)In Shipley stood the ancient Castle of Knepp, of which some small remains are yet visible. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 246.)
Shoreham, Old.—This Norm, cross church has recently been repaired and refitted. It is remarkable for the small number of windows, and the consequent darkness of the nave; as also for possessing on the tie-beams of the chancel the tooth moulding, which is very rarely found carved in wood. The interior arches are highly ornamented.225.
226. Shoreham, New.—This has been a large cross church, but nearly the whole of the nave is destroyed. The old nave, tower, and transepts are Norm., but the capitals on the north and south sides of the tower indicate a difference of date. The rich east end is later, having been rebuilt disproportionally long with reference to the western limb of the cross. It has north and south aisles, the piers and arches on the two sides exhibiting a great variation in style, those to the north being perhaps Tr. Norm., the others E.E. Some Perp. windows have been inserted. From a weather moulding for a roof on the eastern face of the tower, now entirely within the church, it would appear, that the original chancel must have been very low; therefore probably small, and terminating in an apse, like the church of Newhaven.—This parish does not exceed 170 acres. A priory and two hospitals formerly existed here. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 208.) Part of an ancient building is yet visible in the street of the town.—Tanner says, Notit. Monast. Sussex, xxxviii, that John de Mowbray, kn. founded a priory of Carmelite or White Friars here: which existed in 1368. (Monast. VI, 1580.) The hospital of St. James in Shoreham was granted away by Q. Elizabeth. (Ut sup. VI, 777.)
227. Sidelsham.—There seems no reason to doubt that the Domesday name "Filleicham" signifies this place, but it is a greater variation than usual from the modern appellation.—The font in this church is circular. (Dallaway.) The church contains an oak chest richly carved. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 42.)
228. Singleton.—At this place "clerks" are mentioned in (D.B.) but no church. It is a rectory, but annexed to the vicarage of West Dean.
229. Slaugham.—From the mention of this place in (A.D. 1291), as well as in (Val. Eccl.), it would seem to have been the mother church of Crawley; where see the Note.—In the east window of the church is some coloured glass. Brasses: John Covert, armiger, 1503; Rich. Covert (died 1547) and three wives; Jane Covert, 1586. At Slaugham Place, of which some ruins remain, is said to have been a chapel. It was the seat of the Coverts, a distinguished old family in the county. A park was attached to the mansion. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 256, and note2.)
230. Slindon.—The church contains the effigy of a man in armour. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 68.) A park is noticed as existing here temp. K. Edward I. (Hasted's Kent, IV, 711, fol.)
231. Slinfold.—This church is asserted to have been built on the establishment of the parish about A.D. 1230 (but no authority is quoted), and that the marks of antiquity in the existing structure were obliterated by repairing in 1779. (Cartwright's Dallaway.) It contains the effigy of a female. Roman relics have been discovered in this parish. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 167, 166.)
232. Sompting.—This very remarkable church will amply repay a minute examination, it being considered one of the remaining examples of Anglo-Saxon architecture, of which some vestiges appear in the foundations of the wall of the east end, as well as in the tower. In this character of the church Mr. Bloxam fully coincides (Goth. Archit. 49, 51, &c., 58, &c., ed. 1846,) but he has not noticed, that the tower seems to have been built in two stages, of different eras. Not only has the upper part Norm, ornaments, but the continuation of the central rib upon that portion has a slight variation from the line of that below; of which part the construction does not precisely resemble that above. The peculiar gable-end spire is, if not unique, certainly very unusual in this country. Cartwright states, that the height was reduced about twenty-five feet in 1762.
"In a roll, 4 Hen. VI, in the Augmentation Office, mention is made of the priory of St. John at Sompting." (Monast. VI, 1053.) "The hospital of St. Anthony at Cookham, given by Pat. 25 Edw. Ill, p. 1, m. 15 vel 16, to Hardham priory in Sussex, is suspected by Tanner to have been at one of the parishes of that name in Surrey." (Ut sup. VI, 776.) If the modern editors of Dugdale's Monasticon have not mistaken Bp. Tanner's meaning, he certainly was in an error, because there is no parish in Surrey bearing the name of Cookham, or any resembling it; and I have inserted the above notice here, conceiving it very probably to apply to Cockham or Cokeham in this parish, which manifestly was a place of importance in early times. The possessions of Hardham Priory are not estimated in (Val. Eccl.) under the title of the diocese of Chichester, otherwise that record might perhaps throw some light upon the question of the locality of the above-named hospital of St. Anthony. (Val. Eccl.) names with Sompting the chapel, now destroyed, of Cokham, the date of the erection of which is unknown, but according to (Cartwright), was early. (D.B.) mentions "Cocheham."
233. Southease.—This small church at present comprises chancel, nave, and western tower, but formerly had an addition on both the northern and the southern sides of the chancel; which must have rendered the shape somewhat peculiar, the east end being then greatly broader than the body of the building. The tower is round, the only entrance being apparently broken through the flint masonry into the church, and never neatly finished, for the sides are merely plastered, and the sill consists of the rough remains of the wall. In the south wall of the nave is a small round-headed window, and in the north wall appears the frame of another filled up, whence we may pronounce that portion to be Norm. The font is a square stone, hollowed out, with a leaden basin within. The lower part is simply the stone reduced, the angles being rounded into the appearance of shafts, the workmanship very rude.
Southease was claimed to have been given by K. Edgar, A.D. 966, to the abbey of St. Peter, afterwards Hide Abbey, near Winchester, by the name of Suesse, as appears by the following extract from a charter in that monarch's name, written in letters of gold, preserved in the Cotton Library of the British Museum:—
"Quapropter ego, Eadgar totius Britannie Basileus, quasdam villas ut nominentur Dunketone, habens quinque hidas terre; et ecclesiam Suesse cum viginti octo hidis terre, et ecclesiam Titelescumbe cum decem hidis terre, et quandam ruris" (portionem?) "duos videlicet cassatos terre, loco qui celebri Winterburna nuncupatur vocabulo, do et concedo in puram et perpetuam elemosinam, novo Wintoniensi ecclesie, beato Petro apostolorum principi dicate, &c."
Of this an exact translation is impossible, but the meaning appears to be thus; "Wherefore I, Edgar king of all Britain, give and grant in pure and perpetual alms to the new church at Winchester, dedicated to St. Peter, the chief of the apostles, certain villes called Dunketone, containing five hides of land, and the church of Suesse with twenty-eight hides of land, and the church of Titelescumbe with ten hides of land, and a certain quantity of the country, namely two vassal's portions of land, in a famous place called by the name of Winterburna, &c." This deed professes to have been granted in the tenth year of Edgar's reign, A.D. 966. The name of Dunstan, archbishop of Canterbury, appears as one of the witnesses. The knowledge of the above was obtained from Horsfield (Lewes, II, 214, and note), but the quotation is given, after personal examination of the original MS., somewhat different from that in Horsfield, as a comparison will show. It may also be discovered, that there is a small variation in the above citation from the same passage as printed by Kemble (Cod. Dipl. II, 420), but believing myself to have been very careful in the transcription, I make no alteration. It is very necessary to add, that this charter of K. Edgar is deemed spurious, or at the very least of doubtful authority.
234. Southover.—This church is a mere fragment, greatly altered, of the original building, which, the low semicircular arches springing from heavy round pillars prove, must have been of considerable antiquity. It is dedicated to St. John Baptist, therefore totally distinct from the adjoining Priory of St. Pancras, commonly called the Priory of Lewes, which was founded by William de Warenne and his wife Gundrada, previous to 1086, because it is alluded to in (D.B.); it is stated A.D. 1077 or 1078. (Monast. VI, 1.) On the dissolution under K. Henry VIII the priory was most systematically, as well as ruthlessly destroyed, which will appear from the letter of Portmarus, inserted below; and the few portions of the walls left standing were, either then or at a later period, despoiled of their ashlar work, only some shapeless masses now remaining, insufficient to admit of tracing the arrangement of the establishment, though the excavations, in forming a railroad directly through the spot, have laid open various foundations of walls, &c., beside disturbing several interments. The area of a small room or two was uncovered, and some yards of leaden water-pipe were found, of which a portion was quite sound. Of the interments the most remarkable were two small leaden cists, with the names, indented on the exterior, of William and Gundrada, which are therefore supposed to have contained respectively the bones of the two founders of the priory; but demonstrating, that, if such was the fact, the deposition of the remains of the earl and countess in those cists must have been a re-interment, at a considerable interval after the first. From measurement of the several thigh-bones it appears, that, according to the usual proportions, both De Warenne and his wife must have exceeded the average height; which must likewise have been the case with regard to at least two other male persons, whose bones were exhumed in the priory, and one of them was even taller than Will, de Warenne. It is remarkable, that in several skulls, thus brought to light, the teeth, including the double ones, were very greatly worn down, although they appeared to have continued perfectly sound. In Southover church is the monumental slab to the memory of Gundred, which was discovered about 1775 in the church of Isfield, forming part of a monument to a Shurley; therefore probably taken possession of and so employed (for which purpose it was shortened at one end) on the demolition of the priory church, where, we may reasonably conjecture, it might be the upper part of the tomb over Gundred's relics in the cist. A small adjunct to the eastern part of the south wall of the church has been erected to contain the above-mentioned remains. The interior is richly adorned with (beside other ornamental work) carving in various patterns copied from fragments discovered in and near the site of the priory; which fragments deserve notice and preservation, the character of the mouldings being good, and not common. Southover church has recently been vastly improved by purification from sundry barbarisms.—"The marble cluster columns, and part of the arches of the portals of the priory were standing but a few years since, and extended at right angles from the wall of the churchyard to the main road; but the greater part has been pulled down, and all that remain are one of the posterns, and the doorway of the porter's lodge, which has been re-erected near the spot, and now forms the entrance of a passage leading to the adjacent meadows." (Mantell's Ramble, 31.) The same little work (142, 143) gives representations of the four sides of a Norm, capital, discovered several years ago among the ruins of the priory; this capital appears to be early.
In the village street, a little to the west of the church, stands an ancient house, which is traditionally said to have been the residence of Anne of Cleves, at some period after her divorce from K. Henry VIII. The entrance porch, bearing the date of 1599, appears to militate against that fact, but does not really do so, that portion seeming to be an addition to the original mansion.
The following letter, preserved in the Cotton Library of the British Museum, was written to Tho. Lord Cromwell by the person, whom he sent down for the purpose of demolishing the priory. It has long ago been published, but is subjoined here (copied from Horsfield's Lewes, I, 243) to show the determined manner, in which, as noticed above, the destruction of the buildings was conducted; though this letter relates only to the priory church.
"My Lord,—I humblie commend me to your lordshypp. The last I wrote to your lordship was the 20th day of this present monthe by the hands of Mr. Williamson, by which I advertise your lordshypp of the length and greatness of this church and sale, we had begun to pull the whole downe to the ground, and what manner and fashion they used in pulling it downe. I tolde your lordshypp of a vault on the right side of the high altar, that was borne with foure pillars, having about it five chapels, which be compassed in with walls 70 stepys of lengthe, that is, feet 210. All this is downe Thursday and Friday last. Now we ar a pluckinge downe an higher vaulte, borne up by four thick and gross pillars, 14 feet from side to side, about in circumference 45 feet. This shall downe for our second work. As it goeth forward, I will advertise your lordshypp from time to time, that your lordshypp may know with how many men we have done this. We brought from London seventeen persons, three carpenters, two smiths, two plummers, and one that keepeth the furnace. Every one of these attendeth to his own office: ten of them heweth the walls, about the which are the three carpenters. These made props to underset where the others cut away; the others brake and cut the walls. These men are exercised much better than other men we find in the countrie. Wherefore we must both have more men and other things also that we have need of. All the which I shall within these two or three days shewe your lordshypp by mouth. A Tuesday they began to cast the lead, and it shall be done with such diligence and saveing as may be; so that our trust is that your lordshypp shall be much satisfied with what we doe. Unto whom I most humblie commend myself, much desiring God to maintain your health, your honour, your heart's ease.
Your lordshyp's serveant,
Dr. Mantell (Ramble, 49) gives the name as Portmari.
235. Southwick.—There can be no reasonable doubt, that one of the Domesday churches in the manor of Kingston stood at this place. Both parishes, which closely adjoin, are exceedingly small. The body of Southwick church has recently been rebuilt in very inferior taste, but the tower, which appears to be in a very dilapidated condition, is Norm. Remains of Roman foundations have been opened on the north-eastern side of the village. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 218.)
236. Stanmer.—Within a very few years this church has been entirely rebuilt.
237. Stedham.—A charter from Seffrid II, bishop of the diocese from A.D. 1180 to 1204, names not only the chapel of Stedham, but also that of Stedham Brigenessera. The latter I am unable to identify. See the Note on Lewes under St. John sub castro.
238. Steyning.—In (D.B.) this place is styled "burgum." The church is an evident example of the original plan for the building not having been completed. It now consists of a western tower, nave, north and south aisles, and chancel; which latter has recently been reconstructed, not in accordance with the rest of the church. The arches between the nave and aisles are round, highly enriched with Norm, ornaments in various patterns, with the exception of the extreme arch on either side to the west, which is quite plain, and the last piers are partially included in the wall; as if the arches and piers had been intended not to cease where they now do. The nave and aisles are rather narrow, but the former is very lofty, with round-headed clerestory windows, of which the upper portion only is glazed. Between the nave and chancel are four very high, substantial arches, apparently designed to support a central tower. The present tower was added at a later period, apparently after all idea of finishing the church of the size first contemplated had been finally abandoned. The eastern arches of the aisles, particularly of the southern, contain carving, rude, and very different in character from that elsewhere in the church, intimating them to be remaining portions of an earlier structure.—(A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Stenynge cum capella note, capellis;" but there is nothing to indicate the number or the situation of those chapels; though one of them might well be the second church named in (D.B. and doubtless one of them is referred to below.—"This," Steyning, "seems to have been in the Saxon times a place of some note for a church or monastery, wherein St. Cudman was buried." Tanner in Lel. Itin. vol. VIII, p. 65. An alien priory was established here after the reign of K. William I. Tanner speaks of the parish of St. Cuthman, and the parish church of St. Andrew. (Monast. VI, 1053.)
239. Stoke, North.—This is a cross church with a low central tower. There are "three arcades in the chancel, with seats in them." (We must presume, sedilia.) In the spring of A.D. 1834 an ancient boat was discovered in this parish about a hundred and fifty yards from the river Arun. It was formed from a single oak tree hollowed out, in length thirty-four feet six inches. The late Earl of Egremont, on whose property it was found, presented it to the British Museum. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 147.) The canoe, or rather punt, had no keel, and was square at both ends, as may be perceived by inspection at the Museum.
240. Stoke, South.—This church is stated to be very small, merely a nave, and to have "a frieze" (a corbel table?) with heads of birds and animals, under the chancel roof. (Dallaway.)
241. Stopham.—Of this church, of which the windows contain relics of coloured glass, "the pavement is almost entirely composed of large slabs of Sussex marble, inlaid with brass figures and memorials of the Bartelotts, from the date of their first establishment at Stopham &c ;" in the fourteenth century. From West. Suss. 347, 350. It is added, that Stopham bridge was erected temp. K. Edward II, A.D. 1309. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 173.)
242. Storrington.—This church, with the exception of the chancel, was rebuilt about A.D. 1750. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 160.)
243. Street.—"Duæ æcclesiolæ; two small churches." (D.B.) The second might very possibly stand at Wivelsfield, an adjoining parish, though it was afterwards, as in (A.D. 1291) united with Ditchling. Street church consists of chancel, nave, north porch, north chancel; the last of brick, now a family burying-place, probably coeval with Street Place; and a large bell-turret over the west end. In the chancel a low side window has been closed. The north and south doors are Norm.; the latter is built up. The font is small, square, on a large round stem with shafts at the angles. The porch retains ancient woodwork, which is filled in with masonry. The church has been much patched, and the windows altered.—Adjoining the churchyard stands Street Place, a large mansion, temp. Q. Elizabeth, or perhaps K. James I. Though part has been taken down, its appearance is still imposing; it is now a farm-house.
244. Sullington.—In this church is a much-mutilated stone effigy in chain armour, supposed to be that of Sir Will, de Covert, temp. K. Henry III. (Cartwright.) In 1812 Roman weapons were dug up in this parish. (Dallaway's West. Suss. Ill, 127, quoted by Horsfield, II, 239.)
245. Sutton—Church consists of western tower, nave with south aisle, small north transept, a good Dec. chancel, and a south porch. The chancel windows are coeval with the walls. The arches between the nave and aisle are Tr. Norm., or E.E. The east window is rich Dec. work. The windows retain a small quantity of very fine coloured glass.—One of the Sussex Suttons, but we have no means of ascertaining which, occurs in K. Alfred's will as "Suttune." (Asser's Alfred by Wise, 77.)
246. Sutton near Seaford.—As quoted in the Note on Seaford, both (A.D. 1291) and (Val. Eccl.) mention a church as existing formerly at this place. A portion of the old building is stated to have remained in the summer-house of Sutton Place, about half a mile from Seaford; and at no very distant period a new incumbent read himself in there, as well as at Seaford. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 276, note1.) Not a vestige, even so much as a single stone, of the ancient church could I, in 1847, detect as above described.
247. Tarring Nevill.—This rectory is united with that of Heighton, of which place the church is ruined. See Heighton.—Tarring church comprises chancel, nave with south aisle and porch, and a small western tower with a shingled four-sided cap. The chancel is E.E., the windows, most of which are closed, having a sort of hood in the interior, like those of Pevensey church. In the south-west corner of the chancel is a low side window, but placed higher than they are often found. There is now a piscina, but whether the skeleton of the old one restored in stucco, or a new imitation, is not apparent. In the north wall is a double ambry. The east window is quite modern, of wood; much smaller than its predecessor. The chancel-arch, nave, and aisle (the two latter are spanned by the same roof) seem rather earlier than the chancel and tower. The font is octagon, perhaps E.E., and is engaged in the north wall of the church, evidently from a very early period. The entire exterior is so thickly coated with plaster, that not a stone of the masonry is visible.
248. Tarring, West.—One of the two Domesday churches most probably was that of Heene, an immediately adjoining place: see the Note.—West Tarring has a large and handsome church of chancel, nave, north and south aisles, north porch, and western tower with a shingled spire. The south and west doors are disused. The nave and aisles are E.E., the former very lofty, with narrow clerestory windows, hooded; much resembling those of Pevensey church. The east windows of the aisles are insertions, the north Perp., the south with a wooden frame. The porch has been partially rebuilt in the churchwarden style. The font has been repaired, and perhaps altered, but seems to have been originally a sand-stone basin supported by eight shafts round the main stem. The chancel and tower are Perp. The first has a large east window; it contains also a nearly perfect piscina, six oak stalls, some panelling, and benches with poppy heads.—West Tarring possesses an old church chest. (Cartwright.)—In the village street eastward from the church stand the remains of a palace of the Archbishops of Canterbury, popularly said to have been occupied by Thomas à Becket, who planted the fig orchard here, which adjoins the palace. This is now called the rectory, and used for the national schools. The southern portion is E.E., though it has evidently been altered, and some Perp. windows have been inserted. Of the original windows the interior openings were under very obtuse-angled arches, having light shafts with capitals of foliage at the sides. In one window, above the foliated capitals, are others resembling abaci, of very similar character to those at the east end of East Preston church. Other indications of the E.E. style may be perceived. On the western side of the existing building is a small hall, of which the door is probably original. This hall is Perp., and an addition to the earlier part. In the adjoining garden foundations yet remain, of which the mortar is said to be as hard as stone. "A range of buildings adjoining the premises of the rector, and still called the Parsonage Row, afford good specimens of domestic architecture of the reign of Henry VI." (Horsfield's Suss. II, 191.)
249. Telscombe.—This place cannot be recognised among the names of (D.B.), yet the quotation from the old document in the Note on Southease declares it to have had a church in the tenth century. In (N.R.) it appears as Titelescombe, and Tetelescumbe. The church is a very small building of chancel, nave, north aisle and chancel, and west tower. The north chancel was destroyed, but has lately been rebuilt, when the north wall was somewhat raised, being originally very low, as the nave-roof covered the aisle. The date seems to be Tr. Norm.
250. Thorney.—or West Thorney, as in (Val. Eccl.)—This church has some Norm, ornaments. (Dallaway.) (D.B.) specially mentions "a priest" here.
251. Ticehurst.—Some of the church windows contain fragments of coloured glass. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 591, 592.) Boarzell is an old moated residence in this parish. Pashley also, situated nearer to the village of Ticehurst, seems to have been a settlement of much consideration in early times.
252. Tillington.—At River, in the northern part of Tillington, was once most probably a chapel; the names "Chapel Field, Lady Field, Soul Field," and "Chantry Field," being still known there; and a stone coffin was dug up on the premises of River farm. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 181.)
253. Tortington.—This very small church comprehends only chancel, nave with a wooden bellcot over the west end, and south porch. The building was formerly larger, judging from the appearance of an arch in the south wall of both chancel and nave; it is generally Norm., with some Tr. Norm, or E.E. The chancel-arch is ornamented with dog's tongue or "beakhead " moulding, that of the entrance with zigzag and starlike quatrefoils. In the small east window are some remains of coloured glass, with the names of the four Evangelists. The font is late Norm. A very few oak benches yet exist here. The church has been much patched, the condition of the walls being greatly concealed by whitewash.—A priory for five or six regular Augustine canons was founded at Tortington by Lady Hadewissa Corbet before the reign of K. John (Tann. Notit. Monast. Sussex, xl, in Monast. VI, 597.)—In (Val. Eccl.), under the estimation of the possessions of the priory of Tortington, among the spirituals in the county of Sussex, appear "Profits of the tithes of the church of Tryneburne," but the name does not occur again in the diocese, neither have I discovered any clue to the identification of the place intended.
254. Treyford.—In (Val. Eccl.) Treyford is joined with Didling, there spelled "Dudlyng."—"'Tis a rectory, with the vicarage of Didling annexed, but it appears in the bishop's registers, that it was originally united with Elsted by Bishop Story, and in 1503 detached by Bishop Fitz-James, and again united with Didling, with which it remains consolidated. (Note) Rectoria de Treyford alienata ab Elsted. Reg. A, p. 33. Unio Dydling cum Treyford, &c. Registr. D 1485, f. 76." (Dallaway.)—A new Church has very recently been erected to serve the three small parishes of Didling, Elsted, and Treyford.—In early times Treyford belonged to the church of Winchester, it being stated in (D.B.) "The abbot of St. Peter, Wintoii, claims this manor. The hundred testifies, that in K. Edward's time the tenant held it of the abbot, but only for the term of his life. Hoc manerium calumniatur abbas Sancti Petri Winton. Testatur hundredum quod T.R.E. tenebat eum de abbate qui tenebat tantummodo tempore vitse suæ."
255. Trotton.—This church contains very rich brasses of Tho. Lord Camoys and his lady, 1419; also Margarite de Camoys. (Dallaway; and Horsfield's Suss. II, 90.) Marg. Lady Camoys died A.D. 1310, and her memorial is perhaps the earliest in England of a lady. (Comp. Monum. Brasses, 55, 80, 86, 90, 127, 131, 135.)
256. Turwick—Or Terwick in the (Clergy List) is Tordewyk in (N. R.)
257. Twineham.—No similar name occurs in (D.B.), but "Benefelle" is described there; the principal manor in this parish is still called Twineham Benefeld. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 248.) In (N. R.) the name used is Tyne.—A church of chancel, nave,south porch, and western tower with a low shingled spire; the whole of brick, but of ancient date. The porch was originally of timber, but has been bricked up.—In this parish, close to one of the London and Brighton turnpike-roads, stands Hicksted Place, an ancient mansion, formerly larger than it is now. A detached building, south of the house, was most probably the chapel, with a floor above it, and a garret above that, but the old features generally are obliterated, except the staircase, which is external, and is formed of solid triangular blocks of timber, like those used in church towers which have no newel stair. The walls are ornamented on the outside with crosses and other devices formed of large, but differently-sized, blocks of brick-earth, burnt very hard; which enormous bricks are yet made in the county, e. g. they have been seen at East Hoathly.
Uckfield.—The entry in (A.D. 1291), quoted in the Note on Buxted, proves an early origin of the church here, as a chapel to Buxted. The church, with the exception of the tower, which is surmounted by a shingled spire, has recently been rebuilt, with enlargement, which was greatly needed. Uckfield is now constituted a distinct benefice, having been severed from Buxted.—In the main street here, at the corner of Church Lane, and opposite to the King's Head Inn, some ancient masonry exists, which seems to have been part of a domestic building. It has been much mutilated in adapting the place to the business of the occupant, a baker, but doorways, a store recess or closet, and part of one or two windows may be traced very distinctly.258.
259. Udimere.—(Val. Eccl.) declares, that this rectory had been appropriated to Robertsbridge Abbey, which accounts for the annexation of Udimere to Salehurst in (A.D. 1291) and (N. R.)
260. Wadhurst.—This church contains thirty iron graveslabs. (Suss. Arch. Coll. II, 199.)
261. Walberton.—"On the 31st of March 1817 a discovery was made in a field, near the dwelling-house of General Sir W. Houston, at Avisford Hill, seven miles from Chichester, on the road to Arundel. It originated in the circumstance of making a hole with an iron crow-bar in the earth, for the purpose of setting up hurdles to inclose sheep, which bar met with repeated resistance, at about six inches deep. This circumstance induced the man, with assistance, to clear away the surface, when they perceived a stone, similar to the gritt-stone found near Petworth: it measured in length four feet, breadth one foot eight inches, and eight inches thick, forming a covering of a solid chest or coffer; which being taken off, the inside proved to be neatlyhollowed out, in an oblong square, nearly four feet in length, and eighteen inches deep: the sides of the coffer were four inches in thickness. The objects, which presented themselves, consisted of pottery of the coarse light red kind, and colour of common flower-pots. There were two red earthen basons, the size of large breakfast-cups, placed in saucers; six plates of the same coarse ware, the size of dessert plates, nine others, smaller; two earthen candlesticks, six inches high; two earthen jugs, of a globular shape, eight inches in diameter, with a teapot-shaped handle attached to them, and a narrow neck, that would not admit a finger; another jug, of the same size, with a spout and handle like a cream-pot. In a circular saucer, engrailed all round the edge, and with a handle, was placed a smooth oval pebble, very hard, of the colour and transparency of a white currant, and of the size and exact shape of a pigeon's egg. In another saucer of the same coarse ware was placed a black hard stone, perfectly round, the size of a nutmeg. Another saucer contained a flat oyster-shell ; near to which was a dish containing a thin glass lachrymatory, the size and shape of a bergamot pear, with two small glass handles. In four of the smaller dishes was a fragment of bone, of a chalkish calcined white; but the most beautiful object that stood in the centre of this service of ancient crockery consisted of an elegant flat-bottomed glass bottle, twelve inches high, by eight inches broad, of a light transparent sea-green colour, very thick, and nearly full of calcined bones: this bottle had a handle attached to one of its sides, and fastened to a circular neck about two inches and a half high, the opening of which neck would scarcely admit the hand of a child into the bottle: this hand" (sic: handle) "was beautifully reeded. At the end of this coffer were two inverted conic brackets; each stood upon an earthen lamp," (sic: the plate informs us, that the words are inverted, and that we should read, upon each stood an earthen lamp) "coarsely designed and executed: at the bottom, at the other end, were a pair of sandals, apparently for a small foot, studded all over the heels and soles with hexagonal-headed brass nails, placed similarly to those in countrymen's shoes. The subjects, excepting the sandals, are all perfect, and without stain, and appear as fresh as when new; they are all made of the same kind of ware, and are about twenty-eight in number. Neither coins nor inscription have been found in or near this extraordinary deposit ... The glass vase is a perfect specimen, and may be added to those mentioned in our account of a similar discovery at Donington (Additions to vol. I, p. 54.) ... These perfect remains are preserved in the entrance-lodge leading to Avisford House, where they may be inspected by permission of General Sir W. Houston." (Cartwright's Dallaway's Rape of Arundel, 80.) In a note to the above extract Cartwright mentions the glass vase, found at Harpenden in Hertfordshire: which C. W. Packe, Esq., M.P. presented to the British Museum in 1844. This Harpenden vase, C. says, precisely resembles that discovered at Avisford. His representation however, beside being more coarsely executed, does not exhibit so broad a lip to the Avisford vase, as the other possesses in the figure given in (Archseol. Journ. II, 254).
Waldron.—The church comprises chancel, nave with north aisle and porch, and square west tower with battlements and stair turret. The chancel, which is rather short, has a three-light Perp. east window, and no arch over the entrance from the nave; the latter is Dec., with a small plain doorway in the south side; the aisle is early Dec., or transition from E.E., with a Perp. east window inserted; the tower is Perp., rather low, but good in general effect, though without striking features. The porch has been modernised, but appears to have been originally wooden of Dec. date.262.
On Horeham Farm in Waldron is "Church Field;" to which is attached the very common tradition, that it was originally intended to erect the parish church there, but the stones, which had been laid in the day, were invariably removed during the following night to the spot where the present church stands, and where the building was finally placed, in obedience to the supposed preternatural influence, which was exerted on the occasion.—In August 1233 a convention took place between Sybilla de Ykelesham and Richard, rector of Waldern, when the latter, with the consent of Lewes Priory, agreed "ut liceat mihi" (nempe Sybillæ) "habere capellam in curia mea de Walderne meis sumptibus per prædictum capellanum deserviendam sine tamen baptisterio et campana pendente;—that it shall be lawful for me," namely, Sybilla de Y., "to have a chapel in my mansion-house of Walderne, to be served at my expense by the aforesaid chaplain, but without a baptistry and a bell suspended:" the lady to attend the mother church four times a year. (Chartulary of Lewes Priory.) Compare the Note on Penshurst, Kent, for similar reservations in a similar grant.
263. Waltham, Cold.—This epithet is applied in (N. R.), where the following parish is distinguished as West Waltham.—The chancel of the church retains fragments of coloured glass. A.D. 1815 a vessel containing about 1700 Roman brass coins was discovered in this parish. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 152.)
264. Waltham, Upper.—The chancel of this church is stated to be circular at the east end. (Dallaway.)
265. Warbleton. In (N. R.) the name used is Walberton; but the Inquisition having been taken at Lewes, we may safely understand Warbleton to be the place intended.—A fine brass of A.D. 1436 is described and represented, from "Monum. Brasses," in (Suss. Arch. Coll. II, 307, 308.)
"In the south windows of the chancel" of Warbleton church "are some small remains of painted glass.—About a mile and a half from the church, in an easterly direction, are the remains of the priory of Warbleton, now converted into a farm-house." (Horsfield's Suss. II, 572, 570.) This statement appears to contradict that of Bp. Tanner, cited from Monast. VI, 168, in the Note on Hastings, that the intention of removing the priory at Hastings to Warbleton "never fully took effect." But, although the scheme was so far executed as that buildings were erected on the new site, possibly they might not be completed, nor the establishment actually settled in the new residence.—At a still greater distance, namely, three miles or more from the church, is a farm called Bucksteep, or Buckstepe, where the names "Chapel Field" and "Chapel Wood" are still in use. A barn also is known to stand on or near the site of the ancient chapel, of which however no vestiges exist.
266. Warminghurst.—"While the manor and principal estate belonged to the abbeys of Fescamp and Sion, the parochial duties were performed by a chaplain belonging to one of those establishments. Since the property has come into lay hands, an officiating minister has been appointed by the lord of the manor, who is not licensed, and has no fixed salary. The Bishops of Chichester do not appear to have exercised any jurisdiction over the person so appointed, and the name of Warminghurst does not occur in any of their registers." (Cartwright.) In the (Clergy List) Warminghurst appears as a perpetual curacy without any stipend.
267. Warningcamp.—It has been seen in the Note on Leominster, that with its church is coupled, in (A.D. 1291), that of Warningcamp; and from an entry in the bishop's registers, (cited in Cartwright's Dallaway's Western Sussex,) it appears, that the chapel of Warningcamp was mentioned A.D. 1492. The site of the church is pointed out on the hill on the north-west side of the hamlet, but the last vestiges were removed for the erection of a cottage on the spot in 1847, so that no traces can now be discovered. The building is popularly considered and called a "chapel," but actually possessed the dignity of a "church," the title of "The parish of Warningcamp" being still retained, though it is incorporated with that of Leominster.
268. Wartling.—At Boreham street, a populous hamlet in this parish, "was formerly a chapel (now desecrated) which is marked in an old map of Speede's, wherein Wartling is called Worrling. By this map there also appears to have been a chapel-of-ease at Foul Mile." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 547.) In a map of Speede's, which I have examined, dated 1610, Boreham chapel is noticed, but not that at Foul Mile, and the name of the parish is spelled Wartling. See also the Note on Ashburnham.
269. Washington.—After the description of the extent of this manor is added, "in one of these hides stands the castle of Bramber—In una ex his hidis sedet castellum Brembre." (D.B.)
270. Watlington.—This small church comprises only chancel, nave, north porch, and western wooden bell-turret. Two round-headed windows have stones around them rebated on the exterior as if for shutters. The east and west windows are Dec.; there is some Perp. woodwork. The chancel contains a very small square piscina, and a perfectly plain sedile. A low side-window has been closed. This church, like very many others, is coated with whitewash within and roughcast without.
271. Westham.—The south wall of this church is Norm., having three of the original windows remaining, and the frame of the fourth is very visible on the outside. They are placed unusually high, and rebated for glass externally. The rest of the church, except a portion of the north wall, which is part of the original transept, appears to be, principally or entirely, Perp. There is some good carved screenwork, and part of the roodloft occupies its original position. The stairs exist in the wall, though the entrance and outlet are blocked up. The Norm,south transept remains, converted into a school-room; and from the appearance of foundations it seems to have terminated in an apse. By the side of the west door under the tower is a mutilated stoup. Priest Hawes, in a distant part of this parish, is supposed to have been either a monastic establishment, or in some manner connected with one. See (Chronicles of Pevensey, 52); in which little work will likewise be found a fuller account of Westham church. " Here is an almshouse, containing four tenements, called the Hospital House of St. John the Baptist, besides Westham, sometimes called Gorogltown, endowed with thirty acres of land, &c." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 303.) This establishment seems to be mentioned again by Horsfield as another hospital in Pevensey; to which refer. Compare also the Note above on Haslesse.
Westmeston.—A church of chancel, nave, south aisle and chancel, north porch, and large bell-turret on the west end. The chancel is E.E.; the north wall of the nave and the chancel arch are Norm, or Tr. Norm.; the south aisle is Dec.; its chancel is closed, being a family burying-place; the font is Norm.; the chancel-arch is merely an opening as if broken through the wall. The east window is debased Perp.; the west twolight window, and the west door below it are Perp. The porch is ancient, but altered; the nave and aisle are covered by the same roof.272.
273. Wigginholt.—This parish is joined with Gretham in (Val. Eccl.)274. Wilesham.—This place is described as in Baldeslei hundred, and apparently was in the neighbourhood of Hastings, or between that town and Battle. The manor was the property of the Earl of Eu; and among the possessions of the church of Battle it is stated, that the abbot held half a hide " in Pilesham, occupied by the Earl of Eu," which, it will scarcely be doubted, intended the same place as Wilesham. The manor, which had been retained by King Edward, is declared to contain fifteen hides of land: "Ibi xv hidæ sunt, que non geldant, neque geldaverunt." (D.B.) Afterwards we read, that "Ulward, the priest, holds the church of this manor," (which is no otherwise mentioned); "Ulwardus presbyter hujus mauerii tenet æcclesiam," (D.B.); with land, which did not belong to the fifteen hides; and that the value of Ulward's holding was five shillings. Wilesham, having been kept in his own hands by the Saxon king, and not taxed, was probably a place of some importance; and perhaps researches among family records referring to estates in that part of the county (supposing such to exist) may hereafter enable us to ascertain decisively by what modern name it is represented. A farm in the ancient, but long absorbed, parish of St. Leonard's, (which see) still bears the appellation of Filsham; and, in the absence of positive information, it appears a safe conjecture, that the names are identical. In that case there is evidence of the early existence of a church at St. Leonard's, though the original designation arising from the property where it stood was afterwards changed to that supplied by the dedication of the building. The park of the Earl of Eu is mentioned as including a portion of one of the manors, which are described in immediate connection with Wilesham.
Willingdon.—The church contains some brasses of the sixteenth century. Of the old mansion of Ratton the gate-house still exists. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 288.) Langley, so called corruptly for Langney, on the southern side of Pevensey Level, is in this parish; and the chapel of the former mansion "remains almost entire." (Chron. of Pevensey, 52.) In the spring A.D. 1847 railroad excavations through this parish occasioned the discovery of an ancient leaden coffer, twelve inches long, eleven broad, and six deep. On two sides it is ornamented with the interlaced pattern, common on early stone crosses &c., and on the other two sides the markings resemble those on the cists of Will, and Gundrada de Warenne exhumed on the site of Lewes priory, A.D. 1845. For particulars consult (Suss. Arch. Coll. I, 160).275.
276. Wilmington.—In consequence of the bequest of the manor of Wilmington to the abbey of Grestein in Normandy by Rob. Earl of Morton, temp. K. William II, the last-named house erected a priory here for Benedictine monks. It was suppressed temp. K. Henry IV, who gave licence to the church of Chichester to purchase it; which was confirmed 2 of K. Henry V (in which year the alien priories throughout England were dissolved). (Monast. VI, 1053.) The remains of Wilmington priory are now a farm-house, consisting of a gateway, a crypt, and a chapel. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 325.) An "arched parlour—with groined ceiling" is also mentioned, apparently not the same as the chapel, though the description is not perfectly clear.
277. Winchelsea.—This name is said to be of Saxon origin, and to signify "a waterish place." (Mag. Brit.)—The old town of Winchelsea stood on the sea shore, and, after much previous injury, was ruined by the sea about the beginning of K. Edward's reign, the final devastation being A.D. 1287; after which a new town was erected a mile and a half from the sea, at Iham, belonging to the parish of Icklesham, whence the spot, having been purchased by the king's directions, was severed for the purpose. (Horsfield; who, Suss. I, 479 to 481, quotes various authorities to the above effect.) An old record-book of Rye contains the following entry. "M. D. quod anno Domini millesimo cclxxxvii in vigilia sane. Agathse virginis subrnersa fuit villa de Wynchelsei, et omnes terrse inter Climesden usq' le Vochere de Hethe.—Mem. that in the year of the Lord one thousand two hundred and eighty-seven, on the vigil of St. Agatha, the virgin, the town of Wynchelsei was drowned, and all the lands between Climesden as far as the Vochere (q. Bouchure?) of Hethe." (Parry's Coast of Sussex, 276.)—But the Taxation of Pope Nicholas IV, taken, be it remembered, A.D. 1291, names the churches of St. Thomas and St. Giles in Winchelsea, as likewise that of Yham; which circumstance seems to imply, that the removal of the town must at least have commenced earlier than the date above given, as three churches would hardly have been raised on the new site in four years. Lambarde states of Winchelsea, that the town formerly contained three parish churches, St. Leonard, St. Giles, and St. Thomas; the last alone remaining even in his time. (Val. Eccl.) mentions only St. Thomas' and St. Giles'; whence it may be inferred, that St. Leonard's was desecrated in K. Henry VIII's reign. Comparing the entry in (A.D. 1291) with Lambarde's account, we ascertain, that St. Leonard's was the church of Yham or Iham.—The existing church of St. Thomas comprises only the eastern portion of the original structure, of which the nave and transepts have been destroyed. It contains some remains of coloured glass; also five stone effigies, and a brass, the latter of an ecclesiastic. The old seal of Winchelsea bears a large church, and is worthy of notice. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 483, 484; where are described the sites of the two demolished churches.) There appear to have been two monastic establishments at Winchelsea; for a house of Black Eriars is said by Speede to have been founded here by K. Edward II, (Tann. Notit. Monast. Sussex, xlii in Monast. VI, 1495): beside which there was a house of Grey Eriars. (Ib. 1533.) Some fine ruins of the monastery of the Grey Friars are yet standing in the private grounds of the residence called the Friary. For a good representation and a full description of the seals belonging to Winchelsea consult (Suss. Arch. Coll. I, 21 to 25).278. Wiston.—Brass: Sir John de Braiose, 1426; Also a stone effigy of a child, supposed the son of the above. The estate passed to another family in consequence of the premature death of the only son of Sir J. de Braiose. (Cartwright.) The memorial of Sir J. de Braiose is highly commended by Mr. Boutell. (Monum. Brasses, 47, 65, 143.) The mansion, Wiston House, was erected by Sir Tho. Shirley about 1576. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 235.) For an account of foundations of a Roman building, discovered in this parish A.D. 1848, consult (Suss. Arch. Coll, II, 313, 314, 315.)
Withyham.—This church now consists of chancel, nave with south aisle and porch, a large chapel on the north side of the chancel, and a massive square west tower with battlements and a staircase not reaching to the top. A small portion, southeast, of the chancel wall is of rubble masonry, and the interior of the tower seems similar, but the exterior appears to have been cased at a later date. The chancel contains a piscina and three sedilia, recently reopened: these as well as the window above them, may be E.E. Some windows are Dec.; some, in the tower, are Perp. The great east window is late Perp., as also the Buckhurst chapel, which however occupies the site of an earlier erection. The church was nearly destroyed by fire early in the seventeenth century, previous to which there was a north aisle, but on rebuilding the fabric, that space was added to the nave, which consequently is unusually broad. In the chancel is an iron grave-slab to Rich. Gray, rector, 1582, and on the outside wall of the east end is another to Will. Alfrey, 1610.—There are remains, though only a tower, of Buckhurst, for six centuries the residence of the Sackvilles; who possessed a chapel there. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 395, 394.)279.
280. Wittering, East.—In (Val. Eccl.) we read "East Wittering cum Brakelsham:" see the Note above on Bracklesham.—"Here was an ancient endowed chapel, annexed to the vicarage by Archbishop Sherburne in 1518; it is now totally destroyed." (Horsfield's Suss. II, 38.)—I have nowhere met with any notice of the early existence of a monastic establishment at Wittering; yet, that such a foundation was contemplated at least, if not completed, and in Saxon times, the following quotation will prove. "+ In nomine dei summi. Ego, Æthelbertus, rex Sussaxonum, domino regnante imperpetuum, aliquam partem terrae iuris mei, ad construendum monastaium, Diozsan uenerabili uiro do, pro remedio animae nieae, decem et octo manentes, in loco qui dicitur Wystrings &c. + In the name of the most High God! I, Æthelbert, king of the South Saxons, the Lord reigning for ever, give a certain part of my own proper estate, for constructing a monastery, to the reverend man Diozsan, for the safety of my soul, (containing) eighteen stationary inhabitants, in the place which is called Wystrings &c." (Cod. Dipl. V, 50.)
281. Wittering, West.—The tower stands on the northern side, detached from the nave of the church. Three oak stalls yet remain in the chancel. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 40.)—The font is circular, but rude. At Cakeham Manor Place, the occasional residence of the bishops from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century, was a chapel. (Dallaway.) The ancient chapel here is now used as a dairy, and there is also a brick tower of later date, erected by Bp. Sherborne. (Suss. Arch. Coll. I, 182, note 50.)—The name of West Wittering occurs in (Val. Eccl.).
282. Wivelsfield.—This small church, from its peculiar position, has been sadly patched and neglected; but still it retains interesting features. It comprises chancel, nave with south aisle and chancel, south porch, and a square tower with a shingled cap at the west end of the aisle. The chancel contains a piscina, now used as a cupboard! and what appears like a sepulchral arch in the north wall. In the south chancel are a piscina and an ambry, both trefoil-headed. The walls of the building seem to be Norm, or Tr. Norm.; the north door early Norm.; the south door is Perp. At least the lower part of the tower is Dec., with Perp. windows higher up. The church is so mutilated, that its character is difficult to decipher; the piers and arches between the nave and aisle, as also the chancels, particularly the latter, exhibit some traces of the E.E. style. The old stoup is visible, but damaged, near the south door.—Not far from the church eastward stands Moore House, of which the original moat is nearly or quite entire. About two miles from Wivelsfield eastward is another old house, Fanners, built of stone. Many others of different dates and construction may be observed in this part of Sussex.—Wivelsfield was once a chapelry to Ditchling. It was appropriated to Lewes priory by Bp. Seffrid II. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 229.)
283. Woolbeding.—The font here is bell-shaped. (Dallaway.) "The chancel window is adorned with stained glass, removed from the priory of Mottisfont by Sir Henry Mill, when rector." (Horsfield's Suss. II, 101.)
284. Worth.—This name, that is, "Gorde," occurs in the Domesday Survey of Sussex, but in Framfield hundred, therefore signifying the manor of Worth, part of which, according to Horsfield, lies in the parish of Little Horsted. In the Survey of Surrey we find the name of "Orde," but Manning and Bray (History of Surrey) consider it not applicable to Worth, though that parish is situated on the borders of the two counties, and the manor may well have extended into both. However, though omitted in (D.B.) this church is undoubtedly of very early origin. It consists of nave with transepts and chancel, the latter terminating eastward in an apse. The nave has west and south doors, the latter very small with an ancient wooden porch. The walls are so covered within and without by plaster and whitewash, that their construction is undistinguishable, but that on the northern side of the nave appears, from a difference of the external stringcourse, to have been rebuilt; and the apse has been repaired very largely, beside the addition of some enormous buttresses: in other respects the existing walls seem to be original, and the whole certainly to occupy their pristine position. The exterior of this church is ornamented with the same peculiar kind of ribs, which are found at Corhampton (Hants), Barnack (Northants), and other churches, which are considered to be specimens of Anglo-Saxon architecture, but those at Worth are larger, and more nearly resemble pilasters, than any others, which have fallen within my own observation. At some distance from the ground, perhaps about three-fifths of the total height of the walls, runs a stringcourse of the same dimensions as the ribs, passing round the entire building; and from this, at the angles and down the sides, the ribs are carried to the ground, both stringcourse and ribs remaining perfect in many parts, and vestiges being visible elsewhere, with the exception of the north wall of the nave, where is no appearance of the perpendicular ribs. The doors are plain, perhaps E.E., or a little later. Between the south door and the west end of the building on the exterior are traces of a small round-headed door now filled up. The font is a single square stone rudely carved at the sides, and possibly coeval, or nearly so, with the church, though the base is later. The arches to the transepts are circular, single-soffitted, rude, and formed with large stones. Over the north transept has been erected a wooden belfry with a shingled spire. In the lowest story of this transept is one small window, and another is an E.E. insertion. The chancel arch springs from the massive round piers with cushion capitals (varying somewhat from the common Norm, form so styled) having square abaci. The arch is very lofty, and single, but has another square-edged member above, as a hood moulding, that on the western side being, as usual, the richest, but having been sadly defaced. On the eastern sides of the arch two half-round shafts descend to the pavement. Each of the stones composing this arch extends completely through the wall. In the chancel are a piscina (Dec.?) and a Tudor arch as if for a tomb; also in the north wall is a long, narrow, round-headed window, but probably later than the wall. A similar window, but smaller, and not splayed, exists in the north wall of the nave; the other windows are of different dates, that in the west end being rather good Dec.(?); most of the others are debased Perp. There is a lychgate at the entrance of the churchyard. I perfectly agree with Mr. Bloxam (Goth. Archit. 46, 66, &c.), in deeming this curious church an example of (supposed) Saxon construction, and think it will well repay the trouble of examination. It is of much larger dimensions than Corhampton, the only other instance, with which I am acquainted, of an entire Saxon structure, and stands well on ground sloping southwards, a mile and a half only from the Three Bridges station of the London and Brighton railroad.
285. Worthing.—This is no parish, but merely a portion of that of Broadwater. It has however been included in the List, because not only the name occurs in (D.B.) but there is reason to believe, that a separate chapel existed in the place several centuries ago.—In A.D. 1409 licence was granted for divine service in the chapel at Worthing. (Cartwright.) But from the entry in (A.D. 1291) respecting Broadwater (on which place see the Note) it appears, that chapels were attached to that church long previous, therefore one of those chapels might very probably have been at Worthing, though there is no intimation that such was the fact. North of the present town, abutting on the high road, is a grass field, part of the rector of Broadwater's glebe, where the ancient chapel is by some conjectured to have stood.
About a quarter of a mile north of Worthing Roman remains were discovered in 1826 and 1828. (Dall. West. Suss. Ill, 34, in Horsfield's Suss. II, 194.)
286. Yapton.—The font is circular, without a stem, and has round arches on the sides. (Cartwright's Dallaway.) I conceive this place must be the "Abytone" of (A.D. 1291), and have marked it accordingly. It is a vicarage, annexed to that of Walberton.
Bilsom in this parish was originally a hamlet and chapelry, but the church was dilapidated, and all divine service discontinued before A.D. 1551. (From West. Suss, in Horsfield's Suss. II, 114.) The name Bilesham appears in (D.B.), and may safely be understood to signify the present Bilsom.
- With regard to the idea that the orientation of churches "originated from, and was fixed by, the point in the horizon, on which the sun arose on that saint's day, in honour of whom such church was dedicated" (Bloxam's Goth. Archit. 298, notee), I greatly doubt whether this is more than mere imagination. Certainly in the only instance, in which I endeavoured to verify the notion, it was disproved by fact, since the building faced N.E., when it ought to have pointed S.E., because the saint's day connected with it was in the autumnal half-year. (See Mr. Bloxam's quotation as above from Sir Henry Chauncy's Historical Antiquities of Hertfordshire) If indeed any church in question, in consequence of having been rebuilt or extensively repaired, has been rededicated to a different saint from that first selected, which occasionally or not (infrequently happened, the guide must of course be the anniversary of the original, not that of the subsequent, patron.
- "In 1526 a monastery of Friars Eremites was built in the town of Rye, the greater part of which, though changed and mutilated, is standing at this day on the south side of the Conduit Hill." (Ut sup. 304.) Was not that foundation identical with the Augustine Friary?
- With respect to documents of this description an opinion has been expressed, that the (professed) Anglo-Saxon charters "finely illuminated, and written with golden characters, have been fabricated after the conquest." (Thorpe's Lappenberg, II, 340.)
- It seems probable, that the framer of this charter mistook cassatm for cassata or casata. The latter term is explained to signify "a dwelling with land sufficient for the maintenance of one family;" the former as meaning "one who possesses such a holding:" "Casata; habitaculum cum terra idonea ad unam familiam alendam.—Casatus, cassatus; (cassati) qui casatam possident, i. e,, territorium vassalli, tenementum." Du Cange. According to this explanation I have given what I imagine to be intended by "cassatos terre" in the original.